Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe]]> vol. 57 num. 2-1 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Voorwoord</b>]]> <![CDATA[<b>The last project of the "Dutch language movement in South Africa": The Simplified Dutch Spelling</b>]]> Die Vereenvoudigde Hollandse spelling (VHS) waarna AWS1 in sy voorwoord verwys, was die laaste groot projek van die "Hollandse taalbeweging in Suid-Afrika". Die aanhangers van dié beweging wou onder meer Hollands vereenvoudig om dit makliker lees- en skryfbaar vir Afrikaanssprekendes te maak. Hierdie strewe het gekom van die Zuid-Afrikaansche Taalbond in die Kaapkolonie, asook onderwysers en joernaliste in Transvaal en die Vrystaat, waar Hollands die amptelike taal was. Twee van die belangrikste figure in die Taalbond was die teoloog P.J.G. de Vos en die taalkundige, W.J. Viljoen, professor in moderne tale en geskiedenis op Stellenbosch. Ná 'n kongres in 1897 in Kaapstad is Suid-Afrikaanse voorstelle vir 'n vereenvoudigde Hollands aan 'n kongres in Nederland voorgelê, maar dit is verwerp. In 1903 is Viljoen na Nederland en hierdie keer het sowat twintig taalkundiges en die "Commissie voor Taal en Letteren bij de Maatschappij der Nederlandsche Letterkunde te Leiden" hul steun aan die Suid-Afrikaanse voorstelle toegesê. Hierdie voorstelle het volgens die aanhangers 'n "nieuwe taalbeweging" laat begin wat "een machtige stroom" geword het. Ná die aanvaarding van Afrikaans as onderwystaal het die VHS sy nut verloor, maar by die opstel van Afrikaanse spelreëls is daarmee rekening gehou.<hr/>In the first edition of the Afrikaans Word List and Spelling Guidelines ("Afrikaanse Woordelys en Spelreëls"), the "Spelling-Commission" states five general principles that were assumed in setting the guidelines. The fourth is: "[Om] so weinig as moontlik van die Vereenvoudigde Hollandse Spelling af te wijk" ("to deviate as little as possible from the Simplified Dutch Spelling"). The VHS was one of the most important projects of the Dutch language movement in South Africa. The project's supporters aimed at restoring the position of Dutch as a medium of education and as a public language in the Cape Colony in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. To Afrikaners (and even the Dutch), Dutch was a difficult language to write by the end of the nineteenth century. Because of this, eminent Dutch language promoters aimed at simplifying Dutch as a written language. This movement came from the Zuid-Afrikaansche Taalbond (South African Language Association) in the Cape Colony, as well as teachers and journalists in the Free State and Transvaal, which both had Dutch as an official language. The Language Association was founded in 1890 for the purpose of promotion of knowledge of the people's language and establishing an emerging sense of nationality). With 47 votes against 36, it was decided that the "language of the people" would be Dutch rather than Afrikaans. Two of the most important figures in the Language Association were the theologian P.J.G. de Vos and linguist, W.J. Viljoen, professor of modern languages and history at the Victoria College (forerunner of the University of Stellenbosch). The Language Association realised that Dutch would be in a much stronger position to compete with English if its written form could be simplified. It was understood that they could tie in with one of the linguists in the Netherlands that also advocated for language simplification. It was R.A. Kollewijn, founder, in 1892, of the Association for the simplification of our Writing Language. According to him, Dutch spelling was too difficult and students had to spend unnecessary time mastering Dutch spelling. A joint conference of Afrikaners from Cape Town and Stellenbosch, as well as Transvaal and the Free State, instructed an executive committee in 1897 to obtain a statement of support from Dutch linguists and linguistic bodies. A number of suggestions for simplification in the direction of the Kollewijn spelling were adopted. The Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902) brought an end to language activities. However, soon after the war, simplification was again on the agenda when the Dutch movement met in Stellenbosch on 20 January 1903. This was as a result of a question from the Transvaal Education Department in 1902 whether the 1897 decisions were to be considered authoritative for the purpose of education. The executive committee asked Viljoen to prepare a report on the simplification of the written language. He consulted with linguists and other experts in the Netherlands and Belgium and on 19 September 1903 the Commissie voor Taal en Letteren bij de Maatschappij der Nederlandsche Letterkunde te Leiden ("Committee for Language and Literature in Leiden at the Society of Dutch Literature") held a meeting in which twenty professors participated. Viljoen received a very positive supporting statement from management on 5 October 1903. A language conference was held on 28 December 1904 in Cape Town. The Language Association also invited delegates from the Transvaal, the Free State and Natal. All the education organisations were positive towards the recommendations and over the course of the following year, the VHS received additional support. Viljoen, De Vos and the other simplifiers therefore had reason to feel satisfied by the end of 1906. Education authorities supported the VHS and it was introduced in Dutch-Afrikaans newspapers such as Ons Land. But for speakers of Afrikaans outside of this intellectual space, even this simplified Dutch remained a difficult language. De Waal expressed this difficulty as follows in the newspaper De Goede Hoop (October 1904: "Hebben wij Afrikaners het niet moeilijk genoeg om zowel Nederlandsch als Afrikaansch in dit Engelsche land in stand te houden? Laat de lieve Taalbond ons toch niet met een derde Hollandsche taal komen lastig vallen". ("Do us Afrikaners not have it difficult enough to maintain both Dutch and Afrikaans in this English country? Let the dear Language Association not trouble us with a third Dutch language".) The South African Dutch written language underwent changes in 1904 that would only be accepted in the written language in the Netherlands in 1934. But the modernised spelling could not save Dutch in South Africa. Afrikaans won, but the VHS still exercised influence on the Afrikaans spelling guidelines. <![CDATA[<b>After a hundred years: The Afrikaans of the first Language Commission</b>]]> Hierdie artikel bekyk die omstandighede wat aanleiding gegee het tot die manier waarop die eerste Afrikaanse Woordelijs en Spelreëls van 1917 die Afrikaanse spelling bereël het, en die gevolge daarvan. W.J. Viljoen het in 1903 die voorstanders van die VHS (Vereenvoudigde Hollandse Spelling) in Nederland en België besoek om by hulle leiding te kry vir 'n eenvoudiger Nederlandse spelling vir Suid-Afrika, wat nog steeds Nederlands sou wees. Hulle het ooreengekom dat Die Taalbond die vereenvoudigde spellingsisteem van die VHS in Suid-Afrika kan volg, ʼn reëling wat in Desember 1904 op 'n kongres van die Taalbond aanvaar is, en wat van 1915 af sy neerslag in die vroeë uitgawes van die Woordelys en Spelreëls gevind het. Met hierdie spellingbesluit is die Afrikaanse skryfpogings van die negentiende eeu verbygegaan, en desnieteenstaande latere verafrikaansings, kan die gevolge van die vernederlandse spelling van Afrikaans steeds in geskrewe Afrikaans waargeneem word.<hr/>After a hundred years the Afrikaans of the first Taalkommissie (Language Commission) of 1917 differs radically from the Afrikaans that is covered by the rules contained in the eleventh issue of the Afrikaanse Woordelys en Spelreëls (Afrikaans Word List and Spelling Rules) (AWS 11). These differences will in future probably become even greater. The Afrikaans that before 1917 had run its natural course towards becoming the written form, was passed over and a Dutchified Afrikaans was standardised. How did this happen? Circumstances beyond the control of the Afrikaans linguistic community resulted in the standardisation of Afrikaans in 1917. The change in government in Britain in 1905 gave rise to a series of reactions which in 1910 resulted in Unification in South Africa. In the new constitution of the time, English was no longer retained as the only official language but recognition was given to two languages: English and Dutch. Dutch, which then unexpectedly became one of the two official languages of the Union of South Africa, could be accommodated culturally in the Zuid-Afrikaanse Akademie voor Taal, Letteren en Kunst (the South African Academy for Language, Literature and Art) (hereafter referred to as "the Academy"), which was founded in 1909. The language of the Academy was Dutch (in terms of the draft statute). At the founding meeting of the Academy it was proposed that Afrikaans be one of the languages of the Academy. This proposal was not accepted and Afrikaans was perforce included in article 2 of the founding charter with the explanation that it was included with Dutch. The Academy inter alia strove to promote the teaching of Dutch ("'t onderwys van 't Holland") (article 3). Afrikaans was not recognised in the Constitution of the Union or in the Statute of the Academy as an independent language, even though it was the language spoken in the largest area in South Africa during the nineteenth century, by more people than either Dutch or English. Various groupings of Afrikaans-speakers wrote Afrikaans in different ways: in the Bo-Kaap as a religious language (with an adapted Arabic and Malay orthography), in Genadendal, in the Paarl, where middle-class Farming Afrikaans was written - a variety that was customarily used during the nineteenth century and was significantly influenced by Khoi Afrikaans - at mission stations and by newspaper editors and entertainment entrepreneurs. How to standardise these various ways in which Afrikaans was written? This was still music of the future. C.J. Langenhoven in 1914 convinced three of the four Provincial Councils to introduce Afrikaans on the first levels at primary schools, and he undertook to obtain the support of the Academy for this. The Academy had a stated educational responsibility in respect of Dutch. C.J. Langenhoven lay claim to this, but he did so on behalf of Afrikaans. The 1914 annual meeting of the Academy supported C.J. Langenhoven's plan with Afrikaans as language of education and appointed a commission to take care of the writing and spelling of Afrikaans. The use by the pro-Dutch Zuid-AfrikaanscheTaalbond (South African Language Association) of the Simplified Dutch Spelling ("VHS") dominated language education (except for English) in South Africa from 1904.The pro-Afrikaans Afrikaanse Taalvereniging (Afrikaans Language Society) ("ATV") also to a large extent used the VHS spelling system. The Academy's spelling commission was compromised by agreements that C.J. Langenhoven and his supporters had made with the Taalbond and the ATV before the 1909 Annual Meeting so as to obtain their cooperation in order to carry through his education plan, and they had to adhere to the current Dutch writing conventions during the compilation of AWS1, which agreement was protected in a Principle until 1992. These spelling concessions by C.J. Langenhoven resulted in Dutchified written Afrikaans. Afrikaans-speakers continued to speak their different types of Afrikaans, which differed in many respects from the written Standard Afrikaans, and which were increasingly influenced by it. The language of Afrikaans dialects, particularly with a basis of Khoi and Malay, was quite different from Dutch. The Afrikaans of these varieties differed significantly from Standard Afrikaans and was kept out of the standard variety, inter alia on the basis that it was not "customary" or "civilised". Language Commissions, from AWS 3, continued "Afrikaansifications" in the Word Lists, but the consequences of the 1914 Dutchification are still to be found in the spelling of Afrikaans. And AWS 11, after a 100 years? For the first time, after a full century has elapsed, the Preface to AWS 11 confirms that the different varieties of Afrikaans form part of Standard Afrikaans and that the Language Commission encourages the development and use thereof, and that in the long run it may change and modify Standard Afrikaans. <![CDATA[<b>A critical appraisal of the Afrikaanse Woordelys en Spelreëls - AWS (2009)</b>]]> Die AWS is 'n normatiewe naslaanwerk oor spelling, waarvan die doel is om gebruikers te help met teksproduksie en tekskorrigering. In hierdie artikel word die soekvraag van die potensiële gebruiker as uitgangspunt geneem om die AWS in terme van sy funksies te evalueer. Daar word eerstens gekyk na verskillende moontlike motiverings vir lemmaseleksie. Hoewel korpora nuttig kan wees, moet dit volgens Asmussen (2013:1081) met omsigtigheid geraadpleeg word. By e-woordeboeke kan log-lêer-analise data verskaf oor watter leksikale items deur gebruikers nageslaan word, hoewel dit nie kan bevestig of die gebruikers dit as suksesvolle konsultasie ervaar het nie (Nesi 2013:65). Navorsers soos Wiegand (2001:235), Helbig en Osswald (2013:1141), Barnhart (1967:161), Tarp (2013:463), Storrer (2013:1245) en Müller-Spitzer (2013:369) het die waarde van die soekvraag as belangrike element by die saamstel van naslaanwerke bevestig. Die AWS gee aandag aan 'n wye verskeidenheid tipiese spelprobleme. Die navorser ondersoek dan ook, aan die hand van 40 soekvrae, tipiese vrae wat gebruikers sou kon vra. Daar word bevind dat die AWS tans die meeste van hierdie vrae beantwoord, hetsy in die woordelys of in die spelreëlgedeelte, maar dat daar steeds onbeantwoorde vrae is, veral met betrekking tot kosterme.<hr/>The AWS (Afrikaanse woordelys en spelreëls) is a normative source of information on spelling with the intention to assist the user with text production and text correction. The point of departure in this article is taking into account the potential user's point of view to evaluate the AWS in terms of its functions. Firstly, the different possible motivations for lemma selection is examined. Although corpora are useful, they must, according to Asmussen (2013:1081), be consulted with great circumspection. With e-dictionaries logfile analysis can provide valuable data about which lexicographic items are looked up by users, although it cannot confirm that the user will experience it as a successful consultation (Nesi 2013:65). It appears as if researchers increasingly follow a mixed-method approach to compensate for the limitations of individual methods to determine lemma selection and the treatment thereof. Researchers like Wiegand (2001:235), Helbig and Osswald (2013:1141), Barnhart (1967:161), Tarp (2013:463), Storrer (2013:1245) and Müller-Spitzer 2013:369) have confirmed the value of the search question as one of the important elements related to the compilation of reference works, i.e. in the form of a use situation question where the user, as it were, poses a question to the work of reference, e.g. what is the plural of word x? In a communicative metalexicography such as the theory of lexicographic communication (cf Beyer 2014) the concept of the user question is also a key component as the reference work consultation process is an act in which the user, as it were, poses a question to the reference work by consulting this type of resource. In the theory of lexicographic communication a distinction is made between a raw user question and a user situation question (Beyer 2014:56, 70-71). A raw user question is a user question as the user would have formulated it as a consultation stimulus, e.g: What is the part of speech of boek? or: Is boek a noun? A user situation question is an abstraction of one or more raw usage questions into an illocution in terms of Searle's (1969:31) expression of illocutions against the background of his principle of expressibility. The two raw user questions mentioned above can be reduced to the following user situation question: (The part of speech of boek is?). The concept of the user question can be used as empirical research tool in real or simulated user situations. A limitation of this study is that it was not investigated in a real situation, however, the current data types of the AWS were taken as point of departure to investigate possible user situation questions. The present AWS already pays attention to a wide variety of typical spelling and punctuation problems, for example what the plural is of a certain noun and where capital letters, hyphens, diaeresis, etcetera must be used. For a full set of data types the index of the AWS can be consulted. The article subsequently examines forty search questions that can be regarded as typical questions that a user could ask. The finding is that the AWS at present answers most of these questions, whether in the word list or via the rules, but that there are still unanswered questions, especially with regard to food terms. The compilers of the new AWS (to be released in 2017) should take note of these limitations in AWS (2009). Since meaning discrimination is essential in determining the spelling of certain lexical items, it is extremely important that contextual guidance is provided, e.g. aan een (two words if the meaning is "for one") but aaneen (one word if the meaning is continuously). The compilers of the forthcoming AWS should also take note of the fact that the spelling of learners and students have deteriorated to such an extent that for instance all words containing ei, ui and y are potentially problematic for these users. <![CDATA[<b>One hundred years of <em>Afrikaanse</em> <i>Woordelys en Spelreëls</i> - An overview and evaluation. Part 1: The wordlist</b>]]> In 2017 sal die Afrikaanse Woordelys en Spelreëls (hierna afgekort as AWS) 'n volle eeu oud wees, en hierdie bydrae gedenk die mylpaal met 'n (her)waardering van veral die woordelysdeel van die AWS. Aanvanklik word ʼn historiese oorsig gegee oor die ontstaan en ontwikkeling van die woordelys met 'n fokus op sy funksie, aard en omvang. 'n Evaluasie van die spelreëls het buite die bestek van die artikel geval, maar daar word wel kortliks stilgestaan by die grondbeginsels van die Afrikaanse spelling. Aspekte wat ondersoek is, was lemmakeuse, wat op sy beurt weer beïnvloed is deur beginsels van die Afrikaanse spelreëls soos 'n algemeen gebruiklike uitspraak, die bepaling van wat as "Standaardafrikaans" beskou kan of moet word en ander kwessies. Die doel en aard van die woordelys - kan dit byvoorbeeld as 'n spesiale soort woordeboek beskou word? - lemmaseleksie en mikrostrukturele bewerking, wisselvorme en die hantering van vreemde woorde, die normerende rol van die AWS en die omvang en volledigheid van die woordelys, kry aandag in hierdie eerste van twee artikels. Die gevolgtrekking waartoe gekom word, is dat die woordelys baie waardevol is as naslaanbron, maar wel tot 'n mate as belangrike gebruikersbron gekortwiek word deur sy aard: staties, onvolledig en voorskriftelik. Met die gebruiker in gedagte val die klem in Deel 2 dan op die nuwe moontlikhede wat 'n elektroniese woordelys sou kon bied.<hr/>In 2017 the Afrikaanse Woordelys en Spelreëls (AWS) celebrates its centenary year. Our contribution commemorates this milestone with a (re)evaluation of this standard and well-known reference work - in particular of the wordlist sections of the AWS. This article - the first of two - offers a historical overview of the function, nature and scope of the wordlist as revealed in the ten different editions of the AWS. For the overview we used the different editions (from 1917 to 2009) of the AWS as primary source texts. An evaluation of the Afrikaans spelling rules falls outside the scope of the article, but because these rules have an impact on which lemmas are included in the wordlist (one of the main functions of the wordlist being to help people with their spelling problems), we looked briefly at the way in which they have been defined since 1917. The fundamental principles of the Afrikaans spelling system have essentially not changed, although they have periodically been reformulated. From 1917 to 1964 commonly used pronunciation and tradition (by which is also meant the ways in which the Afrikaans spelling system still reflects its history and relationship with Dutch spelling) remained two key criteria for the inclusion of words in the wordlist. In addition, the visible illustration and application of the spelling rules are important reasons for the inclusion (or elimination) of certain words. In the 2009 edition the main criterion for inclusion seems to be that the list must reflect contemporary written standard Afrikaans. No mention is made any longer of the commonly used pronunciation as guiding principle. With respect to its nature, the question was raised whether the wordlist can be regarded as a special kind of dictionary - one with a limited lemma list and minimal microstructural information. Within the context of how best to describe this source, problematic or unclear aspects that were investigated were the basis for lemma selection - in other words, how exactly did the various language commissions determine what can or should be regarded as standard Afrikaans? This is arguably the most important criterion for inclusion. Other issues that remained throughout the past 100 years were the treatment of two different spelling forms (so-called variant forms or "wisselvorme") like "more" and "môre" ("morning") and words of foreign origin ("krusifiks", "guillotine", "zero"/"sero"). In the treatment of these problematic cases the interaction between the three fundamental principles that inform the spelling rules are clearly illustrated. The main purpose - to help with spelling problems and to set certain norms and standards - and the size and complexity of the wordlist were explored. That the wordlist occupies a very important place in every AWS is not disputed, and we conclude that the wordlist is a very valuable reference work. Nevertheless, users' expectations when consulting the wordlist as an information source have to be realistic: - The wordlist serves as an illustration and application of the spelling rules and as such is very valuable as a guideline for all users. - The list is of course, due to various reasons, not comprehensive and it does not contain nearly as many standard Afrikaans words as do standard monolingual and bilingual dictionaries. - It does not give guidance on the spelling of non-standard Afrikaans words. It is not clear whether all users are aware of this. - By its very nature it is prescriptive and it provides a clear norm for language users. - The 2009 wordlist is much more user-friendly than its predecessors, but the hard copies are in essence static documents that have not been updated frequently enough to satisfy all the information needs of its users. Users are therefore often forced to look for other sources of information on spelling issues. With these characteristics in mind, we evaluate the electronic version of the wordlist in Part 2. This is done against the background of the current rapid development of theoretical lexicography and the increasing need of users to find the information that they need as quickly as possible. In Part 2 the focus is very clearly on the user and his or her needs. <![CDATA[<b>One hundred years of <i>Afrikaanse Woordelys en Spelreëls - </i>An overview and evaluation. Part 2: The user in focus</b>]]> Hierdie artikel vorm die tweede deel van 'n reeks van twee oor die Woordelysgedeelte van die Afrikaanse Woordelys en Spelreëls (AWS). Die aanlyn weergawe van die woordelysgedeelte van die AWS is in 2010, net nadat die tiende uitgawe van die AWS in 2009 die lig gesien het, aan gebruikers beskikbaar gestel. Hierdie weergawe van die 2009-Woordelys word in die artikel vanuit ʼn gebruikersperspektief beskou en wel teen die agtergrond van die snelle ontwikkeling van e-leksikografie en die moontlikhede wat aanlyn beskikbaarheid aan leksikografiese naslaanwerke bied. Ons begin met 'n kritiese evaluering vanuit 'n gebruikerperspektief van die Woordelys. Tweedens kyk ons na die status van die Woordelys as leksikografiese inligtingsbron. In die derde plek stel ons die gebruiker van die Woordelys in fokus, en wel teen die breër agtergrond van die inligtingsbehoeftes van die woordeboekgebruiker in die inligtingsera. Gebaseer op ons ondersoek, wat onder andere gebruik gemaak het van loglêers en'n korpus van ongeredigeerde studenteskryfwerk, kom ons tot die gevolgtrekking dat die huidige elektroniese Woordelys - alhoewel dit ʼn waardevolle naslaanwerk is - nouliks aan die moderne gebruiker se inligtingsbehoeftes voldoen. In terme van die funksieteorie - een van die moderne leksikografiese teorieë - moet leksikografiese inligtingsbronne byvoorbeeld naas kognitiewe inligting ook sterk leiding bied ten opsigte van teksproduksie. Die gee van hierdie tipe leiding is iets wat die samestellers van die Woordelys in die toekoms miskien ook in gedagte sou kon hou. Ten opsigte van lemmakeuse stel ons voor dat die gebruik van 'n leksikografiese liniaal bykomende hulp sou kon verleen. Ons bied wenke aan oor hoe ʼn beter aanlyn weergawe van die ou bekende Woordelys by die aanvang van die tweede honderd jaar van die AWS daar sou kon uitsien.<hr/>This article is the second in a series of two concerned with the word list section of the Afrikaanse Woordelys en Spelreëls (AWS). The online version of the word list section was released to users in 2010, shortly after the tenth version of the AWS was published in 2009. This version of the 2009 Woordelys is the focus of the current article. We investigate the Woordelys from a user perspective and contextualise our study against the background of the rapid development of e-lexicography, and the possibilities opened up by the availability of online lexicographic reference sources. We start our investigation with a critical evaluation from the perspective of the user of the Woordelys. In our evaluation we refer to the implications of the unavailability of the Afrikaans spelling rules to the online user, the inadequacy of the software underpinning the online version of the Woordelys, and lastly, we comment on the fact that no typographical distinction is made within the articles between different data types. Secondly, we discuss the status of the Woordelys as lexicographic information source. In the third section we focus on the user of the Woordelys viewed against the backgound of the information needs of the user in the information era. Analysis of logfiles is a relatively new technique for obtaining information on the real information needs of the user. Based on such analysis, we conclude that the needs of the user of the Woordelys are not restricted to seeking information on spelling of specific words only - users of the Woordelys have far more sophisticated needs than those pertaining exclusively to spelling. By compiling a corpus of unedited writing by Afrikaansspeaking students, we were able to identify words which are often misspelled and which consequently are suitable candidates for inclusion in future versions of the Woordelys. We conclude that the current online version of the Woordelys - despite being a valuable reference work - does not provide adequately for the information needs of the modern user. In terms of the function theory - one of the modern theories of lexicography - lexicographic information sources should not only provide cognitive information, but should also provide clear guidance with regard to text production. Provision of this kind of information should be a consideration when a revised version of the Woordelys is planned. Apart from making a number of recommendations with regard to a more functional lemma selection, we also recommend the use of a lexicographic ruler, although the relevance of such a ruler for the Woordelys, which could be seen as a kind of special dictionary, has not yet been ascertained. Currently, there is a good correlation between the predictions made by the ruler for Afrikaans and the actual alphabetical stretches covered in the Woordelys. We conclude with a number of suggestions which could assist in the creation of an improved online version of the old familiar Woordelys, which could serve its users well in the next hundred years. <![CDATA[<b>The nature, goal, and scope of the <i>Afrikaanse Woordelys</i> <i>en Spelreëls.</i> Part 1</b>]]> Toe die eerste Afrikaanse woordelys en spelreëls (AWS) meer as honderd jaar gelede gekonsipieer is, was dit nog nie standaard praktyk om die aard, doel en omvang van woordeboeke duidelik, omvattend en sistematies uit te spel in ʼn woordeboekkonseptualiseringsplan nie. In 2006 het die TK begin om twee dokumente saam te stel, naamlik ʼn stylgids (waarin kwessies soos die volgorde van etikette, alfabetisering, volgorde van los-, vas- en koppeltekenskryfvorme, inkortings, tipografie, en so meer aangeraak word) en riglyne vir die TK (waarin opname- en elimineringskriteria vir lemmas in die woordelysgedeelte van die AWS bespreek word). Geen van beide is tot op datum van publikasie van hierdie artikel formeel deur die TK goedgekeur of in die openbare domein beskikbaar nie. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om van daardie inligting te organiseer, daarop uit te brei en as ʼn operasionaliseringsraamwerk te formuleer. Met betrekking tot die aard van die AWS word die AWS binne ʼn groter woordeboektipologie gekarakteriseer as ʼn beperkte, eentalige, sinchroniese, linguisties-ensiklopediese naslaanbron. Die belangrikste doel van die AWS is om norme daar te stel vir die gebruik van hedendaagse, geskrewe, formele Standaardafrikaans. Met betrekking tot die omvang van die woordelysgedeelte in die AWS word daarop gewys dat lemmas in die AWS ʼn dubbele rol as woordeboekinskrywings vervul, naamlik as makro- én mikrostruktuurelemente. Verskeie opname- en elimineringskriteria wat die omvang van die AWS bepaal, word bespreek en aan die hand van verskeie voorbeelde toegelig.<hr/>When the first Afrikaanse woordelys en spelreëls (AWS) was conceived more than a hundred years ago, it was not yet standard practice to explicate the nature, goal and scope (for example with regard to inclusion and elimination criteria) of dictionaries explicitly in a dictionary conceptualisation plan. Through the years, the compilers of the AWS (i.e. the Language Commission ("Taalkommissie" (TK)) of the "Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns") provided in the respective forewords of each new edition of the AWS indications of their specific perspectives, goals and methodologies. Until 2006, no internal (or public) dictionary conceptualisation plan of the AWS existed. From 2006 onwards, the TK endeavoured to compile a style guide (addressing matters such as the sequence of dictionary tags, alphabetisation, sequence of disjunctively and conjunctively written forms, treatment of clippings, typography, etc.), as well as methodological guidelines for inclusion and elimination of lemmas in the word-list section of the AWS. None of these documents have been formally approved by the TK, or have been released in the public domain. The aim of this article is to organise and interpret some of the information contained in these documents, to construct an operationalisation framework, and to make this information available for scientific scrutiny. With regard to the nature of the AWS (as a so-called spelling or orthography dictionary), it is characterised within a broader dictionary typology as a limited, monolingual, synchronic, linguistic-encyclopaedic reference work. As such, it shares certain similarities with standard monolingual dictionaries, specifically regarding the normative character of some of these dictionaries. One can therefore also say that it is the primary goal of the AWS to set norms and standards for using present-day, written, formal Standard Afrikaans. Regarding the scope of the word-list section of the AWS, this article argues that lemmas in the AWS has a bipartite function, serving simultaneously as macro- and microstructural dictionary elements. Numerous inclusion and elimination criteria that determine the scope of the AWS are discussed and illustrated with examples from the AWS. Macrostructural criteria include: (1) lexical items that could present potential spelling problems and problems of style; (2) the status of lexical items (taking the distribution and frequency of a lexical item in corpora into account); (3) lexical items that should be included for the sake of completing certain paradigms in the AWS (e.g. derivations of language names); (4) illustration material in the rule section of the AWS; and (5) physical limitations in the scope of a to-be-published book, set by a publisher. Microstructural criteria include: (1) linguistic correctness/motivation of lexical items; (2) institutionalisation of lexical items in other dictionaries; (3) frequency of lexical items (and specifically variant lemmas) in a variety of corpora; and (4) the dictionary style and editorial policy of the AWS. A few statistical models and techniques that could be considered by the TK when analysing corpus data are also discussed. The article concludes with a summative table that could serve as an operationalised frame of reference for the AWS. A few topics for further future research are also included. <![CDATA[<b>Inclusion and elimination criteria for the <i>Afrikaanse Woordelys en Spelreëls</i>: The case of <em>emeritus.</em> Part 2</b>]]> Sedert 2006 het die Taalkommissie (TK) begin om formele riglyne vir die opname of eliminering van lemmas in die Afrikaanse woordelys en spelreëls (AWS) saam te stel; dié riglyne is deur Van Huyssteen (2017b - kyk Deel 1 in hierdie uitgawe) in ʼn operasionaliseringsraamwerk geformaliseer. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om die operasionaliseringsraamwerk uitvoerig aan die hand van ʼn gevallestudie, te wete die geval emeritus, te illustreer. In die eerste elf stappe word vrae beantwoord wat die makrostrukturele status van die lemma in die woordelysgedeelte van die AWS raak, naamlik of emeritus opgeneem moet word of nie. Agt van dié vrae kan positief beantwoord word en dien as motivering vir die opname van emeritus as lemma. Die laaste ses stappe se vrae het betrekking op die mikrostrukturele hantering van emeritus, naamlik hoe dit in die AWS opgeneem moet word. Op sterkte van die analises word tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat emeritus soms as selfstandige naamwoord (met slegs die meervoud emeriti) in Afrikaans funksioneer, maar meestal as prenominale adjektief (byvoorbeeld emeritus aartsbiskop).<hr/>Since 2006, the Language Commission ("Taalkommissie"; TK) endeavoured to compile formal guidelines for the inclusion or elimination of lemmas in the Afrikaanse woordelys en spelreëls (AWS); these guidelines have been formalised as an operationalisation framework by Van Huyssteen (2017b - see Part 1 in this edition). The purpose of this article is to illustrate the application of this framework, using the lexical item emeritus as a case study. The history of emeritus in the various editions of the AWS is discussed, and it is illustrated that its lexicographic treatment in AWS10 does not provide the end-user with any clear answers as to how emeritus should be used in combination with other nouns (titles). Moreover, its treatment in several other Afrikaans dictionaries varies considerably, leaving end-users with even more uncertainty. It therefore necessitates a systematic analysis of this lexical item, using various macro- and microstructural criteria. In the first eleven steps, questions regarding the macrostructural status of the lemma emeritus in the word-list part of the AWS are considered, with the overarching question being whether emeritus should be included in the AWS or not. Based on data from various corpora and dictionaries, eight of the questions are answered positively, and it is demonstrated that emeritus occurs frequently enough in written Standard Afrikaans to justify its inclusion as a lemma in the AWS. Even though the plural form emeritusse (introduced in AWS4as a variant plural form of emeriti) occurs in various Afrikaans dictionaries (but not in dictionaries of any other Germanic languages), it is shown that it does not occur at all in any of the corpora, and could therefore be excluded as a word-form in contemporary written Standard Afrikaans. In the six last steps of the operationalisation framework questions regarding the microstructural treatment of a lemma are considered, with the overarching question being how emeritus should be treated in the AWS. Data from a few other Germanic languages show that emeritus functions both as noun (with the possible exception of Frisian) and adjective in these languages. As an adjective, it occurs mostly postpositively in English, German, Swedish, Danish, and Norse, while occurring mostly prepositively in Dutch and Frisian. An analysis of Afrikaans corpus data clearly shows that emeritus occurs statistically significantly as a prepositive adjective (e.g. emeritus aartsbiskop "emeritus archbishop") in written Standard Afrikaans, and that its postpositive occurrence is rather improbable. In combination with other nouns (titles) the only probable competing construction is a coordinating compound with emeritus as left-hand constituent (e.g. emeritus-aartsbiskop). The article concludes with a summative table of all criteria considered, and gives reasons why and how the entries of emeritus in AWS10 were changed in AWS11 to reflect its usage in contemporary written Standard Afrikaans more accurately. <![CDATA[<b>Variation and variety: A provisional exploration of the occurrence and function of language varieties in <i>Kaar</i> (Marlene van Niekerk)</b>]]> In hierdie artikel word die polifonie van tale in Kaar, Marlene van Niekerk se derde digbundel (2013), ondersoek. Standaardafrikaans en verskeie sosiolekte, dialekte en streeksvariëteite van Afrikaans word in die bundel gevind, asook leksikale items uit verskeie moeder- en sustertale van Afrikaans. 'n Aantal moontlike invalshoeke tot die bundel word eerstens bespreek. Die fokus verskuif dan na die verskeie tale in die bundel; die wyses waarop hulle gebruik word in die gedigte, word gelys in 'n uitgebreide Addendum. Die vraag word gestel waarom soveel items uit Afrikaans wat geëtiketteer word as onder meer "argaïes", "weinig gebruiklik", "verouderd" en "deftig" gebruik word om 'n heteroglossiese effek te skep. Die argument word gestel dat byna vergete items "losgemaak" word uit die vergetelheid en vir die leser opgehou word as lewende items om 'n verbygaande en verbygegane wêreld mee op te roep. Kommentaar word voorts gelewer oor die plek van Afrikaans binne en tussen hierdie polifonie van tale en 'n indirekte stelling word deur die digter gemaak dat Afrikaans se wortels in die Indo-Germaanse taalfamilie lê en nie in die Afrikatale nie. Ten slotte word Deleuze en Guattari (1986) se begrippe "majeur-" en "mineurtaal" deelteoreties gebruik om die register van talle gedigte in Kaar as 'n mineurtaal te verduidelik, 'n taal wat verby sy gewone morfologiese en sintaktiese grense gedruk word om te verseker dat die taal in 'n voortdurend nomadiese en dinamiese staat bly.<hr/>In this article the polyphony of languages discernible in Kaar, Marlene van Niekerk's third volume of poetry (2013), is investigated. Standard Afrikaans and various sociolects, dialects and regional varieties of Afrikaans are found in the volume, as well as lexical items from various mother and sister languages of Afrikaans such as Dutch, German and Latin. A number of possible points of entry to the volume is firstly discussed: Kaar can be analysed as an "encyclopedic narrative" (Mendelson 1976); the variety of scientific, literary and art-theoretical intertexts can be researched fruitfully; the conversation with Afrikaans poetics may be analysed; the variety of morphological and onomatopoeic and often playful creations and onomastics that are performed on the level of the wordplay in the poetry of Peter Blum, T.T. Cloete and Breyten Breytenbach deserve attention; the formation and function of reduction, combination forms, techno derivations and compounds, fusions and folk etimologies can serve as basis for a comprehensive morphological-literary investigation (cf. Combrink 1990:53-83); from an ecocritical animal and botanical perspective plant and animal onomastics - especially the many examples of regional names for plants and animals - could be analysed; the themes of political involvement and resistance deserve thorough analysis. The focus then shifts to the various languages in the volume; the ways in which they are used in the poems are listed in an extensive Addendum. The question is posed why so many items from Afrikaans labelled as "archaic", "seldom used", "obsolete", "dignified" and "poetical" are put to use to create a heteroglossic effect. After reasoning that these lexical items form part of the poet's day to day world, the argument is put forward that nearly forgotten items are "loosened" from oblivion and held up to the reader as living items to recall a passing and fugacious world. Commentary is furthermore given on the place of Afrikaans in and between this polyphony of languages and an indirect assertion is made by the poet that Afrikaans' roots are from the Indo-Germanic language family and not from the African languages; this forms part of the theme of estrangement in Africa, an important theme in the volume. Finally, Deleuze and Guattari's (1986) notion of "major" and "minor" languages is used to partially explain the register of many of the poems in Kaar as a minor language, a language that is pushed beyond its usual morphological and syntactic boundaries to ensure that it stays in a continuous nomadic and dynamic state. <![CDATA[<b>The Hertzog prize for drama: Greek tragedy, Medieval morality play or Nineteenth century reality - the problematic nature of and challenges within the drama "industry" and the influence it bears upon the process of awarding prizes</b>]]> Die herbesinning oor die begrip "gemeenskap" in die eeu waarin ons leef, noodsaak tot ʼn groot mate ʼn herinterpretasie van ons posisie binne die kulturele en sosiale domeine in die samelewing. Met verwysing na die filosofie van die wetenskap, neem Pierre Bourdieu standpunt in tussen strukturalisme aan die een en ʼn meer subjektiewe benadering tot agente in die samelewing aan die ander kant. Dit beteken in feite dat hoewel mense skynbaar as subjektiewe onafhanklike agente optree, hulle tog ook beïnvloed word deur strukture binne hulle sosiale omgewing. Binne die literêre sisteem impliseer dit dus dat die skrywer of dramaturg en sy/haar teks nooit outonoom geëvalueer kan word nie. Ander belangrike rolspelers binne hierdie proses sou die leser, kritici, uitgewer en selfs die media ook insluit. 'n Duidelike transformasie by die toekenning van pryse is tans in werking. Daar is 'n gedurige dinamiese wisselwerking in die proses, tussen die uitgebreide meganika van nominasie en verkiesing, aanbieding en aanvaarding, borgskap, publisiteit en skandale. In hierdie artikel val die fokus op die bepaalde verhoudings tussen agente en reëls wat binne die veld bestaan. Voorts word die groter "kulturele veld" wat deur pryse blootgelê word, insluitend die belangstelling wat hulle genereer asook die kritieke vyandigheid wat hulle so toenemend ontlok, bekyk. Die afleiding wat gemaak kan word, is dat daar geen ontsnapping uit "die ekonomie van prestige" kan wees nie. Daar word indringend gekyk na die problematiek ten opsigte van die drama-toekennings teen die agtergrond van die drama-genre as deel van die groter literêre sisteem maar ook as onlosmaaklik deel van die groter teaterwetenskap. Die dramateks is dus terselfdertyd literêre teks en teateropvoering. Die drama as speel- en leesteks vereis binne die Hertzogprys-beoordelingsproses sonder twyfel 'n eiesoortige benadering waarsonder die drama-genre nooit sy regmatige plek binne die literêre sisteem sal verkry nie.<hr/>The twentieth century compels a reinterpretation of our position within the cultural and social domains in society. This process also inevitably leads to a reconsideration of the concept of "community". To understand and evaluate this process one needs to refer to Bourdieu and the philosophy of science. For the sake of this reinterpretation Pierre Bourdieu positions himself between structuralism on the one hand and a more subjective approach to agents in the society on the other. In effect this means that people ostensibly act as subjective independent agents, but are also influenced by structures within their social environment. Within the literary system it implies that neither the author or playwright nor his/her text, can be evaluated autonomously. Other important players are readers, critics, publishers and even the media. In today's society there is a remarkable increase in the importance of prizes in literature and in the arts. The power and impact thereof on society and culture in general has grown significantly. In a comprehensive review of this phenomenon, James F. English (2008) documents the dramatic rise of the awards industry and its complex role in what he described as an economy of cultural prestige (Van Coller 2010; Bonthuys 2016). Investigating the Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns's literary awards, it is evident that the drama awards are surrounded by controversy. Through decades the drama awards were characterized by controversial issues over who would be worthy of an award, but often also about whether an award could be made whatsoever. To reflect on the Hertzog Prize for drama, it is important to get a complete overview of the awards made, but more importantly to investigate the years in which no awards were made. From this investigation, meaningful facts come to the fore especially on the specific process involved. It is apparent that a problematic situation exists because of important issues that play a significant role in the award process of the Hertzog Prize for drama. For one, the fact that the drama genre can never completely be defined within a singular realm. It is literary text, but also performance text and is furthermore heavily dependent on publication. Given the trends in the Afrikaans drama and theatre world, one finds a unique set of problems relating to the successful reception of the published play. The larger ground breaking "new" drama genre is now livelier than ever before, and because of its specific features, it also acts restrictively with regards to publication. Furthermore, the existence of the Afrikaans drama genre, against the background of the important and decisive political and social landscape, has an enormous impact on the status and publication of plays in Afrikaans. The demands set for playwrights for mere survival in the industry today exert extreme entrepreneurial thinking. Apart from the problematic nature and form of the drama, the genre suffers under many outside factors detrimental to financing productions, performance, prescribed feasibility of texts and ultimately publication. These are all factors that have an impact indirectly on the awarding of the Hertzog Prize for drama. As a result of the aforementioned, the dynamics of literary prize awards are investigated in this article. More specifically the nature of the prizes and the value of literary and cultural capital when it comes to assessing these prizes are under scrutiny. Despite the ultimate main focus on the published literary work, there is also an underlying awareness of the types of usable capital in the literary field to establish the position of a playwright of a specific drama within the larger social structures of power in the literary community. A clear transformation in the awarding of prizes is currently taking place. In this process there is a constant dynamic interaction between the extensive mechanics of nomination and election, presentation and acceptance, sponsorship, publicity and scandal. In this article the focus will be on the specific relationships between agents and rules that exist in the field. In addition, the larger "cultural field" which is exposed through prizes, including the interest they generate and the critical hostility they evoke, is viewed. The conclusion that can be drawn is that there is no escape whatsoever from "the economy of prestige". This article attempts an in depth look at drama awards against the background of the drama genre as part of the larger literary system, but also the larger scientific study of theatre. As mentioned above, the dramatic script is concurrently literary text and theatrical performance. It is also, much more than the other two genres, hampered by the specific socio-political landscape within which it exists. The political dynamics as well as socio-historical contexts contribute greatly to the creation, existence and survival of the theatre as a source of the published play. Within the Hertzog prize assessment process the drama as performance text as well as reading text requires without a doubt a unique approach without which the drama genre will never gain its rightful place within the literary system. <![CDATA[<b>A revaluation of Eben Venter's <i>Wolf, wolf</i> within the context of his oeuvre</b>]]> Gegewe die relatiewe onderwaardering in Suid-Afrika van Eben Venter se jongste roman Wolf, wolf, veral ten opsigte van literêre pryse - wat ook iets van die ontvangs van sy werk oor die algemeen illustreer - word in hierdie artikel gepoog om hierdie roman binne die konteks van Venter se oeuvre te herevalueer. Met verwysing na Julia Kristeva (1980) se essay "From one identity to an other" word aangetoon hoe die spanning tussen die "simboliese" orde van die vader (se taal) en die instinkmatige "semiotiese" aspek van taal in Wolf, wolf uitspeel deur die teleskopering van die verhouding tussen die streng, heteronormatiewe Benjamin Duiker en sy pornografie-verslaafde gay seun Mattheüs, wat hy van jongs af half in- en half uitsluit, en uiteindelik dan ook (ten dele) uit sy testament laat. Daar word voorts ondersoek ingestel na hoe 'n verdere dialektiese relasie wat Kristeva (1980) uitlig, naamlik tussen die nabootsende "retorikus" en die onafhanklike "stilis", in die ontwikkeling van Venter se werk na vore kom, met Wolf, wolf as kulminasiepunt waarin die stilis seëvier. Die wolfmotief is in 'n resensie van Crous (2013) as ongemotiveerd beskryf, maar dís juis die punt: die wolf(motief) as vernaamste manifestasie van die semiotiese in hierdie roman bedreig die orde, ook dié van die roman, en suggereer op ʼn manier wat Foucault (1978) oproep maar ook aan hom verbystreef, dat seksualiteit, of sekere uitdrukkings of aspekte daarvan, uiteindelik dalk nie gereguleer en beheer kan word nie, in praktyk en diskursief - spesifiek in hierdie digitale era. Pornografie as taboe-onderwerp, in samehang met die wolfmotief, markeer dus op ʼn treffende manier die meer algemene tema van in- en uitsluiting wat in hierdie roman op die voorgrond gestel word.<hr/>Generally well-received in Afrikaans and South African literary criticism and far from completely undervalued in terms of literary prizes, the work of Afrikaans author Eben Venter is, however, in need of reappraisal. Some important literary accolades still evade him, despite the generally accepted merits of his writing, most notably his bold engagement with South African reality (viewed also with an international lens) and his engaging exploration of style. His most recent novel Wolf, wolf (2013) received mostly positive reviews in South Africa and was awarded the first KykNet/Rapport Book Prize, but Venter himself was rather disappointed with the local reception as compared to the greater enthusiasm with which the English translation has been welcomed abroad on account of its close examination of highly relevant topics such as the relationship between autocratic father and (gay) son, the rise of social media and, in particular, pornography addiction. In this article I attempt a revaluation of Wolf, wolf within the context of Venter's oeuvre. With reference to Julia Kristeva's (1980) essay "From one identity to an other" I show how the "symbolic" order (the laws of the father/language) and the instinctual "semiotic" aspect of language are strikingly brought together under the same roof in Wolf, wolf, with the result that the transcendental ego is shown to come to register its crisis (Kristeva 1980:141). The 32 year old Mattheüs mindlessly views gay pornography in his bedroom when he is not taking care of his father, the strict patriarch Benjamin Duiker who is dying of cancer yet insisting to maintain a "transcendental mastery over discourse" (Kristeva 1980:140) by making tape recordings addressed to his son. Mattheüs' compulsive, secretive porn-viewing, together with his concealed cohabitation with his boyfriend in the privacy of his room, constitute a subversion of the laws that hold sway in the father's house. Venter explores the reluctant, conflicted alignment of the son with the paternal order, and the effect which the loss thereof has on Mattheüs. The semiotic in Wolf, wolf coalesces in the motif of the well-known children's game, "Wolf, wolf". Jack, the boyfriend of Mattheüs, first introduces this ominous counting-out game, hinting at both life and death, into their stagnant relationship when he arrives at the gate of the mansion, disguised as a wolf and ready to move in, in spite of the heteronormative father's express prohibition. Unable to accept his son's gay identity, the ensuing transgression is the final straw and results in Benjamin excluding Mattheüs from his will - the culmination of the theme of in- and exclusion explored in Wolf, wolf. This theme is consolidated in an earlier passage in the novel describing a memory from Mattheüs' childhood: He once entered the masculine sanctity of his father's study unannounced, thereby interrupting the bawdy discussion going on between Benjamin and another car salesman, upon which he was met, for one pivotal moment, with his father's undisguised "gaze", totally excluding and "othering" him (Venter 2013:10-11). Against this background, and building on Van den Berg's (2016) Lacoue-Labarthe inspired research on mimesis in Venter's dystopian Horrelpoot (2006), I explore the way Venter's work has evolved away from an attempted transcendental mastery of language associated with the symbolic - to a large extent still underpinning Horrelpoot (translated as Trencherman) with its strong mimetic relationship with the father text Heart of darkness (Joseph Conrad) - toward the confident, independent stance represented by Wolf, wolf. This activates another crucial dialectic identified by Kristeva (1980:138-139), i.e. the "rhetorician" and the "stylist", which sheds light on, amongst other things, the battle between father and son in Venter's work. Whereas the rhetorician mimics the tradition - as Venter to some extent does in his novels - in order to win the father's favour or to undermine him in a sly way, the stylist, Kristeva (1980:139) maintains, "no longer needs to seduce the father by rhetorical affectations. As winner of the battle, he may ... assume a different discourse; neither imaginary discourse of the self, nor discourse of transcendental knowledge, but a permanent go-between from one to the other, a pulsation of sign and rhythm, of consciousness and instinctual drive [...] Stylists ... sound a dissonance within the thetic, paternal function of language". Part of the proliferation, instead of censorship, of discourse on sexuality, as described by Michel Foucault (1978) in part one of his The history of sexuality, Venter's Wolf, wolf manifests the need for a kind of literature which according to Susan Sontag (2005) in one of her late essays, "At the same time ... (the novelist and moral reasoning)", is able to say: "[T]his is the important story". Unflinching in its attention to that which has been selected (Sontag), and marked by both personal involvement and uncompromising exactitude in the artistic execution (as in post-realist painting), Wolf, wolf confronts the reader with the reality of pornography as (supposedly) taboo subject, resulting in powerful defamiliarisation, most notably given the way in which the animalistic gains prominence in this novel through the focus on the wolf. The wolf/wolflike, in Jungian terms associated with the shadow and the trickster, is representative in (western) mythology and narratives of that which is denied and excluded, the things (mostly of a sexual nature) we are warned against in a fairytale such as "Little Red Riding Hood". Crous (2013), in his review of Wolf, wolf, claims that the wolf motif in this novel is unmotivated and poorly integrated, but that is exactly the point: the wolf (motif) threatens the order, also that of the novel, and suggests in a way that recalls and supersedes Foucault (1978), that sexuality, or certain expressions or aspects thereof, may ultimately resist regulation and containment, in practice but also discursively - specifically in this digital age. Pornography, in conjunction with the wolf motif, thus relates to the more general theme of in- and exclusion explored in Wolf, wolf, specifically with respect to Benjamin and Mattheüs and the struggle between the symbolic and the semiotic. Although Wolf, wolf does present valuable insights on pornography and the addiction to it, the achievement of this novel does not reside in what it tells us in this regard, but rather in what it enacts discursively. The foregrounding of pornography is important in itself and serves to highlight the theme of in- and exclusion, opening it up for discussion: Since pornography can still awaken fierce impulses and reactions relating to in- and exclusion, and is indeed considered taboo in terms of language/discourse - yet (privately) enjoyed by many - the textual tension between the symbolic order and semiotic wedge is strongly emphasised. <![CDATA[<b>S.J. Naudé's <i>The alphabet of birds</i> (2011) - A hybrid between the novel and the short story volume. (Part 1)</b>]]> Die sosiokulturele en -politieke verband wat daar tussen literatuur en die samelewing bestaan, plaas postmoderne literatuur in 'n direkte verhouding met die moderne wêreldbeskouing waarvolgens daar 'n toenemende behoefte na en tendens van grensoorskryding is. In Naudé se kortverhaalbundel Alfabet van die voëls (2011) kom grensoorskryding op al drie vlakke van die narratologie (storie, verhaal en vertelproses) voor. Aangesien die individuele verhale in Naudé (2011) se bundel langer as die normale kortverhaal is, is daar wat die afsonderlike verhale betref 'n grensoorskryding tussen die kortverhaal en die roman. Die afsonderlike verhale in Naudé se bundel fokus ook nie altyd, soos wat dikwels in kortverhale gebeur, net op een karakter, een plek, 'n spesifieke tyd of draaipunt nie. Alhoewel die afsonderlike verhale in S.J. Naudé se kortverhaalbundel Alfabet van die voëls (2011) as selfstandige verhale gelees kan word, lei die feit dat dieselfde temas deurlopend in die verhale aanwesig is, dat dieselfde karakters in meer as een verhaal optree, asook die feit dat die sewe verhale min of meer dieselfde struktuur, aanbiedingswyse en eienskappe met betrekking tot fokus, perspektief en tyd vertoon, daartoe dat die verhale op subtiele wyse op mekaar inspeel en mekaar aanvul. In feite is dit tipies van die prosasiklus wat een sentrale tema ontwikkel en herhaal. Die gevolg is dat die ontologiese grense tussen verhale bevraagteken word. Op grond hiervan word daar in die artikel uitgegaan van die hipotetiese aanname dat daar in Naudé se teks bepaalde normverskuiwings op die vlak van die genre waargeneem kan word. Vernuwing is uiteraard 'n belangrike kriterium in die beoordeling van letterkundige werke en speel ook 'n groot rol in die resepsie daarvan. Ten slotte is een van die doelwitte van hierdie studie dus ook om implisiet te oordeel oor die feit dat dié bundel - wat selfs internasionaal wyd bekroon en gewaardeer is - nooit die Eugène Maraisprys van die Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns (in wese 'n aanmoedigingsprys vir 'n debuutwerk of vroeë publikasie) ontvang het nie. <![CDATA[<b>S.J. Naudé's <i>The alphabet of birds </i>(2011) - A hybrid between the novel and the short story volume. (Part 2)</b>]]> In die eerste deel van hierdie tweedelige studie, S.J. Naudé se Alfabet van die voëls (2011) - 'n hibried tussen die roman en die kortverhaalbundel, is veral aandag gegee aan die resepsie van hierdie kortverhaalbundel (ook en veral in internasionale verband). In hierdie tweede deel verskuif die fokus veral na die kerntema van Alfabet van die voëls en die wyse waarop hierdie tema herhaal en ontwikkel word. Die oorkoepelende kerntema in Naudé se teks, naamlik ontheemde karakters wat in 'n postmodernistiese wêreld moet leer om met verlies saam te leef, word gekonstitueer deur beelde van siekte, fisieke agteruitgang en pyn, vervreemding en onsekerheid oor seksuele identiteit. Ten einde tot aanvaarding te kom, is dit noodsaaklik dat die karakters 'n grensoorskrydende losmakingsproses ondergaan. In al die verhale in Naudé se bundel word daar slegs een hoofkarakter aangetref en in al die verhale ondergaan die hoofkarakters 'n transformasie en keer hul as "geïnisieerdes" en "mense wat 'n individuasieproses deurloop het" (kyk Van Coller 2006:103), terug. In hierdie tweede deel word die mate waartoe sowel as die wyses waarop hierdie eenheidskeppende elemente (o.a. volgorde van verhale, titeleenheid, ruimtes, karakterisering, vertelsituasie, strukturele patrone en slotte) in Naudé se teks gedemonstreer word, onder die loep geneem. Die sewe verhale het oor die algemeen min of meer dieselfde struktuur en aanbiedingswyse en dieselfde eienskappe met betrekking tot fokus, perspektief en tyd, wat daartoe bydra dat die verhale op mekaar inspeel. Dit blyk dus duidelik dat Alfabet van die voëls as 'n kortverhaalsiklus geklassifiseer kan word en dat dit veral elemente van die kortverhaalroman bevat. Oor of die nie-bekroning van hierdie werk deur die Letterkundekommissie van die Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns 'n vergissing was, sal die literatuuurgeskiedenis uiteindelik oordeel. Wat wel onteenseglik vasstaan, is dat dit 'n ryk bundel is wat deur geduldige herlees telkens nuwe nuanses prysgee.<hr/>In the first part of this two-part study, S.J. Naudé's The alphabet of birds (2015) - A hybrid between the novel and the short story, the focus was on the reception of this volume of short stories (also in international context). In this second part the focus is on the thematic node of this book and on the ways in which it is developed and repeated. The central theme in Naude's text is the depiction of displaced persons who in a postmodern world must learn to cope with bereavement. This is constituted through images of illness, physical decay and pain, alienation and insecurity as far as sexual identity is concerned. In order to arrive at acceptance, characters must undergo a radical process which entails the crossing of a boundary which is simultaneously a form of detachment. Van Gennep (1960:10-11, 21) identifies three liminal phases: physical detachment as the preliminal phase, transformation (the liminal phase) and reintegration as a transformed person. In all of the stories in Naude's book, there is only one main character. Usually there is limited room for character development in a short story, but due to the length of Naude's stories his character develops markedly. This main character is indeed transformed and at the end of the book he has undergone a process of initiation and in a sense has undergone a process of Jungian individuation (cf. Van Coller 2006:103). This process is in fact the central theme which is developed in all of the stories, but also in the book as a whole which renders it as akin to a novel and is typical of a prose cycle. In the first part of this study the possible ways to create unity have been discussed theoretically. In the second part these proposed methods of creating unity amongst stories (inter alia the succession of stories, titles, spaces, characterisation, narrative situations, structural patterns and endings) are used as a hermeneutical tool in the interpretation process. The conclusion of this study is that all of the stories in Naudé's volume of short stories are bound together in a subtle way and complement each other. "In a certain sense these stories create a secret alphabet which the reader must decipher" (Viljoen 2011:6). This rewriting almost constitutes a palimpsest with several layers that entails a creative interpretation process for the reader in order to really understand the text. This active participation influences the reader to ponder the depth of loss and bereavement. Whether the Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns has erred in not awarding this book with the prestigious Eugène Marais Prize remains an open question which will only be answered in times to come. Without a doubt however, The alphabet of birds (2011), is a rich and rewarding book with nuances that only careful scrutiny and rereading can bring to the fore.