Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Tydskrif vir Letterkunde]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0041-476X20150002&lang=pt vol. 52 num. 2 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>An analysis of the bodily spatial power relations in <i>Agaat </i>by Marlene van Niekerk</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2015000200001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The aim of this article is to explore the power relations portrayed through the bodily spatial interaction of the characters of Milla and Agaat in Marlene van Niekerk's 2004 novel, Agaat. This interaction is analysed according to the theory of Thirding-as-Othering posited by Henri Lefebvre and Edward Soja in terms of the body in space. The body in space is interpreted through agency which is exemplified in the intimacy of the relations of these two bodies through the actions of bathing, giving birth, and the physical aspects of the process of "civilising" the child character of Agaat. Through an analysis of three sets of incidents and scenes which illustrate the physical inhabitation of space through agency, the power relations between Milla and Agaat are exemplified and discussed. The analysis culminates in the conclusion that the relationship between Milla and Agaat is a cyclical power play that does not come to any pure form of dominance or submission because of the inhabitation that they enact through each other. With agency being tantamount to inhabitation and assertion of power, Agaat has the ultimate power on the farm through Milla, as Milla's body is othered by her illness and finally her death. <![CDATA[<b>Bodily disintegration and successful ageing in <i>Body Bereft </i>by Antjie Krog</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2015000200002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Antjie Krog's Body Bereft (2006) details both the bodily changes brought about by older age and the ways in which these changes fracture a person's previously-stable sense of self. This article reads Krog's depiction of the ageing body in a small selection of poems from this collection in relation to the unavoidable reality of bodily decay and what is referred to in gerontological theory as 'successful ageing'. This tension dominates large parts of the gerontological field, and can be seen in Krog's ambivalent representation of older age in Body Bereft. Through close readings of a number of poems, I will investigate the ways in which Krog problematises the relationship between the lived experience of older age with its concomitant sense of deterioration, and the societal impetus to age well and accept ageing with magnanimity. I will demonstrate that this collection foregrounds the poet's refusal to accept pre-existing discourses that delimit ageing as something either to bemoan or celebrate. I will conclude that this refusal finds particular expression in her poems "dommelfei / crone in the woods" and "how do you say this". <![CDATA[<b><i>Wai Nengre: </i></b><b>Further research on tendencies in the literatures of three former Dutch colonies</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2015000200003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article expands on research that explores similar tendencies in the literatures of three former Dutch colonies: the literature from the Dutch Antilles and Surinam and black Afrikaans writing emanating from South Africa. It commences with an overview of slavery in the Dutch colonial empire and its legacy which resulted in the establishment of a population that shares elements of Dutch language and culture. It proceeds with an analysis of similar tendencies in the development of those literatures, in particular the influence of Negritude and Black Consciousness and the representation of creole and hybrid identities. It concludes with an analysis of creolization as a further development in these literatures and possibilities for future research. <![CDATA[<b>Two Fischers, two plays: <i>Die geheime Bloemfontein-konferensie </i>(The secret Bloemfontein conference) (1938) and <i>Die Bram Fischer waltz </i>(2011)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2015000200004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>The historicity of recent Afrikaans historical fiction on the Anglo-Boer War</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2015000200005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Authors of creative writing in the Afrikaans language find a rich source of dramatic material in the Anglo-Boer War of 1 899 to 1902. Themes from this war that lend themselves superbly to be woven into historical novels and short stories, are the concentration camps (where 28 000 Boer civilians died); the bitterness that plagued Afrikaners in the aftermath of the war; the pride in Boer heroism on the battlefield; important historical figures; treason that lurked in Boer ranks; the relations, usually fraught, with the British, with black people, with fellow-burghers and those with Boer women, often at an individual level. Then there were the experiences of prisoners of war; and the Boers' heartfelt religiosity-on the one hand the deepening of the spiritual experience and on the other the incidence of apostasy; the disillusionment of defeat; and the challenge of reconstruction after the war. In this paper recent historical fiction that has appeared since 1998 from distinguished Afrikaans writers on the Anglo-Boer War is assessed to establish its historical authenticity. The author determines whether what is portrayed is historically correct; what was possible but verges on the improbable, and what is factually incorrect. The works of Christoffel Coetzee, Ingrid Winterbach, Sonja Loots, P.G. du Plessis, Karel Schoeman, Zirk van den Berg, Margaret Bakkes, Jeanette Ferreira, Engela van Rooyen and Eleanor Baker are assessed. Finally, an attempt is made to indicate the fruits of co-operation between the writer of historical fiction, the publisher and the historian. <![CDATA[<b>Historical correctness and historical fiction: A response</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2015000200006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In this article the relationship between history and fiction is examined in response to the