Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0041-475120210001&lang=es vol. 61 num. 1 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Voorwoord</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512021000100001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[<b>Religion and law: A few historical and systematic perspectives</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512021000100002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Binne diverse samelewings speel die verhouding tussen godsdiens en reg 'n belangrike rol. Hierdie bydrae beoog om enkele historiese kontoere te omlyn en eventueel in verband te bring met 'n paar relevante sistematiese opmerkings. Tradisionele samelewings is ongedifferensieerd maar het in Griekeland daarin geslaag om die Atheense polis (stad-staat) te ontwikkel. Die grondmotief van materie en vorm het rigting gegee aan die ontwikkeling van die Griekse kultuur wat aanvanklik deur die materiemotief beheers is en later onder leiding van die vorm-motief ontwikkel het. Die natuurgodsdienste is opgevolg deur die natuurreligie van vorm, maat en harmonie waarin die Olimpiese Gode 'n vername rol gespeel het. Gedurende die 5de eeu voor Christus het die nosies van geregtigheid en orde 'n meer beperkte juridiese betekenis verkry, verbandhoudende met wat ons vandag as positiewe reg waardeer. Weliswaar het Protagoras die hunkering na die onverganklike gerelativeer. Ten spyte van sy nominalisties-individualistiese benadering het Protagoras nogtans gemeen dat die polis 'n kulturele vorm aan individue verskaf. Die kulturele omraming wat langs dié weg verkry is, word gekonstitueer deur gehoorsaamheid aan die juridiese wette van die polis. Antieke Griekeland en die Middeleeue het afstand geneem van die nominalisties-individualistiese erfenis deur aansluiting te vind by die holistiese of universalistiese siening van godsdiens, reg en samelewing. Die aanvanklike betekenis van die terme logos (begrip) en nomos (wet) is gegee in die betekenis van reg in 'n juridiese sin, hoewel die kosmiese reikwydte van die term logos die juridiese betekenis daarvan by verre oorskry. Ontwikkelinge binne die Romeinse reg het die vierde eeu radikaal gewysig in 'n tweevoudige sin. Die uitbreiding van die Romeinse Ryk het gelei tot die ontstaan van die ius gentium om regsvoorsiening vir die nie-Romeine in die Romeinse Ryk te maak. Die toenemende groei van die Christendom het gelei tot die daaropvolgende stryd tussen kerk en staat. Die kulminasiepunt van die stryd tussen kerk en staat is bereik met die uitreiking van die befaamde Pouslike Dekreet, die Unam Sanctam in 1302, waarvolgens daar geen saligheid buite die Roomse Pontiff is nie. Die daaropvolende differensiëring van kerk en staat teen die einde van die Middeleeue en die Renaissance het daartoe gelei dat die staat die oorhand verwerf het. Desnietemin het nóg teoretiese weergawes nóg praktiese staatkundige ontwikkelinge effektief daarin geslaag om owerheidsgesag in te perk en godsdiensvryheid te verseker. Die Eerste Amendement van die Amerikaanse Grondwet betrek godsdiensvryheid maar het in publieke skole gefaal waar Darwin nie gekritiseer mag word en Christelike oortuigings uitgeban is. Die betekenis van die onderskeiding tussen die regsaspek en geloofsaspek van die werklikheid beklee 'n sleutelposisie in die laaste gedeelte van hierdie bydrae. Na 'n bespreking van die juridiese funksie van kerk en staat word rekenskap gegee van persoonlike geloofsvryheid sowel as van kollektiewe godsdiensvryheid wat afhanklik is van die struktuurverskil tussen die volgende regsfere: die domein van die publieke reg, die burgerlike privaatreg en die nieburgerlike privaatreg. Laasgenoemde betref die interne bevoegdheidsfere van die niestaatlike samelewingsvorme. Hierdie ontleding is deurslaggewend afhanklik van die modale soewereiniteit in eie kring van die regs- en geloofsaspekte van die werklikheid, wat as waarborg dien vir die wedersyde samehang en onherleibaarheid van hierdie aspekte. Hierdie aspekte dien ook as waarborg vir die interne kompetensiesfere van geloofs-verbande en staatsverbande deur die kwalifiserende rolle in elk te vervul - die kwalifiserende geloofsaspek in die geval van godsdienstige groeperinge en die kwalifiserende juridiese aspek in die geval van die staat as regsverband.<hr/>The relationship between religion and law plays a crucial role within diverse societies. In this contribution some historical contours will be outlined and eventually related to a few relevant systematic remarks. Traditional societies are undifferentiated but in Greece some succeeded in developing the Athenian polis (city state). The basic motive of matter and form gave direction to Greek culture, initially dominated by the matter motive and later on by the form motive. The religions of nature were succeeded by the cultural religious motive of form, measure and harmony in which the Olympic Gods played a key role. The notions of justice and order obtained a more restricted juridical meaning during the 5th century B.C. related to what we today associate with positive law. However, Protagoras relativised the yearning towards what is considered to be immutable. Yet, despite his nominalistic-individualistic inclination Protagoras still viewed the polis as the formative cultural power shaping individuals. The cultural form thus obtained is constituted by obedience to the jural laws of the polis. Ancient Greece and Medieval conceptions departed from the nominalistic-individualistic legacy by continuing a universalistic or holistic view of religion, society and law. The initial meaning of the terms logos (concept) and nomos (law) is found in the meaning of law in a jural sense, although the cosmic scope of the term logos by far exceeded its juridical meaning. Developments within Roman Law were radically transformed during the fourth century in a twofold way. The expansion of the Roman empire gave rise to the ius gentium in order to make provision for the legal position of non-Romans within the Roman empire. At the same time Christianity surfaced and provided a starting point for the development of the subsequent Medieval contest between church and state. The culmination point of this struggle between church and state, religion and law, was reached when it was declared in the famous papal Bull, Unam Sanctam (1302) that there is no salvation outside the Roman Pontiff. The subsequent differentiation between church and state since the late Medieval era and the Renaissance moved towards a situation where the state acquired the upper hand. However, neither theoretical accounts nor the actual rise of the modern idea of the just state succeeded effectively to limit state power and secure religious freedom. More recently, the first Amendment of the USA Constitution secures religious freedom but sadly failed in guaranteeing academic (conviction) freedom at public schools. The significance of distinguishing between the jural aspect and the faith aspect of reality occupies a key position in the last part of our analysis. After a discussion of the jural function of both church and state, an account is given of personal freedom of faith as well as collective religious liberty which depends on the structural difference between public law, civil private law and non-civil private law (i.e. the internal sphere of competence of non-political societal entities). This analysis crucially depends upon the modal sphere-sovereignty of the jural and certitudinal aspects of reality, guaranteeing their mutual coherence and irreducibility. These aspects also guarantee the internal legal spheres of competence of collective faith communities and collective state communities, by respectively acknowledging the qualifying role of the faith aspect in the case of religious communities and the qualifying role of the jural aspect in the case of states. <![CDATA[<b>The right to self-determination of religious groups in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512021000100003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die Grondwet van die Republiek van Suid-Afrika, 1996, is 'n godsdiens-vriendelike manifes omdat vryheid van godsdiens nie alleen in die lewe van die gelowige van belang is nie, maar ook vir die staat van groot waarde kan wees. Die Grondwet maak onder meer voorsiening vir die reg op selfbeskikking van godsdiensgroepe, wat beteken dat lede van godsdienstige gemeenskappe hulle godsdiens kan beoefen sonder ongegronde staatsinmenging. Die reg op selfbeskikking is egter nie ' n absolute reg nie en is onder meer aan die bepalings van die Handves van Regte ondergeskik. Daar word in dié verband verwys na regspraak wat op godsdiensonderrig in skole, en die toepassing van gedragskodes in die onderwys wat met godsdienstige gebruike in stryd mag wees, van toepassing is, asook na 'n verset teen die verbod op lyfstraf, omdat die verbod sogenaamd met godsdienstige leerstelling in stryd sou wees. Suid-Afrika onderhou ook die soewereiniteit in eie kring van godsdiensorganisasies, wat daarop neerkom dat die staat nie sal inmeng in interne besluite en praktyke van kerke en ander godsdiens-gerigte organisasies nie. Regspraak wat in dié verband ter sprake kom, het betrekking op tugmaatreëls wat teen 'n lid van die Ortodokse Joodse gemeenskap van Johannesburg ingestel is omdat hy 'n kerklike onderhoudsbevel verontagsaam het, en die afdanking van 'n vroulike predikant van die Metodiste Kerk in Rondebosch omdat sy met 'n ander vrou in die huwelik getree het. Die afdanking van 'n orrelonderwyser in die Kunsakademie van die Moreletaparkse gemeente van die NG Kerk as gevolg van sy selfdegeslagverhouding is egter nie deur die Gelykheidshof gehandhaaf nie, omdat die dienste van die orrelonderwyser as 'n onafhanklike kontrakteur nie met die geestellike roeping van die Kerk te make gehad het nie. Die beleid van die staat ten opsigte van die kerk en godsdienstige praktyke kan as 'n beleid van objektiwiteit beskryf word.<hr/>The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996, is a religion-friendly manifesto, because freedom of religion is not only important in the lives of the faithful, but is also of great value to the state. The Constitution makes provision for the right to self-determination of religious communities, which means that members of such communities can exercise their religion without undue state interference. However, the right to self-determination is not an absolute right and is amongst other things subject to the provisions of the Bill of Rights. Mention is made in this regard of litigation relating to education of religion in schools, and implementation of religious codes of conduct in education, that might contradict doctrinal practices, as well as opposition to the prohibition of corporeal punishment, which prohibition is allegedly in conflict with religious principles. South Africa also upholds the sphere sovereignty of religious organisations, which means that the state will not interfere with internal decisions and practices of churches and other religion-orientated institutions. Litigation of relevance in this regard includes disciplinary action against a member of the Orthodox Jewish community of Johannesburg who declined to comply with a maintenance order of the church authorities, as well as the dismissal of a Minister of the Methodist Church in Rondebosch because she entered into a same-sex marriage. The firing ofan organ teacher in the Arts Academy of the Moreleta Park Congregation of the Dutch Reformed Church because of his same-sex relations, on the other hand, was not upheld by the Equality Court because the services rendered by the organ teacher as an independent contractor did not relate to the spiritual calling of the Church. The policy of the state in regard to churches and religious practices can be described as a policy of objectivity. In specifying the above constitutional principles, this essay in the first place contains an analysis of the historical origin, development and prominence of the right to self-determination in international law and in the South African context. In the section on application of the right to self-determination in South Africa special mention is made of religious practices in education, noting with reference to a case involving the German School in Pretoria that religion classes are no longer based on a particular denominational basis and attendance of those classes is therefore mandatory; but in a case involving loyalty of certain schools to the Christian faith it was decided that this cannot be upheld in state-sponsored schools, since the state may not afford preference to a particular religion but must treat all religions equally. South African courts have also rejected the supposition that the Bible demands corporeal punishment of children, most recently also condemning corporeal chastisement within parent-child relations. <![CDATA[<b>South Africa's highest court deals a mortal blow to the common-law defence of parental authority to administer reasonable and moderate correction: Reflecting on the case of Freedom of Religion SA v Minister of Justice and Others 2020 (1) SA1 (CC)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512021000100004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die regsdebat oor die geldigheid van die gemeenregtelike verweer waaroor ouers tot onlangs nog binne die Suid-Afrikaanse regstelsel beskik het, naamlik die bevoegdheid tot redelike en matige tugtiging van hulle kinders, word al meer as 'n honderd jaar lank in Suid-Afrika gevoer. Nieteenstaande die lang duur van die debat en die belangrike uitwerking van die staatsregtelike ontwikkeling in Suid-Afrika onder die Grondwet van die RSA, 1996, in samehang met die vereistes van die internasionale reg, het daar eers in September 2019 regsekerheid oor dié bepaalde regsvraag gekom. In Freedom of Religion SA v Minister of Justice and Others het die Konstitusionele Hof, Suid-Afrika se hoogste hof, beslis dat die gemeenregtelike verweer van ouerlike bevoegdheid tot redelike en matige tugtiging van hulle kinders, selfs in hulle private wonings, ongrondwetlik en derhalwe ongeldig is. Ná opweging van al die mededingende belange en regte van sowel ouers as hulle kinders kom die hof tot die finale beslissing dat daar regtens geen regverdiging meer bestaan vir die voortgesette behoud van fisieke ouerlike tugtiging nie, selfs nie eens op grond van godsdienstige riglyne nie, en derhalwe ook nie vir die volgehoue inbreukmaking op die regte van kinders wat aan sodanige tugtigingspraktyke blootgestel word nie. Tensy daar ander regswysigings binne die Suid-Afrikaanse regstelsel aangebring word, beteken hierdie beslissing van die hof dat die toediening deur ouers van redelike en matige fisieke tugtiging aan hulle kinders 'n finale doodskoot gekry het.<hr/>The debate in legal circles in South Africa about the lawfulness of the common-law defence, until recently available to parents, of parental entitlement to administer moderate and reasonable chastisement to their children has been going on for more than a hundred years. Notwithstanding the long duration of the debate and the important effect of the constitutional developments in South Africa under the Constitution of the RSA, 1996, in conjunction with the requirements of international law, legal certainty about this particular legal question was only achieved in September 2019. In Freedom of Religion SA v Minister of Justice and Others, the Constitutional Court, the highest court in South Africa, decided that the common-law defence of parental authority to administer moderate and reasonable chastisement to their children, even in the privacy of their own homes, is unconstitutional and therefore invalid. After weighing up all competing interests and rights of both parents and their children, the court came to the final conclusion that no lawful justification remains for the retention of the defence of parental entitlement to administer physical chastisement to their children, not even on religious grounds, and that the limitation of the rights of children who are subjected to such practices are unjustified and not legally permissible. Unless legal amendments are effected in South Africa in the future, this decision of the court dealt parents' entitlement to administer moderate and reasonable chastisement to their children a mortal blow. <![CDATA[<b>Values-driven education in the context of religious freedom as human right</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512021000100005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Onderwys in skole behels wesenlik leiding aan leerders om voorgeskrewe kennis en vaardighede onder die knie te kry. Die meeste skoolgemeenskappe vereis egter meer as net sulke blote onderrig-leerhandelinge en spits hulle gevolglik toe op opvoedende onderwys, dit wil sê vorme van onderwys gerig op die toerusting en vorming van leerders met die oog op hulle toekomstige lewensroeping. Skoolgemeenskappe gee by wyse van hulle beheerliggame uitdrukking aan dergelike vormings- en toerustingswaardes in hulle skole se visie- en missiestellings. Sulke opvoedende onderwyswaardes vloei voort uit die betrokke skoolge-meenskap se godsdienstige, spirituele en lewensbeskoulike waardes, en kan slegs uitgeleef word in 'n regsomgewing waar godsdiensvryheid as mensereg erken word. In Suid-Afrika word hierdie reg wel erken, maar enkele klein verstellings aan wetgewing en riglyne kan omstandighede nog gunstiger vir skole maak om hulle lewensbeskoulike identiteit ten volle te kan uitleef. Wetgewing behoort byvoorbeeld duideliker te stel dat die beheerliggame van skole, ook van openbare skole, die reg het om die lewensbeskoulike identiteit van hulle betrokke skool te bepaal en uit te leef, op voorwaarde dat dit geskied op niediskriminerende wyse teenoor leerders en hulle gemeenskappe wat ander gelowe aanhang.<hr/>The basic task of schools is to assist learners in mastering certain prescribed learning materials by means of processes of learning. In South Africa, content knowledge and skills such as these are prescribed in the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (2011). All schools, irrespective of the education systems of which they form part, also display in the course of such processes of teaching and learning the values and ethos of the school communities that they serve. No form of education, development or formation, therefore, is ever free of the values inextricably linked to particular conceptions of life; instead, it always attests to a particular spiritual, religious or life-conceptual orientation. School communities, that is, the parents, the teachers, the surrounding community and the broader civic community, tend to expect of schools that they be more than simply teaching-learning institutions; in other words, they expect them to be formative or educative teaching-learning institutions as well. Put differently, schools are expected to attend also to the following formative aspects in the course of the teaching-learning processes: guidance of the learners, assistance in their development, support of their interests, formation, equipment, enablement and exemplary norms. The religious and life-conceptual values held by the school community come to the fore when the governing body, in the process of drafting the school's vision and mission statements, searches for answers to the following questions associated with such formative processes: • To what ends should the learners be guided? • How, and for what purpose should their potential be developed? • How and why should they be lovingly cared for? • To what ends should they be developed, physically and spiritually? • For what purpose and how should they be equipped? What will their future duties and responsibilities as adults entail? • How and why should they be enabled; what should they be able to do and what should they strive for? • Which norms have to be set for them to emulate in their own lives, and how should this be done? The answers to the abovementioned questions contain some or other deeper religious, spiritual or life-conceptual dimension, a dimension that is typical of the identity of the school. (Life-conceptual neutrality, therefore, is also a manifestation of a school's identity.) For schools, including those in the public sector, to be able to live and work in accordance with their religious, spiritual or life-conceptual identity, they require the space afforded to them by their nation's recognition of freedom of religion as a human right. In South Africa, this basic human right has since 1996 been ensconced in the Constitution, and has since also been consistently enforced in legislation and in jurisprudence. The question remains, however, whether schools are allowed to freely express their unique value-drivenness (value-driven educative teaching and learning) in the current legal milieu. Analysis of the Constitutional entrenchment of religious freedom as human right, of general and education legislation and of jurisprudence since 1996 reveals that, although all the current provisions regarding the recognition of religious freedom as human right do provide space and scope for schools freely to express their life-conceptual identities, some minor changes to the legal provisions could still be considered. These include adapting the current National Policy on Religion in Education (2003) to explicitly accommodate the notion of a diversity of school communities, each with its own unique life-conceptual and religious character and identity, and hence unique mission statement. The SA Schools Act (1996) could also be slightly adapted to state in clearer terms that school governing bodies are allowed to choose a unique religious/life-conceptual character and identity; that they may formulate the school's ethos and mission statement based on its identity; and that all public schools, irrespective of religious/ life-conceptual identity and character, are equitably funded by the state. It should also be stipulated that no school, irrespective of life-conceptual identity, is allowed to be exclusive or discriminate against learners ascribing to different religious convictions. Schools should strive to uphold the principles of justice, equality and voluntariness in seeking to embrace a policy of accommodation. Another possible change that could be considered is to ensure that the SA Schools Act (1996) stipulate explicitly that school governing bodies are entitled to formulate mission statements for their respective schools, based on the principles of non-discrimination, freedom, equality and voluntariness with respect to learners from groups with different religious/life-conceptual orientations. The Act should, finally, also provide for public schools to possess and display a religious/life-conceptual character and identity, as determined by their governing bodies. It should allow for parents, teachers and learners, amenable to the stated religious/ life-conceptual model to occupy a particular school, while at the same time taking care not to impair the freedom of religion of other religious groups. <![CDATA[<b>The wearing of the Islamic hijab by South African National Defence Force members</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512021000100006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die Suid-Afrikaanse Nasionale Weermag (SANW) se uniformreëls maak nie voorsiening vir enige uitsonderings gebaseer op die godsdienstige oortuigings van lede nie. 'n Islamitiese weermaglid wat genoop voel om 'n hidjab by haar uniform te dra, verbreek tans die voorgeskrewe regulasies en kan gevolglik gedissiplineer en selfs afgedank word. Hierdie artikel redeneer dat die gebrek aan 'n godsdiensgebaseerde spesifieke en beperkte uitsondering ongrondwetlik is in die lig van die individu se reg op godsdiensvryheid, menswaardigheid en gelykheid. Dergelike regte van weermaglede word opgeweeg teen die grondwetlik erkende dissiplinevereiste van die SANW aan die hand van die beperkingsklousule. Met verwysing na regterlike presedent in Suid-Afrika en twee voorbeelde van soortgelyke uitsonderings in die krygsmag van ander lande word geargumenteer dat 'n uitsondering op die uniformreëls nie die dissiplinedoelwit van die SANW sal affekteer nie. Daar is 'n minder beperkende wyse moontlik om hierdie doel te bereik sonder om die grondwetlike regte van die lede aan te tas. Sodanige uitsondering sal ook in ooreenstemming wees met die akkommodasiemodel van toepassing op die Suid-Afrikaanse interpretasie van die skeiding tussen staat en kerk.<hr/>This article is concerned with the proceedings against a female member of the South African Defence Force (SANDF), Major Isaacs, for wearing her hijab with her SANDF uniform whilst working as a clinical forensic pathologist at 2 Military Hospital in Wynberg, Cape Town. Major Isaacs argues that this is a religious imperative imposed by the Quran on those of the Islamic faith. The uniform regulations of the South African National Defence Force do not make provision for an exception based on the religious beliefs of members. As such, an Islamic member of the SANDF who feels that she is obliged to wear a hijab with her uniform, is currently breaking the prescribed regulations and can be disciplined or even dismissed. This article submits that the lack of a specific and limited religion-based exception to the dress code is unconstitutional in light of the rights of the individual to religious freedom, dignity and equality. The issue deals with the balancing of constitutional rights. On the one side stands the section 200(1) requirementfor a disciplined defence force, confirmed in Minister of Defence v Potsane; Legal Soldier (Pty) Ltd v Minster of Defence 2001 (2) SASV 632 (CC). On the other side stand the individual rights of SANDF members, specifically the right to religious freedom, dignity and equality as contained in the Bill of Rights. Using the limitation clause and the factors contained therein, it is argued that although both sets of rights are important, the nature and extent of the blanket limitation in the dress code is unnecessary as there is no clear link between the limitation and the aim thereof. An exception to the regulations will not impact negatively on the discipline within the SANDF. Inclusion of a limited exception to the uniform rules to include a hijab would be a less restrictive way of achieving the goals without impacting negatively on the rights of members. This discussion is informed by South African judicial precedent, specifically the Constitutional Court decision of MEC for Education: Kwazulu-Natal v Pillay 2008 (1) SA 474 (CC). In a constitutional democracy and a multireligious society, tolerance should be shown to those with a belief system different from the previous historical dominance of Protestant Christianity. The uniform regulations place believers in an unenviable position, namely to be forced to break the rules because of sincerely held religious beliefs. The court furthermore rejected the argument that an exception would lead to a so-called "parade of horribles" and that providing a procedure for considering exceptions would not place an unreasonable burden on the institution. It is further submitted that such an exception would be in line with the accommodation model applicable in the South African interpretation of the separation between church and state. The article further discusses the religious exceptions to military dress code in the US and Canada as possible examples of a more nuanced and rights-based approach. In both these jurisdictions the regulations make specific provision for the wearing of a hijab. <![CDATA[<b>Freedom of expression: Blasphemy and the prohibition against religious hate speech</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512021000100007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Artikel 16 van die Suid-Afrikaanse Grondwet waarborg die reg op vryheid van uitdrukking. Hierdie reg geld egter nie sonder beperking nie en sekere beperkings is nie hierby ingesluit nie. Artikel 16(2)(c) is die bepaling waarna in die algemeen verwys word as die "haat-spraakbepaling", naamlik uitdrukkinge gerig op die verkondiging van haat wat op godsdiens gebaseer is en wat aanhitsing om leed te doen, insluit. 'n Belangrike aspek van die reg op vryheid van uitdrukking en veral die verbod op haatspraak is die reg op godsdienstige waardigheid, wat insluit om nie op grond van ander se geloof, godsdiens, oortuigings of godsdienstige handelinge geviktimiseer, bespot of belaster te word nie. Ooreenkomstig ons gemenereg is godslastering steeds 'n misdaad wat bestaan uit die wederregtelike, opsetlike publikasie van woorde of optrede waardeur God beledig of belaster word. Tans vorm die gemeenregtelike misdaad van godslastering steeds deel van die Suid-Afrikaanse reg en dit is deur geen wetgewing formeel herroep of selfs ongrondwetlik verklaar nie, hoewel daar verskeie oproepe is wat die bestaansreg van hierdie misdaad in twyfel trek. Met verwysing na verskeie uitsprake van ons howe, is dit duidelik dat die betekenis van die gemeenregtelike misdaad, godslastering, soos dit ook deur ons howe ontwikkel en geïnterpreteer is, ooreenkomstig artikel 39 van die Grondwet aangepas en ontwikkel moet word en binne die raamwerk van die haatspraakbepaling en gevolglike vereistes daarvan verstaan en toegepas moet word.<hr/>Section 16 of the Constitution guarantees the right to freedom of expression. Our courts have highlighted the importance of the right, but also emphasised the fact that it is not without certain limitations. Section 16(2) therefore makes it clear that the right to freedom of expression does not extend to certain expressions. Sections 16(2)(a) and (b) are concerned with "propaganda for war" and "incitement of imminent violence" respectively. Section 16(2)(c) is directed at what is commonly referred to as hate speech, namely expression or speech that amounts to "advocacy of hatred" based on one or other of the listed grounds, namely race, ethnicity, gender or religion and which amounts to "incitement to cause harm". The right to freedom of expression also goes hand in hand with the right to freedom of religion, which includes the right to be able to express one's beliefs and convictions. Hence, every person and religious institution should be granted the right to freedom of expression in respect of religion. Of particular importance in relation to freedom of expression and the prohibition on hate speech is the right to religious dignity, which includes to not being victimised, ridiculed or slandered on the grounds of one's faith, religion, convictions or religious activities. No person may advocate hatred that is based on religion, and that constitutes incitement to violence or to cause physical harm. Within the context of the right to freedom of expression, this paper will first discuss the offence of blasphemy in South Africa, followed by a discussion of the prohibition against hate speech. The repealed censorship laws prohibited blasphemy in South Africa, although the latter remains a common-law offence. According to the South African common law, blasphemy used to be a criminal offence and consisted of the "unlawful and intentional publication of words or conduct whereby God is slandered". It has been pointed out that the law of blasphemy is anomalous in that it only protects the religious feelings of Christians, and not those of members of other religions. Other religious groups may suffer similar feelings of outrage caused by an attack on the Supreme Being that they worship. Currently the common-law crime of blasphemy still forms part of South African law and it has not formally been abolished by any legislator nor declared to be unconstitutional. Criminal law expert Burchell advocates the abolition of the crime and that cases of blasphemy should be regarded as cases of incitement to religious hatred, which would apply to all religions equally. In light of the right to freedom of religion, an equitable solution might be to extend the definition of blasphemy to include protection for all religions, not exclusively Christianity. Apart from section 16(2) of the Constitution that prohibits hate speech, section 10 of the Promotion of Equality and Prevention of Unfair Discrimination Act (PEPUDA) 4 of 2000 also prohibits hate speech. It specifically states that no person may publish, propagate, advocate or communicate words based on one or more of the prohibited grounds (including religion), with the intention to be hurtful; be harmful or to incite harm, or promote or propagate hatred. The Supreme Court of Appeal recently found this section to be unconstitutional for extending the grounds for hate speech beyond what is required in terms of the Constitution. A revised Prevention and Combating of Hate Crimes and Hate Speech Bill (the Bill) has recently been tabled before Parliament as an improved version of its 2016 predecessor. The Bill is better aligned to the Constitution in relation to its prohibition of certain forms of speech, namely speech that is harmful or incites harm, and promotes or propagates hatred. The Bill criminalises hate speech but creates certain defences and includes a religious exemption clause. The new section 3(2)(d) states that the offence of hate speech does not apply in respect of anything done in good faith in the course while engaging in "the bona fide interpretation and proselytising or espousing of any religious tenet, belief, teaching, doctrine or writings". This is, however, subject to the requirement that such interpretation and proselytisation do not advocate hatred that constitutes incitement to cause harm. Recently a pastor was taken to court by the SAHRC following complaints about derogatory and offensive comments he had made against gay and lesbian people. The Western Cape Equality Court found that Bougaardt's comments were not protected by the right to freedom of religion, and found him to be in contempt of court for making hateful comments against gay men and lesbians. This judgment has highlighted the fact that although the draft Hate Crimes Bill provides for a religious exemption clause, religious beliefs and religious hatred cannot be a defence against liability for hate speech. Blasphemy must also be interpreted within the limits of hate speech and where God is denigrated in such a manner as to constitute hate speech. This means that no one should be allowed to make any statements that advocate hatred or incite violence, regardless of whether you are a pastor, priest, imam or individual believer, or whether the statements are made in public or from the pulpit. <![CDATA[<b>Salus populi suprema lex: <i>Freedom of religion in times of crisis</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512021000100008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die rol van die staat in die geloofslewens van burgers is sedert die ontstaan van die moderne staat 'n voortdurende kwessie. Dit is onvermydelik omdat die reg in die hande van die staat 'n instrument kan wees om godsdiensvryheid te beperk, wat kan meebring dat gelowiges voor die keuse geplaas kan word om, in gehoorsaamheid aan hul gewetens, onregmatig te handel. Geen fundamentele reg geld absoluut nie, maar die vraag ontstaan of staatowerhede tydens krisistye meer perke op burgers se godsdiensregte mag plaas as wat andersinds die geval sou wees? Hierdie vraag het weer na vore gekom tydens die regering se hantering van die pandemiekrisis van 2020. In hierdie bydrae word die grondwetlike verlening en die aard van die reg op godsdiensvryheid in Suid-Afrika eers kortliks behandel en dan in verband gebring met die onderskeie verskynsels van noodtoestand, krygswet en ramptoestand. Hoe die reg op godsdiensvryheid ingevolge die Grondwet beperk mag word, is bepalend vir die beoordeling van die regmatigheid van die uitwerking van die rampbestuursreëlings van 2020 op godsdiensvryheid. Hierdie maatreëls was in verskeie opsigte buitengewoon, en die regs-geldigheid daarvan, of van aspekte daarvan, is gevolglik ook uit verskeie perspektiewe betwis, wat interessante implikasies het. Gesien teen die agtergrond van die onmoontlikheid om aanspraak op die primaat van die reg met die prioriteit van religieuse oortuigings te versoen, des te meer nog te midde van religieuse pluraliteit, word bepaalde beginsels ter oorweging aan die hand gedoen.<hr/>The role of the state in the religious life of citizens has been a constant issue since the emergence of the modern state. This is inevitable because, in the hands of the state, the law may be an instrument to limit religious freedom, causing believers to be confronted with the choice of either acting lawfully or obeying their conscience. No fundamental right is absolute, but at issue is whether state authorities should, when faced with a crisis, utilise their power to impose more restrictions than would normally be the case on citizens'religious rights. In this regard, the South African government's apparent disregard for citizens' rights during the pandemic crisis of2020, caused widespread concern. Exactly what "religious freedom" entails, is not evident. Section 15(1) ofthe Constitution provides a particularly dense, and therefore complex, characterisation: "Everyone has the right to freedom of conscience, religion, thought, belief and opinion." "Religion" may, on the one hand, be understood in a broad sense (including mysticism and mental phenomena such as some forms of Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism, and non-devotional ontological views such as atheism and agnosticism); and, on the other, be regarded more narrowly, indicating attitudes or systems devoted to a single or multiple deities. Furthermore, "belief may signify more than merely a view or attitude, but also refer to religious conviction. Religious freedom may be perceived as the first human right that received legal recognition as a fundamental right, historically dating back at least to the time of the Peace Treaty of Westphalia of 1648. The notions of a "state of emergency" and the related instrument of "martial law" have deep and controversial roots in South African history. This explains the safeguards built into section 37 ofthe Constitution, which requires parliamentary oversight by the executive ofthe declaration and conduct of a state of emergency. Theoretically, the phrase salus reipublicae/ populi suprema lex has been associated with circumstances purportedly providing justification for the state to act in self-defence in times of war and civil unrest. However, during the pandemic crisis of 2020, the government elected not to declare a state of emergency, as was the case in many other countries, but instead to muster extraordinary emergency powers based on an ordinary parliamentary statute, the Disaster Management Act 57 of2002. However, the structures provided for in this Act were selectively used, and decision making was entrusted to a nebulous body with a rather revolutionary title, namely the "National Coronavirus Command Council", established without a clear legal framework. This body largely overlapped in structure and function with the cabinet and functioned in secrecy. Ominously, the president publicly associated the measures taken to deal with the pandemic and its economic consequences with "war". The manner in which religious freedom may be limited constitutionally determines the assessment of the lawfulness of the effects of the disaster management arrangements on religious rights. Section 15(2) ofthe Constitution, which deals with the conditions pertaining to religious observances in state and state-aided institutions could not be realised, because the "lockdown" regulations prohibited religious gatherings in "recognized places ofworship" such as churches, synagogues, mosques and temples. These regulations and the concomitant actions were, in various respects, extraordinary and the lawfulness thereof, or of some aspects thereof, were consequently challenged from different perspectives, with interesting implications. In this regard, especially the "limitations clause" (section 36 of the Constitution) has to be noted. In addition, the dictum of the Constitutional Court in 2000 in the Christian Education case became particularly apposite: "Though there might be special problems attendant on undertaking the limitations analysis in respect of religious practices, the standard to be applied is the nuanced and contextual one required by s 36 and not the rigid one of strict scrutiny. " The "interpretation clause" of the Constitution (section 39), which requires the promotion of the values that underlie an open and democratic society based on human dignity, equality and freedom, might also have come into play, but its vagueness has thus far prevented the courts to provide much guidance for the application of this provision. When the prohibition of religious gatherings was challenged before the Gauteng High Court (the Mohamed case), it was found to have been done lawfully in the name of the greater good, and that "[e]very citizen of this country needs to play his/her part in stemming the tide of what can only be regarded as an insidious and relentless pandemic". Seen against the background of the inherent incompatibility of insistence on the primacy of the law with regard to prioritising religious convictions, especially given the religious plurality prevalent in South African society, it is submitted that some general principles apply. <![CDATA[<b>The role of religious identity in determining the "mode ofpersecution" for crimes against humanity</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512021000100009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es 'n Persoon se identiteit bestaan uit veelvuldige "identifiseerders", insluitende godsdiens. Hierdie godsdiens georiënteerde identiteit ("godsdienstige identiteit") moet geïnterpreteer word teen die agtergrond van die reg op vryheid van "gewete, godsdiens, denke en oortuiging". Oor die algemeen is "godsdienstige identiteit" verwant aan die afgeleide effek van 'n persoon se bepaalde eksistensiële oortuiging wat sy/haar innerlike bewussyn en diep eksistensiële identiteit uitmaak, asook sy/haar begrip van die lewe vorm. As 'n beskermde aspek van menslike identiteit, sal ernstige diskriminierende maatreëls op grond van godsdienstige identiteit neerkom op die skending van grondliggende menseregte. Dit kan ook tot gevolg hê dat die vervolger individuele strafregtelike aanspreeklikheid kan opdoen vir godsdiensgebaseerde vervolging as 'n misdaad teen die mensdom. Om sodanige vervolgingsmodus te bepaal, word vereis dat die vervolgde se godsdienstige identiteit die primêre diskriminerende grondslag is waarop die vervolger sodanige slagoffer teiken. Dus, om 'n situasie as godsdiensgebaseerde vervolging te klassifiseer, vereis 'n begrip van die vervolgde se godsdienstige identiteit en hoe dit verband hou met die vervolger se diskriminerende opset. 'n Bepaling van die rol van godsdienstige identiteit in 'n gegewe situasie is dus noodsaaklik om die vervolgingsmodus te bepaal.<hr/>In the context of international criminal law and its nexus to the protection of human rights, a "religious group" is considered a "protected group", and an adherent's resultant "religious identity" is a "protected ground" of human existence. Consequently, serious measures of discrimination imposed on persons for reasons of their religious identity constitute a severe deprivation of fundamental human rights, and establish the individual criminal responsibility of the instigators for religious persecution as a crime against humanity ("grievous religious persecution") in terms of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC). The inherent problem is that persecution on the basis of religion is not the only mode or ground of persecution criminalised by the Rome Statute, nor does it usually constitute the only ground for persecution in any specific situation. The mode or ground of persecution, or the multiplicity thereof, is based on a protected aspect of the victim's identity, which made him or her the target of the persecutor's discriminatory intent in the first instance. Therefore, religious persecution must be recognised and differentiated from other modes of persecution. In this regard, an assessment of the role that an individual or collective religious identity has in relation to the persecutor's discriminatory intent in any given situation, is essential for determining the mode of persecution. However, the complexity of human identity often makes it difficult to identify the specific basis causing the perpetrator to select and target his victims in a discriminatory manner. A person's identity comprises multiple "identifiers", including religion. "Religious identity" is best understood in the context of the right to freedom of "thought, conscience, religion or belief". In general, "religious identity" relates to the derivative effect of holding a certain deep existential view, which becomes part of their identifying label, whether in a person's own mind or that of others, or in terms of social standing. This fundamental right to one's individual or communitarian identity is a core aspect of protection against discrimination and unequal treatment under international human rights law. In relation thereto, the discriminatory nature of persecution signifies that a person is reduced to their identification or an identifying element, and deliberately targeted for discriminatory treatment. Religious persecution is distinguishable from other modes of persecution based on the primacy of the victim's religious identity, which resulted in him or her becoming the target of the persecutor's discriminatory intent. Consequently, the perpetrator's discriminatory mindset and his subjective perception of the victim's religious identity are the most crucial elements in establishing the ground of persecution. However, a person's "religious identity" is not limited to mere identity semantics, but may have a number of important functions and consequences. Firstly, a religious identity may inspire an adherent's conception of life and inner consciousness (i.e. religion as a belief - deep existential view). Secondly, a religious identity may influence an adherent's sense of personal or collective identity and belonging (i.e. religion as an identifying element). In the context of religious persecution, this means that a victim's religious identity becomes the identifying factor for which he or she is discriminatively targeted. Lastly, a religious identity may affect concomitant individual or communitarian ideologies and practices, which may influence or even dictate an adherent's way of life and how they relate to, or perceive others (i.e. religion as a way of life). While most religious identities impose a commitment to a belief and the exercise of religious behaviours contributing to a positive sense of moral behaviour, other religious identities may be the root cause of manifestations of intolerance, discrimination and persecution in instances where a religious ideology negatively motivates interaction. In this regard, it is crucial to differentiate, where applicable, between religiously motivated persecution (persecution in the name of religion), and religious persecution (persecution on the basis of religious identity). By itself, a persecutor's "religious motive" does not necessarily imply that the persecutor's conduct is directed at targets because of their religious identity. Thus, persecution is committed and justified in the name of the persecutor's self-righteous religious identity, yet his persecutory conduct may be directed at any collective cause, belief, and/or identity that threaten his self-righteous aspirations. In such instances, the relevant ground of persecution will depend on the group or identity that is discriminatively targeted, which may be, for example, homophobic, xenophobic or otherwise. Thus, religiously motivated persecution may very well intersect with other grounds of persecution. In such instances, religiously motivated persecution is distinguishable from, and does not constitute, religious persecution. Religious persecution is a form ofpersecution in terms of which the "religious identity" of those persecuted constitutes the primary or predominant reason for their suffering. In order to assess the nexus between the victim's religious identity and the persecutory conduct, the point at issue is whether the victim's religious identity was the primary factor resulting in him or her becoming a target of discrimination and persecution. If one were to ignore the victim's religious identity, does the basis of discrimination and persecution also disappear, or not? Depending on the result, religion may constitute the primary basis for persecution, or it may amount to an auxiliary factor. The required nexus is satisfied if the perpetrator, at the time of committing the persecutory acts, specifically targeted the victim based on his/her actual, perceived, or assigned religious identity. The primacy of the persecutor's religious discriminatory mindset is the core aspect that determines or contextualises persecutory acts as religious persecution. Such a discriminatory intent may be directed at a person, identifiable group or collectivity with a particular religious identity ("specific religious discriminatory intention"), or that lack an accepted religious identity ("negative religious discriminatory intention"), either based on objective criteria or in the mind of the accused, provided that such a religious discriminatory intent constituted the primary (not necessarily exclusive) basis for targeting those victims. Thus, its quintessential nature requires that religious persecution must be based on religious discriminatory intent, which may be provided through proof of a direct or inferred discriminatory intent. The inference is therefore that in terms of international criminal law, religious persecution is an accurate classification of the context of persecutory conduct if the victim's "religious identity", whether actual, perceived or assigned, was the primary basis for discrimination, regardless of the persecutor's motive for such conduct and irrespective of the existence of other possible intersecting identifiers. Based on this reasoning, it may be possible to identify "religious identity" as the specific ground of persecution in a given situation, provided that it is possible to acquire proof of a religious discriminatory intent on the part of the persecutor; and that the discriminatory intent is sufficiently tethered to the victim's identifiable religious identity, or lack thereof. Thus, classifying a situation as religious persecution requires an understanding of the victim's religious identity and how it relates to the perpetrator's discriminatory mindset. An assessment of the role of religious identity in a given situation is therefore essential in order to determine the mode of persecution. <![CDATA[<b>Difficulties in the legal protection of indigenous spiritual knowledge, information in the public domain and the implementation of the existing normative systems for the regulation of intellectual-property rights in South African law</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512021000100010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In 'n vorige artikel is daarop gewys dat die voorgenome beskerming van inheemse kennis ingevolge Suid-Afrikaanse wetgewing 'n groot impak op openbaredomein-gebaseerde kennis sal hê. In daaropvolgende navorsing is aangetoon dat die effek van die addisionele sui generis-beskerming van inheemse kennis 'n onoorsigtelike spektrum van openbaredomein-gebaseerde kennis affekteer en dat inheemse groeppersone eiendomsregte staan te verwerf, wat 'n groot spektrum van openbaredomein-gebaseerde kennis privatiseer. Ten einde die effek van die inwerkingtreding van die betrokke wetgewing op die beskerming van spirituele kennis van inheemse gemeenskappe te bepaal, moet op die verband tussen inheemsekennisbeskerming en ubuntu-georiënteerde spirituele kennis gewys word, asook die effek daarvan op inheemsekennisbeskerming as 'n kategorie van die beskerming van kulturele kennis. Hoewel die verband wat ubuntu-spiritualiteit met inheemse kennis handhaaf, nie spesifiek in die betrokke wetgewing aangedui word nie, is dit implisiet ingesluit by die omvattende omskrywing van inheemse kennis in die IK-Wet, 2019. Die Wet definieer "inheemse kennis" as kennis wat binne 'n inheemse gemeenskap ontwikkel is, welke kennis in die kulturele of sosiale identiteit van sodanige gemeenskap opgeneem is, en sluit die volgende in: (a) kennis van funksionele aard; (b) kennis van natuurlike hulpbronne; en (c) inheemse kultuuruitdrukkings (artikel 1). "Kulturele en sosiale identiteit" word vervolgens beskryf as die spesifieke onderskeidende identiteit of eienskappe ("characteristics") van 'n bepaalde groep, of van 'n individu vir sover sodanige individu deur sy/haar lidmaatskap van 'n bepaalde groep of kultuur beïnvloed is (artikel 1). Ingevolge die vereistes ter beskerming van inheemse kennis ingevolge artikel 11, word spirituele kennis wat met ubuntu geassosieer word, by inheemse kennis ingesluit, synde (a) kennis wat binne inheemse gemeenskappe van geslag tot geslag oorgedra is; (b) binne inheemse gemeenskappe ontwikkel is; en (c) met die kulturele en sosiale identiteit van sodanige inheemse gemeenskappe geïdentifiseer word (artikel 11). Teen dié agtergrond word twee vrae in hierdie artikel vir bespreking uitgesonder: (a) Wat is die implikasies van die insluiting van ubuntu-gebaseerde spiritualiteit by die intellektuele goedere wat in die nuwe wetgewing ter beskerming van inheemse kennis uitgesonder word?, en (b) in welke mate is dié inheemseregbeskerming belyn met die bestaande normkomplekse ter regulering van intellek-tuele goederegte?<hr/>The South African National Heritage Resources Act 25 of 1999 paved the way for Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) policy development and the statutory protection of spiritual resources as cultural heritage in two pieces of legislation. In terms of this Act, "living heritage" means the intangible aspects of inherited culture, and may include ritual and the holistic approach to nature, society and social relationships. Places and objects are to be considered part of the national estate if they have cultural significance or other social value because of their strong or special association with a particular community or cultural group for social, cultural or spiritual reasons. "Cultural significance" means aesthetic, architectural, historical, scientific, social, spiritual value or significance. In terms of the Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) Policy, Role of Department of Science and Technology in Policy Implementation, and Key Achievements of the Department's IKS Programme (2016), the development and implementation of Ubuntu-based commercialisation and business models for sustainable livelihood, thriving societies and improved quality of life are stated as a strategic objective. Furthermore, Ubuntu is regarded to be the nodal point of bio-innovation in the Ubuntu-based innovation chain. The National Research Foundation's (NRF) Indigenous Knowledge Systems Framework Document of June 2018 extends the IKS funding instrument scope to cover Ubuntu and cosmology, taxonomies, pedagogies and methodologies. The NRF's 2018/19 call for IKS proposals invites applications that address and respond to IKS epistemology inclusive of Ubuntu. The 2004 IKS policy emanates from the notion that the ownership of intellectual property resides with indigenous communities, and it affirms that African cultural values, which are juxtaposed with globalisation, provide an imperative for promoting an African identity. The Protection, Promotion, Development and Management of Indigenous Knowledge Act 6 of 2019 (IK Act, 2019) was promulgated in August 2019. In terms of the IK Act, 2019, "indigenous cultural expressions" means expressions that have cultural content that developed within indigenous communities and have assimilated into their cultural and social identity. For purposes of the IK Act, 2019 "indigenous knowledge" means knowledge, which has been developed within an indigenous community and has been assimilated into the cultural and social identity of the community. The wide definition of indigenous knowledge - inclusive of indigenous spirituality - and its encompassing effect on the creation of indigenous knowledge rights are considered in this article. The Intellectual Property Laws Amendment Act 28 of 2013 (IP Amendment Act, 2013), which has not yet come into effect, could also have a vast impact on indigenous spiritual protection. The IP Amendment Act, 2013 provides for the recognition and protection of manifestations of indigenous knowledge as a species of intellectual property. To this end, certain intellectual property laws are amended to provide for the protection of relevant manifestations of indigenous knowledge as a species of intellectual property, viz. The Performer's Act, 1967, to provide for the recognition and protection of performances of traditional works; the Copyright Act, 1978, providing for the recognition and protection of indigenous works; the Trade Marks Act, 1993, recognising indigenous terms and expressions, and the Designs Act, 1993, to provide for the recognition and registration of indigenous designs. In this article, the effects of the possible implementation of the two acts with the view to protect indigenous spiritual knowledge and expressions are considered, the increasing privatisation of public domain knowledge is discussed and the effects of listing categories of indigenous knowledge as sacred, secret or confidential information on open democratic discourse are assessed. Lastly, the authors point out that the balancing of rights claims to intellectual property and public domain-based knowledge could be seriously jeopardised if knowledge in the public domain is not awarded more extended protection against privatisation and withdrawal, something that both acts fail to address. The example in India concerning the digital protection platform of yoga-inspired knowledge as well as other traditional knowledge pertaining to agriculture and medicinal plants should be seriously considered in this regard. It is concluded that the implementation of both the IP Amendment Act, 2013 and the IK Act, 2019 seriously jeopardise public domain-based knowledge; if both the 2013 and 2019 Acts come into force, the effect could be even more disastrous for public domain-based knowledge. <![CDATA[<b>Religion, equality and the modest systemic role of property law in the Beloftebos case</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512021000100011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Vroeg in 2020 het 'n trou-venue in die Kaapstad-omgewing geweier dat twee vroue met mekaar trou op hul perseel. Dit sal inbreuk maak op hul eie geloofsoortuigings, het die eienaars beweer. Baie mense het ter ondersteuning van die optrede aangevoer dat die besigheid die reg van toegang tot die perseel mag voorbehou. Op grond van sekere inhoudsbevoegdhede wat spruit uit eiendomsreg, soos die bevoegdheid om toegang te weier op grond van geloofsoortuigings, het die eienaars vervolgens geargumenteer dat die uitsluiting regverdigbaar was. Eiendomsreg hou sekere belangrike bevoegdhede vir die eienaar in, soos om iemand van jou eiendom te kan uitsluit. Sommige mense sal redeneer dat 'n kontekstuele benadering vereis dat daar in spesifieke omstandighede bepaal word of - en tot watter mate - uitsluiting geregverdig is. Ander aanvaar dat die reg om mense uit te sluit absoluut en duidelik in reëls vasgevat is, en dat dit die basis van die reg tot eiendom vorm. Meer progressiewe eiendoms-teorieë bied normatiewe argumente wat die beperking van eiendomsreg ondersteun - soos dat menswaardigheid belangrik is, of dat uitsluiting in elk geval onderworpe is aan soveel ander voorwaardes dat 'n eenvoudige reeling van "bly uit!" nie neergelê kan word nie. AJ van der Walt voer egter aan dat eiendomsreg eintlik 'n beskeie sistemiese rol in die reg speel - soos dit hoort. Met ander woorde, in sommige gevalle word verskille wat handel oor eiendomsgebruik besieg deur eerder nie-eiendomsregte, soos die reg op lewe, menswaardigheid, gelykheid en vryheid van spraak, te beskerm. In hierdie gevalle speel eiendomsreg 'n beskeie of ondergeskikte rol. Daar is dikwels belangrike en sistemiese redes hoekom dergelike regte, wat nie regstreeks met eiendom verband hou nie, bo eiendomsregte beskerm moet word. Aan die hand van die bogenoemde teorie beoog hierdie artikel om die rol en plek van eiendomsregreëls te ondersoek in gevalle waar eienaars steun op die inhoudsbevoegdheid van uitsluiting op grond van geloofsoortuigings.<hr/>Early in 2020, a wedding venue in the Cape Town area refused to allow two women to marry each other on their premises. This would infringe on their own religious beliefs, the owners maintained. Many argued in support of the business reserving the right of access to its premises. Thus, on the basis of certain entitlements arising from ownership, such as the power to exclude on the basis of religious beliefs, the owners argued that the exclusion was justifiable. Ownership ensures certain important entitlements for the owner, such as being able to exclude someone from your property. Some would argue that a contextual approach requires determining in specific circumstances whether - and to what extent - exclusion is justified. Others accept that the right to exclude people is absolutely and clearly enshrined in rules, and that it forms the basis of ownership. More progressive property theories offer normative arguments that support the restriction of property rights - such as, for example, that dignity is important, or that expulsion is in any case subject to so many other terms that a mere "keep out!" rule cannot simply be laid down. However, AJ van der Walt argues that property rights actually play a modest systemic role in law - as it should. In other words, in some cases, differences in property use should rather be resolved by protecting non-property rights, such as the right to life, human dignity, equality andfreedom of speech. In such instances, property rights play a modest or subordinate role. There are often important and systemic reasons why the abovementioned rights, which are not directly related to property, should be protected above property rights. Based on this theory, this article aims to investigate the role and place of property rules in cases where owners apply the rule of expulsion based on religious beliefs. <![CDATA[<b>The Constitution, churches and gay rights: South African case studies</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512021000100012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die Suid-Afrikaanse Grondwet beskerm gay persone teoreties teen onbillike diskriminasie op grond van seksuele oriëntasie. In die praktyk word die grondwetlike waarborg van beskerming teen diskriminasie gereeld negeer, onder meer in kerke se indiensnemingspraktyke. Hierdie artikel ontleed twee gevallestudies waar werknemers van kerke hul werkgewers hof toe geneem het oor beweerde onbillike diskriminasie op grond van hul seksuele oriëntasie. In beide gevalle was die opweging van grondwetlike regte, spesifiek die reg op gelykheid teenoor die regte op vryheid van godsdiens en van assosiasie, op die spel. Weliswaar het die twee sake uiteenlopende uitkomste gehad, maar in beide gevalle het dit geblyk dat Suid-Afrikaanse howe onwillig bly om in die leerstellings en interne sake van kerke in te meng en verkies om hulle uitsprake te beperk tot die kerke se korrekte en billike toepassing van hul eie beleid en prosedures. Dus is gay persone wat die burgerlike howe nader oor onbillike diskriminasie nie op grond van grondwetlike waarborge vanselfsprekend verseker van sukses nie. Interne skikking binne die kerke bly die voorkeuropsie vir die beslegting van sulke geskille. Internasionaal en in Suid-Afrika is daar 'n positiewe tendens dat houdings ten gunste van gay regte vinnig veld wen in die samelewing, insluitende godsdiensgemeenskappe, en dat selfs in konserwatiewe hoofstroomkerke gelyke regte vir gays spoedig 'n realiteit behoort te wees.<hr/>In South Africa gay persons are theoretically protected in the Constitution against unfair discrimination on account of their sexual orientation. However, in practice, for example in the employment practices of churches, transgression of this constitutional guarantee often occurs. This paper analyses two case studies where church employees took their employers to court for unfair discrimination on the basis of their sexual orientation. In both cases the balancing of constitutional rights, the right to equality on the one hand and the rights to freedom of religion and assembly on the other hand, were at stake. Although the two cases had very different outcomes, they both demonstrated that South African courts remain reluctant to interfere in the doctrines and internal affairs of churches and prefer to limit their judgement to whether the churches applied their own policies and procedures fairly. Therefore, gay persons taking cases of unfair discrimination in churches to the civil courts in South Africa are not assured of success. The preferred route to resolve such cases is internally within the churches rather than in the courts. The hopeful trend, internationally and in South Africa, is that attitudes in favour of gay rights are rapidly gaining ground in society, including in religious communities, and that soon, even in conservative mainline churches, full equality for gays will be a reality. <![CDATA[<b>Religion and law: Revisiting Hervormde Kerk Resolution 41 (2016) on homosexuality</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512021000100013&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Een van die ingrypende, traumatiese en emosiebelaaide kwessies waaroor kerke in die laaste twee dekades besluite geneem het, is homoseksualiteit en die toelating van gay mense tot die amp van predikant. Hierdie bydrae handel oor Besluit 41 (2016) wat die Algemene Kerkvergadering van die Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk van Afrika (Hervormde Kerk) oor homoseksualiteit geneem het. Besluit 41 (2016) word terugskouend, op grond van tersaaklike kerkregtelike beginsels, beoordeel en herwaardeer, met enkele opmerkinge oor die regsimplikasies daarvan. Tradisioneel moet kerkvergaderings die Bybel, belydenisskrifte, kerkorde, besluite van vorige vergaderings en usansie in gedagte hou wanneer daar oor 'n saak besin en besluit word. In hierdie bydrae word geredeneer dat die beginsel van administratiewe geregtigheid ook ter sake is, nie net uit vrees dat howe 'n kerklike besluit ter syde kan stel nie, maar omdat dit 'n inherente deel van die Christelike kerk is om mense met liefde en billikheid te behandel. Daarbenewens is die plek en die funksie van die kerkorde as onderlinge kontrak ter sake. Dit beteken dat ook die kontraktereg ter sprake kom wanneer die hof kerklike besluite hersien. So voldoen kerklike besluite nie net aan die eise van die Woord nie, maar ook indirek aan die bedoeling van die Grondwet van Suid-Afrika.<hr/>In 2016, the General Assembly of the Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk van Afrika (Netherdutch Reformed Church of Africa, or NHKA) passed a resolution on homosexuality. In one section, Resolution 42 (2016) it is claimed that "Jesus Christ, through the Spirit, helps people to live in the presence of God as complete human beings, including their sexuality. This is also true of people with a homosexual orientation. Therefore, the Church believes that all Christians, irrespective of their sexual orientation, are members of the body of Christ with full participation in the sacraments. This is an expression of the unity of the Church." Unlike the extreme discomfort with similar resolutions expressed within and by other churches, the resolution elicited relatively little resistance from church members in the NHK, and to date there has been no legal consequences with respect to the decision. In this article we will discuss Resolution 41 (2016) in terms of the governing principles of reformed church polity, with some remarks on its legal implications. In the presbyterial-synodal (reformed) system of church government, there are guiding principles which must be considered when a synod reflects on a particular matter. First and foremost, the principle that Christ governs the church through his Word and Spirit determines all aspects of church governance. The contents of resolutions are determined byfive principles (in order of importance), i.e. the Word of God, confessions and creeds, church order, previous resolutions of assemblies, and customs or practices of the church. Resolution 41 (2016) will be assessed with reference to each of the above principles. Each of these guiding principles is discussed by engaging in dialogue with Resolution 41 (2016), to determine how and if it conforms to the guiding principles of reformed church polity. The discussion also includes some remarks on church polity and church governance as an ius sui generis, which is different from civil law. The unique character of church polity is explained in terms of the presbyterial-synodal form of church governance, typical of reformed churches all over the world. In the reformed tradition, the Word of God entertains a central position as the authority and norm for Christian doctrine and life (sola Scriptura). It is pointed out that the Word of God as guiding principle is neither self-evident nor unproblematic, due to different views ofwhat constitutes the Word of God as well as diverse hermeneutic approaches to the Bible text. It is also argued that a sixth guiding principle should be considered, i.e. administrative justice. Although ecclesiastical law is an ius sui generis, it does not exclude the general principles of justice, fairness, equity, etcetera. Quite the opposite. It is the church's Christian duty and responsibility to ensure that all decisions are taken in a spirit of fairness, with consideration of due process. The integrity of the ecclesiastical process and procedure should be of the highest ethical standard. In such an approach, synod resolutions, while heeding the Word of God, simultaneously take into consideration the Bill of Human Rights and the Constitution of South Africa. Resolution 41 (2016) represents something of a "third way" in terms of ecclesiastical decisions on homosexuality, avoiding hard or extreme points ofview. This reconciliatory nature of the resolution is probably the reason why it was met with little opposition from church members. Even the media and members of the public responded positively to the resolution. <![CDATA[<b>Church and law in the 2015 Church Order of the Dutch Reformed Church</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512021000100014&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Johannes Calvyn en die gereformeerdes aanvaar nie Sohm se stelling in 1892 dat die kerk geestelik en die reg wérelds is nie. Wat hulle betref, het God die wêreld as 'n eenheid in 'n verskeidenheid geskape met geen spanning tussen enige kante daarvan nie. Boonop funksioneer elke aksie van die kerk as 'n geloofsverband onder leiding van die geloof in alle aspekte van die werklikheid. Die samehang tussen die kern van hierdie aspekte lé beginsels vir so 'n geloofsaksie bloot: 'n geloofsaksie wat ook 'n regskant het. Die Kerkorde van 2015 van die Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk (voortaan NGKO-2015) vertoon regskante by die ampte, vergaderings, arbeid, tug en betrekkinge van die kerk na buite - die temas van die hoofstukke van hierdie Kerkorde. Sodanige gegewe illustreer die samehang tussen kerk en reg. Daarby noodsaak hierdie samehang die aanvaarding deur die Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk (voortaan NG Kerk) van die regsordes van die state - onder meer die Republiek van Suid-Afrika - waarbinne hy bestaan.<hr/>It was the German scholar Rudolph Sohm who stated in 1892: the being of the church is spiritual and that of the judicial aspect of life and the state sinful and not spiritual. With this viewpoint, Sohm enhanced the tension between church and state (between the church and the rest) in the thought of Martin Luther. Luther argued that the church was God's own work (opus propium) and the state the work foreign to God (opus alienum). To the reformer of Geneva, John Calvin (1509-1564) and his followers, this was unacceptable, for, in their opinion, there could be no inner tension in anything recreated by God, following His redemption in Christ through His Holy Spirit, which event signalled His salvation of people. The redemption or the recreation of mankind in this world, which was broken after the fall, leads to the recreation of a totally new heaven and earth. God renews everything in this world as a harmonised unity in diversity and a place in which man has a central position. The Bible sketches creation as a unity in diversity, where the law of God is applicable to both nature and the behaviour of mankind. Any action by a church is founded on the Christian faith as its leading aspect or principle in creation, and the core of this aspect, in connection with the core of other aspects, reveals the law of God and norms for human life. According to I Corinthians 14:40 God wants order in the services and existence of the church. This verse is accepted in reformed circles from Calvin onwards as God's command embracing the entire being of the church as an institution in human society. This is also accepted in the Church Order of 2015 of the Dutch Reformed Church. The Bible does not specifically give a church order but rather the principles required to establish such an order, which functions merely to provide the necessary channels for ensuring an unencumbered rule of the Word of God in the church as a whole. A reformed church accepts that obedience to the Word entails doing everything in the church according to the Bible. This also means that obedience to the Bible puts the church in a position of doing things in the right way or pursuing the justice of the Bible. A just church appeals to the state to honour the church as an institution of the Christain faith. In keeping its law and order, the state has to make lawful room for the church to formulate its own beliefs and confessions, to organise its own services and meetings and to proclaim the message of the Bible in accordance with its own conviction. At the same time this also means that the state as an institution for justice in society should also be accepted in and influenced by the church. The church should be able to request the state to protect it in terms of the justice relevant to a church, rather than being alienated and persecuted by the state. The strongest weapon and method available to the church is the persuasion and inner conviction of its believers. The aim of a church order in the reformed churches is to safeguard the Biblical way -for the church the correct and just way - of exercising its faith. Every action in the church also has a judicial side and should honour that which is just from a church's political point of view. A church order should provide an orderly framework or the just way within which the church can be governed by the Bible. It is within the right of the church to obey Christ in His Word with regard to the offices, assemblies, services, work in general, church discipline and relation to the state and other institutions in society (the themes of the chapters of the Church Order of 2015 of the Dutch Reformed Church). There are also terms in the Church Order of 2015 with a judicial link or inclination. Examples are, inter alia, a person holding the position of a minister, has to be recognized and legitimized by the church; a church service must meet certain standards to be ratified as a meeting of believers; its assemblies as assemblies of the body of Christ must be just and fair in their procedures; the rules of natural justice are relevant in the disciplinary actions of the Dutch Reformed Church; and this church has to accept the laws of the state pertaining to the ownership of buildings and land. <![CDATA[<b>The registrar and the evangelist: Exploratory thoughts on the methodological interaction between the law and Biblical science</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512021000100015&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Aan de hand van een negental voorbeelden wordt in deze bijdrage onderzocht hoe rechtswetenschap en religiewetenschap, en met name Bijbelwetenschap, tot een bredere interactie kunnen komen, zoals reeds het geval is in de sfeer van recht en literatuur. Daarbij wordt in het bijzonder geprobeerd recente en minder recente debatten uit de Bijbelwetenschap in verband te brengen met pijnpunten in de juridische interpretatieleer. Zo wordt onder meer ingegaan op vraagstukken van het auteurschap, de canonisering, de beoogde lezer, achterliggende polemieken en de aanwezigheid van fictionaliteit in juridische teksten. De stelling van de auteur is dat vooral methodologische vragen aanleiding kunnen geven tot een vruchtbare dialoog tussen recht en religie.<hr/>Both law and religion (at least in the so-called religions of the Book) are often defined by their handling oftexts, to which a certain authority is attributed. This similarity is the starting point ofthe author's exploration, which attempts to provide a perspective for answering the question of how law and religious science can learn from each other (and in particular the first from the second) on a methodological level. Compared to the field of Law and Literature, the interaction between law and religion appears to be in-depth, but limited to a number of areas. A broader interaction is therefore certainly possible, and probably also desirable. The analysis is made based on nine examples. First of all, the author examines what it means to attribute authority to a text rather than to one or more persons. In this context there appears to be an important difference between authoritative texts of a religious or legal nature. The latter are at least in principle open to amendment, which is generally not the case for the former. This has consequences for how they are dealt with and how they are interpreted. The authoritative texts have a special and probably unique position, but this does not alter the fact that they function within a broader framework. Recent evolutions in law have put pressure on the uniqueness of texts, making a more nuanced approach inevitable. The canonisation concept can be a useful tool in this respect. The question then arises as to the authorship of the authoritative texts. Neither in the religious nor in the legal context is the answer to this question self-evident. However, the question is relevant because it gives an indication of the way in which the texts were written, especially if the author S intentions are given a special status in the interpretation of the text. Nevertheless, this concept is more problematic than is usually recognised when interpreting legal texts. If one ignores the conflicting and often polemical context in which texts have been drafted, this is even more the case. Here, too, experiences with the interpretation of Bible texts can provide relevant examples for lawyers. Texts, however, do not only have authors, but also readers, who are a necessary condition for interpretation. Authoritative texts generally have temporal ambitions that transcend the contemporaries of the "authors". This temporal dimension also has consequences for the interpretation of texts, especially when a text is in fact a patchwork of sections of text, which are not necessarily written at the same time and in the same context. A possible objection to an excessive interaction between legal and religious thinking could be to emphasise the other goals of both genres of text. This remark is pertinent, but should not be exaggerated either. Just as religious texts pursue not only orthodoxy but also orthopraxy, the traditional view that legal texts only aim to regulate behaviour, and not opinions or views, is probably too sharply formulated. The tension between conviction and practice occurs in both areas, although not necessarily in the same form. Finally, we will briefly discuss the possibility of distinguishing rhetorical and literary forms and techniques in legal texts. This leads to the conclusion that lawyers have a lot to gain from having their dealings with the authoritative texts of their science enriched by taking note of the methodological discussions that have taken place within the framework of biblical science. This need not to affect the autonomy of legal science neither does it replace the familiar hermeneutical insights, but it makes it possible to detect blind spots in one's own handling of texts and to explore new traces of interpretation. <![CDATA[<b>The critical Scotism of Henry of Harclay (ca.1270-1317), as deduced from his Quaestiones Ordinaire (1312-1317)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512021000100016&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Hierdie artikel bied 'n oorsig oor die lewenswerk en 'n interpretasie van die belangrikste uitset van 'n onderbeskrewe denker in die hoogskolastiek aan: Hendrik van Harclay (ca.1270-1317), voormalige kanselier van die Universiteit van Oxford en biskop van Lincoln (vanaf 1312 tot 1317) se geredigeerde nalatenskap, tot op datum nog net byeengebring in die 29 vrae in sy Quaestiones Ordinaire en geskryfjuis in die produktiewe periode tussen 1312 en 1317, word aan die orde gestel met betrekking tot sy ooreenstemmingsteorie (in kritiese verset teen sy andersins vernaamste diskursiewe invloed, Johannes Duns Skotus (ca.1266-1308) se teorie van algemene natuur of natura communis), sy unieke en selfs "Harcliaanse" konseptualisme, sy beskouinge oor die ontologiese status van relasionele toevallighede, sy toepassing daarvan op 'n etiese raamwerk met verwysing na die verhouding tussen deug en wil en sy eg Franciskaanse prioritisering van die wil bo die intellek. Deur Harclay se Skotisme uitdruklik as krities te substansieer, lewer die artikel 'n noemenswaardige bydrae in die betreklik jong resepsie van hierdie ontwykende filosoof-teoloog se bydrae tot hoog skolastiese ontwikkelinge in die vroeë14de eeu.<hr/>This article provides an introduction to the life of Henry of Harclay (ca.1270-1317). It also attempts an interpretation of the most significant themes in the primary extant work of this, still understated, double magister in philosophy and theology at Oxford, who was chancellor of Oxford university and bishop of Lincoln from 1312 to 1317. The introduction and interpretation are undertaken with reference to his correspondence theory (challenging his otherwise most significant discursive influence, John Duns Scotus's (ca.1266-1308) natura communis or theory of general nature), unique conceptualism, views on the ontological status of relational contingents and ethical reflections on the relation between virtue and will, as deduced from the 29 questions in his Quaestiones Ordinaire, written precisely in that productive period between 1312 and 1317. It is argued that although Harclay was one of the first exponents of Scotism, it would be a mistake to reduce his work to a mere commentary on Scotus's thought. Harclay should rather be appreciated in terms of an expressly critical Scotism on account of his dismissive attitude toward aspects of the Scotus legacy, on the one hand, and the originality of his engagement in scholastic discourse regarding relations, particularity, universality and ethics, on the other. Although he remained a secular master and never officially entered the order, Harclay forms, in terms of this presentation, part of the broader Franciscan intellectual tradition and should be regarded as a significant exponent of this particular philosophical trajectory in the first two decades of the fourteenth century. After a brief biographical introduction, the results of a comparative study of Harclay's presence in recent introductions to, as well as editorial works of, Medieval philosophy are presented. It quickly becomes clear that although Harclay'sprofile is steadily being promoted in these broader disciplinary works, the Oxonian remains a relatively unknown thinker outside the narrow parameters of such specialised niche-research. In fact, only a handful of contemporary researchers have been working on Harclay's textual legacy over the past decade; the most prolific being MG Henninger (from 1980 to 2008), although it is shown that WO Duba, RL Friedman and CD Schabel (in 2010) and JT Slotemaker (in 2011) have recently contributed significantly to the specialised Harclay scholarship. It is therefore important that Harclay's unique place within the scholastic discourse of the early 14th century be continuously highlighted and presented to a broader and non-specialised readership in philosophy, which is a pertinent sub-objective of this article. The 29 questions in Harclay's Quaestiones Ordinaire, as preliminarily edited by A Maurer from 1954 to 1961 and extensively by Henninger from 1980 to 2008, are henceforth presented via the author's semantic translation from the Latin and a short commentary on each question in Afrikaans. Four themes are deduced from these questions which point to Harclay as a genuinely critical exponent of the first Scotist school of the 14th century: As dependent as he initially was on the basic tenets in Scotus's thought, Harclay's correspondence theory, his unique or even "Harclian" conceptualism, his views on the ontological status of relational contingents and his ethical reflections on the relation between virtue and will (where the will is prioritised over the intellect in characteristic Franciscan fashion) display an originality and discursive inventiveness in the heated disputes between the Dominicans and the Franciscans (and the Franciscans among themselves) in the last two decades of the 13th and the first two decades of the 14th century. The article is descriptive-analytical in its presentation of the relevant primary text, Quaestiones Ordinaire, and synthetical in its attempt to integrate coherently key secondary texts and commentaries on the most prominent philosophical themes in Barclay's contributions to high scholasticism. <![CDATA[<b>Jesus' crucifixion and resurrection: An academic-historical evaluation of the sources</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512021000100017&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die kern van die Christelike geloof is die belydenis dat Jesus van Nasaret gekruisig is en op die derde dag uit die dood opgewek is. Daarsonder maak die geloof geen sin nie. Vir die moderne sekulêre wêreld is die vraag egter: Het dit werklik gebeur? Hoe weet ons dit? Die doel van dié artikel is dus om die bronne ágter die geloof aan 'n sekulêre en akademies-historiese ondersoek te onderwerp en te kyk hoe betroubaar hulle is. Agtereenvolgens word buite-Bybelse bronne, die vier evangelies en die Pauliniese sendbriewe ondersoek. Die akademiese toets vir betroubaarheid is die afstand tussen 'n (beweerde) gebeurtenis en die optekening daarvan. Dit geld sowel tydsafstand as die hoeveelheid skakels tussen gebeurtenis en getuienis. Die religieuse agenda van die opstellers van die getuienisse is eweneens relevant. Die buite-Bybelse bronne is almal 'n eeu of meer ná die tyd opgestel en bevestig slegs dat die verhale oor die opwekking van Jesus wyer bekend was. Die evangelies is nie objektiewe kronieke of geskiedskrywing soos ons dit vandag ken nie, maar geloofsgetuienisse. Tog blyk 'n ondersoek van die eerste drie, die sinoptiese evangelies, dat die skrywers hul verhale nie uit die lug gegryp het nie, maar van bronne gebruik gemaak het. Die drie evangelies is waarskynlik ook vroeër opgeteken as wat algemeen aanvaar word - omtrent 20 tot 40 jaar ná die gebeure waarvan daar verslag gedoen word. Die Evangelie van Johannes is minstens deels 'n ooggetuieverslag. In die eerste brief van Paulus aan die Korintiërs kom die heel oudste ooggetuieverslag voor, wat waarskynlik tot drie jaar ná Jesus se kruisiging teruggedateer kan word. Verder maak die evangelies in beduidende mate staat op die getuienis van vroue - iets wat in die destydse Joodse kultuur as uiters onbetroubaar geag is. Onderling verskil die geskrifte se besonderhede, wat daarop dui dat hier nie sprake van onderlinge afstemming kan wees nie. Dit alles maak die bronne akademies gesproke redelik geloofwaardig.<hr/>By far the majority of academic analyses of the events surrounding the alleged resurrection of Jesus Christ have been carried out by theologians. However, this analysis is written from the viewpoint of an academic historian. The fact (or myth, if so preferred) of Jesus' resurrection is based on certain historical sources. The traditional Christian approach of Scripture is akin to how Muslims view their Quran, namely that it is perfect, true and complete; that it was (so to speak) dictated by God and that the biblical authors were merely transcribers of His words. A critical approach shows, however, that the biblical authors were fallible human beings, influenced by their time and environment, and that they based their accounts on identifiable sources. The purpose of this article is to identify those sources and to evaluate their trustworthiness, in the same way any other historical source would be evaluated. However, in doing so, one should avoid going too far: Some disillusioned theologians seem to think that because not everything in the Bible is true, it follows that nothing in the Bible could be true. This article first examines the intellectual tools historians normally use, citing several well-known historians on the nature of historical writing, before identifying and evaluating the biblical authors'sources. It was established that the oldest source - a credo in Paul s first letter to the Corinthians - dates from only a few years after the crucifixion and resurrection itself. On the basis of indications in the Gospels themselves, a case is also put forward for the Gospels being older and closer to the events recorded than is often claimed; that they were, in fact, written about fifty or seventy years after the crucifixon and reported resurrection of Jesus. This signals one of the main arguments in this article, namely that the Gospels are in time considerably closer to the events they are communicating than is generally assumed. Another aspect concerns the undeniable, often irreconcilable, differences in detail in the different versions of the Gospels'accunt of the events surrounding the resurrection. However, the mere fact that these differences do exist, is found to enhance the credibility of the accounts. In this regard, examples of my own work are cited, especially my description of two battles in South African history, namely the Battle of Sannah's Post (30 March 1900) and the Battle of the Lomba (3 October 1987). It is argued that the eyewitness accounts of these battles differ considerably insofar as the detail is concerned, but that they all have the same basic thrust - a Boer victory in 1900 and a South African victory in 1987 respectively. Likewise, biblical differences in detail notwithstanding, all accounts do agree that Jesus was crucified, that the grave was empty on the morning of the third day, and that Jesus appeared to several of his disciples. If all accounts had agreed in respect of all details, one would have surmised that they had to have been tampered with. The nature of the witnesses themselves are also significant. The very first witnesses were women, a sex which was, at the time, generally considered to be very untrustworthy. In fact, women were just about the worst kind of witnesses one could imagine. If the resurrection was a piece of fiction originating in the mind of the biblical authors, more credible witnesses, like well-known and respected males, would have been quoted. Nevertheless, in the end, the academic historian is still confronted with an insoluble problem: On the one hand, the physical impossibility of someone tortured and crucified and deceased miraculously coming to life again; on the other, sources which satisfy all academic conditions usually applied to historical sources claiming the opposite. A solution to this problem does not appear to be in sight, and in the end one is left with the choice of either believing - or not. <![CDATA[<b>Globalism and language in higher education: Reasons for choosing English as language of learning</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512021000100018&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die gebruik van Afrikaans as onderrigtaal aan Suid-Afrikaanse universiteite is reeds vir 'n geruime tyd in die spervuur. Die verengelsing van hoër onderwys is egter 'n wêreldwye tendens wat verband hou met globalisme en die (her)internasionalisering van die universiteitswese. Die kern van hierdie studie bestaan uit 'n inhoudsontleding van response van Afrikaansspre-kende studente aan die Universiteit van Suid-Afrika op die vraag waarom hulle Engels as studietaal gekies het. Ten tyde van die ondersoek was 'n aantal modules by die Universiteit in Afrikaans beskikbaar. Dat talle Afrikaanssprekende studente Engels as onderrigtaal verkies, word dikwels as regverdiging gebruik vir die voorstel om Afrikaans as onderrigtaal af te skaf. Betreklik min navorsing oor die redes vir hierdie verskynsel is gedoen. Die feit dat handboeke oorwegend Engels is, was een van die belangrikste redes waarom Afrikaanssprekende studente in Engels studeer het. Voorts was daar onduidelikheid oor die opsie om in Afrikaans te studeer. Afgesien hiervan is 'n aantal wanopvattings oor die universaliteit van die Engelse taal en persepsies dat Afrikaanse vakterminologie lomp en/of onverstaanbaar is, waargeneem. Uiteindelik is dit die Afrikaanse taalgemeenskap se plig om jongmense daarvan te oortuig dat leer deur Afrikaans nie noodwendig 'n agterstand impliseer nie. Tersiêre onderrig in Afrikaans moet bevorder word deur handboeke in Afrikaans beskikbaar te stel en terminologie te standaardiseer. Studente wat verkies het om in Engels te studeer, was verder opvallend minder verbind tot nie net hul eie taal- en kultuurgroep nie, maar ook tot Suid-Afrika.<hr/>The use of Afrikaans as a language of instruction at South African universities has been under fire for some time. This should be considered in the context of the anglicisation of higher education, a global trend related to globalism and the (re-)internationalisation of the university system. The core of this study consists of a content analysis of the responses of Afrikaans-speaking students at the University of South Africa (Unisa) to the question as to why they chose English as their language of study. At the time of the investigation, a number of modules at this university were still available in Afrikaans. When the abolition of Afrikaans as a language of tuition was proposed, the choice of English as the language of instruction by Afrikaans-speaking students was often put forward as justification for such a policy. Relatively little research has been conducted into the reasons for this phenomenon. The study is based on a questionnaire survey among Unisa students who indicated at registration that their home language was Afrikaans, Afrikaans and English as well as students who took modules in Afrikaans. Practical problems such as lecturers being unable to respond in Afrikaans, were often cited. A small number of students reported that university officials dissuaded them from registering in Afrikaans. More significant were perceptions of an advantage associated with a degree completed in English. We discuss such responses within the framework ofthe globalising discourse informed by the idea of the university as a business, the internationalisation of the university, globalisation and globalism. Approximately half the respondents indicated that they studied through the medium of English. Many, nevertheless, reported a sense of pride in the Afrikaans language and supported the idea of Afrikaans as an option for language of instruction. Respondents were given the opportunity to, first, provide reasons for studying in English in free text and then select the most important reason(s) for doing so from a list. The fact that textbooks and other study material are predominantly in English emerged as the most important reason why Afrikaans-speaking students preferred studying in English. It was chosen by more than twice as many respondents as the option "English is the language of business". Since students are only informed about the details regarding their textbook and the fact that study material is available in Afrikaans after registration for a module at Unisa, we suspect that, because of a lack of timely information, anticipated difficulties often play a role in students' selection of English as their medium of instruction. This has implications for South African universities that are considering the extensive use of historically disadvantaged official languages for tuition. It also has consequences for Unisa itself as, in June 2020, the Supreme Court of Appeal reversed the university's decision to discontinue tuition in Afrikaans by declaring its language policy to this effect illegal and unconstitutional. The Court ordered the reinstitution of its previous policy which mandated that certain modules should be available to students in Afrikaans at the discretion of the Senate. Furthermore, students were uncertain whether they had the option to study in Afrikaans. A number of common misconceptions about the universality of English and the perception that Afrikaans subject terminology is clumsy and/or difficult to understand, were noted. Ultimately, it is up to the Afrikaans language community to convince young people that studying in Afrikaans does not imply a disadvantage. It is also of critical importance that tertiary education in Afrikaans should be facilitated by, for example, making textbooks available in Afrikaans and by taking care that terminology is standardised. It was also noted that students who chose to study in English were noticeably less committed not only to the identity of their own language and cultural group, but also to South Africa. <![CDATA[<b>Citizenship education in the Netherlands and South Africa: A comparative study</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512021000100019&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Globalisering en internationalisering hebben zelfs landen die geografisch gezien op grote afstand van elkaar liggen dichter bij elkaar gebracht dan ooit tevoren, ook voor wat betreft het wederzijdse kennis nemen van de ontwikkelingen op het gebied van burgerschapsonderwijs. Ontwikkelde Europese landen, waaronder Nederland, en zich ontwikkelende landen in Afrika, waaronder Zuid-Afrika, zijn de afgelopen tijd geconfronteerd met vergelijkbare uitdagingen, zoals een toestroom van migranten, die heeft geleid tot meer multiculturalisme. In deze studie wordt onderzocht hoe het Nederlandse en het Zuid-Afrikaanse onderwijssysteem reageerden op de nieuwe uitdagingen en hoe hun reacties van invloed zijn op burgerschapsonderwijs. Het bleek dat, hoewel de beleidsmakers in deze beide landen het effect van de nieuwe omstandigheden op het maatschappelijk leven erkennen, ze het tot nu toe niet nodig vonden om burgerschapsonderwijs als een zelfstandig schoolvak op te nemen in de schoolcurricula.<hr/>In modern societies, citizens form part of a context that is constantly and rapidly changing. Some of the issues with which one is confronted typically become manifest in the local and national surroundings of citizens, but increasingly such issues are also encountered on a trans- and international scale. It follows that citizens have to learn (how) to cope with such issues in all of these dimensions, though particularly in respect of their personal surroundings. The new challenges, many of which reveal large-scale international dimensions, can no longer be satisfactorily dealt with in traditional ways; they require fresh, creative approaches. This new way of looking at the world and at citizenship is already affecting the relations between people. People increasingly come into contact with people of different cultures, not only in the digital world but also physically as a result of migrant and refugee flows owing to improved transport and technology. People are increasingly compelled to reconsider their attitudes towards strangers and even their compatriots from different cultures, as well as their responses to issues brought about by such encounters. More often than not, the issues encountered in the modern social world transcend national borders. School teachers are expected to prepare their students (learners, pupils) to become informed and responsible citizens. Achieving such goals has become increasingly imperative in light of the rapid social changes referred to above. Social change has also given new meaning to citizenship education as a school subject (or as part of the school curriculum), in that issues such as diversity, globalisation, digitisation and environmental sustainability are nowadays all considered to be highly significant. This article reports the research findings of the ways in which the education systems of the Netherlands and South Africa, respectively, have been responding to these new challenges. The purpose of the comparison was to discover those key issues that require further attention in the context of citizenship education, not only in these two countries but also elsewhere. After analysing the respective social developments in the Netherlands and South Africa, and after an analysis of how policy regarding citizenship education in the two countries had been attempted, the following conclusions were drawn. Firstly, the comparison revealed that in terms of societal context, the Netherlands has been a constitutional monarchy for around two centuries, whereas South Africa is a constitutional republic that is only 25 years old. The former is a developed, high-income country in the Global North, equalitarian, with a low Gini coefficient; South Africa, by contrast, is a developing, upper middle-income country in the Global South, highly stratified, with one of the highest Gini coefficients in the world. It secondly transpired that the two systems could learn from each other, irrespective of geographical distance. Both the Netherlands and South Africa have posted successes and failures regarding the planning and unfolding of their education systems and of citizenship education. Education policymakers in both countries could become more informed by studying the successes and failures associated with both systems. Thirdly, in neither country does citizenship education have the status of a separate, independent school subject. In the Netherlands, it is not even part of an overarching subject, but rather woven into the fabric of other subjects. In South Africa, it forms part of the subjects Life Skills/Life Orientation and Social Studies. Fourthly, citizenship education in schools in both countries is regulated through legislation and policy statements. It would appear, however, that all the regulations and stipulations have thus far not resulted in effective citizenship education in schools in either of the two countries. An official report affirmed this limited success with respect to citizenship education in the Netherlands, and scholars voiced a similar verdict about citizenship education in South Africa. Complete textbooks, devoted to citizenship education as such and compiled by specialists, are still lacking in both systems. In the fifth place, the prevailing circumstances in both countries seem to be unfavourable for the effective teaching of citizenship education in schools. In the Netherlands, emphasis on the cognitive aspects of education diverts attention from the importance of students becoming more aware of the affective and social aspects of life. South Africa, in turn, struggles with problems such as overcrowded classrooms, a lack of a culture of teaching and learning in many schools and a shortage of teachers qualified for teaching citizenship education. Finally, neither in the Netherlands nor in South Africa does citizenship education receive the attention it deserves in the curriculum and in the schools, despite the fact that conditions in both countries seem to underscore the need for paying more attention to this aspect of the formation offuture citizens. Both countries are in the throes of social change, each in its own way, on account of immigration, the influx of refugees (for both political and economic reasons) and efforts to re-align themselves in accordance with the political, social and economic demands of modern life (improved transport, permeable borders, better communication, failing economies, pandemics and so forth). Despite the limited scope of this study - a comparison of the status of citizenship education in two countries that are geographically and socio-economically widely removed from each other - it succeeded in highlighting the fact that education systems, and therefore also the manner in which citizenship education is offered, are in principle comparable. This can be ascribed to the fact that human beings remain human beings, irrespective of where they may find themselves, and that they, broadly speaking, tend to have to cope with the same or similar challenges. The current neglect of citizenship education in these two education systems may have deleterious effects with regard to their future citizenry. Citizenship education is in need of reform in both countries. <![CDATA[<b>The displacement of retail spending by students in host cities owing to Covid-19: A case study</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512021000100020&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die ekonomiese waarde van studente se besteding in die dorpe en stede waar hul universiteite geleë is, word in hierdie studie, in die lig van die COVID-19-pandemie, ondersoek. Die studie is uniek deurdat dit 'n universiteitskampus in 'n landelike omgewing as gevallestudie bestudeer. Die tendens is dat studentegetalle, afkomstig van buite die grense van die plaaslike ekonomie, deurentyd styg. Dit het 'n positiewe impak op die ekonomiese aktiwiteite van die gasheerstad en bevoordeel ondernemings as gevolg van studente se bestedingspatrone. Besteding deur voltydse kontakstudente is besonder voordelig vir die kleinhandelsektor in die gasheerstad. Owerheidsinperkings op beweging wat ingestel is om die verspreiding van die koronavirus te verhoed, het hierdie besteding tydelik beëindig en die plaaslike ekonomie nadelig beïnvloed. Die beperkings op die beweging van studente lei tot die verplasing van studentebesteding, weg vanaf die gasheerstad, met 'n kosteverlies vir die kleinhandelsektor van gemiddeld nagenoeg R2 miljoen per dag. Die lengte van die inperking op die normale werking van die universiteit kan dus oor die langer termyn 'n wesentlike effek op die plaaslike kleinhandelmark van die gasheerstad hê, met verlore werksgeleenthede en die sluit van besighede as 'n realiteit. Die onderskeie tipes bestedingsverplasings wat in die literatuur met rampe geassosieer word, word uitgelig. Die resultate is nie net van toepassing gedurende die viruspandemie nie, maar toon ook aan wat die negatiewe permanente langtermynimpak op die plaaslike ekonomie kan wees, indien universiteitsbesture die strategiese besluit sou neem om kontakonderrig permanent met aanlyn onderrig te vervang.<hr/>The regulations implemented by governments in response to COVID-19 to limit the movement of people affected the nature of consumer spending. Consumption behaviour change, resulting from disasters or government-enforced regulation, is visible through spending displacement and response to fast-moving changes in circumstances. This study examines student spending in the host cities of universities and how a pandemic, such as COVID-19, may reduce or eliminate the spending injections into the economy through displaced spending. The value associated with the spending displacement is derived from a pre-Covid student survey conducted at the Potchefstroom Campus of the North-West University, South Africa. It reflects on the types of consumer spending that occur and also quantifies the value of spending lost to the city's businesses as a result of the transition to a predominant eLearning model in response to lock-down regulations imposed by Govenment. The university campuses in South Africa are known for their important role in both the development of the workforce's skills and the benefit this provides to the economy. A university campus attracts students from outside the confines of the city which supports spending injection to the local businesses. This benefit is of more value to the host city when it is situated in a rural setting and able to attract students from outside the local area, which has been the case with the Potchefstroom Campus. The Campus experienced an increase in the enrolment of on-campus contact learning over the past decade, a trend that has been beneficial to the local business community and led to continued investment in various property markets. A student survey provides insight into the spending patterns of students and is used to identify the retail spending benefit thereof, as well as the negative effects of its subsequent displacement, to the local retail industry. The introduction of a lockdown and a move to online learning by universities raise the question as to how this might affect the value of student spending and how this displacement in spending will impact the local economy. Some researchers indicate that various forms of spending displacement can be associated with COVID-19, while this research paper investigates how such displacement is relevant to the student population and the host economy. Three forms of displacement are identified in the literature related to the COVID-19 environment, and the results from the survey are aligned with these displacements. Considering the spatial aspect of consumption in the economic process, it was found that the value of student spending is not distributed evenly between retailers in the host economy. The survey results highlight the fact that mobility plays a role in spending patterns and that retail spending occurs throughout the host city. Within the context of COVID-19, the measures that restrict mobility and enforce social distancing, force trade to occur close to consumers' homes. This implies that student spending shifts from the host city to their hometown residence as a result of the change to online studies. The pre-Covid-19 student survey spending results revealed that 81 per cent of students' monthly retail spending takes place inside the host city with the rest spent outside. The Covid-19 enforced move towards online learning, and the potentially longer-term shifts from contact to online learning, will have a significant spending displacement effect on the host city. Concerning the type of consumption that occurs, the research revealed that students tend to spend on a variety of goods and services. The largest monthly spending takes place on retail goods, which represents an average monthly value of R3 146 or 46.5 % of their monthly expenses, followed by accommodation at 31%. In the case of COVID-19, the government regulations which limited contact education resulted in monthly losses in spending within the local economy on the purchase of retail-related services such as groceries and other goods, clothes and footwear, entertainment and hospitality services. Considering the time aspect of consumption, it was found that spending preferences related to time do exist. The results show that students are indifferent to spending during the week or on weekends and that most students are content to stay within the host city during weekends. No obvious time preference between the week and weekend for spending was found. The results show that student spending represents significant spending in the host city and for the time the COVID-19 restrictions remain in place, the spending displacement and loss of income for local businesses will be significant. The loss of student spending amounts to approximately R2 million daily. This not only highlights the cost of enforced lockdown measures, but also provides important indicators to university management upon considering replacing the existing tuition model of contact learning with one of online learning. Such a decision will lead to a significant negative impact on the economic activity of the Potchefstroom business community with far-reaching implications for employment, income generation and wealth disbursement in this university city. <![CDATA[<b>The surging humanities enrolments at Higher Education Institutions worldwide</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512021000100021&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Hierdie artikel bied 'n bestekopname en kritiese, sinsoekende bevraging van die geesteswetenskappe as 'n kollektief aan universiteite en binne die samelewing van die een-en-twintigste eeu. Nadat universiteite vir baie lank op die rand van die samelewing was, het die universiteit as instelling na die middelpunt beweeg sedert die middel van die twintigste eeu, en meer so sedert die aanbreek van die wêreldwye hoëronderwysrevolusie vanaf ongeveer 1990. Deel van die massifikasie wat die hoofkenmerk van hierdie revolusie is, is die toename in geesteswetenskappe-inskrywings. In die lig van die eise wat die huidige eeu se ontvouende samelewing aan hoër onderwys stel, is hierdie tendens te verwelkom. Die grootste leemte is dat daar geen dienooreenkomstige navorsingsaktiwiteit is om hierdie studentekorps of hul dosente te begelei tot die beste onderwys en onderwysstelselpraktyk nie. In die slotgedeelte van hierdie artikel word enkele aanbevelings vir die agenda van so 'n navorsingsprojek gemaak.<hr/>This article offers a stocktaking and critical, meaning-searching interrogation of the humanities as collective at universities and in the twenty-first-century society. As a working definition of "humanities", the lexical definition of "any of the fields of scholarship taking the mental life and resultant cultural products of humans as its object ofstudy " is accepted. To the humanities belong not only history and linguistics but also the group of fields sometimes named the social sciences, such as sociology, anthropology and political science. "An autonomous institution devoted to the advancement of various branches of higher learning" is taken as a working definition of a university. During its long history, this institution has acquired an unexchangeable, irreplaceable number of interrelated roles in society, namely teaching and research, community service of a particular kind, innovation, cultural preservation, transmittance and development, and societal critique. A set of powerful societal forces characterising the twenty-first-century society is gathering momentum today, including the ecological crisis, demographic dynamics (population explosion in the Global South, changing age profiles, migration patterns and an increasingly mobile population) and growing affluence as well as inequalities. Also part of these forces are a nascent knowledge economy, the fourth industrial revolution, the neo-liberal economic revolution, changing roles in the family and the workplace and the rise of tertiary social groupings, technological developments (the information, communications and transportation revolution in particular), the rise of multicultural societies, democratisation and individualisation, the rise of global political structures, the persistent but changed presence of religion in society and the rise of the creed of human rights as the new global moral code. These trends underscore even more the role and value of the university in society, including that of the humanities in universities. After having been on the periphery of society for centuries, the university as institution has, since the mid-twentieth century and especially since the global higher education revolution has commenced around 1990, moved to the frontstage of society. In view of the imperatives that the nascent, unfolding twenty-first century directs to higher education, this is a wholesome development, as is the swelling rise of enrolments in the humanities as part of the massification that is the hallmark of the global higher education revolution. In countries such as the United States of America, Turkey and Egypt, at any given point, the number of students of humanities at universities runs into the millions, while in the case of India, the figure tops the 12 million mark. The case for the humanities and enrolling in the humanities can be strongly argued from many points of view, not only in terms of the need of a schooled citizenry (or elite vanguard of the citizenry schooled in the humanities) but also from stark empirical evidence of individual and social rates of return (although the numbers of publications with these calculations are not at all sufficient). The biggest lacuna is the absence of research on the teaching and research of humanities at universities on the research agenda of the meteoric rise of higher education as field of scholarship in recent decades. Without denigrating or negating the importance of academic freedom and academic autonomy of faculty, such research is needed in order to construct a pedagogy of humanities and to guide faculty in advancing humanities at universities. In conclusion, some suggestions as to the research agenda for such a research project on the pedagogy of humanities at universities are made. These include teaching methods, learning methods, curricula, the need for a normative superstructure in the humanities, tracer studies (surveying both students and employers), individual as well as social rates of return analyses, student surveys and surveying students' sources of inspiration and motivation for enrolling in the humanities. <![CDATA[<b>O, laat er een mis zijn</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512021000100022&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Hierdie artikel bied 'n bestekopname en kritiese, sinsoekende bevraging van die geesteswetenskappe as 'n kollektief aan universiteite en binne die samelewing van die een-en-twintigste eeu. Nadat universiteite vir baie lank op die rand van die samelewing was, het die universiteit as instelling na die middelpunt beweeg sedert die middel van die twintigste eeu, en meer so sedert die aanbreek van die wêreldwye hoëronderwysrevolusie vanaf ongeveer 1990. Deel van die massifikasie wat die hoofkenmerk van hierdie revolusie is, is die toename in geesteswetenskappe-inskrywings. In die lig van die eise wat die huidige eeu se ontvouende samelewing aan hoër onderwys stel, is hierdie tendens te verwelkom. Die grootste leemte is dat daar geen dienooreenkomstige navorsingsaktiwiteit is om hierdie studentekorps of hul dosente te begelei tot die beste onderwys en onderwysstelselpraktyk nie. In die slotgedeelte van hierdie artikel word enkele aanbevelings vir die agenda van so 'n navorsingsprojek gemaak.<hr/>This article offers a stocktaking and critical, meaning-searching interrogation of the humanities as collective at universities and in the twenty-first-century society. As a working definition of "humanities", the lexical definition of "any of the fields of scholarship taking the mental life and resultant cultural products of humans as its object ofstudy " is accepted. To the humanities belong not only history and linguistics but also the group of fields sometimes named the social sciences, such as sociology, anthropology and political science. "An autonomous institution devoted to the advancement of various branches of higher learning" is taken as a working definition of a university. During its long history, this institution has acquired an unexchangeable, irreplaceable number of interrelated roles in society, namely teaching and research, community service of a particular kind, innovation, cultural preservation, transmittance and development, and societal critique. A set of powerful societal forces characterising the twenty-first-century society is gathering momentum today, including the ecological crisis, demographic dynamics (population explosion in the Global South, changing age profiles, migration patterns and an increasingly mobile population) and growing affluence as well as inequalities. Also part of these forces are a nascent knowledge economy, the fourth industrial revolution, the neo-liberal economic revolution, changing roles in the family and the workplace and the rise of tertiary social groupings, technological developments (the information, communications and transportation revolution in particular), the rise of multicultural societies, democratisation and individualisation, the rise of global political structures, the persistent but changed presence of religion in society and the rise of the creed of human rights as the new global moral code. These trends underscore even more the role and value of the university in society, including that of the humanities in universities. After having been on the periphery of society for centuries, the university as institution has, since the mid-twentieth century and especially since the global higher education revolution has commenced around 1990, moved to the frontstage of society. In view of the imperatives that the nascent, unfolding twenty-first century directs to higher education, this is a wholesome development, as is the swelling rise of enrolments in the humanities as part of the massification that is the hallmark of the global higher education revolution. In countries such as the United States of America, Turkey and Egypt, at any given point, the number of students of humanities at universities runs into the millions, while in the case of India, the figure tops the 12 million mark. The case for the humanities and enrolling in the humanities can be strongly argued from many points of view, not only in terms of the need of a schooled citizenry (or elite vanguard of the citizenry schooled in the humanities) but also from stark empirical evidence of individual and social rates of return (although the numbers of publications with these calculations are not at all sufficient). The biggest lacuna is the absence of research on the teaching and research of humanities at universities on the research agenda of the meteoric rise of higher education as field of scholarship in recent decades. Without denigrating or negating the importance of academic freedom and academic autonomy of faculty, such research is needed in order to construct a pedagogy of humanities and to guide faculty in advancing humanities at universities. In conclusion, some suggestions as to the research agenda for such a research project on the pedagogy of humanities at universities are made. These include teaching methods, learning methods, curricula, the need for a normative superstructure in the humanities, tracer studies (surveying both students and employers), individual as well as social rates of return analyses, student surveys and surveying students' sources of inspiration and motivation for enrolling in the humanities.