Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0041-475120150004&lang=es vol. 55 num. 4 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Voorwoord: Besinninge oor die voorwaardes vir 'n gesonde samelewing</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000400001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[<b>Spirited employees as building block for a healthy society</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000400002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In die eerste gedeelte van die artikel word aangedui hoe die samelewing sy spirituele karakter verloor het. Met die koms van moderniteit en gepaardgaande rasionalisme en liniêre denke, het spiritualiteit sy waarde verloor en selfs vergete geraak in die samelewing. Die gevolge hiervan was volgens De Beer (2013) rampspoedig. Dit het veroorsaak dat die beginsel van sorg verdwyn en gelei het tot die uitbuiting van mense en die natuur op 'n globale skaal. De Beer vra vir 'n strategie wat moet lei tot die hertowering van die samelewing. Hierdie artikel fokus daarna op die rol van die moderne organisasie in die ont-mensliking van die samelewing, en toon aan dat die sleutel tot herspiritualisering van die samelewing ook in die werkplek gehou word. In die postmoderne omgewing word daar toenemend weer gevra na betekenis en sin - en dit word veral in die werkplek gevra. Mense soek sin en betekenis in wat hulle doen en die werkplek waar mense baie van hulle tyd deurbring, word die terrein waarop hulle sin wil vind en betekenisvol betrokke wil wees. Baie organisasies is reeds bewus van hierdie behoefte, maar het nie die begrip of wil om sodanig te transformeer dat hulle vir hulle werknemers 'n terrein vir die uitlewing van spiritualiteit kan word nie. Die uitlewing van spiritualiteit in organisasies kan werknemers bevry en emansipeer en hulle opnuut toelaat om sinvol en doelgerig in en met werk besig te wees in die groter belang. Op hierdie manier kan werknemers dus voel dat hulle besig is om te sorg en sorgsaam te wees teenoor ander en ook teenoor die wêreld.<hr/>In the first part of this article it is indicated that society lost its spiritual character. Throughout the course of history (until the dawn of modernity) spirit and spirituality were an integrated part of society and openly confessed and promoted. Spirituality was linked to the inspiration behind human activities such as science, art and religion. More importantly, spirit and spirituality are associated with care - for the self, fellow human beings and the world itself. With the arrival of modernity and the accompanying rationalism and linear thinking, spirituality was eroded and forgotten in society. The consequences of this erosion were disastrous. It caused a loss of the principle of care and led to exploitation of fellow human beings and nature on a global scale. De Beer (2013:498) describes it as the absence and loss of meaningful human existence. He then asks for a strategy to be found for a re-enchantment of society. As part of the de-spiritualisation of society, modern organisations were subjected to the same forces of rationalism, linear thinking and standardisation and the dismissal of spirit from the workplace. Similar to society spirituality (also religiously - such as the principle of "calling" and "vocation") had to make space for "scientific" ways of organising and managing the modern organisation. Looking now at organisations and corporations, it is clear that the majority of them got stuck in principle and applications that were conceived and developed from the first part of the previous century. Modern organisations are based on rational thinking, bureaucratic and hierarchically structured. It became a bit more sophisticated during the course of the twentieth century with more emphasis on the human side of organising. However, these attempts to humanise the organisation were mostly done to serve the interest of the organisation to impact on productivity, cost effectiveness and finally, the bottom-line. In the postmodern environment there is an increasing call for making sense and asking for meaning. The focus of this revival of asking spiritual questions is in the workplace. Employees are looking for meaning in what they do there where they spend most of their productive hours. They also want to purposefully make a difference and have an impact. Many organisations are already aware of the need of their employees but don t have the insight nor are they really willing to transform to the extent that it could become an environment conducive to bring their spiritual needs to life. Of course it can be advantageous for organisations to transform spiritually to allow for the calling of care and love to become reality in the organisation. The condition is that the spiritual agenda should not be focussed on the self-interest of the organisation (if organisations transform spiritually to serve their own interests the advantages of being spiritual will be lost because it will defeat the inherent selfless character of spirituality - defeating the purpose). The renewal of spirituality in organisations has the potential to free and emancipate employees by allowing them to be sensible and purposefully engaged in their work to serve the bigger interest. This will also make it possible for employees to serve their fellow employees, clients and ultimately the world with care. For this reason it appears as if the workplace can become the natural point of departure for the re-spiritualisation of society. When "spirited" employees can make a contribution in their work, it will also impact on the organisations itself. The consequence of this may be that organisations will ask equally important "spiritual" questions regarding their reasons for existence. This may, in turn, lead to a more caring organisation. When both employees and the organisation have developed a renewed spirituality it will have an impact on society and can contribute to that re-enchantment of society which we urgently need. The question is where will we find the kind of organisation that is conducive to spiritual thinking? The article proposes that Senge's learning organisation concept may provide huge potential to house the spiritual organisation and may take the lead towards the transformation of the world. <![CDATA[<b>Thought as condition for a healthy society</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000400003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die oogmerk van my bydrae is om voorlopig enkele waardes of ideale wat myns insiens kan bydra tot 'n gesonde samelewing tesame met die wording van 'n post-1994 regsleer in Suid-Afrika te bedink. Ek fokus op drie ideale, oftewel waardes, naamlik transformasie, gelykheid en interafhanklikheid. Elkeen van hierdie begrippe kan op vele maniere geïnterpreteer word en hou dus 'n veelvoud van moontlike betekenisse in. Ek gaan poog om getrou te wees aan die onbepaalbaarheid van hierdie begrippe en die onmoontlikheid om enigeen vas te vang in 'n reïfikasie van betekenis tot uitsluiting van ander. Tydelike en voorlopige betekenisse word wel oorweeg. My uitgangspunt vir die besinning van hierdie begrippe kom van gebeure en stories wat afgespeel het in die stad Pretoria/Tshwane in die jare 2010-2012, rondom die uitsettings van 700 families uit 'n woonstelgeboukompleks genaamd Schubartpark. Ek besin oor die gebeure tydens die afloop van die uitsettings. Die hoofinspirasie om 'n gesonde samelewing te bedink teen die agtergrond van Schubartpark is 'n fotoreeks van fotograaf Herman Verwey, genaamd "Post-apokaliptiese Schubartpark". Ek fokus slegs op enkele van die foto's uit die reeks ten einde my siening aangaande transformasie, gelykheid en interafhanklikheid te bedink. In navolging van Hannah Arendt is denke, die vermoë om in elke situasie te dink wat die beste moontlike reaksie sou kon wees, die enigste voorwaarde wat ek wil onderskryf. "Ultimately photography is subversive not when it frightens, when it repels, or even stigmates, but when it is pensive, when it thinks." (Roland Barthes soos aangehaal deur Thomas (2010:432))<hr/>The aim of my contribution is to reflect tentatively on a few values or ideals that I think could contribute to a healthy society in conjunction with a post-1994 jurisprudence. I focus on three ideals, or values, namely transformation, equality and interdependence. Each of these concepts could be interpreted in many ways and enfolds a multiplicity of meanings. I attempt to be faithful to the indeterminacy of these concepts and the impossibility to capture anyone of them in a reification of meaning that excludes other meaning. Temporary and tentative meanings, however, are considered. My starting point for the reflection of these concepts comes from events and narratives that played out in Pretoria/Tshwane from 2010 to 2012 around the eviction of 700 families from an apartment building complex named SchubartPark. The main inspiration to reflect on a healthy society against the background of SchubartPark is a series of photos taken by photographer Herman Verwey, entitled"Post-apocalyptic SchubartPark". The Schubart Park apartment complex stands in the tradition of modernity, and in particular modern instrumental rationality that brought about, as argued by Henri Lefebvre, a shift from inhabitance to habitat. This shift, that brought about an alienation between the state and its citizens, is well demonstrated by the events that occurred and illustrated by the Verwey photos. Following Hannah Arendt, thinking - the ability to think in each situation what the best possible reaction might be - is the only condition that I support. Arendt, each and every time when she was approached to provide a general solution or to formulate general standards, refused to give an answer. She was of the view that each situation, each problem should be thought through anew and that specific answers could be given only to specific questions. I start with stories of Schubart Park as background, after which I consider transformaton, equality and interdependence. I conclude by turning to Arendt, thinking and the Schubart Park photos. My main argument concerning transformation is that no easy solutions can be offered. I subscribe to the Deleuzian notion of becoming minor and argue that this notion should be coupled with transformation. A complex and ethical engagement with equaity is similar to transformation in the sense that both of these approaches show an awareness of the complexities that we are confronted with, and are tentative and reflective. I recall notions of "gnostic time", the "haunting presence of ruined time" and of "a justice to come" and relate them to Arendt's insistence on thinking. The photos of Schubart Park, although they portray a ruined society and the absence of transformation, equality and an openness towards interdependence, also beckon reflection and thought and the possibility of a justice to come. <![CDATA[<b>Thinking public servants for a better society</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000400004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Hierdie artikel besin oor hoe denke 'n grondvlakstaatsamptenaar in staat kan stel om 'n betekenisvolle bydrae tot 'n beter samelewing te maak. Met behulp van 'n nie-empiriese konseptuele navorsingsontwerp word die begrippe "denke", "grondvlakstaatsamptenaar", "diskresie", "betekenisvolle bydrae" en "beter samelewing" ontleed. Uit die ontleding blyk dit onder meer dat 'n betekenisvolle bydrae deur 'n grondvlakstaatsamptenaar die resultaat is van 'n wilsbesluit waarvan die nalatenskap van 'n beter samelewing moontlik eers in die toekoms sigbaar sal wees. Dit blyk voorts dat 'n grondvlakstaatsamptenaar sonder reflekterende en beoordelende denke oor 'n beter samelewing kwalik 'n betekenisvolle bydrae kan bedink. Hierdie twee nuanses van denke blyk onderliggend te wees aan die kritiese en berekenende denke wat nodig is vir die neem van goeie en sorgsame diskresionêre besluite ter verbetering van die lewensomstandighede van die grootste deel van die samelewing. 'n Kernvraag is egter of grondvlakstaatsamptenare oor die wil beskik om diskresionêre besluite te neem wat die toekoms van vele positief kan beïnvloed.<hr/>This article sets out to determine how thinking in its rich variety of nuances can enable a public servant to make a significant contribution to a better society. This article reports on a non-empirical, conceptual study, which comprised the identification, reading and analysis of seminal texts on several interrelated concepts such as "thinking", "street-level bureaucrat", "discretion", "meaningful contribution" and a "better society". The analysis focused on the defining attributes and meanings of each concept. Four main nuances of the concept "thinking" have been identified, namely critical thinking, determining thinking, adjudicative thinking and reflective thinking. These nuances have been mapped on a two-dimensional scale according to a combination of the knowledge (explicit versus tacit) and orientation (decision-making versus considered) in order to understand thinking within the context of public servants, and more specifically the "street-level bureaucrat". The concept "street-level bureaucrat" has been used to refer to those officials who are in some or other way directly in contact with citizens in the rendering of a public service or execution of a public function. The essential nature of this contact has been shown to be public servants' ability and willingness to make meaningful discretionary decisions that align the complex macro policy and regulatory framework with the local and sometimes individual needs and circumstances. This article shows that a meaningful contribution is a decision of which the legacy can be found in the future of a better society. Various meanings of the notion "better society" have been considered, for example "good governance" (an efficient and accountable public service, a reliable judiciary, and an acceptable balance between the interests of the public and the government) and "the common good". For the purpose of this article, a better society is regarded as a sustainable state, which exists for the constant improvement of the best interest of many. Public officials seem to play a pivotal role in this process. The ability of adjudicative and reflective thinking in combination with critical and determining thinking has been shown to be necessary for street-level public officials to make sound and caring discretionary decisions. Through this quality of decision-making, street-level public officials have the scope and opportunity to make a sustainable contribution to the improvement of the quality of life of the vast majority of society. A crucial question, however, is whether public servants do have the will to make those discretionary decisions that can change the future for many. <![CDATA[<b>The media's "image" of society: A semiotic perspective</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000400005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die "beeld" wat die media van 'n samelewing oordra word dikwels blameer vir die foute en mislukkings van 'n samelewing. Die antwoord wat in hierdie artikel gegee word, is dat die "beeld" slegs 'n representasie is. Die kernvraag in hierdie artikel is: Wat is hierdie "beeld" en hoe word dit gekommunikeer? Die media word gesitueer as 'n sentrale struktuur in die postmoderne samelewing. Kenmerke van die postmoderne samelewing wat van belang is vir die aard van hedendaagse media-kommunikasie, asook kenmerke van die postmoderne medialandskap en die rol van inligting- en kommunikasietegnologie daarin, word geskets. Die klem val op aspekte soos 'n nuwe soort publiek, publieke opinie, publieke sfeer, en hoe inligting- en kommunikasietegnologie 'n verskuiwing van massakommunikasie na netwerkkommunikasie bewerkstellig het. Die "beeld" wat die media skep, word as 'n geïdeologiseerde en gestereotipeerde representasie van die werklikheid beskryf. Hierdie representasies bestaan uit gestruktureerde afbeeldings en uitbeeldings van sosiale werklikhede. In terme van netwerkkommunikasie word interaktiwiteit uitgesonder as een van die sentrale kenmerke van netwerkkommunikasie. In die artikel word geargumenteer dat interaktiwiteit verantwoordelik is vir die oorwegende aanhitsende, aktivistiese, herhalende, fragmentariese, ritualistiese en aanmatigende styl van hedendaagse mediarepresentasies. Vanuit 'n semiologiese perspektief word tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat geïdeologiseerde, gestereotipeerde en interaktiewe mediarepresentasie altyd 'n abstraksie van die werklikheid is. In dié verband word aansluiting gevind by Jean Baudrillard (1983; 1985) se beskouing van die media as 'n simulakrum van die werklikheid. Mediarepresentasies kan dus nooit objektief en "volledig" wees nie. Dít is waarskynlik die rede vir die alomteenwoordige spanning tussen regering, media en die publiek. Niemand is ooit heeltemal tevrede met die "beeld" van iets of iemand wat deur die media gegee word nie. Ten slotte word geargumenteer dat daar nie veel aan die semiologiese (betekenisgewende) aard van mediarepresentasie gedoen kan word nie. Dit sal altyd deur ideologie en lewens-, wêrelden mensbeskouings onderlê word. Wat wel in gedagte gehou moet word, is dat betekenis en die prosesse van betekenisgewing altyd op menslike keuses berus en daardeur bepaal word. 'n Pleidooi word dan gelewer vir 'n groter semiologiese bewussyn en mediageletterdheid onder mediamakers en mediagebruikers. Dit is 'n bewussyn en 'n sin van verantwoordelikheid vir hoe mediabetekenis, en in die proses 'n "beeld", in mediakommunikasie geskep word.<hr/>The media as a "mirror" and as an "image" of society is often blamed for many of the wrongs in society. This is a general illustration and confirmation of the centrality and power of the media in contemporary society. The purpose of this article is to investigate in more depth, and from a semiotic perspective, the nature of media representation. The question asked and answered is: What is the media's "image" of society and how is it communicated? The discussion of how and what kind of "image" the media provides of society, is set against the background of a brief discussion of the nature of postmodern society and of the postmodern media landscape. Key features of postmodern society are highlighted, emphasising those affecting the practice and functioning of the media in society. These features include the changed nature of the public in postmodern society, the changed nature of the public sphere, and the media as part of and a creator of the public sphere. Emphasis is on the development of information and communication technology (ICT) in postmodern society and how ICT has created a conversed and digitised media landscape. The characteristics of this landscape are briefly described, such as the provision of various media platforms, the multimedia approach, the synthesis between language, sound and image, the media user's ability to produce content, increased access, etcetera. It is argued that in postmodern society ICT has contributed to the move from mass communication to network communication. The intrinsic nature of network communication determines some of the main stylistic features of media (networked) representations. With this as background, it is then argued that the media's "image" of society is a structured representation. Media representation is then described as an ideological and a stereotyped representation. It is shown how the media produces ideological and stereotyped representations through three processes of meaning articulation: the selection of the subject, the treatment of the subject by means of professional codes, and the presentation and dissemination of the subject through technology-driven channels. It is argued that the ideology and philosophy of liberal democracy underlies the South African media's representations of the South African society (and South African politics), giving rise to the inherent tension between government and media. Stereotyping is explained as the default style of media representation. How are media representations communicated? To answer this question, the article returns to the distinction between mass communication and network communication. It is argued that media representation is communicated mainly through network communication and that network communication can be characterised by interactivity. In the article it is then argued that interactivity, and all it comprises in terms of communication between the media maker and the media user, determines the style of contemporary media representations. Stylistic characteristics such as the reactive, opinionated, ritualistic, fragmentary, intertextual and repetitive style of media representation are dealt with. The article concludes that the so-called "mirror" and "image" of the media are and can never be an objective balanced portrayal of something, someone, or society. From the perspective of media semiotics, media images are always and inherently ideological and stereotyped created and structured representations. As such, media representations are also always an abstraction of reality. Reference is made to Jean Baudrillard's (1983; 1985) view that media representation is only a simulacrum of social reality. In conclusion, it is argued that whilst the semiotic way in which the media produce meaning is fixed, it should be kept in mind that mediated meaning production is always based on human choices. Media communicators should therefore be more aware of the importance and significance of their choices (in the processes of meaning production) and how their choices affect the portrayal and "image" of society. An increased semiotic awareness amongst media communicators and increased media literacy amongst media users, are emphasised. Given the fact that the media are one of the most important structures in society, it is also argued that as far as media regulation is concerned, media regulation should take diversity of media as its point of departure. Only through diversity of media and the intertextuality created through such diversity can the media begin to provide a fuller and more contextualised "image" of society. <![CDATA[<b>Libraries and peace: A critical reflection on the role of libraries in promoting peace</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000400006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Daar word dikwels aangeneem, byvoorbeeld in uitsprake van UNESCO, dat biblioteke deur die voorsiening van inligting bydra tot begrip, verdraagsaamheid en vrede. Ons bevraagteken hierdie aannames. Op grond van 'n besinning oor die begrip "vrede", handhaaf ons vir die doeleindes van die analise die konsep van positiewe vrede en sien ons dit as dinamies (prosesse) eerder as staties ('n toestand). Dit hou in dat strukturele en kontekstuele faktore in ag geneem moet word, dus ook onder andere maatskaplike geregtigheid en versoening. Vervolgens ontleed ons die aannames dat biblioteke tot opvoeding bydra en inligting verskaf, dat inligting kennis en begrip bevorder, en dat begrip vir ander tot vrede lei. Ons bevind dat die idee dat inligting tot vrede lei 'n erge oorvereenvoudiging is. Demokrasie, vrede en vryheid is inderdaad afhanklik van die vrye vloei van inligting, maar die verband tussen inligting en vrede bestaan uit 'n hele reeks oorsaak-en-gevolg verhoudings. Implikasies vir biblioteke se versamelings en dienste word kortliks ondersoek, en klem word daarop geplaas dat die biblioteek behoort uit te beweeg na die gemeenskap om sowel direk as indirek tot vrede by te dra. Ons verwys in die besonder na openbare biblioteke. 'n Meer aktiewe rol in vredestigting het belangrike implikasies vir die professionele etos van die bibliotekaris. Indien die tradisionele "neutraliteit" van die bibliotekaris plek moet maak vir groter maatskaplike betrokkenheid sal bibliotekarisse deur bewusmaking en opleiding daarvoor toegerus moet word.<hr/>From the mid-19th century national and international library associations and professional librarianship developed in close association with polity and liberal internationalism and peace movements, and later with the League of Nations and UNESCO. The emphasis in polity internationalism was not on questioning the system of nation states, but on creating mechanisms for maintaining peaceful relations among them. This corresponds to the motivations of civic leaders who founded the first free public libraries. They sought to stabilize existing relations among social groups and to prevent revolution. Key pronouncements by UNESCO state that libraries can or should contribute to peace. It is thought that the provision of information will lead to increased knowledge, hence to greater understanding and tolerance of other groups, and that this will promote peace. We critically examine these assumptions, starting with a reflection on what is implied by the concept of "peace". Peace embodies juridical, ethical and legal dimensions. For the purposes of our analysis, we conceptualize peace as positive (not merely the absence of conflict) and as processes rather than as a state. This implies that peace cannot be promoted merely by attempts to maintain existing social relations, whether by the suppression of alternative views, the signing of agreements, negotiation of constitutions, or the creation of democratic institutions. The latter are a necessary but not sufficient condition for peace. Social justice and reconciliation are conditions for lasting peace and reconciliation. Reconciliation must include restoring the humanity of parties to violent conflict. In light of this reflection, we analyse the following assumptions: (1) libraries contribute to education; (2) libraries provide information; (3) libraries disseminate information; (4) information promotes knowledge; (5) knowledge leads to understanding; (6) understanding of others leads to peace. We conclude that it is simplistic to see a straightforward link between information and peace. While the free flow of information is vital to democracy, peace and freedom, the relationship between information and peace involves a series of complex causal relations. We consider implications of our analysis for the role of libraries, with particular reference to public libraries. In respect of collections efforts should be made to acquire materials that will support peace processes. In respect of services, librarians need to go beyond simply making materials available. Traditional promotional activities also do not suffice. Libraries need to reach out to communities with programmes that promote a peace agenda and a climate of consultation. At a practical level they can reduce the circulation of rumours by providing mechanisms for dissemination of factual information about community governance and political issues. Libraries can contribute to peace more indirectly but lastingly by capacity building: supporting educational institutions, empowering community members through literacy and skills development, and by inculcating information literacy for more effective participation of community members in the political process. Traditionally librarians have sought to maintain the library's "neutrality" in respect of social and political issues. Arguably, however, maintaining neutrality under conditions of injustice amounts to siding with the oppressor. A more activist role for librarians in working for peace in their communities has implications for their professional ethos. It calls the neutrality principle into question and also holds some risks for the place of the library in the community and the position of the librarian. The organized library profession and library education institutions have a responsibility for raising awareness of social problems among librarians. To be able to engage effectively with their communities in the interests of promoting peace, they need to have a good understanding of social conditions, the dynamics of community politics, and public administration, as well as an understanding of the conditions for peace and the processes of promoting peace. <![CDATA[<b>The problem of representationalism and the possibilities of rhetoric(s) of the body for consideration of a healthy community</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000400007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Representasionalisme, gevoed deur 'n rigiede identiteitspolitiek en afkomstig uit 'n essensialistiese werklikheidsbeskouing, word hier geproblematiseer (hoewel nie afgeskryf nie), veral as gangbare diskoers vir 'n multikulturele Suid-Afrika. Verankerd in die Grondwet, is dit 'n vraag of dit die verskille van 'n multikulturele samelewing kan hanteer. Die vraag word egter oopgelaat om meer op die problematisering van identiteitspolitiek self te fokus. So word dan ook interseksionaliteit, afkomstig vanuit feministiese kringe, as illustrasie van dié problematiek aangebied. Eerder as om identiteitspolitiek, wat ook aandring op die handhawing van individuele en kollektiewe regte, af te skryf, word geargumenteer dat retoriek(e) van die lyf, geïnformeer deur diskursiwiteit wat tot die produsering en onderhouding van verskillende subjektiwiteite aanleiding gee, dalk beter tot 'n gesonde gemeenskap kan bydra.<hr/>This article is concerned with the manner in which a rhetoric of the body, informed by the notion of representationalism, occupies centre stage in the South African society, allowing a politics of identity and a claim to "rights" to flourish. Subsequent to the era of Apartheid and its legacies of inequalities that have haunted this society and do not appear to have disappeared, the liberal strategies of human rights, identity, representation and equality cannot and should not be rejected but appreciated. However, when these strategies are driven by what can be called a "metaphysical ontology" translated into an essential identity between "thing" and "symbol" the solidified unity thus achieved, and which then pervades these categories, may not only prevent the embrace of difference, but may continue universals, such as the ideal, perfect human being, thereby replicating what in fact should be subverted. The question is whether this ethos is not pervasive of the diverse communities of South Africa, enhanced and cultivated by a governmentality that secures it in policies, in public statements and in the privileging of class. The objective of this article is not to answer this question, but to problematise the notions of representation and identity, as derived from an essentialistic paradigm, by juxtaposing the notion of rhetoric(s) of the body as alternative sets of strategies that could subvert identity politics steering towards polarisation, instead of a healthy differentiation. However, this does not imply rejecting or replacing identity politics. Instead of a rhetoric of the body infused and determined by identitarian categories, a consideration of rhetoric(s) of the body, incorporating discursivity, is submitted. In the first part, the notion of representation is problematised and its problematisation is elaborated and illustrated with reference to intersectionality, a trend that has developed within feminist circles, specifically to address the restrictions of identitarian politics infused by the categorical triad of gender, race and class. Following a proposal, specifically relating to intersectionality, the second part then elaborates on how poststructuralist approaches into discursivity may be deployed in theorising rhetoric(s) of the body. Although studies on the body have proliferated during the last 30 years, the objective here was to focus on the works of Michel Foucault, Judith Butler and Pierre Bourdieu, not least because of their critique of the omnipotent subject, the mythological power of origins and the epistemic object, but also because of their concern with the interaction between symbolisation and reality within which the body is materialised. I argue that rhetoric(s) of the body allow for a celebration of difference that could treat difference in terms of difference instead of treating difference in terms of identity. <![CDATA[<b>Attention to the letter... Or: The ability to submit yourself to a piece of paper</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000400008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Aandag aan die letter van die wet word beredeneer as voorskrif vir 'n meer deugdelike samelewing in die Suid-Afrika van 2015, waar daar klaarblyklik probleme met wetsgehoorsaamheid is. Die letter van die wet is veral belangrik in verbande wat met Tönnies se begrip Gesellschaft beskryf kan word. Die letter van die wet word gedefinieer as dit wat geskryf staan, teenoor dit wat nie geskryf staan nie. Die artikel gee toe dat die letter uitgelê moet word, maar dan verkieslik aan die hand van aanduidings wat ook op skrif is. Die vermoë om jou aan die letter van die wet, maar ook aan voorskrifte in ander vorme, soos padtekens, breipatrone en partiture, te onderwerp is 'n verworwenheid van ons beskawing. Dit moet as 'n waarde in stand gehou word. Die Grondwet van die Republiek van Suid-Afrika, 1996, word nie letterlik genoeg hanteer nie. Die ongeskrewe gees van die Grondwet, waarop daar soveel beroepe gedoen word, bestaan nie as unitêre uitlegvoorskrif nie. Die gees van bepalings word deur magtiges beheer as dit nie op skrif is nie. Skryf en lees is wesentlik deel van die heerskappy van die reg. Wanneer regulasies gemaak word en beleid divergeer, word 'n besondere vermoë van amptenare geverg om besluite ooreenkomstig die magtigende wetgewing te neem. : nie alle wetlike voorskrifte behoort nagekom te word nie. Wanneer onberade voorskrifte bestaan, moet hulle egter nagekom word tot tyd en wyl hulle vervang kan word binne 'n model wat as onderbroke ewewig beskryf word<hr/>The article is the outline of an argument of a public administrationist pleading for closer attention to the letter of law in order to further a better society in South Africa in 2015. The virtue of adherence to the letter of law is expounded. The article does not advocate attention to the letter of the law, as opposed to the spirit of the law, as a universal ideal, but argues for this in a specific context. It goes against the grain of current thinking in Public Administration, which promotes flexible, innovative and enterprising behaviour in public officials. The logical structure of the article consists of: a societal analysis, including the identification of competences that may be lacking in our time; a discussion of discourses dealing with the question of abiding by the letter and the spirit of the law and how this pertains to the South African Constitution; an analysis of the conditions of literalness and of its dangers; a discussion of the importance of writing and reading; and finally a suggestion on how unsuitable prescriptions should be treated by the state. The conceptual distinction made by the 19th-century sociologist Ferdinand Tönnies between community (Gemeinschaft) and civil society (Gesellschaft) is used to emphasise the need for formal regulation in a social situation such as the South Africa of our times. Because South Africa as a state is a Gesellschaft, one should face this fact and not treat it as if it were a Gemeinschaft. When lawlessness reigns the Gesellschaft may collapse. Laws and other rules make living together as a society possible. That means we ought to see ourselves as members of the group to which the legislation concerned applies. The article also briefly touches on the functions and advantages of administrative rule-making. Writing is of special importance in this regard. We cannot do without it. Written law affords the tyrant less protection than oral law. Written law promotes democratic transparency, provided it is drafted in language ordinary people can understand. In the long run the content of what was agreed upon in, for example, the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa,1996, will become more important than the activities of elites that resulted in the adoption of the text. The letter of the law is defined as that which is in writing as opposed to that which is not written. The opposition of the letter of the law and the spirit of the law is not simple, since the spirit of the law can also be written down. It is conceded that the letter of the law may have to be interpreted, but ideally by using other letters in the form of written guidelines. The need for interpretation is illustrated by means of section 217 of the Constitution, 1996, which deals with public procurement. The interpretation of this section has not been dealt with definitively because it contains general principles, but the interpretation is the interpretation of the letters in that section. The ability to submit oneself to the written letter of the law (and other written prescripts such as the rules of a game, road signs, musical scores and contracts) is an achievement of our civilisation and is heavily influenced by the three great religions of the book. The skills of focussed reading and fine interpretation should be valued. The Constitution,l996 is not treated literally enough in our society. Issues such as transformation that are not explicitly defined or provided for in the Constitution are treated as if they were the point of the document, whereas an issue such as equality, which is explicitly provided for, does not get the attention it should. The unwritten spirit of the Constitution, which is so often invoked, does not exist as a unitary canon of interpretation, because the Constitution is the result of contestation. The spirit underlying constitutional provisions may be controlled too easily by the powerful if it has not been reduced to writing. The role of writing and reading in the rule of law is discussed. When regulations are made by the executive, or policy is applied by street level bureaucrats, policy divergence can occur. Staying true to the letter of the law under such circumstances requires special skills and intelligence. Not every letter of the law should be obeyed. Legislation can be unconstitutional or patently unjust. They should not blindly be adhered to. Provisions that are not acceptable but still legal ought to be obeyed. They should be amended, not by an incremental process of gradual neglect and disobedience, but by processes of formal revision within a model that can be described as punctuated equilibrium. Temporary obedience to ill-conceived rules is a cost of democracy and civilization. The article ends with a suggestion that we may be obedient to the wrong things today. <![CDATA[<b>The invention/re-invention of community</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000400009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Same-lewing is in 'n pynlike krisis van verval en word na die wese, aard en moontlikheid daarvan ernstig bevraagteken. Tog kan die versugting na 'n beter samelewing en 'n ander soort mensheid ons nie ontwyk nie. Die soeke na 'n gesonde of beter samelewing en die voorwaardes daarvoor is dus uiters aktueel. Die vertrekpunt vir 'n besinning oor hierdie voorwaardes is dat die boustene van same-lewing (gemeenskap) individue is wat kan saam-lewe, dit wil sê, nie individue sonder meer nie (die boustene van samelewing nie), maar individue in 'n bepaalde sin met bepaalde kwaliteite en ingesteldhede: outonoom, singulier en individuerend. Vir die inventiewe handeling van die verwesenliking van same-lewing is die selfstandige individu 'n noodsaaklike voorwaarde. Hierbenewens is die vind van singulariteit, die uniekheid en onvervangbaarheid van die individu eweneens die vind en uitdrukking van sosialiteit en dus van gemeenskap. Hierdie twee kwaliteite kry in individuele lewens beslag deur prosesse van psigies-individuele en kollektiewe individuering wat volwasse-wording en spiritualisering ontsluit en die verlange na herkapasitering met betrekking tot alle menslike vermoëns laat ontwaak. Gevoelvolheid, sorgsaamheid, liefdesingesteldheid, waardegedrewenheid, waarheidsgedrewenheid, sinsbeheptheid, taalsensitiwiteit, wetevolheid, denkvernuf en selfoorskryding, die noodsaaklike voorwaardes vir same-lewingstigting, kom in die proses tot stand. Die ontluiking van hierdie kapasiteite, die herkapasitering as mobilisering van die geesteskragte van volwasse, outonome, singuliere individue, ensoveel as moontlik van hulle, vir alle terreine, is die noodsaaklike voorwaarde en waarborg vir 'n gesonde same-lewing. Hierdie beweging van herkapasitering is die draer van 'n ware alternatief op die gebiede van onderwys, industrie, ekonomie, sosialiteit, kennis, kultuur, politiek, gesondheid, etiek en volwaardige menswees. So word 'n demo-dinamiese same-lewing, gesmee deur die kragte van individue, as 'n alternatief vir 'n bouvallige demokrasie geïnventeer.<hr/>Society is, generally speaking, in a situation of serious decay, hampered by criminality, violence, corruption, poverty, disaffectivity, and desymbolisation to the point of the pathological. As a result, society's status and, in particular, the possibility of community are deeply questioned. All kinds of adjectives are used to express this status and condition and even the mere possibility, or even absence of possibility, of something like community: inexpressible, inoperative, confronted, disowned, consumed and so forth. At the same time there are some who are less doubtful and express its possibility using terms such as "the coming community" and "the transparent society". Despite the doubtfulness and questionability of community, in the sense of people being together, living together and sharing matters intimately, it seems as if we cannot get rid of the idea of community. Many people still believe in its possibility and keep on dreaming about a better humanity and healthy communities. The assumption of this article is that society consists of individuals and depending on the quality of individuals community will, in principle, remain a possibility. We can even go further: community is a given but also a task. It does not happen by itself, of course, but must be brought about, must be invented. A sound understanding of the relationship between individuals and the social brings forward the hopeful view that community is a possibility. No room remains open, however, for absolutising either the individual or the social. The social, and communities by implcation, are built on and invented by individuals. Disaffected, de-individualised and desingularised individuals destroy communities as well as societies. They are not capable of inventing. What is needed are autonomous, singular, individuated individuals, non-narcissistic and able to go beyond themselves and their personal interests. Psycho-individual and collective individuation, up to the point of singularisation and maturity, create affected and associated individuals capable of loving themselves, as well as others, individuals who are truth driven, value sensitive, thoughtful, knowledgeable, linguistically competent and meaning obsessed, and enabled to take care of themselves and of others and of a collective future. Individuals are in possession of immense capacity potential, but desymbolisation, disaffectedness create misery of all kinds as well as the disability to employ or even cultivate these capacities. Recapacitation of individuals, the building blocks of communities, is called for as the single most important condition for building a healthy community and eventual society as well. Psychic and collective individuation is the ultimate condition for this to happen. The capacity to think, to affect, to love, to live, to share is required for the invention of communities. The more thoroughly individuated singular individuals there are the more possible it would become to invent community on a grand scale which may have a definite therapeutic effect and impact on society as well. The engagement of individuals in their full singularity in as many critical areas of society as possible, namely economics, education, health care, culture, knowledge, politics, ethics are urgently required for healthy communities to emerge with immense therapeutic implications not only for themselves, but for the whole of society. Communities of demo-dynamic individuals do not only exist in dreams but are real possibilities, built on the infinite capacity to relate, to share, to care, and in the effectiveness of relationship, nearness and contact in terms of the law of the heart as expressed in the individuation of language in its closeness to being and truth, in knowing and knowledge to the fullness of intelligence and against stupidity, and in recapacitation to the ultimate of individual spiritual, affective and material potentiality. <![CDATA[<b>A simplified model to measure brand loyalty of fast-moving consumer goods</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000400010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Moolla en Bisschoff het 'n model ontwikkel om handelsmerklojaliteit te meet. Dit is in verskeie ondernemings getoets en betroubaar bevind. Hierdie navorsingstuk is 'n verlengstuk van hierdie navorsing. Die doel was om die model en sy akkuraatheid te verfyn en dit verder te ontwikkel tot 'n empiries werkende model wat handelsmerklojaliteit kan meet. Die oorspronklike model het 'n sterk teoretiese basis gebruik om 26 handelsmerklojaliteitsinvloede te identifiseer wat in die verlede deur verskeie navorsers in hul handelsmerklojaliteitsmodelle gebruik is. Hierdie invloede is verminder tot 12 prominente invloede ten einde die handelsmerklojaliteitsmodel te ontwikkel. Deur faktoranalise as 'n suiweringsmeganisme aan te wend, bewys hierdie navorsingstuk se resultate dat, na drie rondtes van verfyning van die metingskriteria, 'n uitstekende kumulatiewe variansie van 90% behaal is. Daarbenewens kon die oorspronklike 12 handelsmerkinvloede tot nege invloede verminder word. Die oorspronklike 50 metingskriteria is ook in die nuwe empiriese model tot 39 verminder - nog 'n aanduiding van die vereenvoudiging van die oorspronklike model - terwyl die bruikbaarheid in 'n bedryfs- sowel as akademiese omgewing verbeter het. Die resultate is tot 'n groot mate bevestigend van aard - dit bevestig bestaande handelsmerklojaliteitsinvloede. Daar is egter 'n aantal lae bydraende metingskriteria geïdentifiseer en weggelaat uit die model.<hr/>Since the emergence of branding as an approach to marketing, the concept has been received with a great deal of interest and has stimulated ever-increasing research in the area. Businesses have realised the importance of retaining existing customers and have begun to identify and apply ways to build long-term relationships with customers. These relationships with customers require an understanding of customer needs, business requirements and the influences that create a long-term relation, which is more commonly known as brand loyalty. Several research studies, including this one, present the results of brand loyalty research in the form of a conceptual model. From an academic viewpoint, the identification and application of all the relevant influences are essential in the construction of a model that can guide the promotion of brand loyalty. The extensive review of literature and previously tested brand loyalty models resulted in the identification of initially 58, then 26, and eventually the final 12 influences that directly affect brand loyalty. These influences have been well researched and documented by Moolla and Bisschoff in their research to construct a model that could measure brand loyalty. The primary theoretical background and concepts in brand loyalty for this article ranged from the history of branding to the results of brand loyalty studies conducted over the past five years, as well as from seminal older sources. However, although the measuring model already explained a significant portion of the variance, a total of 12 constructs as measured by 50 criteria could be challenging in data collection and measurement. Therefore, the primary objective of the research was to diminish the number of constructs and criteria within the constraint of not diminishing the proportion of variance explained by the model. This reduction of the initial 12 brand loyalty influences presented an even more manageable research model that can be employed to measure brand loyalty. The empirical study was conducted among 550 customers who had access to a wide range of fast-moving consumer goods. The results were analysed by the process of factor analysis. The results showed that the 12 brand loyalty influences could successfully be limited to nine, whereas the number of criteria employed to measure them could be reduced to 39. Interestingly, the original two influences "culture" and "brand performance" combined to form a new brand loyalty influence, signifying that the performance of a brand is culturally influenced. This is an important finding in a culturally diverse business environment (such as South Africa, for example). In addition, the constraint could be maintained, and the variance explained improved marginally from 89.07% to 90.27%. The uniqueness and value of the research are embedded in the evaluation of each brand loyalty influence that is collectively assembled in one model. As a result, an important contribution of the study is therefore the simplification of the brand loyalty model, which enables managers to measure and strategically manage brand loyalty. <![CDATA[<b>The role of substance abuse in domestic violence: A social work perspective</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000400011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Vrouemishandeling bied 'n groot uitdaging vir maatskaplike werkers. In Suid-Afrika word na berekening elke 6 ure 'n vrou vermoor deur haar lewensmaat, die hoogste voorkomssyfer ter wêreld. Navorsing toon 'n verband tussen vrouemishandeling en alkohol- en dwelmmisbruik. Vanuit die ekologiese perspektief word die sosiale omgewing van 'n persoon as onlosmaaklik deel van haar beskou en dit is dus 'n geskikte teoretiese uitgangspunt vir hierdie studie. 'n Kwalitatiewe studie is gedoen, en etiese klaring is daarvoor verkry. Die doel van die studie was om vroue se ervaring rondom intieme geweld te ondersoek, asook die moontlike rol wat alkohol- en dwelmmisbruik speel in gewelddadige verhoudings. Die studie was beskrywend en verkennend van aard en 20 vroue is daarvoor geïdentifiseer, deur middel van doelbewuste en sneeubal-steekproefneming. Data is ingesamel deur middel van semi-gestruktureerde onderhoude. Tydens verwerking van die data is vyf temas geïdentifiseer, naamlik alkoholmisbruik deur lewensmaat, dwelmmisbruik deur lewensmaat, alkoholmisbruik deur die deelnemers aan die studie, statutêre intervensie en polisie-intervensie. Die gevolgtrekking kan gemaak word dat die deelnemers groot uitdagings ervaar het ten opsigte van intieme geweld. Meer as die helfte van die deelnemers het aangedui dat hul lewensmaat alkohol en/of dwelms misbruik het.<hr/>Domestic violence poses a huge challenge for social workers. It is estimated that in South Africa a woman is killed by her intimate partner every six hours, the highest incidence in the world. Research also indicates the correlation between domestic violence and substance abuse. Men under the influence of alcohol or drugs often display higher levels of aggression than do sober men and could display violent behaviour in the home. It is also significant that where men report for rehabilitation from addictive substances, domestic violence is often cited as a fall-out. The ecological perspective is useful when viewing this correlation between domestic violence and substance abuse as the different systems of this perspective, namely the micro, mezzo, eco, macro and chrono systems are all relevant. In the micro system the intimate relationship between a man and woman is negatively affected by substance abuse, often leading to domestic violence. In the mezzo system organisations such as Alanon could provide support for abused women when their partners abuse substances. In the eco system social workers in welfare organisations could provide support for abused women. In the macro system the community a woman is part of might have an influence in how she copes with domestic violence and substance abuse. In the final system, the chrono system, legislation could provide legal support for abused women needing intervention. From a social work perspective the need to gain more insight into domestic violence and substance abuse is crucial, as statistics indicate an increase in both these issues. The social work profession would thus benefit from such a study to determine how women in an abusive relationship experience domestic violence, and to determine the correlation between domestic violence and substance abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of abused women, as well as the possible correlation between substance abuse and domestic violence. A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach was proposed. The phenomenon in this study was the experiences of abused women and the role of substance abuse in domestic violence. This study made use of an explorative and descriptive research design to explore and describe abused women's experiences where substance abuse might also play a role. Two non-governmental organisations and one psychologist were approached to obtain the sample of 20 women. Purposive and snowball sampling were used. The criteria for inclusion were: • Participants had to be female and between the ages of 22 and 60 years. • They had to have been in an abusive relationship at the time of the study or not more than 6 months prior to the study. • They had to reside in and around Cape Town. • They must have received professional help by a social worker, a psychologist or a nursing sister at the time of the study or not more than 6 months prior to the study. Data were collected by means of interviewing, and a semi-structured questionnaire. The data were analysed and categorised into themes. Ethical clearance was obtained. The findings included the following demographic details and themes. According to the demographic information, all the participants but one, still had dependent children in the home. The impact of domestic violence on children is severe, especially as their father is often the perpetrator. The educational level of the participants varied from illiterate to a grade 12. None of the participants had a post- matric qualification. Five themes were identified. Theme one was alcohol abuse by the partner. Nine (45%) of the participants indicated that their partners abused alcohol. Seven (35%) of these nine participants indicated that their partners' drinking increased the violence in their relationship. Theme two was drug abuse by the partner. Four (20%) participants indicated that their partners misused drugs. Theme three was alcohol abuse by the participant. Four (20%) participants indicated that they abused alcohol as a means to cope with the domestic violence. It was significant that these four participants also turned to the church to help them through difficult times. Theme four related to statutory intervention. None of the participants indicated that they found a protection order helpful. The six (30%) participants who obtained a protection order did not find it helpful either, and indicated that the substance abuse of their partners still continued, accompanied by domestic violence. Theme five dealt with police intervention. Six (30%) participants made use of police intervention, but only one (5%) found this helpful. Most participants indicated that the police were not effective in dealing with domestic violence and substance abuse. It can be concluded that domestic violence poses a huge challenge to social workers. During intervention with abused women, the role of substance abuse should be taken into consideration, as the use of substances could increase domestic violence. <![CDATA[<b>On speaking to violence in post-apartheid schools</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000400012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die meerderheid staatskole in Suid-Afrika het voortdurend met geweldige hoë vlakke van geweld te kampe. Die toenemende aantal insidente van fisiese geweld tussen leerders sowel as tussen leerders en onderwysers bring nie net vernedering teweeg nie, maar het ook daartoe gelei dat skole minder funksioneel geword het (Leoschut & Bonora 2007; Mncube & Harber 2013; Zulu, Urbani & Van der Merwe 2004). Die nasionale Departement van Basiese Onderwys (DvBO) het met verskeie beleide, prosedures en strategieë gereageer wat onder andere die volgende insluit: Alternatives to corporal punishment (DvBO 2000) en verskeie veiligheidsprogramme, soos A national school safety framework. Hierdie beleide en strategieë was nie net onvoldoende nie, maar het ook die onvoorspelbaarheid van geweld blootgestel. Gevolglik poog hierdie artikel om, eerstens, die aard en voorkoms van geweld in Suid-Afrikaanse skole te openbaar, en tweedens, aan die tekortkominge van huidige beleide en strategieë rakende die ontwikkeling van veilige skole aandag te skenk. Daarna poog ons om 'n interpretatiewe analise van wyses om oor geweld wat deel van demokratiese burgerskap uitmaak, te beredeneer. Die bedoeling is om die gedagte van burgerskaponderwys in wording wat die onvoorspelbaarheid van geweld in eie potensialiteit die hoof kan bied, te belig. Ons probeer nie om 'n resep vir die hantering van geweld in skole te verskaf nie. So 'n poging sal veronderstel dat ons die aard van geweld verstaan, wat nie moontlik is nie. In stede hiervan verwys ons na Rancière (1991:15) se mening dat leerders gemaan moet word om hulle intelligensie te gebruik, om juis deur die toepassing van spraak gewelddadige optrede die hoof te bied.<hr/>The prevalence of violence in South African (notably disadvantaged) schools has shifted from the apartheid to the post-apartheid landscape. The levels of violence in post-apartheid (notably disadvantaged) schools is so rampant that researchers have shown that children have a greater chance of encountering violence in schools than in their homes (Leoschut & Bonora 2007:107). Adding to this scourge is the fact that violent behaviour and language cut across learner upon teacher; and teacher upon learner, and seems to be as ubiquitous among girls, as it is among boys. To this end, violence has not only brought untold humiliation and harm to teachers, and more tragically, death to learners, but has forced schools to redefine the way in which they function, and indeed, if they function at all. Under pressure to provide safe classrooms and playing fields, educational leaders have often resorted to measures of equal violence in the form of humiliation, isolation, exclusion, and of course physical harm, even though corporal punishment is prohibited. As such, educational leaders and teachers have also begun to understand violence as the only language of response. Mncube and Harber (2013:14) report increased levels of violence upon learners, particularly from male teachers, which include corporal punishment, physical assault, and rape. Consequently, the dilemma is that if teachers are resorting to violence in order to restore orderly behaviour among learners, who, and how, will order be restored among teachers? The response from the national Department of Basic Education has been a flurry of policies, strategies linked to safe(r) schools initiatives; various programmes to capacitate teachers to manage disciplinary problems and identify learners at risk; as well as random drug searches and testing. In turn, schools located in (historically) disadvantaged communities have surrounded their schools in barbed wire fencing; introduced access control via community members or neighbourhood patrols; restricted playing fields, which probably curbs the scope of violence inasmuch as it promotes it through confined spaces. With the levels of violence continuing to spiral, it has become clear that repeated forms of condemnation, policy re-strategising and punitive measures have not only been inadequate, but have laid bare the sheer unpredictability of violence and its forms. What appears to be missing from the myriad strategies and policies is that the learners, who commit the acts of violence and humiliation, come from particular communities and social constructions, which exist outside of the school, and where violence might be a norm, rather than an exception. To assume, therefore, that the behaviour of unruly or violent learners might be remedied as separate from these communities, is to discount, on the one hand, that each learner enters a school with his or her own community. And on the other hand, that although these acts of violence might happen on school premises, they are in fact as much school-based problems as they are society-based. What this means is that the response to violence cannot simply be from the vantage point of what schools ought to teach and do, or what is good for a school only. Any response to violence in schools also has to be in the best interest of society, because the learner cannot be divorced from the society of which he or she is a part. This article commences by exploring, on the one hand, the nature and prevalence of violence in South African schools, and on the other hand, the inadequacies of current policies and strategies in creating and cultivating safe schools. Following on this, we offer an interpretive analysis of how to think about violence - that is, as a necessary part of a democratic citizenship. To this end, we explore how a citizenship education of becoming can deal with the unpredictable consequences of violence in its own potentiality. Our intention is not to offer a remedy to violence in schools. Such an attempt would presuppose that we understand the nature of violence - which we do not, and cannot understand. Instead, we turn to Rancière's (1991:15) notion of summoning individuals to use their intelligence, so that they might use their speech to respond to acts of violence. <![CDATA[<b>The practice of Mathematics teacher collaboration as grounded in the learning community framework and the invitational education approach</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000400013&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Studies toon dat modelle van samewerkende leer, onderwysers se metodes en leerders se prestasie kan verbeter. Hierdie gevallestudie, wat deel is van 'n groter studie, fokus daarop om Wiskunde-onderwysers se persepsies van hul samewerking in 'n laerskool, en hoe dit verband hou met die leergemeenskapsraamwerk en uitnodigende-onderwys-benadering, te verstaan. Data-insameling vir die kwalitatiewe studie sluit 'n fokusgroeponderhoud met onderwysers in die departement, skriftelike mededelings van onderwysers en individuele onderhoude met die skoolhoof in. Die data-ontleding maak die spesifieke verhoudings wat onderwysers gevorm het as 'n resultaat van hul samewerking, die formele en informele geleenthede vir samewerking tussen onderwysers en ook die impak - persoonlik en professioneel - wat samewerking op onderwysers gehad het, duidelik. <![CDATA[<b>The issue of Kaaps: Afrikaans teaching at school needs a more inclusive approach</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000400014&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Dit word wêreldwyd aanvaar dat moedertaalonderrig die beste resultate lewer. As dit waar is van Afrikaans, Engels, en ons inheemse tale, dan geld dieselfde argument ook vir Kaaps, die moedertaal van etlike miljoene sprekers. Die navorsingsvraag is of Kaaps in die skoolkurrikulum verreken moet word in die skole waar die leerders hoofsaaklik Kaaps as huistaal het, en indien wel, hoe moet dit geskied? Die metodologie behels 'n blik op die geskiedenis en huidige status van Kaaps; of daar ruimte is vir Kaaps binne die doelwitte van die KABV; die invloed van Kaaps op sy sprekers se persepsie van hul identiteit; die spanning tussen Kaaps en Standaardafrikaans te midde van die herstandaardiseringsproses; en tot watter mate Kaaps in Suid-Afrikaanse skole tot sy reg kom. Die studie bevind dat leerders wat met Kaaps grootword, benadeel word. Die studie beveel dus aan dat Afrikaansonderrig op skool 'n meer inklusiewe benadering moet volg, wat aan Kaaps sy regmatige plek in die kurrikulum sal gee.<hr/>The universal context that this paper builds on relates to the theme of language as a form of cultural identity and the role it plays in education. The question that guides this research, is whether one variety of the Afrikaans language - referred to as Kaaps1 - is owned by its speakers in such a way that it not only underpins the individual and collective identities of those Afrikaans-speaking people classified as Coloured2 and marginalised by poverty, location and race, but it could also contribute to the successful delivery of the school curriculum in those schools attended mainly by the Coloured population. A socio-historical perspective on the history of the Kaaps language since the early 1600s is reflected in a literature review, providing a backdrop to the current status of Kaaps among the coloured community; its rivalry with standard Afrikaans; the influence of Kaaps on its speakers' perception of their own identity; whether the CAPS3 makes provision for the teaching of Kaaps, and if so to what extent the language is used in South African schools. From the earliest days of South African history political decisions were taken to ensure that White and Coloured and Black people lived apart from one another. The racial label "Coloured" inflicted deep wounds and created a lot of bitterness. Because Coloureds in the Cape lived apart from their fellow Afrikaans speakers for such a long time, the respective language communities also grew further apart: Kaaps eventually developed alongside Standard Afrikaans. The earliest manifestations of Kaaps were recorded before Jan van Riebeeck set foot at the Cape on behalf of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in 1652. At a time when most Afrikaners in Cape Town were becoming anglicised, Muslims played a large role in developing Kaaps. Despite the Dutch origins and lyrics of Cape Muslim music, this cultural contribution was never acknowledged and very little of it was documented. The logical deduction following from these observations is that the "Coloured voice" simply could not be part of the canon of Afrikaans literature, because the Afrikaans spoken by most Coloured people (Kaaps) was regarded as a deviation from Standard Afrikaans. Most Coloured scholars are of the opinion that Standard Afrikaans does not represent the total language community of Afrikaans speakers. Yet the process of standardisation continued to deny the creole nature of Afrikaans, and the language was purified by the elimination of Khoi, Malay and slave influences. Another point of concern is that Kaaps is often disparagingly referred to as a joke language, thus conveying a stigma around the language. For many white speakers of Afrikaans the standard version of the language is part of their identity and defines who and what they are. It is no different for Coloured speakers of Afrikaans, but they are less outspoken about it. Against this background, the place of Coloured poets and writers who wrote in Afrikaans has always been controversial. After 1994 schools were no longer separated and today integrated schools are a common phenomenon. But the legacy of apartheid education is still evident, for example, in the level of literacy in the Coloured and Black communities, which is much lower than that in the White communities. This is the result of years of non-development of language proficiency among Coloured people, because Kaaps was dismissed as sub-standard. This led to bitterness because children who grew up with Kaaps had to learn in Standard Afrikaans and the prescribed textbooks portrayed a different world to the one in which they lived. A core aspect in the delivery of the curriculum is how knowledge is conveyed and constructed. Hence, several attempts were made to advance the recognition of Kaaps because the role of language is critically important in the successful delivery of the curriculum. Before learners can master a subject, they first need to overcome the barrier of the language of instruction. The result is that learners who speak Kaaps under-achieve in the national assessment tests because they are assessed in Standard Afrikaans. It should also be determined whether or not the new CAPS curriculum allows for Kaaps to be taught at school. According to the CAPS (DoBE 2012:4) the curriculum is an all inclusive document that guarantees learners the right to knowledge, skills and values irrespective of their socioeconomic background. At the same time schools must be sensitive to issues such as diversity, language and race. The whole approach of CAPS is based on social transformation and human rights whilst teaching learners to appreciate our indigenous knowledge systems. Within this context it is clear that there is nothing that prohibits schools from acknowledging Kaaps in the curriculum. It is widely recognized that learning through the mother tongue is the most effective form of learning with the best results (Alexander 1997, Heugh 2006). If this is true for English, Afrikaans, isiXhosa and all the other indigenous languages, the same argument holds true for Kaaps. It is against this background that this study calls for a better representation of Kaaps in the school curriculum.