Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Tydskrif vir Letterkunde]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0041-476X20120002&lang=pt vol. 49 num. 2 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Herman de Coninck on Afrikaans and Afrikaner society, culture and politics</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2012000200001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In the institutional context of literature in Flanders Herman de Coninck (1944 - 97) was an important player (or "actor"). The author is well known as a poet, a literary critic and editor of the Dutch Granta-like magazine Nieuw Wereldtijdschrift (NWT). Academics and essayists have paid much critical attention to de Coninck's poetics and aesthetic views. In a recent anthology of Flemish poetry since the sixties, Hotel New Flandres (2008), he is called an innovative "paradigmatic poet" in the poetry system of Flanders. Much less known is his place in and relationship to the field of Afrikaans literature. Daniel Hugo published two anthologies with poetry of de Coninck in Afrikaans and Antjie Krog was invited by the Flemish editor to participate in NWT. Later on, these essays were rewritten and brought together in Krog's Country of My Skull. Reading prose and poetry by de Coninck and focusing on references to South Africa, we can study his perspective on Afrikaans (language and literature), his points of view on social and political developments in the post-apartheid era. The purpose of this article is to present documentary material to illustrate and comment on de Coninck's ideas on literature, language and society. This commentary on ideological and aesthetic opinions can form the basis for further discursive and institutional research with regard to the presence in and the image building of South Africa in the works by a canonized Flemish writer <![CDATA[<b>Classical Dialogue</b>: <b>allusion and intertextuality in Charl-Pierre Naudé's Against the Light</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2012000200002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The contemporary Afrikaans poet Charl-Pierre Naudé is one of the most promising voices in South African poetry today. Following two award-winning Afrikaans collections, Naudé s debut collection in English, Against the Light (2007), demonstrates learned intertexual references to classical literature, particularly the Roman poets Horace and Catullus. These Latin poets become competing models for Naudé's own poetics, either passionate and personal, or political and pastoral. In post-apartheid South Africa, after a period of dramatic social change, ultimately Catullus offers himself as the more compelling poetic model for this South African writer. <![CDATA['<b>We who cannot speak lived there first'</b>: <b>A new claim to land in My plaas se naam is Vergenoeg by George Weideman</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2012000200003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt My plaas se naam is Vergenoeg ("My farm's name is Vergenoeg ['Far Enough']", 2005), a published play by George Weideman, is meaningful within the context of postcolonial discourse on land ownership and ecocritical views on the use of land. The play adds viewpoints to current postcolonial claims to land through several animal characters laying claim to being the first inhabitants, further commenting critically on man's greed and destructiveness with regard to the earth. This article undertakes an analysis of the play, firstly investigating the messages of these non-human voices, rarely remembered or heard in the historical constructions of South Africa's past. It focuses on Weideman's blending of aspects of different genres and periods, the animal epic and classical Greek tragedy, resulting in a powerful downplay of man's claim to sole ownership of the land. The study, secondly, considers the notion of landscape as defined by animals' ways of inhabiting and interaction, in addition to the notion of landscape as a cultural construct that is traditionally defined by man's ways of inhabiting and interaction. <![CDATA['<b>On monuments': the Campanile in Port Elizabeth</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2012000200004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In this article we undertake a semiotic reading of the Campanile Clock Tower Monument in Port Elizabeth. The monument was built in 1920 to commemorate the arrival of the British Settlers in 1820. The theoretical departure of our analysis is the five narrative codes identified by Roland Barthes in his unconventional reading of Sarrasine. The article shows the extent to which the observer (reader?) is able to encode the monument with new textual possibilities as well as reading it against the grain within a new context. The original symbolism of the monument as a symbol of colonial enterprise and white English-speaking South African identity is also deconstructed in the process. <![CDATA[<b>Willemsdorp by Herman Charles Bosman: the small-town locale as fictional vehicle for commentary on social and moral issues in the South African historical context</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2012000200005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Herman Charles Bosman's short stories are stylistically and thematically different from his novels. With the exception of "A