historian, Fransjohan Pretorius's criticism of recent Afrikaans fiction about the Anglo-Boer War in Tydskrif vir Letterkunde 52.2 (201 5). The intricate relationship between history and fiction is examined by pointing, on the one hand to the problematic of the relationship between history and the past and on the one hand, to the difference between fiction and history. The function of aesthetic illusion, verisimilitude and conceptions of reference is investigated theoretically before turning to the specific novels that Pretorius discusses. The article shows that historical fiction cannot be restricted to novelized versions of accepted history, but that historical fiction also reminds the reader that the past is always culturally mediated and that the primary aim of novels is not to represent the past but to examine aspects of human existence. A comparison between fiction and history can therefore not be used as a norm to assess novels. <![CDATA[<b>An alternative view of nature's otherness in E. Kotze's short story 'Halfkrone vir die Nagmaal'</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2015000200007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Diepsee: 'n Keur uit die verhale van E. Kotze(2014) refocuses our attention on Kotze's short story collections which immortalised the sea and the littoral spaces of the West Coast in Afrikaans literature. This study comprises an ecocriticial investigation of the title story in Halfkrone vir die Nagmaal (1982), with attention to the manner in which distancing takes place from the conventional Western way of thinking by which is presumed that human-nature differences may serve to vindicate human domination of, or misconstrue the relationship with, the natural world. Differences between human and nonhuman nature in this narrative is integrated with details which clearly bring the human-nature relationship to light, as well as ideas of connectedness with nature. This leads me to an exploration of the representation of the sea and the natural sea environment as a literary demonstration of an alternative view of nature as the Other. The investigation centres on the discovery of characteristics of anotherness-characteristics in contrast to those of the Other in the dualistic human-nature view in which the key concepts of alienation and objectification still function to defend Western hierarchical power relationships. The alternative model of otherness, with anothernessas key concept, has its origins in Mikhail Bakhtin's theory concerning the term "relational otherness". This model has been applied to the field of ecocriticism by Patrick Murphy who describes anothernessas a perception of otherness that respects difference without using it to justify domination or prohibit connection. Murphy emphasises that anotherness proceeds from a heterarchichal-that is, a non-hierarchical-sense of difference. The application of this alternative model of otherness, in the ecocritical context, to "Halfkrone vir die Nagmaal" leads to the discovery of a respectful approach to human-nature differences, where principles of domination or distancing do not apply, but rather those of relations and human-nature interaction. In voicing another nature, Kotze's acts as "I-for-another" (Bakhtin's expression) for the earth; her narrative becomes an act of responsibility towards a coastal strip that nowhere else in Afrikaans literature is captured so expansively and poignantly as in her work. <![CDATA[<b>Negotiating growth in turbulent-scapes: Violence, secrecy and growth in Goretti Kyomuhendo's <i>Secrets No More</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2015000200008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The traditional Western variant of the Bildungsromoii explores the dialectic of growth and change in the developmental process of the protagonist and how he is socialized into the society. However, most of the criticism on the form hardly explores the growth process of a child who suffers partial dementia as a result of human evil and sadism. This essay therefore, examines how a partially demented child-protagonist negotiates her identity in the absence of her parents and the comfort zone of a nuclear family in Goretti Kyomuhendo's Secrets No More. The protagonist negotiates the growth process around the turbulent national space, a trans-ethnic community of orphans and provincial subjects and the heavily patriarchal familial base where she struggles for self-assertion through a kind of voicing which is not associated with speech. In order to understand the developmental or growth process of the child-protagonist, I organize my argument around the possible violence of varied kinds performed on the body of the girl-child and the family and how she constructs identity from the limited choices she is offered in a turbulent African space where parental agency and guidance are unavailable for the child to emulate models in order to construct her own identity. Applying some of the theoretical positions of some Bildungsroman scholars, I will demonstrate through close reading, how Secrets No More aptly articulates some of the fundamental features of the narrative of growth. <![CDATA[<b>The place of Urhobo folklore in Tanure Ojaide's poetry</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2015000200009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt While some notable studies have been done on Tanure Ojaide and his coevals on their "Alter/Native" tradition of modern African poetry that gained inspiration from indigenous African oral literature and folklore, there has been no focused study on the place of folklore in his writing, especially his poetry. Ojaide's writing is deeply steeped in Urhobo folklore, which his upbringing and later study and research in Udje have brought about. Though this is not an essentialist reading of his work, I intend to use his specific cultural background to do a reading of his poetry in order to show the depth, breadth, and complexity of his themes and the sophistication of his art, all of which are infused with his native Urhobo folklore. From legendary personages such as Ogiso, Arhuaran, Aminogbe, Ayayughe, Ogidigbo through the fauna and flora of the iroko, akpobrisi, uwara, eyareya, to the incorporation of folk songs and modelling of poems on the udje genre, Ojaide uses