Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Tydskrif vir Letterkunde]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0041-476X20200001&lang=pt vol. 57 num. 1 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Introduction: Reinscribing Nuruddin Farah in African literature</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2020000100001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>Nuruddin Farah: A lived commitment to Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2020000100002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>Nuruddin Farah and Somali culture</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2020000100003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>Mogadishu as lost modern: In conversation with <i>A Naked needle</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2020000100004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>Reflecting back, projecting forward: A conversation with Nuruddin Farah</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2020000100005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>The marathoner not yet at the finish line: Nuruddin Farah in Rome</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2020000100006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>Lost years of a nomad: Exploring Indian experience in Nuruddin Farah's oeuvre</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2020000100007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt To honor Nuruddin Farah's fifty-year-long writing journey, this article explores his time in India (1966-69) and the influence it had on making him a leading postcolonial writer. My approach is largely biographical. I begin with his decision to turn down a scholarship at an American University, which some critics view as immature or even eccentric. I challenge this view of his choice instead to enroll for a degree in philosophy, literature and sociology at the Government College of Panjab University at Chandigarh in 1966 and to make what was then a country of poverty and even famine his first diasporic destination. I argue that this was a well-thought-out, politically correct and wise decision in the global context of international relationships in the 1960s. I also explore Farah's brief association with Indian culture and the knowledge he acquired of Indian philosophy and literature to explain his decision to adopt a feminist perspective to write on injustice against women and the powerless and religious intolerance rather than focus on issues such as independence realpolitik like leading African writers at the time. His first manuscript, published in 1970 as From a Crooked Rib, was a Penguin modern classic by 2004. I argue that this novel was importantly shaped by his Indian experience. I also explore the influence of two novels on the young Farah, on his personal life, ideology and writing even before he went to India: W. Somerset Maugham's novel The Razor's Edge (1944) and Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai's classic Chemmeen (1956). This is the first substantial investigation of the effect of Farah's Indian experience. <![CDATA[<b>Dante in Mogadishu: <i>The Divine Comedy </i>in Nuruddin Farah's <i>Links</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2020000100008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article aims to explore the complex network of intra-textual and intertextual references to Dante's The Divine Comedy in Nuruddin Farah's novel Links (2005). By analyzing the quotations from the poem, this essay wishes to show how the Comedy informs the novel at various levels, from the paratext (since Dante's tercets from Inferno are chosen as an epigraph) to the text itself (since Inferno appears to be deeply constitutive of Links). The analysis then suggests that, on the one hand, Farah employs Dante's poem to address, represent and understand the civil-war context of Somalia from the protagonist's point of view. On the other, he subverts and re-contextualizes Inferno to create new meanings and to distance his novel from Dante's literary antecedent. Therefore, by analyzing the practices of intertextuality between the two texts, this essay aims to investigate both the converging and conflicting strategies enabled in the novel. <![CDATA[<b>A nation of narratives: <i>Soomaalinimo </i>and the Somali novel</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2020000100009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt It is already obvious that the 21st century will be one characterized by massive migrations which will see the growth and consolidation of diasporic communities separated by the political and linguistic borders of their adopted countries and the rise of transnational diasporic nationhoods and cultural networks. If literature is a mirror of culture, literary scholars have to adapt to changed conditions and assume a transnational perspective on their field in order for their work to remain relevant. While verbal art in the Somali language has been dominated by a rich tradition of oral poetry, the Somali novel has arisen in exile in a variety of languages most notably Italian and English. Writers of the Somali diaspora living all over the world have produced a rich literature in the form of novels that record the history of the Somali people in their native land and in exile. This article focuses on novels written in English and Italian by Somali writers such as Nuruddin Farah, Nadifa Mohamed, Ubax Ali Cristina Farah, Igiaba Scego and Shirin Ramzanali Fazel. My contention is that these writers should be read together from a comparative standpoint as a transnational and translinguistic Somali novelistic tradition. Ultimately my contention is that Somalia is a nation that continues to exist in the imagination of its sizeable global diaspora and that this imagined nation is written into existence in the novels of these exiles regardless of language they have adopted for their literary production. I enlist the concept of Soomaalinimo, or Somaliness, as a framework within which to draw together the novelistic production of these diasporic writers. I trace what I argue to be a pair of literary manifestations of Soomaalinimo common to the works of the above-mentioned Somali novelists both of which operate to record, recuperate and valorize alternative perspectives on Somalia and its culture to the one which dominates the global imaginary. These manifestations come in the form of a conscious textual indebtedness to the oral poetic traditions of Somalia which all of these writers weave into their novelistic prose and in the form of lyrical accounts of Somali landscapes and material culture. <![CDATA[<b>Anxiety and influence in Nuruddin Farah and younger Somali writers</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2020000100010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt During his exile, Nuruddin Farah believed that he would return to a democratic Somalia once Muhammed Siyad Barre had been removed from power. However, this vision was lost when civil war followed the dictator's fall. Since then, Farah has made several return visits to Somalia. He claims in interviews and articles that he continues to care about Somalia whereas others have abandoned the country. The emotional engagement that Farah shows in his book on Somali refugees, Yesterday, Tomorrow: Voices from the Somali Diaspora emerges again in his Past Imperfect trilogy. This can be seen in the ways in which older Somali characters interact with a younger generation, seeking to instruct, develop and protect them. This shows a certain anxiety about influence. It is as if Farah is attempting to re-assert his long-held position as the pre-eminent author and interpreter of Somalia and the Somali diaspora during a period in which there has been a proliferation of literary writing by younger Somalis. This essay examines Farah's trajectory from exile to cosmopolitan writer and his anxiety in the Past Imperfect trilogy and other writing. It further considers whether there are constructive linkages between Farah's work and that of selected younger Somali writers. <![CDATA[<b>Male 'Somaliness' in diasporic contexts: Somali authors' evaluative evocations</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2020000100011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Addressing five texts by four Somali authors-Nuruddin Farah's Yesterday, Tomorrow: Voices from the Somali Diaspora (2000) and North of Dawn (2018) in juxtaposition with three novels by female Somali authors, i.e. Safi Abdi's Offspring of Paradise (2003), Cristina Ali Farah's Little Mother (201; Italian original 2007) and Igiaba Scego's Adua (English translation 2017, Italian original 2015)- this article assesses the work these texts do to enhance contemporary understanding of the complex, evolving phenomenon that is the diasporic Somali presence in Western Europe, focusing on Somali men. How do the authors portray and (implicitly or overtly) evaluate how diasporic male Somalis cope in foreign, non-Muslim and culturally Western environments-against the backdrop of Somalia's state collapse and social disintegration? Somali men's experiences have generally been given less attention than those of their female counterparts, hence the focus here on male-gendered characters. This focus serves to link the two Nuruddin Farah texts and the three novels by Somali women-a textual grouping and focus not previously attempted in critical studies of Farah's work. This brief essay assesses the five texts' respective combinations of evaluative evocation, affective intensity and epistemological detail, approaching these works as complementing social science researchers' efforts in depicting diasporic Somali men's lives. By deepening understanding of the impact of the diaspora on individual Somali men, the five texts convey significant psychological, social and moral insights into lives of Somali men in foreign contexts. <![CDATA[<b>Nuruddin Farah: Variations on the theme of return</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2020000100012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article explores the role of the returnee protagonist in selected works of Nuruddin Farah. Nadine Gordimer described Farah as "one of the real interpreters" of Africa and this article argues that Farah's returnees operate as interpreters themselves, their liminality working to mediate between international readers and "local" subject matter. However, it also observes that Farah, who spent decades in exile, is often as preoccupied with writing