Bekkersdal marathon" and "Sold down the river" all Bosman's short stories, numbering more than one hundred, take the South African farm as their setting. Bosman's first novel, Jacaranda in the Night, of which his second novel Willemsdorp is a reworking, followed his sojourn (1942 - 43) as a journalist in the country town of Pietersburg in the Northern Transvaal region of South Africa. It appears that Bosman's light-hearted, if tragicomic, lampooning of the South African farm and its inhabitiants (in his short stories) was replaced in his small-town novels by a dark satire of South African society during the Union period. In Willemsdorp Bosman holds up a mirror to the small town microcosm in order to reveal a (rather unpleasant) picture of the national macrocosm. Willemsdorp had been subjected to censorship at the time of first publication (1977) because of the writer's response to the mechanisms of prevailing racist ideology such as the Immorality Act, which resulted in his representation in the novel of police sadism towards people participating in interracial sexual acts. The reassessment of Willemsdorp that emerged with the publication of the full, uncensored text in 1998 has made it possible to establish its significance as a precursor of politically engaged protest literature in apartheid South Africa. It is perhaps for this reason that biographer and editor Stephen Gray in an introduction to the 1998 edition dubs it "the most important single item among the Bosman Texas papers" <![CDATA[<b>Between women: the subtle voice of femininity in children's stories</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2012000200006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The purpose of this essay is to illustrate and explore the representation of women in a selection of eight African children's stories from Vhembe, in the Limpopo Province. The discussion is shaped primarily by the shared knowledge of the female elders who provided the narratives and participated in their analysis. The argument put forward is plain and simple: storytelling is one of many stratagems by means of which rural women-far from being passive spectators, nor willing consumers of a patriarchal world view-have created an autonomous physical and symbolic space for themselves, in opposition to the "stronger sex". By combining anthropological analysis with indigenous exegesis, it was established that some of the selected narratives reveal the voices of women's "protest", the nature of which is subtle and understated rather than rebellious or subversive. <![CDATA[<b>Femi Osofisan's discourse on Pan-Africanism and reconciliation in <i>Nkrumah-Ni...Africa-Ni</i> and <i>Reel, Rwanda</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2012000200007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The paper is a critical appraisal of Femi Osofisan's ideological perspectives of Pan-Africanism, imperialism and reconciliation as exemplified in his plays especially in Nkrumah-Ni... Africa-Ni andReel, Rwanda. The paper also explores the playwright's views on the dynamics of the problems confronting the African continent such as bad leadership, military intervention in politics, imperialism, betrayal, hatred, greed, disunity, poverty, injustice among others. Nkrumah, the play's eponymous hero in Nkrumah- Ni... Africa-Ni is eulogized as the epitome of Pan-Africanism-a panacea for African recurrent problems. The article further interrogates the justification for the continual meaningless carnage, massacre and genocide in the African continent as dramatized by Osofisan in Reel, Rwanda in a most tragic form and supports the recommendation of the playwright that only true justice and reconciliation can ensure the success of democracy in Africa. In conclusion, the paper notes the splendid literary creativity of Osofisan in transposing history to the stage. <![CDATA[<b>Hospitality in <i>Le Roi de Kahel</i>(<i>The King of Kahel</i>) by Tierno Monénembo</b>: <b>from Pullo identity construction to literary consecration in Paris</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2012000200008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Taking the notion of hospitality, as defined by Émile Benveniste, as a starting point, this article aims to situate the 2008 novel by Tierno Monénembo, Le Roi de Kahel("The King of Kahel") in the contemporary literary production from Francophone Africa. In a first part, hospitality is viewed as part of an exchange system between the Pullo aristocracy and a French explorer, Olivier de Sanderval, in the second half of the nineteenth century. The notion of pulaaku, as the social and moral code of conduct of the Pullo, seems central in this exchange and is a construct of Pullo identity. The second part aims to show that Monénembo's novel enters in a dialogue with colonial writings and in particular with French ethnography of the twentieth century, being as such hospitable to this discourse. This "textual hospitality", through the quotation of several sources and the description of some notions, including pulaaku, is a way to become accepted in the Parisian literary system. The final part, which is also the conclusion, shows the reciprocity between both conceptions of hospitality. I will argue here that Tierno Monénembo, having a perfect understanding of the prevalent literary field, takes advantage of this knowledge to promote his