orature to establish a cultural identity and a common humanity for his work. Through local folklore and a style borrowed from the oral tradition he deploys folkloric resources as style and form to advance his themes. My study thus illuminates the deep meaning of the writer's thoughts and the effective use of oral poetic performance style. This conscious effort of the writer appears to have yielded poetic dividends in the relevance of his work and the literary reputation he has gained through his consistency despite innovations now and then. <![CDATA[<b>Didacticism and the Third Generation of African Writers: Chukwuma Ibezute's <i>The Temporal Gods </i>and <i>Goddess in the Cathedral</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2015000200010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article argues that African literature is a didactic literature. It points out that even though African literature has borrowed so much from European literary culture, especially in the areas of form and language; didacticism is not one of those concepts that African literature inherited from the European literary culture. By didacticism, it is implied that African literature is aimed at correcting, informing and educating its readers. These functions of didacticism are inherent in African oral traditional storytelling and are carried over to the written literature. It is further argued in the article that of the three generations that now make up African literature, the third generation of African writers are accused of not making their stories didactic and that only a selected few of them remain true to making their stories didactic. Among these few writers is Chukwuma Ibezute. Using Chukwuma Ibezute's two novels, The Temporal Gods (1998) and Goddess in the Cathedral (2003) the didactic nature of African literature as contained in the works of a writer of the third generation is demonstrated. In The TemporalGodsthe reality of the consequences of greed and envy are revealed. It is further argued through the novel that the afflictions of evil spirits on their victims are temporal. In Goddess in the Cathedral we are presented with another educating story of the activities of evil spirits and their agents. Through the novel, we are warned against some pastors who are agents of evil spirits but who claim to be working for the almighty God. Using examples from the two novels, ways on how to know a pastor who is working for God and the one who is working for evil spirits are further revealed. <![CDATA[<b>Desert ethics, myths of nature and novel form in the narratives of Ibrahim al-Koni</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2015000200011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This broadly comparative essay contrasts environmentalism in the fiction in English translation of the Libyan writer, Ibrahim al-Koni, with dominant trends in contemporary environmentalism. An analysis of three of the most ecocritically pertinent of the novels in English translation suggests that the natural world is viewed through the lens of the mythical, encompassing the religious worlds of both Tuareg animism, as well as monotheism represented by Islam and early Christianity. The novels to be considered are The Seven Veils of Sethi, Anubis and The Bleeding of the Stone. Unlike environmental approaches which derive from the European Enlightenment of procedural rational disenchantment, human beings in Al-Koni's work are accorded a place in the sacred order which allows non-parasitic modes of existence within the framework of a sacred law. This conviction is articulated most powerfully through the symbol of the desert which inspires all of Al-Koni's work. The social and sacred desert ethic out of which Al-Koni's fiction is forged, strains at the form of the novel, the genre which constitutes and is constituted by an immanent, individual vision of the world. As a consequence, Al-Koni's narratives tend towards allegorical modes which highlight the radical complexity and simplicity of allegory. <![CDATA[<b>Historisiteit en historiese fiksie - 'n Repliek</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2015000200012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This broadly comparative essay contrasts environmentalism in the fiction in English translation of the Libyan writer, Ibrahim al-Koni, with dominant trends in contemporary environmentalism. An analysis of three of the most ecocritically pertinent of the novels in English translation suggests that the natural world is viewed through the lens of the mythical, encompassing the religious worlds of both Tuareg animism, as well as monotheism represented by Islam and early Christianity. The novels to be considered are The Seven Veils of Sethi, Anubis and The Bleeding of the Stone. Unlike environmental approaches which derive from the European Enlightenment of procedural rational disenchantment, human beings in Al-Koni's work are accorded a place in the sacred order which allows non-parasitic modes of existence within the framework of a sacred law. This conviction is articulated most powerfully through the symbol of the desert which inspires all of Al-Koni's work. The social and sacred desert ethic out of which Al-Koni's fiction is forged, strains at the form of the novel, the genre which constitutes and is constituted by an immanent, individual vision of the world. As a consequence, Al-Koni's narratives tend towards allegorical modes which highlight the radical complexity and simplicity of allegory. <![CDATA[<b>André Brink: In defiance of boundaries</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2015000200013&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This broadly comparative essay contrasts environmentalism in the fiction in English translation of the Libyan writer, Ibrahim al-Koni, with dominant trends in contemporary environmentalism. An analysis of three of the most ecocritically pertinent of the novels in English translation suggests that the natural world is viewed through the lens of the mythical, encompassing the religious worlds of both Tuareg animism, as well as monotheism represented by Islam and early Christianity. The novels to be considered are The Seven Veils of Sethi, Anubis and The Bleeding of the Stone. Unlike environmental approaches which derive from the European Enlightenment of procedural rational disenchantment, human beings in Al-Koni's work are accorded a place in the sacred order which allows non-parasitic modes of existence within the framework of a sacred law. This conviction is articulated most powerfully through the symbol of the desert which inspires all of Al-Koni's work. The social and sacred desert ethic out of which Al-Koni's fiction is forged, strains at the form of the novel, the genre which constitutes and is constituted by an immanent, individual vision of the world. As a consequence, Al-Koni's narratives tend towards allegorical modes which highlight the radical complexity and simplicity of allegory. <![CDATA[<b>Birthing me: André P. Brink (1935-2015)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2015000200014&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This broadly comparative essay contrasts environmentalism in the fiction in English translation of the Libyan writer, Ibrahim al-Koni, with dominant trends in contemporary environmentalism. An analysis of three of the most ecocritically pertinent of the novels in English translation suggests that the natural world is viewed through the lens of the mythical, encompassing the religious worlds of both Tuareg animism, as well as monotheism represented by Islam and early Christianity. The novels to be considered are The Seven Veils of Sethi, Anubis and The Bleeding of the Stone. Unlike environmental approaches which derive from the European Enlightenment of procedural rational disenchantment, human beings in Al-Koni's work are accorded a place in the sacred order which allows non-parasitic modes of existence within the framework of a sacred law. This conviction is articulated most powerfully through the symbol of the desert which inspires all of Al-Koni's work. The social and sacred desert ethic out of which Al-Koni's fiction is forged, strains at the form of the novel, the genre which constitutes and is constituted by an immanent, individual vision of the world. As a consequence, Al-Koni's narratives tend towards allegorical modes which highlight the radical complexity and simplicity of allegory. <![CDATA[<b>Reading can be disturbing: A tribute to André Brink</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2015000200015&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This broadly comparative essay contrasts environmentalism in the fiction in English translation of the Libyan writer, Ibrahim al-Koni, with dominant trends in contemporary environmentalism. An analysis of three of the most ecocritically pertinent of the novels in English translation suggests that the natural world is viewed through the lens of the mythical, encompassing the religious worlds of both Tuareg animism, as well as monotheism represented by Islam and early Christianity. The novels to be considered are The Seven Veils of Sethi, Anubis and The Bleeding of the Stone. Unlike environmental approaches which derive from the European Enlightenment of procedural rational disenchantment, human beings in Al-Koni's work are accorded a place in the sacred order which allows non-parasitic modes of existence within the framework of a sacred law. This conviction is articulated most powerfully through the symbol of the desert which inspires all of Al-Koni's work. The social and sacred desert ethic out of which Al-Koni's fiction is forged, strains at the form of the novel, the genre which constitutes and is constituted by an immanent, individual vision of the world. As a consequence, Al-Koni's narratives tend towards allegorical modes which highlight the radical complexity and simplicity of allegory. <![CDATA[<b>André P. Brink se bevrydende woord en dissidensie</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2015000200016&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This broadly comparative essay contrasts environmentalism in the fiction in English translation of the Libyan writer, Ibrahim al-Koni, with dominant trends in contemporary environmentalism. An analysis of three of the most ecocritically pertinent of the novels in English translation suggests that the natural world is viewed through the lens of the mythical, encompassing the religious worlds of both Tuareg animism, as well as monotheism represented by Islam and early Christianity. The novels to be considered are The Seven Veils of Sethi, Anubis and The Bleeding of the Stone. Unlike environmental approaches which derive from the European Enlightenment of procedural rational disenchantment, human beings in Al-Koni's work are accorded a place in the sacred order which allows non-parasitic modes of existence within the framework of a sacred law. This conviction is articulated most powerfully through the symbol of the desert which inspires all of Al-Koni's work. The social and sacred desert ethic out of which Al-Koni's fiction is forged, strains at the form of the novel, the genre which constitutes and is constituted by an immanent, individual vision of the world. As a consequence, Al-Koni's narratives tend towards allegorical modes which highlight the radical complexity and simplicity of allegory. <![CDATA[<b>Johan Degenaar (1926-2015)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2015000200017&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This broadly comparative essay contrasts environmentalism in the fiction in English translation of the Libyan writer, Ibrahim al-Koni, with dominant trends in contemporary environmentalism. An analysis of three of the most ecocritically pertinent of the novels in English translation suggests that the natural world is viewed through the lens of the mythical, encompassing the religious worlds of both Tuareg animism, as well as monotheism represented by Islam and early Christianity. The novels to be considered are The Seven Veils of Sethi, Anubis and The Bleeding of the Stone. Unlike environmental approaches which derive from the European Enlightenment of procedural rational disenchantment, human beings in Al-Koni's work are accorded a place in the sacred order which allows non-parasitic modes of existence within the framework of a sacred law. This conviction is articulated most powerfully through the symbol of the desert which inspires all of Al-Koni's work. The social and sacred desert ethic out of which Al-Koni's fiction is forged, strains