non-belonging as he is with rendering Somalia itself. Farah's returnee narratives are, broadly, novels of redress, in which characters enact their return in an attempt to seek out the missing, rebuild the lost or reclaim the stolen, with imperfect results. In exploring these variations on homecoming, the paper investigates the ways in which Farah's body of work reflects shifts in identity politics over time, and the unique pressures these shifts exert on the homecoming arc. <![CDATA[<b>Perceiving precarity and extremism in Nuruddin Farah's <i>North of Dawn</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2020000100013&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Somali citizens, both at home and abroad, have been reduced to a life of uncertainty, instability and insecurity. This article considers Somalis as part of the 'precariat' (as theorized by Pierre Bourdieu, Guy Standing, and others). Drawing on critical terrorism and trauma scholarship, the article gauges the experiences of the precariat subject, highlighting how these experiences affect the daily lives of the Somali migrant community in Nuruddin Farah's North of Dawn (2018). The aim of this article is to consider the relationship among precarity, extremism and the postcolonial émigré with regard to the contingent and fractious relations established by and between the Somali migrant characters and their hosts in the novel. Whereas predominant framings of precarity are characterized by labor insecurity, lack of any stable economic identity, and the fear of losing what one has, my argument in this article is that extremism is both a response to and attendant agent of precarity as presented in the novel. My contention is that Farah engages the precariat as extremist in the narrative present of the novel, highlighting the ways in which those that face social identification and marginalization are both at risk and risky to others. <![CDATA[<b>Trajectories of radicalization and resilience in Nuruddin Farah's <i>North of Dawn</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2020000100014&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Situated within a body of writing that is preoccupied with engagement with terrorism, this article considers the ways in which Nuruddin Farah's novel, North of Dawn (2018), explores trajectories of radicalization and resilience to violent extremism. Written from an interdisciplinary cultural migration studies perspective, the article understands violent extremism as a complex networked phenomenon. It makes an original contribution by highlighting the role of belonging in trajectories of radicalization and resilience, bringing sociological studies of radicalized violence and resilience to such violence into dialogue with a cosmopolitan literary framework including the works of other diasporic Somali background European writers such as Cristina Ali Farah and Igiaba Scego. <![CDATA[<b>Nuruddin Farah: A <i>pas de deux across The World Republic of Letters</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2020000100015&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Nuruddin Farah's life and work is used in Pascale Casanova's The World Republic of Letters to exemplify the challenges of the dispossessed writer on the periphery of the hierarchical, binary, and highly agonistic world literary system she describes. However, precisely because of his unique position on the Somali literary periphery of the African periphery, Farah's work and career represent the practice of Casanova's theory in advance of its formulation. The Somali writer's negotiation of entry into the dominant world literary order since the publication of his first novel in 1970 suggests an implicit understanding of the literary system Casanova outlines only towards the end of the twentieth century. In other words, Farah does not derivatively illustrate the theory, but his career and novels preempt through practice the major insights of Casanova's theory. Farah's career, furthermore, suggests a wider polycentrism of influence than allowed in the hierarchical binarism of Casanova's model. Finally, the postcolonial aesthetic of "teacherliness", clearer in the late realism of Farah's mature work, signals a fundamental rewriting, rather than a derivative renewal, of modernist aesthetic modes privileging technique of the major cities of the global north. <![CDATA[<b>Chronology: Nuruddin Farah</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2020000100016&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Nuruddin Farah's life and work is used in Pascale Casanova's The World Republic of Letters to exemplify the challenges of the dispossessed writer on the periphery of the hierarchical, binary, and highly agonistic world literary system she describes. However, precisely because of his unique position on the Somali literary periphery of the African periphery, Farah's work and career represent the practice of Casanova's theory in advance of its formulation. The Somali writer's negotiation of entry into the dominant world literary order since the publication of his first novel in 1970 suggests an implicit understanding of the literary system Casanova outlines only towards the end of the twentieth century. In other words, Farah does not derivatively illustrate the theory, but