own writing. This is the reason why he is one of the most prominent postcolonial writers, leading the way for this literature to become integral part of the world republic of letters, as defined by Pascale Casanova. <![CDATA[<b>Mazeppa-Maseppa</b>: <b>migration of a Romantic motif</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2012000200009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Mazeppa (1640 - 1710), The Ukrainian leader and folk-hero, has a controversial history, and a distinct presence in literature and the graphic arts. Byron's poem (1819) of the legendary figure's "wild ride" released a mythical energy which absorbed certain French poets and painters of the 19th century. While the Russian tradition, at least from Pushkin's Poltava (1828), re-worked the historical Ukrainian hetman from a Tsarist and nationalist perspective, the myth of the Western Romantic Mazeppa is best realised by Delacroix, perhaps in anticipation of the displacement of the horse by Faustian technology. Mazeppa becomes a Romantic Phaethon, shifted from the transcendent to the mundane, from a vertical to a horizontal trajectory. Early in the century Mazeppa had also become a figure and theme of popular spectacle and literature, incorporated by the common imagination into politics, journalism and folklore, coming to terms with a new Faustian context. A small group of poets of the 1920s and 1930s return in different Modernist ways to the theme. The coda of this selective survey is sounded in South Africa. <![CDATA[<b>Contextuality and the transmission of trauma</b>: <b><i>Nightfather</i></b><b> by Carl Friedman</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2012000200010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt "Context" plays an important role in any discourse about trauma. Not only does it serve as a precondition for the manifestation of trauma in the first place, but also determines the way in which trauma is received, interpreted and represented. The sensitivity of the reception context towards the represented traumatic events also determines whether only knowledge about the events are mediated or whether the uncanny nature of trauma is transmitted. If the latter occurs, a secondary trauma manifests itself as result. In the Dutch novel Tralievader (translated as Nightfather) by Carl Friedman the transmission of the Holocaust trauma within a particular family is represented. This transmission can be seen as the result of the impact of one context on another-that of the parent on that of the child. With the complex issue of the transmission of trauma kept in mind, specific dangers in the interpretation and transmission of trauma in a collective sense are identified. Suggestions are also made on how to deal with trauma in a productive way. <![CDATA[<b>An appeal for a more scientifically documented variant edition of Hugo Claus' collected poetry</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2012000200011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt "Context" plays an important role in any discourse about trauma. Not only does it serve as a precondition for the manifestation of trauma in the first place, but also determines the way in which trauma is received, interpreted and represented. The sensitivity of the reception context towards the represented traumatic events also determines whether only knowledge about the events are mediated or whether the uncanny nature of trauma is transmitted. If the latter occurs, a secondary trauma manifests itself as result. In the Dutch novel Tralievader (translated as Nightfather) by Carl Friedman the transmission of the Holocaust trauma within a particular family is represented. This transmission can be seen as the result of the impact of one context on another-that of the parent on that of the child. With the complex issue of the transmission of trauma kept in mind, specific dangers in the interpretation and transmission of trauma in a collective sense are identified. Suggestions are also made on how to deal with trauma in a productive way. <![CDATA[<b>Huldeblyk</b>: <b>Willie Adams (1951 - 2012)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2012000200012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt "Context" plays an important role in any discourse about trauma. Not only does it serve as a precondition for the manifestation of trauma in the first place, but also determines the way in which trauma is received, interpreted and represented. The sensitivity of the reception context towards the represented traumatic events also determines whether only knowledge about the events are mediated or whether the uncanny nature of trauma is transmitted. If the latter occurs, a secondary trauma manifests itself as result. In the Dutch novel Tralievader (translated as Nightfather) by Carl Friedman the transmission of the Holocaust trauma within a particular family is represented. This transmission can be seen as the result of the impact of one context on another-that of the parent on that of the child. With the complex issue of the transmission of trauma kept in mind, specific dangers in the interpretation and transmission of trauma in a collective sense are identified. Suggestions are also made on how to deal with trauma in a productive way. http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2012000200013&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt