Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Tydskrif vir Letterkunde]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0041-476X20100002&lang=en vol. 47 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>The chameleon(s) on Shaka</b>: <b>a comparison between D. J. Opperman and Thomas Mofolo</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2010000200001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en For the purpose of the D. J. Opperman memorial lecture at Stellenbosch the writer took one of this poet's most well-known credos who maintained under the influence of Keats that the poet should be 'colourless', i.e. without any agenda in order to take on the colour of that which or whom is being imagined. Both Opperman and the Basotho writer Thomas Mofolo imagined Shaka and explore a key moment in both these works where the imagined Shaka is judging his task. It is shown how Opperman's Shaka is carrying very much the thumbprints of the rising Afrikaner nationalism of the 1940s as well as a notion of the task of a poet/builder/leader taken directly from European influenced poets such as N. P. van Wyk Louw. In contrast, Mofolo presents Shaka outside the missionary framework of his time and within an indigenous moral structure. In Mofolo's work ambition changes Shaka into an individual who begins to live in disregard of his community. It is argued that it is important to imagine The Other through getting into their skins, but that imagining The Other as a differently skinned version of oneself, is misleading. To escape the "spurious one-ness of a quasi-liberal era" requires the taking place of unhampered and translated conversations within normalizing circumstances. <![CDATA[<b>The conception and application of justice in S. E. K. Mqhayi's <i>Ityala Lamawele</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2010000200002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en There are many ways in which the Xhosa traditional manner of litigation is similar to the western way. There are also ways in which it is different. This article sets out to demonstrate those similarities and differences. In all this the common factor is that both the traditional Xhosa court and the western court as we know it strive to find the truth and to make the judgement as objective as possible. It is evident that Mqhayi was inspired by a biblical text, Genesis 38:27-30 to write a story where the Xhosa custom of finger cutting creates a legal complication. This paper also sets out to illustrate the wisdom of the Xhosa people in their interpretation of the law. The whole story in Mqhayi's novel is about this court trial and it functions as a brilliant exposition of the Xhosa legal system. <![CDATA[<b>S. V. Petersen in dialogue with his intellectual and social environment</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2010000200003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article examines the intellectual and social context of S. V. Petersen (1914-87) with respect to its dialogical tensions. Three key features of his biography are discussed, namely his position as one of only a few coloured boys in the Union of South Africa to have completed his secondary schooling; his relationship to the small but significant Cape elite and his ambivalence towards Afrikaans, his language of choice as a poet. The underlying theoretical impulse provides a reading influenced by Bakhtinian notions of dialogism and the reconstruction of the circumstances in which the initial utterings were made. It is found that Petersen's creation of the lonely aesthete is influenced by nineteenth century notions of Romantic authorship, and the social tensions between the coloured elite and the Cape or rural underclass. In spite of his Afrikaans childhood, academic training and authorship Petersen's ambivalence towards the language was fostered by his insertion into the coloured elite in Cape Town. <![CDATA[<b>D. P. M. Botes, Marcel Duchamp, the avantgarde and a literary definition of plagiarism</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2010000200004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article attempts to widen the literary critical perspective on plagiarism by focussing on an early example of plagiarism in Afrikaans literature associated with the name of D.P.M. Botes and the little magazine Wurm. Botes's supposed plagiarism is placed in the framework of the European avant-garde by comparing it with Marcel Duchamp's Fountain of 1917. This comparison forms the basis on which other instances of plagiarism in Afrikaans are commented on, as well as on which a 'literary' definition of plagiarism is advanced. <![CDATA[<b>The transgressive carnavalesque</b>: <b>a phenomenon in the cabaret texts from <i>'n Gelyke kans</i> of Jeanne Goosen</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2010000200005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article examines the phenomenon of the transgressive carnivalesque, a notion of Mikhail Bakhtin of breaking through social conventions and barriers, as it manifests in the cabaret texts in 'n Gelyke kans ("An even chance") by Jeanne Goosen. The carnival on the town square represents a world of feasts, comedy, dance, costumes, masks, giants, monsters and trained animals. It includes comic verbal compositions like parody and vulgar burlesque. These texts can be recognised as subversive of the symbolic order and the Bakhtinian moments are clearly identifiable in each text. The research of Bakhtin, as a broad development of the carnivalesque into a powerful, critical subversion of all official words and hierarchies with far reaching consequences, are here applicable. Without being judgmental, Goosen sympathetically exposes man's inborn, continuous search for the illusion of perfect happiness. <![CDATA[<b>Dialogue in S. A. Dazela's <i>Izono zakho ziya