his career and novels preempt through practice the major insights of Casanova's theory. Farah's career, furthermore, suggests a wider polycentrism of influence than allowed in the hierarchical binarism of Casanova's model. Finally, the postcolonial aesthetic of "teacherliness", clearer in the late realism of Farah's mature work, signals a fundamental rewriting, rather than a derivative renewal, of modernist aesthetic modes privileging technique of the major cities of the global north. <![CDATA[<b>Nuruddin Farah: Selected bibliography</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2020000100017&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Nuruddin Farah's life and work is used in Pascale Casanova's The World Republic of Letters to exemplify the challenges of the dispossessed writer on the periphery of the hierarchical, binary, and highly agonistic world literary system she describes. However, precisely because of his unique position on the Somali literary periphery of the African periphery, Farah's work and career represent the practice of Casanova's theory in advance of its formulation. The Somali writer's negotiation of entry into the dominant world literary order since the publication of his first novel in 1970 suggests an implicit understanding of the literary system Casanova outlines only towards the end of the twentieth century. In other words, Farah does not derivatively illustrate the theory, but his career and novels preempt through practice the major insights of Casanova's theory. Farah's career, furthermore, suggests a wider polycentrism of influence than allowed in the hierarchical binarism of Casanova's model. Finally, the postcolonial aesthetic of "teacherliness", clearer in the late realism of Farah's mature work, signals a fundamental rewriting, rather than a derivative renewal, of modernist aesthetic modes privileging technique of the major cities of the global north. <![CDATA[<b>Sol Plaatje: A Life of Solomon Tshekisho Plaatje (Brian P. Willan)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2020000100018&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Nuruddin Farah's life and work is used in Pascale Casanova's The World Republic of Letters to exemplify the challenges of the dispossessed writer on the periphery of the hierarchical, binary, and highly agonistic world literary system she describes. However, precisely because of his unique position on the Somali literary periphery of the African periphery, Farah's work and career represent the practice of Casanova's theory in advance of its formulation. The Somali writer's negotiation of entry into the dominant world literary order since the publication of his first novel in 1970 suggests an implicit understanding of the literary system Casanova outlines only towards the end of the twentieth century. In other words, Farah does not derivatively illustrate the theory, but his career and novels preempt through practice the major insights of Casanova's theory. Farah's career, furthermore, suggests a wider polycentrism of influence than allowed in the hierarchical binarism of Casanova's model. Finally, the postcolonial aesthetic of "teacherliness", clearer in the late realism of Farah's mature work, signals a fundamental rewriting, rather than a derivative renewal, of modernist aesthetic modes privileging technique of the major cities of the global north. <![CDATA[<b>From the Spice Islands to Cape Town: The Life and Times of Tuan Guru (Shafiq Morton)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2020000100019&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Nuruddin Farah's life and work is used in Pascale Casanova's The World Republic of Letters to exemplify the challenges of the dispossessed writer on the periphery of the hierarchical, binary, and highly agonistic world literary system she describes. However, precisely because of his unique position on the Somali literary periphery of the African periphery, Farah's work and career represent the practice of Casanova's theory in advance of its formulation. The Somali writer's negotiation of entry into the dominant world literary order since the publication of his first novel in 1970 suggests an implicit understanding of the literary system Casanova outlines only towards the end of the twentieth century. In other words, Farah does not derivatively illustrate the theory, but his career and novels preempt through practice the major insights of Casanova's theory. Farah's career, furthermore, suggests a wider polycentrism of influence than allowed in the hierarchical binarism of Casanova's model. Finally, the postcolonial aesthetic of "teacherliness", clearer in the late realism of Farah's mature work, signals a fundamental rewriting, rather than a derivative renewal, of modernist aesthetic modes privileging technique of the major cities of the global north. <![CDATA[<b> Race, Nation, Translation (Zoe Wicomb)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2020000100020&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Nuruddin Farah's life and work is used in Pascale Casanova's The World Republic of Letters to exemplify the challenges of the dispossessed writer on the periphery of the hierarchical, binary, and highly agonistic world literary system she describes. However, precisely because of his unique position on the Somali literary periphery of the African periphery, Farah's work and career represent the practice of Casanova's theory in advance of its formulation. The Somali writer's negotiation of entry into the dominant world literary order since the publication of his first novel in 1970 suggests an implicit understanding of the literary system Casanova outlines only towards the end of the twentieth century. In other words, Farah does not derivatively illustrate the theory, but his career and novels preempt through practice the major insights of Casanova's theory. Farah's career, furthermore, suggests a wider polycentrism of influence than allowed in the hierarchical binarism of Casanova's model. Finally, the postcolonial aesthetic of "teacherliness", clearer in the late realism of Farah's mature work, signals a fundamental rewriting, rather than a derivative renewal, of modernist aesthetic modes privileging technique of the major cities of the global north. <![CDATA[<b>Death and Compassion: The Elephant in Southern African Literatures (Dan Wylie)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2020000100021&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Nuruddin Farah's life and work is used in Pascale Casanova's The World Republic of Letters to exemplify the challenges of the dispossessed writer on the periphery of the hierarchical, binary, and highly agonistic world literary system she describes. However, precisely because of his unique position on the Somali literary periphery of the African periphery, Farah's work and career represent the practice of Casanova's theory in advance of its formulation. The Somali writer's negotiation of entry into the dominant world literary order since the publication of his first novel in 1970 suggests an implicit understanding of the literary system Casanova outlines only towards the end of the twentieth century. In other words, Farah does not derivatively illustrate the theory, but his career and novels preempt through practice the major insights of Casanova's theory. Farah's career, furthermore, suggests a wider polycentrism of influence than allowed in the hierarchical binarism of Casanova's model. Finally, the postcolonial aesthetic of "teacherliness", clearer in the late realism of Farah's mature work, signals a fundamental rewriting, rather than a derivative renewal, of modernist aesthetic modes privileging technique of the major cities of the global north. <![CDATA[<b>Literature and the Law in South Africa, 191-2010</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2020000100022&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Nuruddin Farah's life and work is used in Pascale Casanova's The World Republic of Letters to exemplify the challenges of the dispossessed writer on the periphery of the hierarchical, binary, and highly agonistic world literary system she describes. However, precisely because of his unique position on the Somali literary periphery of the African periphery, Farah's work and career represent the practice of Casanova's theory in advance of its formulation. The Somali writer's negotiation of entry into the dominant world literary order since the publication of his first novel in 1970 suggests an implicit understanding of the literary system Casanova outlines only towards the end of the twentieth century. In other words, Farah does not derivatively illustrate the theory, but his career and novels preempt through practice the major insights of Casanova's theory. Farah's career, furthermore, suggests a wider polycentrism of influence than allowed in the hierarchical binarism of Casanova's model. Finally, the postcolonial aesthetic of "teacherliness", clearer in the late realism of Farah's mature work, signals a fundamental rewriting, rather than a derivative renewal, of modernist aesthetic modes privileging technique of the major cities of the global north. <![CDATA[<b>Like Family: Domestic Workers in South African History and Literature (Ena Jansen)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2020000100023&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Nuruddin Farah's life and work is used in Pascale Casanova's The World Republic of Letters to exemplify the challenges of the dispossessed writer on the periphery of the hierarchical, binary, and highly agonistic world literary system she describes. However, precisely because of his unique position on the Somali literary periphery of the African periphery, Farah's work and career represent the practice of Casanova's theory in advance of its formulation. The Somali writer's negotiation of entry into the dominant world literary order since the publication of his first novel in 1970 suggests an implicit understanding of the literary system Casanova outlines only towards the end of the twentieth century. In other words, Farah does not derivatively illustrate the theory, but his career and novels preempt through practice the major insights of Casanova's theory. Farah's career, furthermore, suggests a wider polycentrism of influence than allowed in the hierarchical binarism of Casanova's model. Finally, the postcolonial aesthetic of "teacherliness", clearer in the late realism of Farah's mature work, signals a fundamental rewriting, rather than a derivative renewal, of modernist aesthetic modes privileging technique of the major cities of the global north. <![CDATA[<b>This mournable body (Tsitsi Dangarembga) </b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2020000100024&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Nuruddin Farah's life and work is used in Pascale Casanova's The World Republic of Letters to exemplify the challenges of the dispossessed writer on the periphery of the hierarchical, binary, and highly agonistic world literary system she describes. However, precisely because of his unique position on the Somali literary periphery of the African periphery, Farah's work and career represent the practice of Casanova's theory in advance of its formulation. The Somali writer's negotiation of entry into the dominant world literary order since the publication of his first novel in 1970 suggests an implicit understanding of the literary system Casanova outlines only towards the end of the twentieth century. In other words, Farah does not derivatively illustrate the theory, but his career and novels preempt through practice the major insights of Casanova's theory. Farah's career, furthermore, suggests a wider polycentrism of influence than allowed in the hierarchical binarism of Casanova's model. Finally, the postcolonial aesthetic of "teacherliness", clearer in the late realism of Farah's mature work, signals a fundamental rewriting, rather than a derivative renewal, of modernist aesthetic modes privileging technique of the major cities of the global north. <![CDATA[<b>Chinatown (Ronelda S. Kamfer) </b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2020000100025&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Nuruddin Farah's life and work is used in Pascale Casanova's The World Republic of Letters to exemplify the challenges of the dispossessed writer on the periphery of the hierarchical, binary, and highly agonistic world literary system she describes. However, precisely because of his unique position on the Somali literary periphery of the African periphery, Farah's work and career represent the practice of Casanova's theory in advance of its formulation. The Somali writer's negotiation of entry into the dominant world literary order since the publication of his first novel in 1970 suggests an implicit understanding of the literary system Casanova outlines only towards the end of the twentieth century. In other words, Farah does not derivatively illustrate the theory, but his career and novels preempt through practice the major insights of Casanova's theory. Farah's career, furthermore, suggests a wider polycentrism of influence than allowed in the hierarchical binarism of Casanova's model. Finally, the postcolonial aesthetic of "teacherliness", clearer in the late realism of Farah's mature work, signals a fundamental rewriting, rather than a derivative renewal, of modernist aesthetic modes privileging technique of the major cities of the global north. <![CDATA[<b>All the Places (Musawenkosi Khanyile) </b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2020000100026&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Nuruddin Farah's life and work is used in Pascale Casanova's The World Republic of Letters to exemplify the challenges of the dispossessed writer on the periphery of the hierarchical, binary, and highly agonistic world literary system she describes. However, precisely because of his unique position on the Somali literary periphery of the African periphery, Farah's work and career represent the practice of Casanova's theory in advance of its formulation. The Somali writer's negotiation of entry into the dominant world literary order since the publication of his first novel in 1970 suggests an implicit understanding of the literary system Casanova outlines only towards the end of the twentieth century. In other words, Farah does not derivatively illustrate the theory, but his career and novels preempt through practice the major insights of Casanova's theory. Farah's career, furthermore, suggests a wider polycentrism of influence than allowed in the hierarchical binarism of Casanova's model. Finally, the postcolonial aesthetic of "teacherliness", clearer in the late realism of Farah's mature work, signals a fundamental rewriting, rather than a derivative renewal, of modernist aesthetic modes privileging technique of the major cities of the global north. <![CDATA[<b>Die Kinders van Spookwerwe (Lize Albertyn-du Toit) </b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2020000100027&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Nuruddin Farah's life and work is used in Pascale Casanova's The World Republic of Letters to exemplify the challenges of the dispossessed writer on the periphery of the hierarchical, binary, and highly agonistic world literary system she describes. However, precisely because of his unique position on the Somali literary periphery of the African periphery, Farah's work and career represent the practice of Casanova's theory in advance of its formulation. The Somali writer's negotiation of entry into the dominant world literary order since the publication of his first novel in 1970 suggests an implicit understanding of the literary system Casanova outlines only towards the end of the twentieth century. In other words, Farah does not derivatively illustrate the theory, but his career and novels preempt through practice the major insights of Casanova's theory. Farah's career, furthermore, suggests a wider polycentrism of influence than allowed in the hierarchical binarism of Casanova's model. Finally, the postcolonial aesthetic of "teacherliness", clearer in the late realism of Farah's mature work, signals a fundamental rewriting, rather than a derivative renewal, of modernist aesthetic modes privileging technique of the major cities of the global north. <![CDATA[<b>There goes English teacher (Karin Cronje) </b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2020000100028&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Nuruddin Farah's life and work is used in Pascale Casanova's The World Republic of Letters to exemplify the challenges of the dispossessed writer on the periphery of the hierarchical, binary, and highly agonistic world literary system she describes. However, precisely because of his unique position on the Somali literary periphery of the African periphery, Farah's work and career represent the practice of Casanova's theory in advance of its formulation. The Somali writer's negotiation of entry into the dominant world literary order since the publication of his first novel in 1970 suggests an implicit understanding of the literary system Casanova outlines only towards the end of the twentieth century. In other words, Farah does not derivatively illustrate the theory, but his career and novels preempt through practice the major insights of Casanova's theory. Farah's career, furthermore, suggests a wider polycentrism of influence than allowed in the hierarchical binarism of Casanova's model. Finally, the postcolonial aesthetic of "teacherliness", clearer in the late realism of Farah's mature work, signals a fundamental rewriting, rather than a derivative renewal, of modernist aesthetic modes privileging technique of the major cities of the global north. <![CDATA[<b>Lagos Noir (Chris Abani) </b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2020000100029&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Nuruddin Farah's life and work is used in Pascale Casanova's The World Republic of Letters to exemplify the challenges of the dispossessed writer on the periphery of the hierarchical, binary, and highly agonistic world literary system she describes. However, precisely because of his unique position on the Somali literary periphery of the African periphery, Farah's work and career represent the practice of Casanova's theory in advance of its formulation. The Somali writer's negotiation of entry into the dominant world literary order since the publication of his first novel in 1970 suggests an implicit understanding of the literary system Casanova outlines only towards the end of the twentieth century. In other words, Farah does not derivatively illustrate the theory, but his career and novels preempt through practice the major insights of Casanova's theory. Farah's career, furthermore, suggests a wider polycentrism of influence than allowed in the hierarchical binarism of Casanova's model. Finally, the postcolonial aesthetic of "teacherliness", clearer in the late realism of Farah's mature work, signals a fundamental rewriting, rather than a derivative renewal, of modernist aesthetic modes privileging technique of the major cities of the global north. <![CDATA[<b>I turned away and she was gone (Jennie Reznek) </b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2020000100030&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Nuruddin Farah's life and work is used in Pascale Casanova's The World Republic of Letters to exemplify the challenges of the dispossessed writer on the periphery of the hierarchical, binary, and highly agonistic world literary system she describes. However, precisely because of his unique position on the Somali literary periphery of the African periphery, Farah's work and career represent the practice of Casanova's theory in advance of its formulation. The Somali writer's negotiation of entry into the dominant world literary order since the publication of his first novel in 1970 suggests an implicit understanding of the literary system Casanova outlines only towards the end of the twentieth century. In other words, Farah does not derivatively illustrate the theory, but his career and novels preempt through practice the major insights of Casanova's theory. Farah's career, furthermore, suggests a wider polycentrism of influence than allowed in the hierarchical binarism of Casanova's model. Finally, the postcolonial aesthetic of "teacherliness", clearer in the late realism of Farah's mature work, signals a fundamental rewriting, rather than a derivative renewal, of modernist aesthetic modes privileging technique of the major cities of the global north. <![CDATA[<b>Like a mule bringing ice cream to the sun (Sarah Ladipo Manyika) </b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2020000100031&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Nuruddin Farah's life and work is used in Pascale Casanova's The World Republic of Letters to exemplify the challenges of the dispossessed writer on the periphery of the hierarchical, binary, and highly agonistic world literary system she describes. However, precisely