at the form of the novel, the genre which constitutes and is constituted by an immanent, individual vision of the world. As a consequence, Al-Koni's narratives tend towards allegorical modes which highlight the radical complexity and simplicity of allegory. <![CDATA[<b>T. T. Cloete (1924-2015)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2015000200018&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This broadly comparative essay contrasts environmentalism in the fiction in English translation of the Libyan writer, Ibrahim al-Koni, with dominant trends in contemporary environmentalism. An analysis of three of the most ecocritically pertinent of the novels in English translation suggests that the natural world is viewed through the lens of the mythical, encompassing the religious worlds of both Tuareg animism, as well as monotheism represented by Islam and early Christianity. The novels to be considered are The Seven Veils of Sethi, Anubis and The Bleeding of the Stone. Unlike environmental approaches which derive from the European Enlightenment of procedural rational disenchantment, human beings in Al-Koni's work are accorded a place in the sacred order which allows non-parasitic modes of existence within the framework of a sacred law. This conviction is articulated most powerfully through the symbol of the desert which inspires all of Al-Koni's work. The social and sacred desert ethic out of which Al-Koni's fiction is forged, strains at the form of the novel, the genre which constitutes and is constituted by an immanent, individual vision of the world. As a consequence, Al-Koni's narratives tend towards allegorical modes which highlight the radical complexity and simplicity of allegory. <![CDATA[<b>Johan Smuts (1934-2015)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2015000200019&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This broadly comparative essay contrasts environmentalism in the fiction in English translation of the Libyan writer, Ibrahim al-Koni, with dominant trends in contemporary environmentalism. An analysis of three of the most ecocritically pertinent of the novels in English translation suggests that the natural world is viewed through the lens of the mythical, encompassing the religious worlds of both Tuareg animism, as well as monotheism represented by Islam and early Christianity. The novels to be considered are The Seven Veils of Sethi, Anubis and The Bleeding of the Stone. Unlike environmental approaches which derive from the European Enlightenment of procedural rational disenchantment, human beings in Al-Koni's work are accorded a place in the sacred order which allows non-parasitic modes of existence within the framework of a sacred law. This conviction is articulated most powerfully through the symbol of the desert which inspires all of Al-Koni's work. The social and sacred desert ethic out of which Al-Koni's fiction is forged, strains at the form of the novel, the genre which constitutes and is constituted by an immanent, individual vision of the world. As a consequence, Al-Koni's narratives tend towards allegorical modes which highlight the radical complexity and simplicity of allegory. <![CDATA[<b>Chenjerai Hove (1956-2015)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2015000200020&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This broadly comparative essay contrasts environmentalism in the fiction in English translation of the Libyan writer, Ibrahim al-Koni, with dominant trends in contemporary environmentalism. An analysis of three of the most ecocritically pertinent of the novels in English translation suggests that the natural world is viewed through the lens of the mythical, encompassing the religious worlds of both Tuareg animism, as well as monotheism represented by Islam and early Christianity. The novels to be considered are The Seven Veils of Sethi, Anubis and The Bleeding of the Stone. Unlike environmental approaches which derive from the European Enlightenment of procedural rational disenchantment, human beings in Al-Koni's work are accorded a place in the sacred order which allows non-parasitic modes of existence within the framework of a sacred law. This conviction is articulated most powerfully through the symbol of the desert which inspires all of Al-Koni's work. The social and sacred desert ethic out of which Al-Koni's fiction is forged, strains at the form of the novel, the genre which constitutes and is constituted by an immanent, individual vision of the world. As a consequence, Al-Koni's narratives tend towards allegorical modes which highlight the radical complexity and simplicity of allegory. <![CDATA[<b>Synapse tracing between self and other in <i>Mede-wete </i>by Antjie Krog (2014)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2015000200021&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The poetry volume Mede-wete by Antjie Krog is a sustained questioning of ethical relations between self and other, an on-going preoccupation of Krog in both her poetry and literary non-fiction works. This review article of Mede-wete (also available as Synapse in translation from Afrikaans into English by Karen Press) traces four forms of interconnectedness or synapses that shed light on Krog's project to establish ethical connections between the self, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, both the human and non-human other. Love and family bonds, reaching out to the cultural other, a sense of shared materiality with the environment, and, consequently, a longing for mystical unity constitute four of the synapses as announced in the title of the volume of poetry. The strength of the often challenging poetry emanates strongly from the daring use of language that includes syllable disturbances and surprising compounds. In many respects, Krog's impressive volume belies her apparent pessimism that Afrikaans poets and writers today are little more than "thighshifters-in-flinching-language" (Synapse 113). <![CDATA[<b>Mede-wete</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2015000200022&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The poetry volume Mede-wete by Antjie Krog is a sustained questioning of ethical relations between self and other, an on-going preoccupation of Krog in both her poetry and literary non-fiction works. This