kukujikela</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2010000200006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article investigates the use of dialogue in the depiction of the main character, Mpumlo's personality traits in S. A. Dazela's novel, Izono zakho ziya kukujikela ("Your sins will turn against you", 1991). Mpumlo is the lead character in the novel. The aspects of Mpumlo's personality, as depicted through dialogue, that feature prominently in the novel, include his kindness and humaneness, caring, being a liar, dangerousness, jealousy, cruelty, sarcasm, irresponsibility, cheating, rudeness and disrespect. All these traits will be highlighted. A discussion is also presented of the concepts of dialogue and personality in general and of Mpumlo's personality traits in particular. <![CDATA[<b>Crises heterotopias and nature's healing influence in <i>Chinchilla</i> (Nanette van Rooyen)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2010000200007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In this article, Michel Foucault's term crises heterotopia is used to understand and describe the main character's unique experience of particular places in Chinchilla. The article investigates the manner in which nature becomes part of the experience of crises heterotopias, and how the natural environment creates a space conducive to the processing of trauma within the novel. Images and experiences of nature offer the main character a "bridge" to an expressive representation of events that could not initially be otherwise verbalised. Contact with and influences from nature contribute to a new spiritual calm, energy, and perspective, as well as a rediscovery of her intuitive feminine wisdom and powers that leads to positive decisions regarding the future. Taking care of nature's creatures leads to the recognition of some aspects of the main character's own situation, and provides the associative stimuli for reliving the suppressed traumatic events; thereby helping to lift the silence, which aids the healing of the traumatised character in the story. <![CDATA[<b>Globalisation, modernism and postmodernism in Etienne van Heerden's<i> In stede van die liefde</i> (2005)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2010000200008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In the 1990s postmodernism as a literary phenomenon led to the development of a lively literary discourse in Afrikaans. However, in contemporary narrative criticism postmodernism rarely features as a theoretical framework for studies of new Afrikaans writing. In poetry criticism postmodernism still enjoys some currency, whereas some critics hold the position that there should be stronger acknowledgement of modernist elements in the development of Afrikaans poetry. In an effort to grasp the manifestation of postmodernism in contemporary Afrikaans prose, this article focuses on globalisation and modernism as two unique challenges to thinking about postmodernism that prevail in Etienne van Heerden's novel In stede van die liefde (In Cities of Love, 2005). The article identifies three problems in theoretical reflections about postmodernism, namely a too narrowly conceived view of postmodernism, a lack of recognition of the continuities between modernism and postmodernism, and the resulting neglect of modernism. Furthermore, the article offers a critical interrogation of globalisation in its guise as a new master narrative in the light of recent developments in the postmodern era. Through a reading of Van Heerden's novel, the interrogation focuses on the motifs of slippage and substitution in In stede van die liefde. The representation of space in the novel includes both the urban and the rural and points to 'glocalisation', a term that refers to the interconnection between the local and the global. The author proposes that globalisation in the guise of a diffuse and multidimensional master narrative, produces a yearning for older master narratives leading to the reaffirmed presence of modernist elements in a manifestly postmodernist novel such as In stede van die liefde. The challenge is to acknowledge modernist elements in contemporary literature using a theoretical approach that exhaustively accounts for the link between postmodernism and globalisation - new manifestations of modernism can no longer be examined with outdated theories about modernist literature. <![CDATA[<b>The traces of Raka</b>: <b>on rewriting and canonization (part 2)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2010000200009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Every literary system possesses a canon with the classical canon as the most stable and simultaneously the one with the most restrictive access. Writers and texts can only maintain their position within the canon through continuous rewriting: critical rewriting by literary critics (as shapers of taste and gatekeepers) and creative rewriting by fellow writers. In this study the critical rewriting (and rerealisation) of one of the most acclaimed and seminal texts in Afrikaans literature, Raka (1941), by N. P. van Wyk Louw is scrutinized. Since its publication this verse epic has been firmly entrenched in the classical Afrikaans literary canon and its continuous rewriting / rerealisation can act as a case study of how a literary "masterpiece" is dependent on institutional relationships, relevant characteristics and strategic position-taking within a literary field in order to retain this status. In this second and concluding part of this study, the specifics of Raka's rewriting / rerealisation is discussed utilising two supplementary typlogies as heuretical tools. In this survey of the rewriting / rerealisation the focus is on the continuallly changing ideological and poetical paradigms underpinning such processes. <![CDATA[<b>Mirage of us</b>: <b>a reflection on the role of the web in widening access to references on Southern African arts, culture and heritage</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2010000200010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article outlines the broad aims of the Encyclopaedia of South African Arts, Culture and Heritage (ESAACH) Project then goes on to consider the ESAACH Website as a networked resource that speaks to the project's vision of accessibility and participation. The wiki architecture is highly accessible to users and contributors alike. In addition to its robust structure as a reference work, a wiki encyclopaedia facilitates networked social collaboration uniquely suited to the co-operative principles of the project. Subject area specialists will exercise editorial control over the content of the wiki, and work with the Editor-in-Chief, Associate Editors and peer reviewers to assess contributions, recommend editorial corrections, and select articles, essays and entries for inclusion in the printed volumes of the encyclopaedia. The paper surveys existing Web-based reference sources on Southern African literature, arts and culture; provides an account of the evolution of the Verbal Arts section of the ESAACH wiki; and discusses the prototype ESAACH wiki. <![CDATA[<b>Henriette Grové</b>: <b>26 September 1922 - 15 Desember 2009</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2010000200011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article outlines the broad aims of the Encyclopaedia of South African Arts, Culture and Heritage (ESAACH) Project then goes on to consider the ESAACH Website as a networked resource that speaks to the project's vision of accessibility and participation. The wiki architecture is highly accessible to users and contributors alike. In addition to its robust structure as a reference work, a wiki encyclopaedia facilitates networked social collaboration uniquely suited to the co-operative principles of the project. Subject area specialists will exercise editorial control over the content of the wiki, and work with the Editor-in-Chief, Associate Editors and peer reviewers to assess contributions, recommend editorial corrections, and select articles, essays and entries for inclusion in the printed volumes of the encyclopaedia. The paper surveys existing Web-based reference sources on Southern African literature, arts and culture; provides an account of the evolution of the Verbal Arts section of the ESAACH wiki; and discusses the prototype ESAACH wiki. <![CDATA[<b>Leonard Koza</b>: <b>20 September 1941 - 20 Februarie 2010</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2010000200012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article outlines the broad aims of the Encyclopaedia of South African Arts, Culture and Heritage (ESAACH) Project then goes on to consider the ESAACH Website as a networked resource that speaks to the project's vision of accessibility and participation. The wiki architecture is highly accessible to users and contributors alike. In addition to its robust structure as a reference work, a wiki encyclopaedia facilitates networked social collaboration uniquely suited to the co-operative principles of the project. Subject area specialists will exercise editorial control over the content of the wiki, and work with the Editor-in-Chief, Associate Editors and peer reviewers to assess contributions, recommend editorial corrections, and select articles, essays and entries for inclusion in the printed volumes of the encyclopaedia. The paper surveys existing Web-based reference sources on Southern African literature, arts and culture; provides an account of the evolution of the Verbal Arts section of the ESAACH wiki; and discusses the prototype ESAACH wiki. <![CDATA[<b>Notes on three little histories</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2010000200013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The reviewer identifies three disparate texts, Koos Malgas Sculptor of the Owl House (Julia Malgas and Jeni Couzyn, 2008), The Black Countess (R. E. van der Ross, 2008) and Die verhaal van Elandskloof ("The Story of Elandskloof", Tobie Wiese assisted by Ricky Goedeman, 2009) as counter-discursive texts writtten against specific hegemonic practices. The first text presents a reevaluation of the contribution of Koos Malgas to the famous Outsider Art place, The Owl House in Nieu Bethesda; the second is a short biography on the black countess, Martha Grey and the third is a lay history of a Dutch Reformed Church mission station, Elandskloof. The writer discusses the obvious similarities between these texts such as the co-operation between authors, the margin as a site of resistance, the fragmented documentation of marginalised lives, the formation and re-formation of identities and the tensions around expressions of 'truth'. <![CDATA[<b>Reviews</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2010000200014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The reviewer identifies three disparate texts, Koos Malgas Sculptor of the Owl House (Julia Malgas and Jeni Couzyn, 2008), The Black Countess (R. E. van der Ross, 2008) and Die verhaal van Elandskloof ("The Story of Elandskloof", Tobie Wiese assisted by Ricky Goedeman, 2009) as counter-discursive texts writtten against specific hegemonic practices. The first text presents a reevaluation of the contribution of Koos Malgas to the famous Outsider Art place, The Owl House in Nieu Bethesda; the second is a short biography on the black countess, Martha Grey and the third is a lay history of a Dutch Reformed Church mission station, Elandskloof. The writer discusses the obvious similarities between these texts such as the co-operation between authors, the margin as a site of resistance, the fragmented documentation of marginalised lives, the formation and re-formation of identities and the tensions around expressions of 'truth'.