because of his unique position on the Somali literary periphery of the African periphery, Farah's work and career represent the practice of Casanova's theory in advance of its formulation. The Somali writer's negotiation of entry into the dominant world literary order since the publication of his first novel in 1970 suggests an implicit understanding of the literary system Casanova outlines only towards the end of the twentieth century. In other words, Farah does not derivatively illustrate the theory, but his career and novels preempt through practice the major insights of Casanova's theory. Farah's career, furthermore, suggests a wider polycentrism of influence than allowed in the hierarchical binarism of Casanova's model. Finally, the postcolonial aesthetic of "teacherliness", clearer in the late realism of Farah's mature work, signals a fundamental rewriting, rather than a derivative renewal, of modernist aesthetic modes privileging technique of the major cities of the global north. <![CDATA[<b>Die dao van Daan van der Walt (Lodewyk G. du Plessis) </b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2020000100032&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Nuruddin Farah's life and work is used in Pascale Casanova's The World Republic of Letters to exemplify the challenges of the dispossessed writer on the periphery of the hierarchical, binary, and highly agonistic world literary system she describes. However, precisely because of his unique position on the Somali literary periphery of the African periphery, Farah's work and career represent the practice of Casanova's theory in advance of its formulation. The Somali writer's negotiation of entry into the dominant world literary order since the publication of his first novel in 1970 suggests an implicit understanding of the literary system Casanova outlines only towards the end of the twentieth century. In other words, Farah does not derivatively illustrate the theory, but his career and novels preempt through practice the major insights of Casanova's theory. Farah's career, furthermore, suggests a wider polycentrism of influence than allowed in the hierarchical binarism of Casanova's model. Finally, the postcolonial aesthetic of "teacherliness", clearer in the late realism of Farah's mature work, signals a fundamental rewriting, rather than a derivative renewal, of modernist aesthetic modes privileging technique of the major cities of the global north. <![CDATA[<b>Gam se tjind (Aubrey Cloete) </b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2020000100033&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Nuruddin Farah's life and work is used in Pascale Casanova's The World Republic of Letters to exemplify the challenges of the dispossessed writer on the periphery of the hierarchical, binary, and highly agonistic world literary system she describes. However, precisely because of his unique position on the Somali literary periphery of the African periphery, Farah's work and career represent the practice of Casanova's theory in advance of its formulation. The Somali writer's negotiation of entry into the dominant world literary order since the publication of his first novel in 1970 suggests an implicit understanding of the literary system Casanova outlines only towards the end of the twentieth century. In other words, Farah does not derivatively illustrate the theory, but his career and novels preempt through practice the major insights of Casanova's theory. Farah's career, furthermore, suggests a wider polycentrism of influence than allowed in the hierarchical binarism of Casanova's model. Finally, the postcolonial aesthetic of "teacherliness", clearer in the late realism of Farah's mature work, signals a fundamental rewriting, rather than a derivative renewal, of modernist aesthetic modes privileging technique of the major cities of the global north. <![CDATA[<b>Ek kom terug (Adrian van Dis) </b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2020000100034&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Nuruddin Farah's life and work is used in Pascale Casanova's The World Republic of Letters to exemplify the challenges of the dispossessed writer on the periphery of the hierarchical, binary, and highly agonistic world literary system she describes. However, precisely because of his unique position on the Somali literary periphery of the African periphery, Farah's work and career represent the practice of Casanova's theory in advance of its formulation. The Somali writer's negotiation of entry into the dominant world literary order since the publication of his first novel in 1970 suggests an implicit understanding of the literary system Casanova outlines only towards the end of the twentieth century. In other words, Farah does not derivatively illustrate the theory, but his career and novels preempt through practice the major insights of Casanova's theory. Farah's career, furthermore, suggests a wider polycentrism of influence than allowed in the hierarchical binarism of Casanova's model. Finally, the postcolonial aesthetic of "teacherliness", clearer in the late realism of Farah's mature work, signals a fundamental rewriting, rather than a derivative renewal, of modernist aesthetic modes privileging technique of the major cities of the global north.