review article of Mede-wete (also available as Synapse in translation from Afrikaans into English by Karen Press) traces four forms of interconnectedness or synapses that shed light on Krog's project to establish ethical connections between the self, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, both the human and non-human other. Love and family bonds, reaching out to the cultural other, a sense of shared materiality with the environment, and, consequently, a longing for mystical unity constitute four of the synapses as announced in the title of the volume of poetry. The strength of the often challenging poetry emanates strongly from the daring use of language that includes syllable disturbances and surprising compounds. In many respects, Krog's impressive volume belies her apparent pessimism that Afrikaans poets and writers today are little more than "thighshifters-in-flinching-language" (Synapse 113). <![CDATA[<b>Die stilte opgeskort</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2015000200023&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The poetry volume Mede-wete by Antjie Krog is a sustained questioning of ethical relations between self and other, an on-going preoccupation of Krog in both her poetry and literary non-fiction works. This review article of Mede-wete (also available as Synapse in translation from Afrikaans into English by Karen Press) traces four forms of interconnectedness or synapses that shed light on Krog's project to establish ethical connections between the self, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, both the human and non-human other. Love and family bonds, reaching out to the cultural other, a sense of shared materiality with the environment, and, consequently, a longing for mystical unity constitute four of the synapses as announced in the title of the volume of poetry. The strength of the often challenging poetry emanates strongly from the daring use of language that includes syllable disturbances and surprising compounds. In many respects, Krog's impressive volume belies her apparent pessimism that Afrikaans poets and writers today are little more than "thighshifters-in-flinching-language" (Synapse 113). <![CDATA[<b>Narokkong</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2015000200024&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The poetry volume Mede-wete by Antjie Krog is a sustained questioning of ethical relations between self and other, an on-going preoccupation of Krog in both her poetry and literary non-fiction works. This review article of Mede-wete (also available as Synapse in translation from Afrikaans into English by Karen Press) traces four forms of interconnectedness or synapses that shed light on Krog's project to establish ethical connections between the self, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, both the human and non-human other. Love and family bonds, reaching out to the cultural other, a sense of shared materiality with the environment, and, consequently, a longing for mystical unity constitute four of the synapses as announced in the title of the volume of poetry. The strength of the often challenging poetry emanates strongly from the daring use of language that includes syllable disturbances and surprising compounds. In many respects, Krog's impressive volume belies her apparent pessimism that Afrikaans poets and writers today are little more than "thighshifters-in-flinching-language" (Synapse 113). <![CDATA[<b>Stil punt van die aarde</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2015000200025&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The poetry volume Mede-wete by Antjie Krog is a sustained questioning of ethical relations between self and other, an on-going preoccupation of Krog in both her poetry and literary non-fiction works. This review article of Mede-wete (also available as Synapse in translation from Afrikaans into English by Karen Press) traces four forms of interconnectedness or synapses that shed light on Krog's project to establish ethical connections between the self, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, both the human and non-human other. Love and family bonds, reaching out to the cultural other, a sense of shared materiality with the environment, and, consequently, a longing for mystical unity constitute four of the synapses as announced in the title of the volume of poetry. The strength of the often challenging poetry emanates strongly from the daring use of language that includes syllable disturbances and surprising compounds. In many respects, Krog's impressive volume belies her apparent pessimism that Afrikaans poets and writers today are little more than "thighshifters-in-flinching-language" (Synapse 113). <![CDATA[<b>Nomade</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2015000200026&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The poetry volume Mede-wete by Antjie Krog is a sustained questioning of ethical relations between self and other, an on-going preoccupation of Krog in both her poetry and literary non-fiction works. This review article of Mede-wete (also available as Synapse in translation from Afrikaans into English by Karen Press) traces four forms of interconnectedness or synapses that shed light on Krog's project to establish ethical connections between the self, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, both the human and non-human other. Love and family bonds, reaching out to the cultural other, a sense of shared materiality with the environment, and, consequently, a longing for mystical unity constitute four of the synapses as announced in the title of the volume of poetry. The strength of the often challenging poetry emanates strongly from the daring use of language that includes syllable disturbances and surprising compounds. In many respects, Krog's impressive volume belies her apparent pessimism that Afrikaans poets and writers today are little more than "thighshifters-in-flinching-language" (Synapse 113). <![CDATA[<b>Die vrou wat alleen bly</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2015000200027&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The poetry volume Mede-wete by Antjie Krog is a sustained questioning of ethical relations between self and other, an on-going preoccupation of Krog in both