Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Tydskrif vir Letterkunde]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0041-476X20140001&lang=pt vol. 51 num. 1 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Lawrence Hoba's depiction of the post-2000 Zimbabwean land invasions in <i>The Trek and Other Stories</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2014000100001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The article examines Lawrence Hoba's The Trek and Other Stories (2009), which describes experiences from the post-2000 land invasions and fast-track land reform in Zimbabwe. It analyses selected short stories in relation to other Zimbabwean fictional works about land and the definition and restoration of dignified and other identities lost during Rhodesian colonialism. The article also discusses the significance of the narrative style, especially satire, and some of the themes, such as violence, dislocation, the position of women during the land reform and the multiple migration patterns in the land invasions, in an effort to foreground how all these link with Hoba's cynicism and, at times, subversive perceptions on how the land issue has been handled in post-2000 Zimbabwe. The argument here is that Hoba's fictional writings about the post-2000 land invasions and fast track land redistribution programme are reflective of a marked departure from the pro-nationalist, ideological and backward looking fictional mappings of land and national belonging. These writings place the 'now' as critical in unpacking the ironies and contradictory impact of the land redistribution exercise on ordinary Zimbabweans <![CDATA[<b>Figures of pedagogy in Ama Ata Aidoo's <i>Changes</i> and Buchi Emecheta's <i>Double Yoke</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2014000100002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Writers and critics of women emancipation have lifted and advanced the struggle to another phase. The last decade has witnessed feminist writing from female disparagement, subjugation, women as victims craving to be fulfilled wives and mothers endowed with "pretty faces and fertile ova" (Chukwuma), to women striving for empowerment and assertion. A revisit of Buchi Emecheta's Double Yoke and Ama Ata Aidoo's Changes reveals that these inimitable feminist writers, while depicting the women in the abyss of debasement in patriarchal society portray assertive heroines teaching by precepts immanent in pedagogical assets. Economic independence and education are added advantages to factors that make for self-assertion. Self-assertion, seen as a woman's greatest weapon, serves as a pedagogical instrument for equipping both sexes. This article focuses on narrative strategies that evoke images that go beyond women disparagement and marginalisation to female empowerment and self-assertion through close rereadings of Emecheta's and Aidoo's novels <![CDATA[<b>"Why were we crucified into car mechanics</b><b>?</b><b>": Masculine identity in Marlene van Niekerk's <i>Agaat</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2014000100003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Critical commentary on Jak de Wet in Marlene van Niekerk's Agaat centres on his being a patriarchal stereotype of Afrikaner nationalism. However, while his negative behaviour in the novel is undeniable, the construction of his masculine identity is mediated by the emasculated space in which he enacts it. This article reads his masculinity in relation to the concept of "hegemonic masculinity", the spatial construction of public and private masculine identities, and masculinity as performative. This highlights the ways in which Jak's representation reveals transient moments of insight. These moments find expression in the novel's recurring images of mobility that culminate in his death <![CDATA[<b><i>The Book of Happenstance</i></b><b> (Ingrid Winterbach): A Theosophic-Kabbalist perspective</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2014000100004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The main character, Helena Verbloem, goes on a journey of discovery: to find her stolen shells, and to determine what role chance and contingency plays in man's search for meaning and order. On both these journeys she is accompanied by her colleague Sof Benadé and to a certain extent her employer, Theo Verwey. Sof introduces her to a world of duality, where good and evil exist but where one has a choice, in spite of disappointments that characterize daily life. Verwey dies before she can really get to know him, but he leaves her with the knowledge of the nature of language, that it is as subject to contingency as everything else. By analysing the text from a theosophical and Kabbalistic viewpoint Helena's journeys of discovery and self-discovery are revealed. It is shown that although she still believes that one's life is not determined by a Higher Order but through small contingencies, she no longer needs to be obsessed with the many losses she suffered, including that of her treasured shells, or the intellectual struggle to understand the origin of life and the role of human cognition in the suffering of humankind. This helps her to heal her relationships with the living and the dead, and in the process also herself <![CDATA[<b>Post-apartheid transnationalism in black South African literature: a reality or a fallacy?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2014000100005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The main character, Helena Verbloem, goes on a journey of discovery: to find her stolen shells, and to determine what role chance and contingency plays in man's search for meaning and order. On both these journeys she is accompanied by her colleague Sof Benadé and to a certain extent her employer, Theo Verwey. Sof introduces her to a world of duality, where good and evil exist but where one has a choice, in spite of disappointments that characterize daily life. Verwey dies before she can really get to know him, but he leaves her with the knowledge of the nature of language, that it is as subject to contingency as everything else. By analysing the text from a theosophical and Kabbalistic viewpoint Helena's journeys of discovery and self-discovery are revealed. It is shown that although she still believes that one's life is not determined by a Higher Order but through small contingencies, she no longer needs to be obsessed with the many losses she suffered, including that of her treasured shells, or the intellectual struggle to understand the origin of life and the role of human cognition in the suffering of humankind. This helps her to heal her relationships with the living and the dead, and in the process also herself <![CDATA[<b>Introduction: Orality and technauriture of African literatures</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2014000100006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt African oral cultures as well as their oral literatures are vigorous. True, in some cases, elements of such literatures are at risk of disappearing when styles and texts are linked to specific languages and rituals that are no longer performed as they were in the past; in other cases, the very limited number of speakers has drawn local and global attention to endangered languages and the need for their revitalization.¹ Still, such a "sense of an ending" needs to be balanced by the observation that the large majority of the verbal arts and the cultural groups that produce them have, by and large, integrated oral and new ways of expression-from hip hop to various forms of theatre, world fusion music and digital orality. Changing oral genres and "technauriture" in African literatures are at the heart of the analyses and discussions presented in this number of Tydskrif vir Letterkunde. The included articles derive from the 9th Conference of ISOLA (International Society for the Oral Literatures of Africa) held at the University of Venda (South Africa) from June 28 to July 1, 2012 <![CDATA[<b>A traditional oral contest in Ivory Coast on the web in the early 2000</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2014000100007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This paper deals with a genre consisting in a traditional contest of conventional insults produced in Ivory Coast and called gate-gate (insulting is translated gâter le nom in local French). The gate-gate, born in an urban context of interethnic and interlinguistic hybridity, is performed in a variant of local popular French called Nouchi (a sort of pidgin, mixing French and main local languages: Agni-Baoulé, Bété, Dioula, Gouro ...) and mainly used by young people. This genre appeared in the 1 990s when the political perturbations began in Ivory Coast after the death of President Houphouet-Boigny. In the early 2000, it migrated to the web to be practiced by the Ivorian diaspora dispersed across the world. This study analyses how the web promotes the rules of the gate-gate in form and content, with the modalities of communication specific to this new media, as well as the evolution of this genre´s functions, which becomes a sign of cultural solidarity and complicity <![CDATA[<b>The Kings of Segu": From oral epic to television series</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2014000100008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Les Rois de Ségou ("The Kings of Segu") is a television series from Mali directed by Boubacar Sidibé, released to coincide with the fiftieth anniversary of Mali´s independence (22 September 1960). Together with another film released at about the same time, Samanyana Basi ("Basi from the village of Samanyana"), it is largely based on oral traditions pertaining to the Bamana-dominated state of Segu (ca. 1700-1860). The film was originally shot in French; after a first showing, it was dubbed in Bamana due to popular demand. The director employed several strategies to best adapt this oral tradition to the screen: citations from the songs are preserved (in the original Bamana); the role of dialogue is reinforced in order to make up for the disappearance of the bard´s narrative voice; and the dialogues are laden with adages, thus approximating the characteristics of bardic speech. The music draws not only on that traditionally associated with the epic, but also on a full range of Bamana and non-Bamana, Malian traditional and contemporary music. Dramatic and acting styles are furthermore influenced by the traditional Bamana kòtèba theatre, as well as by the foreign (especially Latin American) television soap operas widely viewed in Mali. Though the subject is ostensibly the past, the social and political critique of contemporary Mali forms the implicit subtext. Inasmuch as Malians of all backgrounds have been highly interested by this series, it evidences that it fosters the emergence of a sense of national identity <![CDATA[<b>Oral storytelling and national kinship: Reflections on the oral narrative performance in the Kenya Schools and Colleges Drama Festivals</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2014000100009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The story, in the form of the oral narrative, has always been a communalizing genre in the traditional African setting. It then functioned as a tool that brings together not only the artist and the particular audience, but also the entire community within which the performances are derived and performed. However, postcolonial, modern and global situations have greatly impacted on the traditional kinship structures in Africa and kinship fostering tools like the African oral narrative have not been spared. The introduction of the oral storytelling onto the proscenium stage in the Kenya Schools and Colleges Drama Festivals (KSCDF) has contributed to perpetuate the performance of this genre to significant degrees. This move has not only recalled attention to oral narratives, but also has revolutionized the performance and functional aspects of oral storytelling. Various aspects of the oral narrative genre have changed, from the multi-ethnic audience to the elaborate narrative structures and the varying orientations of the oral artists in KSCDF. The dramatic elements of the narrative have also been enhanced to justify its inclusion within the wider dramatic genre. This article investigates the structural and thematic reorientations of the contemporary Kenyan oral narrative and how it influences the reorientations of kinship in a postcolonial reality characterized by heterogeneous consumer audience and the need for national commonality. The aim is to understand the reorientations of oral storytelling and its scripted machinations of multi-ethnicity