Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0041-475120130002&lang=es vol. 53 num. 2 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Woord vooraf</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512013000200001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[<b>Stefans Grové 90: Opstelle oor sy lewe en werk</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512013000200002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[<b>Stimulus and Distance in the Compositions of Stefans Grové</b>: <b>Towards a Stylistics of South African compositional Practice</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512013000200003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[<b>Between Bethlehem and Bloubergstrand</b>: <b>from the old towards the own in Stefans </b><b>Grové</b><b>'s </b><b>oeuvre</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512013000200004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die tradisionele idee van styl in die kunstenaar se produksie volstaan meestal by weinig meer as oppervlak-beskrywings van fasette van die kunswerk. In die musikale konteks kan sulke fasette neerkom op min of meer vae beskrywings van karakteristieke eienskappe wat betrekking het op ritmiese en melodiese aspekte, vormbenadering en koloristiek, dit wil sê eienskappe wat gesamentlik as tipies vir die komponis se werk in die algemeen beskou kan word, of werke uit 'n bepaalde periode. Hiervolgens kan die komponis se benadering voortdurend verander, sodat die bekende driedeling van vroeë, middel- en laatstyl tot stand kom. Indien hierdie verdeling op Grové se musiek toegepas sou word, sou sy vroegste styloriëntering (vroeë veertigerjare) die modieuse Impressionisme van Debussy kon suggereer, met 'n wending na Hindemith en Bartók ietwat later. Die ekspressionistiese fase dek belangrike werke soos die Vioolkonsert (1959) en die Simfonie (1962). Die komponis self sien as sy derde, volwasse stylfase die klaviertokkate van 1966, 'n stylfase wat sedert sy terugkeer na Suid-Afrika in 1972 verder verryk is, en opgevolg is deur 'n vierde (!) fase sedert ongeveer 1983, wat sy "Afrika"-wortels tot uitdrukking moes bring. Vir die komponis is hierdie laasgenoemde 'n "Damaskus-moment", en veronderstel sy eindelike musikale tuiskoms. Hy beskryf die styl van hierdie musiek gepas as "Afrosentriese impulse binne 'n Eurosentriese vormgewing". Die artikel is 'n poging om hierdie eienskappe en dié van sy ouer musiek onder 'n enkele stilistiese noemer te bring. Vir dié doel word sy stylontwikkeling gehanteer in ooreenstemming met Leonard Meyer se styldefinisie en sy idee van 'n "sketsanalise", dit wil sê 'n ondersoek na alle stilistiese sisteme, en geargumenteer ten gunste van hulle onderlinge verwantskappe en samehorigheid. Dit wil byvoorbeeld voorkom asof verwante stilistiese eienskappe herverskyn in verskillende werke uit verskillende tydstippe in sy loopbaan. Dit is selfs moontlik om reeds in een van die vroegste werke uit 1948 elemente te vind wat vooruitwys na die onlangse "Afrika"-reeks werke.<hr/>The traditional concept of style in an artist's output usually amounts to no more than descriptions of detail facets about the artist's work. In a musical context these could include more or less vague descriptions of characteristic qualities such as rhythmic and melodic features, preferred formal approach and colourist qualities that can be regarded as typical for the composer's work in general, or works from a certain period of his/her creative life. In the case of the latter, it could mean that the composer adopted certain changes in approach to style, thereby rendering previous work stylistically "different" than later work. As a result stylistic qualities often lead to the well-known triple division of early, middle and late style. When applied to Grové's work the earliest style orientation (around the late 1940s) might suggest elements of Debussy's fashionable Impressionism of the time, and slightly later Hindemith's neo-Baroque and Bartók's rhythmic drive. Works such as the Violin Concerto (1959) and Symphony (1962) form the apex of his second (expressionist) phase, with strong hints towards dodecaphony. According to the composer himself, his adult (third) style came into being with a Piano Toccata from 1966, in which both textural and thematic orientation heralded a "new" stylistic phase. Since his return from the United States to South Africa in 1972, this phase gradually gave way to a fourth (!) phase, his "African" style approach in which his discovery of his "original African self" led towards the exploitation of largely simulated African musical elements. The composer's own strong emphasis on this style change as his "Damascus moment", "final home coming" and similar descriptions has even led to his remarking that he should destroy all previous music on a moonlit night on Blaauwberg beach, thereby rendering the "African" phase as the only musical legacy worth representing him as leading South African resident composer. However, upon closer scrutiny and in accordance with the composer's definition of his style as "African impulses within Eurocentric form" underlying older stylistic features such as contrapuntal orientation and specific colourist approach to orchestral music can still be detected beneath an "African" motive collage.} This article attempts to approach Grové's work from the point of an underlying "sameness" as far as stylistic development is concerned. To this end his stylistic development is treated according to Leonard Meyer's style definition and approach to "sketch analysis", i.e. a survey of all stylistic features independently, and approaching a possible argument for their mutual "interrelatedness", thereby ensuring a unified stylistic body. Related stylistic features tend to reappear in different works that originated at different periods in his career. In this regard the composer's own recent realisation that the "African" elements in the works dating from 1983 can possibly be traced back to one of his earliest works from 1948 is noteworthy, thereby underlining the hypothesis of a unified style profile as proposed in this article. <![CDATA[<b>Stefans Grové's Afrika Hymni as evocative sound depiction</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512013000200005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Stefans Grové, een van die grootste komponiste wat Suid-Afrika nóg opgelewer het, skep in sy drie Afrika Hymni vir konsertorrel innoverende klankuitbeeldings van Afrika. Musikoloë meen dat die sleutel tot die ontsluiting van Grové se idioom in sy klankskildering as vertaling van visuele beelde lê. Die Afrika wat Grové as verwysing gebruik, is 'n persoonlike, innerlik verbeelde Afrika. Konvensionele middele soos pentatoniese melodiese fragmente en pulserende ritmiek word gebruik om Afrika-kultuur te suggereer. In beskrywende titels, programnotas en vertellings prikkel hy die luisteraar om die verbeeldingstog met hom te deel. Hy gebruik beelde uit die Afrika-natuur en -kultuur, asook die klank van tradisionele Afrika-instrumente as inspirasie om verbeeldingryke teksture te skep. Die gebruik van 'n komplekse, wisselende klankkleurpalet in sy orrelmusiek is opvallend. As orrelis en begaafde improvisator gebruik hy sy kennis van die instrument om besonder sensitief met die orrelklank om te gaan. Grové sien in detail om na die artikulasie en klankkleur van elke noot. Hy gebruik verskeie tegnieke om die statiese orreltoon te manipuleer, soos gebruikmaking van die swelpedaal, manuaalwisseling, innoverende artikulasie en registrasie. Die tegniese moeilikheidsgraad en detail het tot gevolg dat orreliste twee keer dink voordat hulle hierdie werke aanpak. Nogtans is die Afrika Hymnus nr. 1 die enigste werk waarvoor hy opvolgwerke geskryf het en is dit een van die mees gespeelde en opgeneemde werke in sy oeuvre.<hr/>Stefans Grové is one of the greatest composers that South Africa has ever produced. His three Afrika Hymni for concert organ, paints innovative sound pictures of Africa. His integration of African components in his works (from 1984 onwards) is perceived very differently - ranging from harshly critical to extremely positive. Rörich is of the opinion that Grové reached a pivotal point in his development with the writing of Afrika Hymnus II. Main influences in his mature style could be traced back to the colouristic sound/harmonies of Debussy, the rhythmic drive of Bartók and the neo-Baroque counterpoint of Hindemith. Musicologists agree that visual imagery is an integral part of Grové's African musical idiom. The music often is an auditory translation of visual images. Grové 's published short stories could be seen as depiction of similar images, using another language. The Africa that Grové uses as reference is a very personal, imagined Africa and conventional elements such as descending pentatonic melodies or textures that have been inspired by the sound of traditional African instruments are utilised to suggest African culture. Descriptive titles of separate movements, programme notes and stories are some of the means that are employed to stimulate the audience in joining the composer on a journey of the imagination. This can be illustrated with reference to evocative titles from the Afrika Hymni: Hail Africa, mysterious continent, Night ritual, Afrika Madonna (the tranquillity that is emanated by a wooden sculpture of Ernest Mancoba has inspired this movement), The singer of Praise, Voices from the darkness and Liberation. The sound of African instruments (such as xylophones, music bows or drums) and natural sounds like thunder, rain or the songs of insects and birds are sources of inspiration. Images from African nature (such as a dry desert or mysterious African starry night) and culture (like rituals or comical gestures) are relied upon for the creation of innovative textures. The organ sound is traditionally perceived as static and inexpressive. As organist and gifted improvisator, Grové relies on his knowledge of the organ to manipulate the organ sound sensitively. Grové pays attention to detailed articulation and tone colour. The use of the swell box, interaction between the manuals, innovative articulation and registration are some of the techniques he uses to manipulate the organ sound. The extended use of simultaneous sounding melodic material, one played legato and the other staccato, could be seen as a trademark of Grove's African style. An innovative variation of this texture is a legatissimo texture that is inspired by the effect of the sustaining pedal of the piano. The composer indicates precisely when the sustaining should end. The sound of the xylophone or handclapping, thunder or rain are all depicted sonically by implementing the legato-staccato-texture with different registration, embedded in a different sound scape. The assistant to the organist (registrant) has an important role to play in Grové's organ music. For example, in some sections of the middle movement of the Third Hymnus, the assistant has to change the registration (combination of organ stops) on each note. The composer gives special attention to articulation in transparent sections that contain only two or three voices. Because of the extraordinary detail, organists think twice before they attempt to study his work. Still, the Afrika Hymnus I is one of his most frequently performed and recorded works. The First Hymnus is a hymn to African nature; the Second Hymnus is a hymn to African culture (drawing from some events in the aftermath of the destruction of apartheid in South Africa); and the Third Hymnus is a more personal, introverted hymn that investigates the anxieties and hopes of the continent. The three Afrika Hymni could be seen as a highlight in the South African repertoire. <![CDATA[<b>"African Inventions": Stefans Grové's <i>Liedere en danse van Afrika</i> as fictions</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512013000200006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Stefans Grové se Musiek uit Afrika-reeks is die produk van baie "Afrika-voorstellings". In hierdie analise van die klavier-etudes, die Liedere en danse van Afrika (1988-1990), word besin oor die aard van hierdie voorstellings of invensies - beide as studies en as ontdekkings - en die tegnieke wat gebruik is om hulle te implementeer. Die artikel demonstreer fasette van hierdie studies wat geïnterpreteer mag word as generiese verteenwoordigers van inheemse Afrika-tegnieke, sowel as konstruksies wat gebaseer is op 'n ouer erfenis van eksotiek en primitivisme in Westerse kunsmusiek. In plaas daarvan om "Afrika" en "Afrika-musiek" te reduseer tot 'n reeks generiese eienskappe of prosedures suggereer hierdie artikel 'n alternatiewe lesing wat hierdie werke plaas as "Afrika-voorstellings": as fiksies of verdigsels wat hulle eie unieke "Afrika-teenwoordigheid" onbeskaamd sinkretiseer, en nie langer aan stererotipes gekoppel kan word soos "inheemse" of "outentieke" "Afrika-elemente nie". Sulke aansprake op egtheid of outentisiteit neig naamlik daartoe om dieselfde denke waarna hulle streef, te ondermyn.<hr/>Stefans Grové's Music from Africa series is the product of many "African inventions". This analysis of the piano études, the Liedere en danse van Afrika (1988-1990), reflects on the nature of these inventions - both as studies and as discoveries - and the techniques used to engineer them. What is the relationship of these inventions to African music? How are they similar to earlier traditions of exoticism, primitivism, and cross-culturalism in Western art music ? How are "African " musical techniques and practices engineered or alluded to and how do they figure in the context of Grové 's mature style? If there are programmatic elements to the études they are not obvious. The focus of these analyses is not, therefore, on the intertextual web of allusions created by Grové in his own titles, texts, and programmes but in the sound structures themselves. Grové's works are situated both in relation to local and international trends in cross-cultural art music and as a function of his own stylistic development. By making sense of Grové's inventions as fictions, rather than as ethnographic representations of authentic "indigenous elements", the article points to their unique syncretic qualities. In so doing it offers a counter to the discourse on Africanist elements in South African art music that has sought to essentialise such elements as authentic representations of tradition. Two contrasting impulses are described in the études. The four "dances" (1, 3, 5, and 7) are taken to embody elements of Grové's energy-driven music where rhythmic and percussive features are dominant and melody intermittent. The three "songs" (2, 4, and 6), on the other hand, are more reflective in character. Two are titled night-songs and the third invokes twilight. These are not conventional nocturnes (Chopin-Debussy) or nachtmusik (Schumann-Bartók), but are by turns melodic, repetitive, and colouristic. It is here that we find the most overt "African" references but also the more exoticist ones. The "dances", on the other hand, construct a more obtuse relationship to Africa. Each of the four is characterised by strong motoric rhythms and harsh, percussive harmonies, with clusters of broken chords, ostinato elements, and bravura octave passages. If the "songs" tend toward the exotic then the dances are more akin to earlier modernist practices. Clear precedents are found in the piano music of Bartók, Stravinsky, Debussy, Ravel, Prokofiev, and others, and we may describe this particular brand of Africanist art music as subsumptive. It is through the "African" context that Grové provides for the interpretation of these études (through titles, texts, and commentaries) that they take on an "African" gloss. "Primitive" qualities emerge more transparently in these contexts even if none or few of these structures are "essentially" or "authentically " of Africa. Nevertheless, Grové's skill in engineering a novel syntax for the dances is remarkable in itself. It draws on a very wide range of references, some of which are generic features of (southern) African traditions, but most of which are often neither explicitly exoticist nor ethnographic in presentation. Altogether, Grové has constructed an imagined, syncretic image of "Africa" that reifies "tradition" in a timeless, ethnographic present. This creates a caricature that ignores the complex culture-historical relations of the musics and peoples in question. In the Liedere en danse van Afrika there are features that may be interpreted as generic representations of indigenous African techniques as well as constructions that draw on a long legacy of exoticism and primitivism in Western art music. Commentary on this music has tended to focus on the nature of the "African elements" or their origins rather than the novelty of the syntax. Instead of reducing "Africa" and "African music " to a series of generic properties or procedures this article offers an alternative reading that positions these works as "African inventions": as fictions that create their own unique "African" presence which is unabashedly syncretic and which need no longer be tethered to stereotypes of "indigenous" or "authentic" "African elements". Such claims to authenticity tend to undermine the very politics to which they aspire. <![CDATA[<b>Yemoja in moments: A performer's perspective</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512013000200007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Analises van Stefans Grové se komposisies fokus dikwels op idees rondom Afrosentrisme in sy werk. As uitvoerder van Grové se werke vir soloklavier vind ek egter dat die Afrosentriese benadering tot die verstaan van Grové se oeuvre soms beperkend kan wees. Die "verstaan" van musiek word eng verbind met die uitgebreide diskoers rondom musiek en "betekenis". Die manier waarop musiek verstaan word deur uitvoerders is nie dieselfde as die manier waarop dit deur 'n luisteraar verstaan word nie, en daar bestaan ook 'n onderskeid tussen komponiste se verstaan van of bedoeling met 'n werk en dit wat uiteindelik deur uitvoerders of luisteraars begryp word. Verder word musiekuitvoering en -analise van musikale komposisies in musikologiese diskoers dikwels as twee verskillende aktiwiteite gesien wat verskillende tipes resultate oplewer. Daar bestaan 'n wesenlike verskil tussen die uitsette van die analis en uitvoerder: eersgenoemde se projek het 'n diskursief geartikuleerde resultaat, terwyl die resultaat van die uitvoerder se analise gewoonlik implisiet in die uitvoering self vervat word. Hierdie artikel beweer dat dit moontlik is om analise vanuit die uitvoerdersperspektief te benader, en dat so 'n benadering belangrike insigte tot die kennisveld kan bydra. Uitvoerders se verstaan van 'n werk word gegrond op 'n konstellasie van verskillende tipes betrokkenheid by die werk, wat elk diverse parameters vir die verstaan van die werk skep. Dit is die doel van hierdie artikel om te toon hoe, deur middel van 'n self-refleksiewe proses, hierdie verskeie dimensies van verstaan op mekaar kan inspeel en mekaar kan aanvul. 'n Analise van Grové se 1999-komposisie Yemoja vanuit die uitvoerdersperspektief dien as gevallestudie.<hr/>The compositional output of South African composer Stefans Grové has, in the past, often been analysed in a context of Afrocentrism. This approach is understandable, given the political landscape of the country during the years before and directly after the end of apartheid. This article will posit a reading of Grové's oeuvre that moves beyond this Afrocentric approach, and suggests an analytic strategy that allows for new insights and interpretations of meaning in Grové's music. The ways in which musical meaning is created for the performer, composer and listener is inherently different. When performers have the possibility to meet and engage with the composer of a work, an added dimension of meaning must be negotiated: there exists a tension between composers' understanding of a composition and that of performers; performers must ultimately balance their own interpretations of compositions with those of the creator of the musical works. As a frequent performer of Grové's compositions for piano, I have been able to work with the composer in a close manner, and he has shared his own thoughts on some of the piano works with me. These encounters led to particular understandings of his compositions, further enriched by my own interpretation of the works. The contributions of the composer during my initial process of assimilating and working on the composition Yemoja: Great Mother of the Waters played an important part in my understanding of the meaning of this music; this engagement with the composer also provided the initial impetus to analyse this work from a performer's perspective. The ways in which musical meaning is engaged by music analysts differ from how this meaning is discovered by performers. The outcome of a traditional analysis of music is discursively articulated; performers' analysis of music usually becomes implicit in the way the music is performed. A central tenet of the approach followed in this article is that performers, as receivers of meaning, are uniquely positioned to analyse musical compositions with which they are performatively engaged. It will be posited here that performers' approaches to analysis are encapsulated within a matrix of different types of involvement with the musical work, and that these conditions allow for an engagement with the music which is "bodily" as well as analytical in nature. This approach suggests that meaning can be revealed through engagement with the embodied experience of music: there resides implicit musical meaning within the performing body, which can be made explicit through a self-reflexive approach to performers 'subjective experiences of meaning while performatively involved with the work. Such an analytic strategy is rooted in phenomenological musical analysis, but departs from this method in that the insider perspectives of performers serve as primary input, rather than the listening experience of analysts. The ideas put forward in this article will be explicated through a "bodily" or "somatic" analysis of Stefans Grové's Yemoja: Great Mother of the Waters for piano. Issues of form, as well as an examination of tempo as structural element will be discussed. The conclusions presented here are based on the embodied knowledge of the performer of this music, engaged with through a body-based analysis of the music. <![CDATA[<b>Mystical soundscapes in Stefans Grové's music with specific reference to his Haunting Music for piano</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512013000200008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Nuwe idees vir komposisies kom dikwels in drome na die komponis Stefans Grové. Hierdie artikel ontgin die prosesse wat inherent is aan die skep, herskep en waardering van Grové se unieke klankwêrelde, waar die stiltes tussen die note, asook die botone, dikwels net so belangrik soos die dissonante self is - wat hy "kleurvolle harmonieë" noem. Dié musiek van Grové verg van die luisteraar 'n begrip van die programmatiese aard daarvan, sowel as 'n sterk visuele verbeelding, die vermoë om klank in beelde te kan "vertaal" en 'n ontvanklikheid vir nietradisionele strukture en harmonieë. Die musikale styl van hierdie 90-jarige komponis het 'n geleidelike transformasie gedurende sy loopbaan ondergaan, van musiek wat in neoklassieke, impressionistiese en ekspressionistiese style van die Westerse tradisie ingebed is, tot die post-1984 musiek wat Afrika verklank. Sy Towermusiek vir klavier vertoon sterk ooreenkomste met Gaspard de la nuit van Maurice Ravel - albei is impressionistiese, programmatiese werke, en albei bevat sterk mistieke elemente. Hy put inspirasie uit Afrika-kulture, -melodieë, en -ritmiek, en veral uit Venda-legendes, maar soos wat duidelik word in hierdie artikel, strek sy musikale verbeelding dan ook vanaf dit wat hy by die huis hoor tot ver anderkant ons landsgrense. Deur ons tradisionele musiekbeluistering te oorskry kan ons ook toegang kry tot Grové se besonderse klankwêrelde.<hr/>Stefans Grové's compositional ideas often come to him in dreams. This article explores the processes inherent in the creation, re-creation by the performer, and appreciation of Grové's unique soundscapes, where the silences between the notes and the overtones are often as important as the dissonances - which he describes as "colourful harmonies" - themselves. Grové's music is often regarded as relatively inaccessible and elusive. This article explores how it can be better understood if the listener can develop the ability to appreciate its programmatic nature, to draw on strong visual imagination when "translating" sound into images, and to approach his music with openness to non-traditional structures and harmonies. Only by these means can access be gained to the richness of the mystical soundscapes and musical imagery. Primarily an autodidact, the 90-year-old Grové underwent a gradual stylistic transformation during his career; his oeuvre ranged from music rooted in the neo-classical, impressionist and expressionist styles of the Western tradition, to the predominantly African inspiration of the post-1984 period. The transitions between these periods are not sharply demarcated but rather constitute a gradual development. Neither is his African-inspired style exclusive of the other styles, as is evident in such recent works as 8 Lieder nach Texten von Conrad Meyer for soprano, flute and Wandering through an enchanted forest and Hobgoblin at midnight.The work by Maurice Ravel, in turn, is based on three phantasmagoric poems by Aloysius Bertrand, namely Ondine, Le Gibet and Scarbo,which deal respectively with a water nymph, a man on the gallows, and an evil dwarf. Grové briefly alluded to drawing inspiration from Ravel but later denied this - an argument is made for musical borrowing at the subconscious level. Similarities between the works are not to be found in the melodic material per se, but in melodic gestures, rhythm, character, style and programmatic content. Correspondences in the first piece include falling melodic opening motifs, the evocation of water and mists through shimmering effects and similar accompaniment patterns; in the second, notated in both cases on three staves, rhythmically almost identical pedal points, representing the knocking of the hanged man's feet against the gallows and footsteps through a forest respectively; and in the second and third pieces, the complete fading away of sound at the end. A diabolical nocturnal apparition provides the inspiration for both the third pieces; in both, the composer uses pianistic acrobatics encompassing a wide range on the keyboard. The author first encountered Grové as a lecturer in her class at the University of Pretoria, and she later, as a performer and exponent of his works, received generous guidance from the composer himself. The article is interspersed with four Vignettes depicting the circumstances at the time. As in Grové's own use of chain form, the Vignettes look first forward and then back in chronological time. Essential elements in the performance of his music, as illustrated throughout in the comparison of these works, include the exquisite control of sound and overtones, the ability to create a rich variety of timbres, the dramatic use of silence, a secure sense of rhythm and fluency in articulation. The processes of "creation", "re-creation" and "appreciation" all entail application of the mind, not least on the part of the listener. The mystical in Grové's music can be appreciated through a thorough understanding of the programme which inspired any given creation, keeping track of the permutations of the original germ cells throughout a work, and imagining what can happen but has not necessarily happened. In Strange valley of the mists, according to Grové himself, the imagination must lead to what the listener thinks is there, and not to what he or she sees. Grové draws inspiration from indigenous African music and cultures, and especially from Venda legends. Many scholars and performers regard Stefans Grové as one of the most important composers in Africa. He has an unlimited musical imagination with regard to sources from which he chooses to draw upon for inspiration, his musical language and the creation of unconventional sounds and structures. By transcending our traditional way of listening to music, we can gain access to his special soundscapes and unique musical idiom. <![CDATA[<b>The contribution of Stefans Grové's <i>Raka</i> to the Raka discourse</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512013000200009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die besondere plek wat N. P. van Wyk Louw se epiese gedig Raka in die Afrikaanse letterkunde beklee, het in die sewe dekades sedert sy eerste publikasie aanleiding gegee tot 'n "Raka-diskoers", bestaande uit letterkundig-wetenskaplike interpretasies van die gedig asook vertalings en kreatiewe werk (literêr of andersins) waarby Raka as interteks of subteks funksioneer. Hierdie artikel voer aan dat Stefans Grové se Raka - a symphonic poem in the form of a concerto for piano and orchestra (1996) 'n besondere bydrae tot hierdie diskoers maak, te wete die komplisering van dualismes wat dikwels in tradisionele lesings van die epos aangewys is, en die uitdrukking van 'n nuwe, postkoloniale begrip van die Afrikaner in Afrika deur die lens van die Raka-verhaal. Die dualisme tussen Raka en die stam waarvan Koki deel is, word gekompliseer deur die gebruik van die klavier om Raka én die stamlewe voor te stel, en die teenstelling natuur/kultuur word gekompliseer deur die gebruik van verwante musikale materiaal vir die voorstelling van Koki, die stamlewe en die natuur. Die problematisering van die kultuur/natuur dualisme bied die moontlikheid van 'n bydrae tot 'n postkoloniale lesing van die epos, waarby die spontane verbondenheid van die mens aan die natuur as ideaal voorgehou word, sodat die versteuring van so 'n balans (soos byvoorbeeld deur die koloniale vestiging van Westerse kultuur) afgewys word. Omdat Grové se musikale uitbeelding van gebeure wat in Van Wyk Louw se epos gesuggereer word, die Afrikaanse versvertelling verplaas, kan aangevoer word dat die Afrikalandskap dus ouditief op die voorgrond tree (byvoorbeeld deur die uitbeelding van outentieke voëlgesang) terwyl die Afrikaner eerder in die agtergrond teenwoordig is.<hr/>N. P. Van Wyk Louw's epic poem Raka (1941) is one of the most significant works in the Afrikaans literary canon. In the seven decades since its first publication, it has given rise to a varied interpretive discourse, comprising, of course, literary criticism, but also translations, and -importantly for the present context - creative responses (literary or otherwise) to the poem, in which the original functions as an intertext or a subtext. Stefans Grové (b. 1922) composed such a creative response to Raka, subtitled A symphonic poem in the form of a concerto for piano and orchestra (1996), and this article argues that this work makes two unique contributions to the Raka discourse: It complicates the rigid dualisms in the poem that many previous readings have identified in the poem, and it contributes to a postcolonial understanding of the Afrikaner in Africa. Most early interpretations of Van Wyk Louw's Raka centre on the identification of specific dualisms in the piece that are understood to represent its conceptual core. An obvious example of such a dualism is Koki/Raka, also understood as good/evil, where Koki represents the prophetic outsider that tries to defend cultural heritage, and Raka represents the primitive and violent forces that threaten the continued existence of culture. A related dualism (emerging from the Koki/Raka dualism) is culture/nature, which is also understood as good/evil, since "nature" in this reading stands for the absence of or disregard for culture. More recent interpretations, partaking of a postmodern spirit, have sought to understand such dualisms in terms of a relationship with an Other that is different rather than evil, and have criticised a perceived colonialist import in the "message" of the poem, especially in its traditional interpretations. This article illustrates Stefans Grové's contribution to such more recent responses to Van Wyk Louw's poem. Stefans Grové's Music from Africa series has attracted some musicological criticism concerning issues that are especially pressing in his Raka concerto: his "Africanist" series of compositions have been criticised as neo-colonialist and inauthentic, since they present self-composed materials in an African-inspired style as "African" music, thereby displacing "authentic" Africa. In a composition based on a text as central to Afrikaner culture as Raka, the question of authenticity is especially pressing, since the subtext highlights questions about the Afrikaner's place in Africa. Stephanus Muller (2006:26) has argued that Grové's Raka "restores to [Afrikaner culture] (and art music with it) its local space", and this article interrogates Muller's observation musically. Grové uses similar musical materials (pentatonic diatonicism) to represent the African landscape (including bird call transcriptions) and Koki's tribe that lives within it, and the representation of the tribal music bears some affinity to the tonal structures implied by the uhadi. In this way, the music portrays an idealised pre-industrial life that critiques the negative impact that Western colonialism has had on the intimate relationship between Africa and her people. Moreover, the identification of Africa with the tribe through musical materials complicates the dualism nature/culture. Raka's (chromatic) musical materials contrast with those of Koki/the tribe/the African landscape, and yet this dualism (Raka/Koki) is also problematised in the music by means of the instrumentation: although the piano most often represents Raka, it is also involved in the characterisation of the other set of concepts, nature/tribe/Koki. A structuralist interpretation of Van Wyk Louw's Raka as sign might understand the Afrikaans poetry as the signifier and the events of the story as the signified. Because the story is set in an idealised fantasy of pre-industrial Africa and told in the voice of cultivated Afrikanerdom, authentic Africa can be understood to function as a "silent signified" in such a reading. By contrast, Stefans Grové's piano concerto replaces the Afrikaans poetry that has acted as the signifier with a musical narration that silences, so to speak, the voice of the Afrikaner and bestows a voice on the African landscape and its original inhabitants (through the transcribed bird calls and the possible connection with the uhadi), thereby contributing to a postcolonial interpretation of Van Wyk Louw's Raka. In this way, Grové's Raka strives to relocate the Afrikaner in Africa through an aesthetic gesture, offered in conjunction with the expression of the desire for a profound bond with the land and the wealth of its indigenous cultures. <![CDATA[<b>The exotic element in the music of Stefans Grové: a manifestation of "cultural translation"</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512013000200010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Hierdie artikel word gewy aan 'n "komponis van Afrika", 'n reus van die Suid-Afrikaanse musiektoneel, wat in 2012 sy negentigste verjaardag gevier het. Stefans Grové is nog steeds aktief besig om te komponeer en om met ongekende kreatiwiteit en verbeeldingrykheid sy insig in en belewenis van Afrika as kunstenaar uit te beeld. Grové het gedurende die laaste drie dekades internasionaal bekend geword vir veral sy sogenoemde Afrika-reeks waarin hy sy unieke styl gevestig het. Hy het verskeie toekennings vir komposisie verower, onder andere twee eredoktors-grade, en sy naam verskyn in die vernaamste Engelse, Duitse, Nederlandse, Franse, Italiaanse, Sweedse en Sloweense ensiklopedieë (Grové 1990:28). Grové is op 23 Julie 1922 in Bethlehem in die Vrystaat gebore en het sy voorgraadse opleiding aan verskeie Suid-Afrikaanse inrigtings ontvang. In 1953 het hy met 'n Fulbright-beurs sy nagraadse studie in die VSA voortgesit. Twee jaar later verwerf hy 'n MA in musiekwetenskap aan die Harvard Universiteit, en hy ontvang ook 'n gesogte beurs om onder die bekroonde Aaron Copland by die Tanglewood-somerskool te studeer. Hy word in 1956 as lektor in teorie en komposisie aangestel by die Peabody Musiek-konservatorium in Baltimore, Maryland. In 1972 keer Grové terug na Suid-Afrika en is sedert 1973 dosent en later professor in komposisie aan die Universiteit van Pretoria (Grové 1990:28). In die daaropvolgende dekade begin Grové geleidelik om 'n vroeëre opinie, naamlik dat tradisionele Afrika-elemente nie as produktiewe bron van inspirasie vir ware Suid-Afrikaanse kunsmusiek kan dien nie, te hersien. Die gevolg was dat hy op die ouderdom van 62 jaar 'n koersverandering as komponis ingeslaan het. Grové begin in 1984, 10 jaar vóór die eerste demokratiese verkiesing in Suid-Afrika, om Afrika- en Westerse musiek te verenig in die Sonate op Afrika motiewe. Hierin vermeng hy Euro-en Afrosentriese style op onderskeidende wyse, en vandag is hy internasionaal bekend vir sy uitgebreide en wyd-uiteenlopende Afrika-oeuvre. In hierdie artikel val die klem op Grové se gebruik van die eksotiese element en sal aangedui word hoe 'n interpretasie daarvan 'n kulturele vertaling bewerkstellig. Meer nog, in vergelyking met ander Westerse en Afrika-komponiste is Grové se Afrika-geïnspireerde idioom, waarvan die assimilasie en herfatsoenering van Afrika-beelde en tradisionele elemente kenmerkend is, by uitstek die simbool van 'n rapprochement tussen die diverse kulture van Suid-Afrika (Muller 2006a:1-7).<hr/>This article pays homage to Stefans Grové, "composer of Africa", who turned ninety last year. Grové is one of a trio of South African composers who are regarded as the "founding fathers of South African art music", Arnold van Wyk and Hubert du Plessis being the other two. Grové would, however, eventually distinguish himself from his two colleagues with his Music of Africa series in which he is able to fuse musical features from both Western and African traditions. This hybrid style started to develop in 1984 at the height of apartheid and it was a conscious decision on his part to follow this new direction as composer: a bold move at the age of 62. Grové still composes to this day. His work is considered a rapprochement between Western music and his physical African space and this unique contribution in style has gained him international recognition (Muller 2006a:2-3). Today Stefans Grové is featured in seminal music dictionaries such as the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians as well as in music encyclopaedias in Germany, the Netherlands, Italy, France, Sweden, Britain and Slovenia (Grové 1990:28). This article will explore the exotic element as a differentiating agent in music and how it is manifested as a cultural translation. The interdisciplinary study between cultural theory and music has increasingly developed into a topic of current interest, especially where the use of exotic elements invites discourse within the global andpostcolonial contexts (Mason 1991:167). Betzwieser (1995:228) traces the utilisation of exotic elements as far back as 900AD between Arabic cultures and the south of Spain, whereas this practice in musical terms began much later at the end of the 18th century. The transaction between cultures for aesthetic purposes, however, had already occurred during the Italian Renaissance and can be viewed as a procedure of cultural exchange where the main aim was to enhance and/or develop new representational qualities in sculpture and the art of painting (Campbell & Milner 2004:12-3). Grové is involved in a similar transaction with African cultures - with the added nuance of engaging with the exotic element of an Other, however. He develops his new and differentiating style in which the exotic merges seamlessly with the Western elements of his music. A study of one of the piano études from Grové's Songs and dances from Africa will illustrate how this assimilation between Self and Other does not promote, but rather resist a Western hegemony. It is argued that the composer in quintessence has reversed a statement he made almost sixty years ago; that a fusion between African influences and a Western style can produce nothing of real substance. A narrative by the composer illustrates how the exotic is perceived and then interpreted to act as an inspiration for the creation of a new work of art. A subsequent narrative will describe the understanding of this assimilation as the beginning of a cultural translation. To understand the concept of cultural translation entails that a certain perception is presupposed: the existence of specific differences between cultures and the way in which these differences are interpreted. In this sense Campbell and Milner (2004:1) maintain that interpretation in itself is a form of translation and that meaning changes (my emphasis) in such a transaction of cultural translation. They explain that during the Renaissance in Italy styles and fashions were imitated and distributed to other centres, but this always coincided with a strong sense that differences remained important. One could argue that these specific differences carry the strong impact of the exotic that asserts itself in a subsequent interpretation and therefore translation. The exotic element both initiates and mediates a translation between cultures. The composer, as a perceiver, relies on the ambiguity of an interpretation of the exotic. This interpretation is the enriching and inspiring dynamic that lies within a cultural translation and from which a new and original work of art develops. <![CDATA[<b>Stefans Grové: Visuele</b><b> herinneringe - enkele foto 's</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512013000200011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Hierdie artikel word gewy aan 'n "komponis van Afrika", 'n reus van die Suid-Afrikaanse musiektoneel, wat in 2012 sy negentigste verjaardag gevier het. Stefans Grové is nog steeds aktief besig om te komponeer en om met ongekende kreatiwiteit en verbeeldingrykheid sy insig in en belewenis van Afrika as kunstenaar uit te beeld. Grové het gedurende die laaste drie dekades internasionaal bekend geword vir veral sy sogenoemde Afrika-reeks waarin hy sy unieke styl gevestig het. Hy het verskeie toekennings vir komposisie verower, onder andere twee eredoktors-grade, en sy naam verskyn in die vernaamste Engelse, Duitse, Nederlandse, Franse, Italiaanse, Sweedse en Sloweense ensiklopedieë (Grové 1990:28). Grové is op 23 Julie 1922 in Bethlehem in die Vrystaat gebore en het sy voorgraadse opleiding aan verskeie Suid-Afrikaanse inrigtings ontvang. In 1953 het hy met 'n Fulbright-beurs sy nagraadse studie in die VSA voortgesit. Twee jaar later verwerf hy 'n MA in musiekwetenskap aan die Harvard Universiteit, en hy ontvang ook 'n gesogte beurs om onder die bekroonde Aaron Copland by die Tanglewood-somerskool te studeer. Hy word in 1956 as lektor in teorie en komposisie aangestel by die Peabody Musiek-konservatorium in Baltimore, Maryland. In 1972 keer Grové terug na Suid-Afrika en is sedert 1973 dosent en later professor in komposisie aan die Universiteit van Pretoria (Grové 1990:28). In die daaropvolgende dekade begin Grové geleidelik om 'n vroeëre opinie, naamlik dat tradisionele Afrika-elemente nie as produktiewe bron van inspirasie vir ware Suid-Afrikaanse kunsmusiek kan dien nie, te hersien. Die gevolg was dat hy op die ouderdom van 62 jaar 'n koersverandering as komponis ingeslaan het. Grové begin in 1984, 10 jaar vóór die eerste demokratiese verkiesing in Suid-Afrika, om Afrika- en Westerse musiek te verenig in die Sonate op Afrika motiewe. Hierin vermeng hy Euro-en Afrosentriese style op onderskeidende wyse, en vandag is hy internasionaal bekend vir sy uitgebreide en wyd-uiteenlopende Afrika-oeuvre. In hierdie artikel val die klem op Grové se gebruik van die eksotiese element en sal aangedui word hoe 'n interpretasie daarvan 'n kulturele vertaling bewerkstellig. Meer nog, in vergelyking met ander Westerse en Afrika-komponiste is Grové se Afrika-geïnspireerde idioom, waarvan die assimilasie en herfatsoenering van Afrika-beelde en tradisionele elemente kenmerkend is, by uitstek die simbool van 'n rapprochement tussen die diverse kulture van Suid-Afrika (Muller 2006a:1-7).<hr/>This article pays homage to Stefans Grové, "composer of Africa", who turned ninety last year. Grové is one of a trio of South African composers who are regarded as the "founding fathers of South African art music", Arnold van Wyk and Hubert du Plessis being the other two. Grové would, however, eventually distinguish himself from his two colleagues with his Music of Africa series in which he is able to fuse musical features from both Western and African traditions. This hybrid style started to develop in 1984 at the height of apartheid and it was a conscious decision on his part to follow this new direction as composer: a bold move at the age of 62. Grové still composes to this day. His work is considered a rapprochement between Western music and his physical African space and this unique contribution in style has gained him international recognition (Muller 2006a:2-3). Today Stefans Grové is featured in seminal music dictionaries such as the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians as well as in music encyclopaedias in Germany, the Netherlands, Italy, France, Sweden, Britain and Slovenia (Grové 1990:28). This article will explore the exotic element as a differentiating agent in music and how it is manifested as a cultural translation. The interdisciplinary study between cultural theory and music has increasingly developed into a topic of current interest, especially where the use of exotic elements invites discourse within the global andpostcolonial contexts (Mason 1991:167). Betzwieser (1995:228) traces the utilisation of exotic elements as far back as 900AD between Arabic cultures and the south of Spain, whereas this practice in musical terms began much later at the end of the 18th century. The transaction between cultures for aesthetic purposes, however, had already occurred during the Italian Renaissance and can be viewed as a procedure of cultural exchange where the main aim was to enhance and/or develop new representational qualities in sculpture and the art of painting (Campbell & Milner 2004:12-3). Grové is involved in a similar transaction with African cultures - with the added nuance of engaging with the exotic element of an Other, however. He develops his new and differentiating style in which the exotic merges seamlessly with the Western elements of his music. A study of one of the piano études from Grové's Songs and dances from Africa will illustrate how this assimilation between Self and Other does not promote, but rather resist a Western hegemony. It is argued that the composer in quintessence has reversed a statement he made almost sixty years ago; that a fusion between African influences and a Western style can produce nothing of real substance. A narrative by the composer illustrates how the exotic is perceived and then interpreted to act as an inspiration for the creation of a new work of art. A subsequent narrative will describe the understanding of this assimilation as the beginning of a cultural translation. To understand the concept of cultural translation entails that a certain perception is presupposed: the existence of specific differences between cultures and the way in which these differences are interpreted. In this sense Campbell and Milner (2004:1) maintain that interpretation in itself is a form of translation and that meaning changes (my emphasis) in such a transaction of cultural translation. They explain that during the Renaissance in Italy styles and fashions were imitated and distributed to other centres, but this always coincided with a strong sense that differences remained important. One could argue that these specific differences carry the strong impact of the exotic that asserts itself in a subsequent interpretation and therefore translation. The exotic element both initiates and mediates a translation between cultures. The composer, as a perceiver, relies on the ambiguity of an interpretation of the exotic. This interpretation is the enriching and inspiring dynamic that lies within a cultural translation and from which a new and original work of art develops.