her poetry and literary non-fiction works. This review article of Mede-wete (also available as Synapse in translation from Afrikaans into English by Karen Press) traces four forms of interconnectedness or synapses that shed light on Krog's project to establish ethical connections between the self, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, both the human and non-human other. Love and family bonds, reaching out to the cultural other, a sense of shared materiality with the environment, and, consequently, a longing for mystical unity constitute four of the synapses as announced in the title of the volume of poetry. The strength of the often challenging poetry emanates strongly from the daring use of language that includes syllable disturbances and surprising compounds. In many respects, Krog's impressive volume belies her apparent pessimism that Afrikaans poets and writers today are little more than "thighshifters-in-flinching-language" (Synapse 113). <![CDATA[<b>Die pad byster</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2015000200028&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The poetry volume Mede-wete by Antjie Krog is a sustained questioning of ethical relations between self and other, an on-going preoccupation of Krog in both her poetry and literary non-fiction works. This review article of Mede-wete (also available as Synapse in translation from Afrikaans into English by Karen Press) traces four forms of interconnectedness or synapses that shed light on Krog's project to establish ethical connections between the self, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, both the human and non-human other. Love and family bonds, reaching out to the cultural other, a sense of shared materiality with the environment, and, consequently, a longing for mystical unity constitute four of the synapses as announced in the title of the volume of poetry. The strength of the often challenging poetry emanates strongly from the daring use of language that includes syllable disturbances and surprising compounds. In many respects, Krog's impressive volume belies her apparent pessimism that Afrikaans poets and writers today are little more than "thighshifters-in-flinching-language" (Synapse 113). <![CDATA[<b>Buys: 'n Grensroman</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2015000200029&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The poetry volume Mede-wete by Antjie Krog is a sustained questioning of ethical relations between self and other, an on-going preoccupation of Krog in both her poetry and literary non-fiction works. This review article of Mede-wete (also available as Synapse in translation from Afrikaans into English by Karen Press) traces four forms of interconnectedness or synapses that shed light on Krog's project to establish ethical connections between the self, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, both the human and non-human other. Love and family bonds, reaching out to the cultural other, a sense of shared materiality with the environment, and, consequently, a longing for mystical unity constitute four of the synapses as announced in the title of the volume of poetry. The strength of the often challenging poetry emanates strongly from the daring use of language that includes syllable disturbances and surprising compounds. In many respects, Krog's impressive volume belies her apparent pessimism that Afrikaans poets and writers today are little more than "thighshifters-in-flinching-language" (Synapse 113). <![CDATA[<b>Sonde van Lusinda</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2015000200030&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The poetry volume Mede-wete by Antjie Krog is a sustained questioning of ethical relations between self and other, an on-going preoccupation of Krog in both her poetry and literary non-fiction works. This review article of Mede-wete (also available as Synapse in translation from Afrikaans into English by Karen Press) traces four forms of interconnectedness or synapses that shed light on Krog's project to establish ethical connections between the self, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, both the human and non-human other. Love and family bonds, reaching out to the cultural other, a sense of shared materiality with the environment, and, consequently, a longing for mystical unity constitute four of the synapses as announced in the title of the volume of poetry. The strength of the often challenging poetry emanates strongly from the daring use of language that includes syllable disturbances and surprising compounds. In many respects, Krog's impressive volume belies her apparent pessimism that Afrikaans poets and writers today are little more than "thighshifters-in-flinching-language" (Synapse 113). <![CDATA[<b>The Road of Excess</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2015000200031&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The poetry volume Mede-wete by Antjie Krog is a sustained questioning of ethical relations between self and other, an on-going preoccupation of Krog in both her poetry and literary non-fiction works. This review article of Mede-wete (also available as Synapse in translation from Afrikaans into English by Karen Press) traces four forms of interconnectedness or synapses that shed light on Krog's project to establish ethical connections between the self, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, both the human and non-human other. Love and family bonds, reaching out to the cultural other, a sense of shared materiality with the environment, and, consequently, a longing for mystical unity constitute four of the synapses as announced in the title of the volume of poetry. The strength of the often challenging poetry emanates strongly from the daring use of language that includes syllable disturbances and surprising compounds. In many respects, Krog's impressive volume belies her apparent pessimism that Afrikaans poets and writers today are little more than "thighshifters-in-flinching-language" (Synapse 113). <![CDATA[<b>Fragmente uit die <i>Ilias</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2015000200032&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The poetry volume Mede-wete by Antjie Krog is a sustained questioning of ethical relations between self and other, an on-going preoccupation of Krog in both her poetry and literary non-fiction works. This review article of Mede-wete (also available as Synapse in translation from Afrikaans into English by Karen Press) traces four forms of interconnectedness or synapses that shed light on Krog's project to establish ethical connections between the self, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, both the human and non-human other. Love and family bonds, reaching out to the cultural other, a sense of shared materiality with the environment, and, consequently, a longing for mystical unity constitute four of the synapses as announced in the title of the volume of poetry. The strength of the often challenging poetry emanates strongly from the daring use of language that includes syllable disturbances and surprising compounds. In many respects, Krog's impressive volume belies her apparent pessimism that Afrikaans poets and writers today are little more than "thighshifters-in-flinching-language" (Synapse 113). <![CDATA[<b>In a burning sea. Contemporary Afrikaans poetry in translation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2015000200033&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The poetry volume Mede-wete by Antjie Krog is a sustained questioning of ethical relations between self and other, an on-going preoccupation of Krog in both her poetry and literary non-fiction works. This review article of Mede-wete (also available as Synapse in translation from Afrikaans into English by Karen Press) traces four forms of interconnectedness or synapses that shed light on Krog's project to establish ethical connections between the self, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, both the human and non-human other. Love and family bonds, reaching out to the cultural other, a sense of shared materiality with the environment, and, consequently, a longing for mystical unity constitute four of the synapses as announced in the title of the volume of poetry. The strength of the often challenging poetry emanates strongly from the daring use of language that includes syllable disturbances and surprising compounds. In many respects, Krog's impressive volume belies her apparent pessimism that Afrikaans poets and writers today are little more than "thighshifters-in-flinching-language" (Synapse 113). <![CDATA[<b>Die mond vol vuur: Beskouings oor die werk van Breyten Breytenbach</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2015000200034&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The poetry volume Mede-wete by Antjie Krog is a sustained questioning of ethical relations between self and other, an on-going preoccupation of Krog in both her poetry and literary non-fiction works. This review article of Mede-wete (also available as Synapse in translation from Afrikaans into English by Karen Press) traces four forms of interconnectedness or synapses that shed light on Krog's project to establish ethical connections between the self, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, both the human and non-human other. Love and family bonds, reaching out to the cultural other, a sense of shared materiality with the environment, and, consequently, a longing for mystical unity constitute four of the synapses as announced in the title of the volume of poetry. The strength of the often challenging poetry emanates strongly from the daring use of language that includes syllable disturbances and surprising compounds. In many respects, Krog's impressive volume belies her apparent pessimism that Afrikaans poets and writers today are little more than "thighshifters-in-flinching-language" (Synapse 113). <![CDATA[<b>Conversations of Motherhood. South African Women's Writing across Traditions</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2015000200035&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The poetry volume Mede-wete by Antjie Krog is a sustained questioning of ethical relations between self and other, an on-going preoccupation of Krog in both her poetry and literary non-fiction works. This review article of Mede-wete (also available as Synapse in translation from Afrikaans into English by Karen Press) traces four forms of interconnectedness or synapses that shed light on Krog's project to establish ethical connections between the self, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, both the human and non-human other. Love and family bonds, reaching out to the cultural other, a sense of shared materiality with the environment, and, consequently, a longing for mystical unity constitute four of the synapses as announced in the title of the volume of poetry. The strength of the often challenging poetry emanates strongly from the daring use of language that includes syllable disturbances and surprising compounds. In many respects, Krog's impressive volume belies her apparent pessimism that Afrikaans poets and writers today are little more than "thighshifters-in-flinching-language" (Synapse 113). <![CDATA[<b>Outposts of Progress: Joseph Conrad, Modernism and Post-colonialism</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-476X2015000200036&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The poetry volume Mede-wete by Antjie Krog is a sustained questioning of ethical relations between self and other, an on-going preoccupation of Krog in both her poetry and literary non-fiction works. This review article of Mede-wete (also available as Synapse in translation from Afrikaans into English by Karen Press) traces four forms of interconnectedness or synapses that shed light on Krog's project to establish ethical connections between the self, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, both the human and non-human other. Love and family bonds, reaching out to the cultural other, a sense of shared materiality with the environment, and, consequently, a longing for mystical unity constitute four of the synapses as announced in the title of the volume of poetry. The strength of the often challenging poetry emanates strongly from the daring use of language that includes syllable disturbances and surprising compounds. In many respects, Krog's impressive volume belies her apparent pessimism that Afrikaans poets and writers today are little more than "thighshifters-in-flinching-language" (Synapse 113).