woven into the narrative as part of its contemporarily requisite features; the question is whether or not these reorientations enable the ideological adoption of some form of kinship across the diverse ethnic groups in Kenya <![CDATA[<b>The media, the reconstruction of drumming, and the tradition of the <i>dùndún</i> and the <i>bàtá</i> ensemble of the Yorùbá in South Western Nigeria</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2014000100010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This paper examines the impact of the technical media in the reconstruction of Yorúbá traditional drum music, for example given by the unification of two important ensemble instruments in Yorúbá society. It also calls to 'revive' the indigenous system of drumming beyond its traditional setting, making it an issue of global consumption. The preservation of the instrumental heritage of the Yorúbá people of South Western Nigeria needs to be discussed in its association with technical media. The Prodigal Ones by Mount Zion Films Production (and other drum music performance in films) shows the media enhancement of the performance of the ensemble serving as accompaniment during a traditional festival. The short scene allocated to a traditional festival reveals the significance of drumming and the input of the drum makers, who are generally not educated but are rich in ideas, knowledge and skills. Interviews show that the dúndún and bàtá ensemble today showcase a new image that is colourful. The wood for drum's construction is now lighter than for the older ones <![CDATA[<b>Tales and identity: Wanto in Gbaya tales and in new communication media</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2014000100011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Gbaya tales portray gods, humans and animals living as human beings in villages, hunting, gathering and cultivating plants. Wanto, a spider, is the most recurrent character of these tales: he is the one who brings civilization to Gbaya people. My paper points out Wanto's difference from the other characters and analyzes the complexity of his status. He is the only character whose name can be used as a name for a man. Most other names are specific to a tale, like Snow White in European tales, and cannot be attributed to people. For the Gbaya, Wanto epitomizes the essence of human beings. In fact, on the Internet, it appears that Wanto is always mentioned and claimed as the symbol of Gbaya identity by Gbaya artists. The fundamental role of Wanto in building Gbaya identity shows that oral literature is still vibrant and finds its place in new communication media <![CDATA[<b>Kinship, collegiality and witchcraft: South African perceptions of sorcery and the occult aspects of contemporary academia</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2014000100012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Certain South African perceptions of sorcery acquire new resonance when considered in the context of present-day corporatised, managerially governed higher education. Concepts of witchcraft from elsewhere in Africa further illuminate this. Indeed, there are certain striking metaphorical parallels between distinctive trends in the contemporary market-driven academic environment and various perceptions of witchcraft. These include the connections between kinship and witchcraft; also the belief that greed, jealousy and the selfish accumulation of material resources can be associated with sorcery. This conviction has certain points of comparison with the damaging effects of the impetus towards "individualism, competition and consumption" (Salim Vally) in higher education, stemming from broader trends in globalised corporate capitalism. Thus there are areas of commonality between certain African perceptions of sorcery and the corporatised academic environment <![CDATA[<b>«Paroles d'Afrique » Organising a hypermedia text: theory and practice</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2014000100013&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The ethnographic museum of Bordeaux (France) scheduled an exhibition « Paroles d'Afrique » ("Words from Africa") from October 2012 to May 2013. The items for the exhibition, properly scanned and contextualized, were brought together on a hypermedia platform, so as to retain a record of the exhibition. The hypermedia material was distributed with the exhibition catalogue and published on the museum website. The author was in charge of the creating the hypermedia platform. This paper outlines the approach to structuring the text, and explains the difficulties and successes encountered during the collection of the material <![CDATA[<b>Kofi Awoonor (1935-2013)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2014000100014&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The ethnographic museum of Bordeaux (France) scheduled an exhibition « Paroles d'Afrique » ("Words from Africa") from October 2012 to May 2013. The items for the exhibition, properly scanned and contextualized, were brought together on a hypermedia platform, so as to retain a record of the exhibition. The hypermedia material was distributed with the exhibition catalogue and published on the museum website. The author was in charge of the creating the hypermedia platform. This paper outlines the approach to structuring the text, and explains the difficulties and successes encountered during the collection of the material <![CDATA[<b>Mbulelo Vizikhungo Mzamane  (1948-2014)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2014000100015&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The ethnographic museum of Bordeaux (France) scheduled an exhibition « Paroles d'Afrique » ("Words from Africa") from October 2012 to May 2013. The items for the exhibition, properly scanned and contextualized, were brought together on a hypermedia platform, so as to retain a record of the exhibition. The hypermedia material was distributed with the exhibition catalogue and published on the museum website. The author was in charge of the creating the hypermedia platform. This paper outlines the approach to structuring the text, and explains the difficulties and successes encountered during the collection of the material http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2014000100016&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt