Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0041-475120120004&lang=es vol. 52 num. 4 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Inleiding tot Spesiale Tema</b>: <b>Grondberaad</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512012000400001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[<b>Land as a space of political contestation in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512012000400002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Grond en die sogenaamde "grondvraagstuk" is 'n welbekende tema in die Suid-Afrikaanse politieke diskoers. Heelwat is reeds hieroor geskryf in die hedendaagse tydsgewrig, maar ook in die historiese verloop van die Suid-Afrikaanse politiek. Hierdie artikel artikuleer gedagtes rondom die betekenis van grond as politieke stryd (en ook binne die konteks van 'n bepaalde begrip van politiek) in Suid-Afrika, maar plaas dit ook teen 'n wyer internasionale doek. Moontlik kan so 'n benadering bydra om die saak te kontekstualiseer en te ontdaan van die emosionele bagasie wat dikwels daarmee gepaardgaan. Die benadering van die artikel is dat grond as politieke stryd hanteer word, waarna aandag geskenk word aan hoe politieke akteurs hulself posisioneer binne hierdie stryd. Daar word ook kortliks verwys na ander faktore wat 'n rol speel in hierdie politieke stryd. Die artikel sluit af met 'n gevolgtrekking ten opsigte van die grondvraagstuk, wanneer dit vanuit die perspektief van politieke stryd, soos in hierdie artikel omskryf, beskou word en die moontlike uitkoms van die grondvraagstuk oorweeg word.<hr/>The so-called "land question" is a well known theme in South African political discourse. Much has been written on the subject in recent times, but also in the historical development of South African politics. This article articulates thoughts concerning the political meaning of land by way of framing the land question as a space of political contestation in South Africa, simultaneously discussing it against a wider international background, acknowledging that the land question is not unique to South Africa and that it also relates to many historical and contemporary political struggles. It is suggested that such an approach possibly may contribute to contextualise the matter and to shed some of the emotional baggage that often pertains to it. The article contextualises land as political contestation while suggesting an interpretation of what politics is. Attention is afforded to the understanding of politics as conflict, but also as reconciliation and compromise against an underlying context of power and its purposes. The latter determining in what kind of country political actors would want to live and relating to interests and values that political actors hold in common. The possibility exists that if reconciliation and compromise are not possible, politics will come to an end, which will not contribute to a sustainable democracy or a solution to the land question. The broader conflicting nature of positions and understandings of the land question in South Africa is further highlighted within the context of political contestation, after which attention is afforded to the positioning of political actors within this contestation.The position of the government and political parties is highlighted within this conflict based framework, noting the different understandings of the land question as well as the commonalities that parties share. Reference is briefly made to non party political actors formal and informal) which represents the same conflictual positions, but which also alludes to other factors relevant to the land question whereafter these factors are highlighted. These include the broader social and economical issues (which are also understood as political), as well as an agricultural and rural bias in the land question, while it is also a matter of political and socio-economic rights within an urban context. The question is also asked whether solutions to the land question should not be found in a forward looking manner, rather than a romanticised understanding of land. The article concludes with a discussion in regard to the land question, when it is viewed from the perspective of political contestation, as defined in this article, as well as considering the possible outcome of the land question. A suggestion is made that consideration could be given to a re-negotiation of this space of political contestation, as land reform will remain unsuccessful if the politics thereof is not addressed; although this would also entail its own dangers for a democratic South Africa where democracy is not yet fully consolidated. <![CDATA[<b>History, land studies and land claims research - an open debate</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512012000400003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Hierdie oop gesprek oor die hantering en verstaan van grondeise in die grondhervormings-geskiedenis van Suid-Afrika het nie ten doel om al hierdie gebeure en prosesse van die afgelope byna 20 jaar nougeset neer te pen nie. Teen die kontekstuele agtergrond daarvan word wel besin oor die mate waartoe Geskiedenis as 'n dissipline betekenisvol kan wees of behoort te wees in die uiteindelike besluitneming oor eise ten opsigte van grond. Omvattende navorsing hieroor is egter nog nodig. In hierdie bespreking is die benutting van die geskiedenis binne die dissipline Geskiedenis in die onderneming van grondeisenavorsing die kernsaak. Geskiedenis as 'n bewys-materiaalverskaffer met vele perspektiewe word toegelig deur kortliks na die onafgehandelde grondeis op die plaas Deelkraal IQ142 as 'n voorbeeld te verwys. Opsommenderwys sal ook aangetoon word dat die waarde van Geskiedenis in grondeisenavorsing nie noodwendig in finale besluitnemings oor grondeise geag word nie. Dit wil dus voorkom asof persepsies oor die verlede (soms verweef in mag en konflik), 'n geneigdheid kan hê om enige moontlikheid van waarheid of realiteit te oorskadu. Op sigself dui dit weer op fasette van mag en politiek, wat vorige soortgelyke siklusse bloot herhaal.<hr/>In the history of South Africa, with prospects of a democratic system that would meet all the expectations of the people of the country, the year 1994 also required mind shifts with regard to land reform. As a discipline, History broke its long silence. Past studies on land reform and land claims are visible, but for years, historians have not necessarily contributed to research on the topic. Government, as part of its promise to voters and within the limits of democracy, started investigating the status of land distribution countrywide. Shortly after 1994, processes commenced to provide communities and individuals the opportunity, until the end of 1998, to submit motivations as to why a certain area(s)/region(s) belong to them. This article's open discussion is not intended to cover all the events and processes of the past almost 20years conscientiously. Rather, the intention is to put in writing what the role of History as a discipline can or should be in ultimate decisions on claims in respect of land. However, extensive research on this is still required. In this paper, then, the use of history within the discipline of History in the managing of land claims in South Africa is the core issue. History, as a discipline that can provide multiple sources of a diverse nature, will be discussed briefly with the unsettled land claim on the farm Deelkraal IQ142 as an example. A summary will direct the reader towards the value of History in land claims research, but it should not necessarily be deemed as the final decision about land claims. Therefore, it appears that perceptions of the past (sometimes interwoven with power and conflict), may have a tendency to overshadow any possibility of truth or reality. This in itself creates facets ofpower and politics that simply repeat similar previous cycles. <![CDATA[<b>The influence of misperceptions on the history of South Africa</b>: <b>The BaPhalane ba Ramokoka land claim as case study</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512012000400004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Archaetnos¹ probeer om deur middel van akteondersoeke, die bestudering van argivale dokumente en antropologiese literatuur, asook veldwerk en onderhoude met betrokkenes die geldigheid van grondeise te bepaal. Gebrek aan kennis deur die grondeisekommissaris (LCC) lei dikwels tot die prosessering van eise wat op foutiewe inligting berus, soos byvoorbeeld gebeur het met die eis van die BaPhalane Ba Ramokoka. Aangesien die prosessering van ongeldige eise op grond van gebrekkige kennis hoë kostes, 'n mors van tyd en 'n onproduktiewe stelsel tot gevolg het, word betoog dat die nodige inligting op 'n veel vroeër stadium aan die grondeisekommissaris beskikbaar gestel moet word.<hr/>During the past few years, Archaetnos has been involved in various land claims, with a view to collecting historical, anthropological and archaeological information in order to determine the validity of such claims. This was done by doing deeds searches and studying archival material and anthropological literature, followed by a field survey where claimants indicated sites linked to their history and where they were interviewed. In some cases it was clear from the onset that misperceptions about South African history pertain. Even when information is correct, there is sometimes chronological chaos and in certain instances so-called "facts" are being fabricated. The above-mentioned information is used by the Land Claims Commission (LCC) to determine the merit of a claim. The lack of knowledge at this institution frequently results in cases being approved for the process even when such approval was clearly based on incorrect information. The land claim of the BaPhalane Ba Ramokoka community is one such example. In the article the reasons for land claims in general are listed. The merit of the BaPhalane claim, as well as the information obtained during the research process, is then discussed against this background. This is, however, not done in detail, as the article insteadfocuses on the general problem created by historical misperceptions. The findings of the research were that although the BaPhalane had a valid claim to at least four of the thirty-two farms listed, they had no valid claim to at least eighteen others. This was confirmed by the court judgement. It is concluded that the lack of knowledge at the Land Claims Commission results in many cases being unnecessarily investigated. This results in high costs, a waste of time and an unproductive system. It is therefore clear that information is required at a much earlier stage during the land claims process. <![CDATA[<b>Eight statements on the history of modern land tenure in the Mpumalanga Lowveld</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512012000400005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Sedert die 1990s het heelwat geskiedenisnavorsing op die terrein van grondbesit in Suid-Afrika plaasgevind. Dit was grootliks die resultaat van maatreëls deur die regering om voorheen benadeelde Suid-Afrikaners ekonomies op te hef en ook die geleentheid te gun om grond te verkry wat, na alle waarskynlikheid, onregmatig van hulle vervreem is. In die artikel word gefokus op teoretiese aspekte van die dissipline van geskiedenis en die vraagstelling na die toekoms waarop grondbesitters en grondeisers antwoorde soek wanneer die navorsing van historici oorpeins word. Nadat 'n uiteensetting gegee word van sommige van die nuwere tendense in terme van multi-, inter-, en transdissiplinêre navorsing, kompleksiteit en akteur-netwerkteorie, word ingegaan op die geskiedenis van grondbest in die Laeveld van die Mpumalangaprovinsie. Agt teoretiese stellings word gemaak wat op 'n empiriese filosofiese grondslag verantwoord word, na aanleiding van die geskiedenis van grondbesit in die gebied. In die gevolgtrekking word 'n vergelykende benadering gebruik wat daarop dui dat 'n proses van etnogenese moontlik in die toekoms nodig sal wees om knelpunte met berekking tot die bestaande grondbesitstelsel in 'n staat van ekwilibrium te laat oorgaan.<hr/>Since the 1990s considerable historical research has been done on the history of land tenure in South Africa. Much of the work has a bearing on the issue of land claims and restitution in the aftermath of South Africa's transition to a multiracial democracy. The government focused on the socio-economic development ofthe country and gave special attention to the upliftment ofpreviously disadvantaged South Africans. It became legal for South Africans to claim the right to land on which they had formerly lived. Many had been removed in terms of controversial racial policies of the former government. For obvious reasons both land owners and land claimants have since 1994 contracted historians to shed some light on the history of land tenure pertaining to single entities, and sometimes also large tracts of land. In addition, it was also expected of historians to try and shed some light on the future, based on their historical research findings. In the article attention is given to some new trends in the discipline of history in which the future features prominently. There seems to be broad support amongst theorists for the integration of natural and human/social sciences and technology studies in contemporary research. Furthermore, multi-, inter-, and transdisciplinary research methodologies require of historians to take note increasingly of ongoing changes in scientific thinking with a view to synchronising our contemporary knowledge with an understanding of the past. Reference is made to complexity, actor-network theory (ANT) and a return to universal history. Within the framework of an empirical philosophical approach to the history of land tenure in the Lowveld of Mpumalanga eight theoretical statements are posited on the evolution of land tenure in Mpumalanga. These include: • private ownership of land is legally justified in South Africa; • the emergence of modern land tenure in Mpumalanga is the result of customary practices formalised in the nineteenth century; • land tenure can be understood in terms of our comprehension of assumptions about materialism; • lack of integration in former times undermined the legitimacy of black land ownership; • land tenure in the Lowveld should be seen as part of an ecology that includes the Middle Veld, Highveld and Drakensberg escarpment; • land is an actor and part of a network of interactions that emerged historically; • the value of land is constantly subject to entropy determined by its usefulness; and • traditionally land as a production factor was a mediatory actant, but since 1994 it has been transformed into a remediating actant. The final section of the article features a brief assessment of the manner in which European land tenure and Roman Law were transformed in the transition from classical times to the Middle Ages in Europe in the 3rd to 4th centuries CE. On the frontiers of the former empire erstwhile Roman citizens and their offspring had to find consensus on the legal tenets of land tenure in consultation with foreigners who settled in parts of the former empire. Many elements of Roman Law remained intact in parts of Europe. This was made possible by what Innes describes as processes of ethnogenesis. Contemplating the future of land tenure in Mpumalanga's Lowveld it is suggested that attention be given to the peripheral deconstruction of land tenure in a transforming commons in which negotiated processes of ethnogenesis, could potentially lead to a state of equilibrium. <![CDATA[<b>The South African Land Issue - is there a solution?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512012000400006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die debat oor grondhervorming kan slegs sinvol plaasvind wanneer die historiese verloop van grondverdeling in Suid-Afrika in ag geneem word. Die owerhede het egter deur die jare foute gemaak met die toepassing van die beleid van skeiding. Hulle het gefaal in hulle pogings om 'n vreedsame skeiding te bewerkstellig. Die probleem van regverdige grondverdeling het eintlik meer kompleks geword as wat dit ooit was, omdat die bevolking drasties toegeneem het en die grond nie. Die huidige regering het reeds verskeie pogings aangewend om die probleem te probeer oplos. In 2008 is 'n grondonteieningswetgewing voorgestel. Kort daarna is die moontlikheid om landbougrond as 'n nasionale bate te verklaar, oorweeg en daarna is 40% deelboerdery voorgestel. Dit alles het groot teenkanting ontlok. Die nuutste poging is 'n groenskrif aangaande grondher-vorming wat ter tafel is. Hierdie dokument stel onder andere voor dat vir diegene (swartmense) wat nie kan bekostig om grond te koop nie die geleentheid geskep moet word om dit van die staat te huur. Kommersiële boere sal egter hulle eienaarskap behou maar hulle moet bereid wees om 'n sekere deel van hulle grond af te staan.<hr/>The current debate on land reform cannot take place meaningfully without taking into account the historical course of land distribution in South Africa. After having studied the history of land tenure in South Africa, one arrives at the conclusion that land tenure and the segregation of the two main population groups were to a large extent unavoidable. The unequal distribution of land between black and white can be traced back to the earliest years of contact and the different, irreconcilable views of land tenure of that time. Judgement of the events of a hundred years or more ago cannot take place from a modern point of view. Yet, over the years, the authorities made mistakes in the application of the policy of segregation which resulted in friction and conflicts and action by the authorities which the black nations perceived as humiliating. The authorities failed in their efforts to effect peaceful segregation. We need to find a solution to this problem. There are lessons to be learned from what happened in the past and there are lessons to be learned from what happened in other countries where land reform policies were applied. Ever since the current government came into power various suggestions have been made to try to solve the land issue. From the inception of the land reform process, there were those who called for the government first to transfer to prospective black farmers the land already available before taking away land from successful white farmers. In 2008 the cabinet in principle passed a draft bill to enable land expropriation. Consequently, the opposition parties in parliament reacted strongly when the legislation was tabled. By the end of August, it became known that the government had decided to withdraw the bill for the time being. However, everybody realised that this only meant that the bill would not be tabled in the current session of parliament and would possibly be raised again after the next election. After the threat of the proposed expropriation law, the next shock was the announcement that the government was considering to declare all productive agricultural land a national asset. The possibility of 40% sharecropping was also raised. In July 2011 the long-awaited green paper on land reform was made public. In studying this document, one realises that, inter alia, it implies that the state will retain ownership of land transferred to black farmers. These farmers will then hire the land from the state on a land-lease basis. Further, a limit will be imposed on the amount of land a white commercial farmer or company may own. These farmers will, however, keep their ownership and strict limitations will be applied on foreigners' tenure of agricultural land. Apart from negative reaction to this document, there are also those who believe that with certain adjustments this proposal should be seriously considered as a possible solution to the land issue. The problem of fair land distribution has actually become more complex than what it ever was because the population has increased drastically and the land has not. Just as the land policy of the successive white governments was a race driven policy, so is the current policy on land reform. The principal motive in the policies of the white governments of the past was to secure the white man's position. The principal objective of the current government is to benefit black people. Land reform in South Africa can only succeed if it is implemented objectively, fairly and honestly, if the provisions of the constitution are complied with, and if there is no deviation from the regulations for the enforcement of the law. Everybody should realise that land reform has to take place, but also that all the citizens of the country, irrespective of race, are entitled to own land. <![CDATA[<b>A new approach to land reform as a developmental factor in the South African political landscape</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512012000400007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In die African National Congress (ANC) se 1994 verkiesingsmanifes (die Heropbou en Ontwikkelingsprogram - HOP) is onderneem dat grondhervorming 'n prioriteit in die post-apartheidsbedeling sou wees. 'n Klem sou geplaas word op die verdeling van grond aan individue en gemeenskappe wat ingevolge apartheidswetgewing grond verloor het, of die geleentheid ontsê is om grondeienaars te wees. Die doelwit was dat grondhervorming die wanbalanse in grondeienaarskap, verblyfreg, en vlakke van onderontwikkeling in Suid-Afrika, moes regstel. In 2012 is die realiteit egter dat grondhervorming slegs gedeeltelik suksesvol was. Altesame 87 persent van alle bewerkbare grond word nog besit deur kommersiële boere en grondherverdeling geskied traag en voldoen nie aan die vereistes vir volhoubare onwikkeling en armoedeverligting nie. Tydens die ANC se beleidskonferensie van Junie 2012 is daar derhalwe besluit dat die funksionele prosesse van grondhervorming drasties gewysig moet word - 'n sogenaamde nuwe benadering moet gevolg word. Dit kan met sekerheid aanvaar word dat baie aspekte van die grondhervormingsproses ná die ANC se leierskapskongres in Desember 2012, hersien, gewysig en versnel sal word. Met dié aanname as uitgangspunt word in hierdie artikel beoog om die verloop, omvang en vordering van grondhervorming krities te analiseer deur op die volgende sake te fokus: • Die rasionaal agter grondhervorming; • Die grondhervorming se beleidsdoelstellings; • Die grondhervorming se implementeringsprosedures; en • 'n Perspektief op die suksesse en tekortkominge van grondhervorming sedert 1994. Daar sal gepoog word om die leemtes in die proses aan te toon en 'n vooruitskouing te maak rakende spesifieke beleids - en implementeringsaspekte wat waarskynlik na 2012, as deel van die nuwe benadering, sal verander.<hr/>In its 1994 election manifesto (the Reconstruction and Development Programme - RDP) the African National Congress (ANC), undertook, if elected, to ensure that pro-active land reform takes place in post-apartheid South Africa. The RDP elaborated on the legacy of apartheid as a key cause of the current skewed pattern of land ownership in South Africa as well as the importance of ownership of land for the African people. For this reason the manifesto emphasised that land reform must be one of the key transformation priorities for the new Government in order to rectify the wrongs of the past. In terms of post-apartheid land reform arrangements there would be a specific focus on the following aspects: • Returning land to those that lost their property as a result of apartheid legislation since 1913; • Redistributing land to those that were denied the opportunity to become land owners or right of residence. Against the background of these objectives the post-apartheid land reform aim of the RDP was to ensure the enforcement of justice, poverty relief to the poorest of the poor and the creation of a situation of sustainable development. In 2012 the reality is, however, that land reform has only partially been effective. Eighty seven per cent of all arable land is still owned by white commercial farmers, redistribution is slow and sustainable development is not taking place. The majority of the South African population, in specifically the rural areas, are still exposed to extreme poverty and continued underdevelopment. At the ANC's June 2012 policy conference this partial effectiveness of land reform since 1994 was recognised. To overcome this situation a so-called new approach to land reform was called for. There was consensus that the functional processes of land reform must be changed drastically. This must be done in order to speed up the pace of redistribution, simultaneously ensuring that sustainable development and poverty reduction continue after land has been transferred to beneficiaries. The urgency of implementing the new approach was expressed as follows in the land reform policy discussion document of June 2012 (South Africa 2012:2) : "Land reform must represent a radical and rapid break from the past without significantly disrupting production and food security. " At this stage the exact format, content and implications of this "radical and rapid break" is, however, uncertain. In the advent of the ANC's December 2012 leadership elections it can be expected with certainty that many key aspects of the current land reform arrangements will be reviewed, changed or even scrapped in order to speed up the process. This assumption also serves as rationale behind this research. It is firstly the purpose of this article to analyse descriptively the unfolding, scope and progress of land reform in South Africa since 1994. In order to achieve this objective the article focuses on the following key aspects: • The rationale behind the current format of land reform; • The land reform policy and legislative objectives; • The land reform implementation procedures; • A holistic perspective on the progress made thus far; and • The identification of the weaknesses and strong points of land reform since 1994. Through this analysis the article will secondly identify the shortcomings in the current process. Against the above-mentioned background an attempt will lastly be made to provide a scenario perspective with regard to the unfolding of this so-called new approach. An emphasis will be placed on the identification ofpossible key functional policy and implementation arrangements that might change after 2012. <![CDATA[<b>Biomedical enhancement</b>: <b>makeability or disenchantment?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512012000400008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Hierdie artikel neem die jongste verwikkelinge op die terrein van biomediese verbetering ("enhancement") krities onder die loep in die lig van die vraag of sodanige verbetering nie direk inspeel op die verskynsel dat die wêreld sedert die aanbreek van die Verligting "onttower" word nie. Die begrip "onttowering" (ontluistering) en die filosofiese invloede waaruit die idee van onttowering ontstaan het, word bespreek. Voorbeelde van moontlike biomediese verbeteringe word kortliks bespreek. Daarna volg 'n kritiese analise van 'n aantal besware wat meermale in die literatuur teen die idee van verbetering ontwikkel word. Hieronder tel die vraag na die houdbaarheid van die terapie/verbetering-onderskeiding, Habermas se argument insake die beweerde kompromittering van die outonomie van pasgeborenes, Sandel se argument dat verbetering neerkom op 'n onverantwoorde sug na "bemeestering" en 'n miskenning van die "gawe-karakter van die lewe", asook die debat rondom "transhumanisme" - met name die vraag of 'n superieure "transhumane" spesie die reg behoort te hê om paternalisties teenoor die res van die mensdom op te tree. Die outeur sluit af met die ontwikkeling van 'n aantal riglyne in terme waarvan navorsing op hierdie terrein gereguleer behoort te word. Hy kom ook tot die gevolgtrekking dat verbetering nie noodwendig tot onttowering aanleiding hoef te gee nie, maar dat verwondering ook die gevolg kan wees, nie slegs van 'n konfrontasie met die onbekende nie, maar ook van die uitkoms van ontdekking.<hr/>This essay examines some of the most important ethical questions surrounding biomedical enhancement in the light of the question whether such enhancement does not specifically add to the disenchantment problematic in current-day philosophy. The disenchantment of the world associated with the enlightenment onset of modernity may be viewed as the process whereby mystical or supernatural causes and solutions to practical, everyday problems came to be replaced with rational and scientific explanations and technological solutions. This intellectualisation was on the one hand viewed in a positive manner as the increasing mastery of humanity over its existence, not only in terms of the resulting eradication of disease and illness, but also in terms of the improvement of life in general. On the other hand, the intellectualisation and concomitant disenchantment of the world have been associated with negative outcomes. Technology with its resulting emphasis on material existence has, according to many, alienated humanity from other forms of experience - particularly religious experience, blunting our sense of awe and wonder at the unknown. The author posits enhancement as a striving for the improvement of our existing capacities, as being in congruence with endeavours which have long characterised human existence. Examples range from early attempts to improve and organise life, such as numeracy and literacy, through the development of institutions, up to contemporary preventative medicine such as vaccination against a host of diseases. On the other hand, this drive to improve is increasingly leading to the possibility of self-directed evolution, resulting in a radical transformation of the biological identity of the human being and even the possible creation of a new species ("trans-humanism"). This latter interpretation of the possible outcomes or consequences of enhancement has elicited much debate concerning the enhancement project. Arguments against biomedical enhancement are often founded upon a distinction between treatment and enhancement, whereby the former as an intervention to restore normal functioning is deemed permissible. A noted proponent of such a stance is Norman Daniels (2009) who argues that the risks involved in the utilisation of genetic interventions in cases of serious genetic diseases are outweighed by the potential benefits, whereas the same may not hold in cases of enhancement, which can be distinguished from treatment or therapy. The author, however, points out in accordance with thinkers such as Harris (1998) and Holtug (1998), that the enhancement/treatment distinction is not tenable and collapses in the face of particular situations as evidenced by various examples he discusses. The second argument against enhancement discussed by the author is the objection that enhancement compromises the autonomy of those who are enhanced - an argument of which Habermas (2003) is the primary exponent. For Habermas, the association of enhancement with eugenics is inescapable. He views such interventions as a violation of the equality and autonomy of human beings due to their subjection to the intentions of third parties. Responses to this position are discussed, such as Buchanan's (2011) counter-argument that such a position is indicative of genetic determinism in its exclusive focus on genotype and its denial of the vastly influential role played by environmental factors in forming the identity of an individual. A third argument against enhancement discussed by the author, is put forward by Sandel (2007). Sandel regards the aim to enhance as characterised by a desire for perfection and control over the world, a denial of the "giftedness of life" as well as an erosion of the typical love and acceptance a parent ought to feel for its child "as it is". The author argues that Sandel's admonishments to appreciate the giftedness of life are evidence of a deeper objection to the perceived disenchantment of life wrought by technological change. However, objections to this argument generally draw attention to its inconsistency. Sandel regards changes achieved through genetic manipulation as a violation of the giftedness of life, but appears to have no objection to the non-genetic modes of influence and manipulation that we exert upon our offspring in an attempt to shape them to our perceived desires. The example highlighted by the author relates to the way in which we "direct and shape the development of children" and thus aims to improve them through education. Why, he asks, does Sandel see such aims of improvement as acceptable but not improvement through genetic interventions? Further objections to Sandel's argument are discussed, such as the implications of granting moral preference to the gifted or given state of life, as well as Sandel's seemingly teleological view of evolution. The author then discusses "transhumanism", a movement advocating radical enhancement which may ultimately result in the emergence of a new species that developed out of human beings. Objections to the transhumanist acceptance of such a possibility have focused on the moral imperative to keep human nature intact. Various responses to this position are discussed, one of which is Daniels' argument (2009), which views human nature as a "dispositional, selective population concept". A further objection to radical enhancement is also discussed, namely concern regarding the practical implications of the creation of a highly superior transhuman species for humans who choose to remain unenhanced. Wikler (2009), for example, asks in this respect whether such a species would be justified in assuming a paternalistic attitude towards the unenhanced in the same way we make decisions regarding the well-being of children and mentally disabled people. Buchanan's response in terms of the devising of a threshold level of competence is then explained and preferred by the author. The author also engages with several suggestions regarding the seeming impasse with which the enhancement debate has been characterised. As he points out, humanity has always tried to improve itself, thus to oppose enhancement is in a sense to oppose the inevitable. This inevitability suggests that we shouldfocus upon specific projects of enhancement that may be more problematic than others, rather than rejecting enhancement outright. Our guiding principles for adjudicating such projects ought to be whether or not they are to our benefit or disadvantage as a species, as well as whether or not they respect human rights, persons and human dignity. Useful work that may be used as a guide is Bostrom and Sandberg's (2009) heuristic which challenges alleged intuitions regarding the "wisdom of nature". In addition, Buchanan's (2011) "cautionary guidelines for future research" provide valuable suggestions regarding the avoidance of "cascading negative consequences". Rather than viewing biomedical enhancement as a disillusionment of the world or a blunting of our sense of mystery and awe, the author concludes that we should allow the possibilities opened up by modern science to stimulate our sense of wonder. A sense of awe need not be limited solely in response to the unknown but may also arise from a disclosure of the unknown. An enchantment with the world need not be the outcome of darkness but rather an anticipation and result of discovery. <![CDATA[<b>Getting (a)head</b>: <b>embodiment and contemporary cyber culture</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512012000400009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die metafoor of uitdrukking "om kop te hou" word aangewend as 'n sleutel ten einde 'n kritiese analise van die ontmoeting tussen nuwe tegnologieë en liggaamlikheid aan die hand te doen. Daar sal aangedui word hoe verwikkeld en uiters problematies die gedagte van "kophou" geword het in die kontemporêre kuberkultuur. Die doel is dus om die ontmoeting of interaksie tussen liggame en tegnologieë uiteen te sit met die belangrike voorbehoud dat dit nie die tegnologie is wat die liggaam ontmoet nie, maar eerder tegnologieë wat liggame in 'n verwikkelde interaksie ontmoet. Hierdie interaksie word in vier liggaamstipes verdeel, wat op 'n semiotiese vierkant aangedui word om gestalte te gee aan die ingewikkelde aard daarvan. Die vier liggaamstipes is geïdentifiseer as tegno-transendente liggaamlikheid; tegno-verbeterde liggaamlikheid; gemuteerde liggaamlik-heid en hiper-werklike liggaamlikheid. Aan die hand van die vier liggaamstipes word die verweefde en ingewikkelde interaksies tussen liggame en tegnologieë uitgebou en die metafoor van "kophou" deurgaans aangewend ten einde die fyner nuanses van die interaksie te beklemtoon. Die liggaamstipes se interaksies met nuwe tegnologieë word ontsluit deur verwysings na voorbeelde uit die breër visuele kuituur soos film, visuele kuns, advertensies en die internet te gebruik.<hr/>The expression "getting (a)head" will be utilised in this article as an analytical key in order to present a critical reading of the meeting of and interaction between bodies and new technologies. The main aim is to demonstrate the complexity of this interaction and also to make evident how problematic the concept of keeping one's head while getting ahead has become in relation to new technologies and cyber culture in particular. The obvious fact that one will probably need to keep one's physical head in order to be able to speak of the literal one is expounded by means of new technologies such as cryonics, but also by referring to older metaphysical discourses that embed the body-unfriendly proponents in contemporary cyber culture. Descartes' description ofthe head as an entity that exists apart from the rest of the body is briefly discussed, as well as the opposite extreme example namely Bataille's Acéphale-group during the early twentieth century that instead affirmed the headless man as a future prospect. It is argued that both examples, namely the concentration of all thinking in the head and the abandonment of thinking altogether, signify a one-sided and body-unfriendly discourse. These older examples are perpetuated in contemporary denouncement of the body, and thus favouring of the head, as exemplified by theorists and artists such as Timothy Leary and Stelarc, and William Gibson's novels. In contrast to these views, Merleau-Ponty's phenomenological embracing of the world as flesh and the unbreakable and unthinkable bond between head (mind) and body is introduced as a starting place for rethinking embodiment in contemporary cyber culture. The interaction between bodies and technologies cannot be described in simple terms by assuming that the body meets the technology. Rather, it would be more appropriate to refer to bodies or body types that interact with technologies in the plural. In order to give form to this more complex interaction four body types have been identified that are unpacked on a semiotic square. The body types are the techno-transcendent body; the techno-enhanced body; the mutated body andfinally the hyper-real body. These four categories are by no means exhaustive but they do present an entry point for unravelling the divergent ways in which bodies engage with new technologies. In terms of the possibilities that the semiotic square provides the body types are unpacked as follows on the four axes: the techno-enhanced body is placed between the opposites of (present) and (absent) where the presence and absence of materiality plays a role, as well as the extent to which technology enhances and changes the body; the techno-transcendent is positioned body between (random/pattern) pairing, because it is the body type most likely to become disembodied during the sometimes random and sometimes patterned interaction with virtuality; the mutated body is placed between the (present) and (random) axes because it deviates from the pattern during its interaction with technologies, which leads to mutation into a seemingly endless range of possibilities between materiality and randomness; andfinally the hyper-real body is situated between (absent) and (pattern) that represents the simulacrum where the original is copied to such an extent that it disappears, thus becoming absent but gaining form (pattern) in the replica/ clone. The engagement of the four body types with new technologies are analysed by means of referring to examples from visual culture in general including examples from film, advertisements, visual art, digital photography and the Internet. <![CDATA[<b>Conditions of possibility for the use of metaphor</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512012000400010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es 'n Ondersoek word ingestel na bepaalde kondisies wat die aard van metafoorgebruik onderlê en eers moontlik maak. Dit blyk dat die onderskeiding tussen letterlike en figuurlike taalgebruik eersgenoemde nie bo die algemeen-interpretatiewe aard van alle taalgebruik verhef nie, waaruit volg dat nie alle taalgebruik metafories is nie. Aristoteles se bydrae verg dat gelet word op die verband tussen logos, analogon en alogos wat verband hou met die verskil tussen begrip en woord en na die gegewe dat 'n metafoor iets wat "sin-strydig" (αλογον) is, bevat. 'n Vergelyking is nie 'n metafoor nie. Die Ilias van Homeros se metaforiese gebruik van die woord leeu word opgevolg deur te let op die hipoteties-fiktiewe kant van 'n metafoor. Die onderskeidenheid van begrip en woord maak tipiese semantiese verskynsels eers moontlik. Die voortgesette bespreking belig ook die rol van die menslike inbeeldingsvermoë in metafoorgebruik en vestig ten slotte die aandag op die aard van egte analogieë - wat na vore tree wanneer twee gegewens ooreenstem in die opsig waarin hulle verskil. Ten slotte word die elf kondisies of voorwaardes waaraan in die artikel aandag geskenk is, bondig puntsgewys saamgevat.<hr/>Faced with the vast literature on the nature of metaphoricity, this article restricts its investigation to some of the prominent conditions underlying and making metaphors possible - thus pursuing a transcendental-empirical approach - where the word transcendental does not have an epistemological but rather an ontic meaning. Making a distinction between literal and figurative language-use does not elevate the former above the general interpretative nature of all language-use and at the same time does not mean we have to accept the view that all language is metaphorical. A brief explanation of the etymology of the word metaphor is followed up by referring to the well-known fourfold distinction made by Aristotle. In particular, the fourth element of Aristotle S reflection on the nature of metaphor generated attention for the connection between logos, analogon and alogos - terms pointing towards the difference between concept and word and to the fact that a metaphor contains something nonsensical ("Sinnwidrig" or "Widersinnig," a "meaning-contradiction" - αλογον). Boyle (Black 1998:21) alludes to the "mystery" of a metaphor which is "simply that, taken as literal, a metaphorical statement appears to be perversely asserting something to be what it is plainly known not to be". An analysis of the relationship between comparison (as a simile) and a metaphor in particular, highlights the nature of similarities which, in connection with Aristotle's approach, also bears upon identity. Within the context of his distinction between discrete quantity and continuous quantity, Aristotle discerns an equality of ratios. Just like a comparison contains four elements - where the element of comparison is taken twice, every point of division on a continuum is also taken twice - as end-point of the one part and as starting-point of the other. An assessment of the nature of a comparison and a metaphor brings to light that although the former is foundational to the latter, the two cannot be equated, because the words employed in a comparison maintain their meanings without any transfer of meaning. A metaphor differs from a simple comparison in that it actually at once has two different meanings. Yet, while a comparison merely identifies something similar between different things, something more complicated is at stake when it concerns differences which are shown in what is similar. This complication is underscored where Leezenberg explains the view of Jurjáni: "Only the metaphor can describe Zayd as if he is really a lion." (Leezenberg 2001:53) It was already in the Iliad of Homer that the word lion was used metaphorically. Reflecting on this feature of metaphors highlights the "hypothetical-fictional" side of a metaphor - as it comes to expression in the explanation that only a metaphor can describe a soldier "as if" he "really" is a lion (notice the tension between the phrase "as if" and the word "really"). Could it be asserted that Zyad is a real lion and at the same time alleges that Zyad is merely viewed as if it is a lion? This gives rise to the question as to whether metaphors contain a fictitious element. Although one may relate this question to Vaihinger's (1949) philosophy of the "as if," it is not necessary to succumb to his view that fictions are internally antinomic. What is antinomic or contradictory appeals to the validity and application of logical principles, such as those of identity and non-contradiction, which serve as the foundation for lingual phenomena. In addition, the 'as if' character relates to a hypothetical element entailed in metaphoric language use. It is subsequently argued that the distinctness of a concept and a word enables the very existence of typical semantic phenomena. According to Ricoeur the literal meaning of a word cannot be equated with its supposed "proper" meaning, because the lexical value of a word is a literal meaning, while the "metaphorical meaning is non-lexical: it is a value created by the context." Furthermore, what is apparently logically contradictory in a metaphor, viewed from the perspective of a logical-analytical assessment, turns out to be unproblematic, when observed within a lingual context. The discussion also reveals the role of the imagination as a human capacity involved in the use of metaphors. In the final section, attention is given to the role of genuine analogies - surfacing whenever what is given is similar in that respect in which they are different. A significant element in our discussion concerns the relationship between metaphor and analogy, which, according to Ricoeur (2006), is indeed one of the most difficult problems confronting an understanding of metaphor. He pursues the path of "analogous attribution" present in the medieval doctrine of "analogia entis". The two levels alluded to by Ricoeur actually require the introduction of a new distinction, namely that between conceptual knowledge and concept-transcending knowledge. A brief investigation of analogies between different ontic domains shows that differences are shown in what is similar. For example, both mathematical space and physical space are extended (their similarity), but within this similar element the difference evinces itself, because whereas mathematical space is continuous and infinitely divisible, physical space is neither continuous nor infinitely divisible. These examples open the way to a definition of a proper analogy: whenever two things or properties are similar in that respect in which they differ, or differ in that respect in which they are similar, a genuine analogy is at stake. The distinction between the modal aspects of reality and concrete events and entities functioning within them, enables a fourfold distinction between analogies, namely between aspects (A-A), between entities (E-E), between aspects and entities (A-E) and between entities and aspects (E-A). It is argued that only the last three possibilities should be designated as metaphors. In conclusion, the eleven conditions discerned in the analysis are briefly summarised. <![CDATA[<b>The state of curriculum studies in faculties of education at South African universities</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512012000400011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es 'n Navorsingsprojek is gedurende 2010-2011 onderneem om 'n grondige ondersoek te doen na die ontwikkeling en die huidige stand van kurrikulumstudie aan Suid-Afrikaanse universiteite, spesifiek binne opvoedkundefakulteite. Wat beteken dit indien daar van 'n Suid-Afrikaanse kurrikulumstudie gepraat word? Wat is die stand van kurrikulumstudie aan Suid-Afrikaanse universiteite? Hoe het kurrikulumstudie as studieveld in Suid-Afrika ontwikkel? Tot watter mate word kurrikulumstudie aan Suid-Afrikaanse universiteite in die besonder in fakulteite waar onderwysersopleiding plaasvind, as studieveld/navorsingsterrein beoefen? Wat is die aard en omvang van kurrikulumteorie binne die betrokke studieveld in die SA konteks, en geniet dit nog die nodige aandag? Tot watter mate word onderwysers voorberei om effektiewe kurrikulumagente te wees deur doelmatige bemagtiging ten opsigte van kurrikulumstudie deur hulle in staat te stel om kurrikulum te kan bedink en te herkonseptualiseer? Om hierdie vrae te beantwoord, is 'n literatuurstudie en vraelysondersoek tydens die projek geloods, aangevul met ter plaatse besoeke en onderhoude. Die resultate dui daarop dat kurrikulumstudie as studieveld nie heeltemal tot sy reg kom nie en dat die dominante beskouing fokus op die praktiese aspekte daarvan, met ander woorde hoe onderwysstudente voorberei kan word om die betrokke skoolvak aan te bied. 'n Grondige begrip van kurrikulumstudie en hoë vlakke van akademieskap ("scholarship") is beperk tot slegs enkele sentra. Daar bestaan nie so iets soos 'n unieke Suid-Afrikaanse kurrikulumstudie nie en daar is veel ruimte vir verbetering. Strategieë sal gereed gekry moet word om op 'n gekoördineerde wyse kurrikulumstudie as studieveld in Suid-Afrika te vestig en te ontwikkel.<hr/>When educational issues are highlighted in the South African context, it is clear many of the problems are curriculum related. A reflection on and investigation into these issues is often required as many of these issues are contextualised within a certain practice. Within each curriculum context there will be curriculum practitioners with varying levels of expertise. South Africa has gone through a number of curriculum changes over the last years, for example a completely new school curriculum with its own implementation challenges, teachers who were not properly prepared to implement these changes, little involvement of teachers who should be the key curriculum change agents and a shortage of curriculum specialists. If a curriculum is to succeed and meet its goals, then key roleplayers, such as teachers and other curriculum specialists need to be enabled to engage critically with the curriculum. Teachers therefore need to be properly prepared with regard to curriculum studies to enable them to ask critical questions, to reflect critically on the curriculum they have to implement and to become creatively involved in curriculum development as curriculum inquirers. Barrow (1984:13) is of the opinion that it is curriculum theory which will determine and set standards for effective curriculum practices. Are teachers in South Africa able to do this as it requires high levels of theorising? Teachers as key curriculum agents, need to have a sound understanding of curriculum studies and the question arises as to who is responsible to provide opportunities to achieve this goal? In this regard, teacher training institutions have a most important role to play. What is meant by a South African curriculum studies? What is the current state of curriculum studies as an independent studyfield in faculties of education at South African universities? How has the field of curriculum studies developed in South Africa? To what extent is curriculum theory included in teacher training programmes? To what extent are teachers exposed to and trained in curriculum theory? Is curriculum studies an independent field of study in its own right within teacher training programmes at faculties of education at South African universities. This article reports on an investigation which was done to find answers to some of these questions and to try and get a view of what the state of curriculum studies is in teachers training programmes in faculties of education at South African universities. Curriculum studies is a field of study in its own right which investigates the phenomenon of curriculum so that the curriculum can be optimally developed and implemented. It is a well-established research field¹ which needs to be continually investigated in order to understand curriculum better. Very little research has been done in South Africa on curriculum theory and how it is accommodated in teacher training programmes at South African universities. Curriculum studies is often seen as a very broad and complex field and it is difficult to encapsulate its meaning in one definition. It is a field of studies in its own right as it has its own set of theoretical constructs and principles which guide it, based on a sound curriculum knowledge and appropriate competences.² Curriculum studies continually generates new knowledge as it is a dynamic field of study. It has its own theoreticians and practitioners, a fact which ensures that it qualifies as an independentfield of study in its own right (See Oliva 1988:17-18; Kelly 2009:6). Ornstein and Hunkins (2009:31-177) describe certain foundations which justify curriculum studies as an independent field of study, namely philosophical (pp31-58), historical (pp 1070145) and social foundations (pp 149-177). Their viewpoint is representative of the literature of why curriculum studies is an independent field of studies, when they state ... curriculum as a field of study is crucial to the health of schools and society. ... there is no denying that curriculum affects educators, students, and other members of society. The field of curriculum is not intended to provide precise answers but to increase our understanding of its complexities. Curriculum results from social activity. Curriculum is a dynamic field! A research project was undertaken in 2010-2011 to make an in-depth investigation into the state of curriculum studies as a field of studies in faculties of education at South African universities. Questions such as: What is meant when we talk about a South African curriculum studies? Is there such a phenomenon as a typical South African curriculum studies? How has curriculum studies developed in South Africa? To what extent is curriculum studies being practised as an independent field of studies in faculties of education where teachers are trained? What is the current nature and state of curriculum theory at faculties of education at South African universities? To what extent are teachers enabled through teacher training programmes to function as true curriculum agents who are able to think critically about and conceptualise the curriculum? To answer these questions, a research project was launched, by doing a literature study, a research questionnaire and semi-structured interviews during a visit to these institutions. Results indicated that curriculum studies as a field of study does not come into its own right in most of the teacher training programmes, especially in the undergraduate programmes. There are a few exceptions, but the view that curriculum studies is the process of preparing student teachers to be able to teach their school subject, in other words, a stronger focus on the practical aspects and not curriculum theory, is prevalent. There is thus a stronger focus on the practical aspects of curriculum. The conceptualisation of curriculum studies as a field of study is present but only in the minority of faculties of education. At most of the institutions which participated in this reseach project little curriculum theory is done at an in-depth level. There is also no evidence that there is a unique South African curriculum studies as the views and practices are too diverse and fragmented. Aspects of curriculum studies are presented, for example, as separate themes within modules, sometimes as separate modules (mostly as the teaching of a school subject) and in a few cases, as separate programmes at Masters level. It is recommended that a national discourse be promoted to enable all roleplayers to participate in the debate om how curriculum studies can be developed more extensively. Faculties of education should collaborate in creating opportunities which may contribute towards enhancing the field of curriculum studies, e.g. through the formation of a national forum. Curriculum studies and the issue of curriculum theory should be core components of all teacher training programmes so that all teachers are empowered in the field of curriculum studies. It is clear that a great amount of developmental work still has to be done to enhance the field of curriculum studies and to sensitise all involved in teacher training of the importance of being knowledgeable and competent in the field of curriculum studies. <![CDATA[<b>A school-based socio-emotional programme as strategy against crime and violence (2)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512012000400012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die doel van hierdie studie is om die verband tussen Emosionele Intelligensie (EI) in die klaskamer en leerders se gedrag te bepaal. In die proses word daar ook riglyne geformuleer vir die basiese stappe om EI in die klaskamer in te span. Sodoende kan die probleem van geweld en die uitdagings van sosiaal-emosionele intervensies in skole meer suksesvol aangespreek word tot voordeel van al die betrokkenes in die skoolkonteks sowel as die samelewing in die geheel. In hierdie studie word kwalitatiewe navorsing as hoofnavorsingsmetode gebruik om die impak van EI in die klaskamer op leerders se gedrag te identifiseer. Daar word gebruik gemaak van deelnemende-aksie-navorsing, wat binne 'n kritiese paradigma uitgevoer word. Onderwysers, skole en ondersteuningspersoneel se einddoel is die optimale ontwikkeling van leerders. Hierdie doel is afhanklik van doeltreffende skoolbestuur, wat weer afhanklik is van 'n toereikende kurrikulum en ondersteunende onderrig- en leeromgewings. Hierdie navorsing het dan ook gekyk hoe suksesvol EI-onderrigstrategieë in die voorkoming van dissiplineprobleme kan wees. Die gebruik van EI in die klaskamer kan as voorkomende dissipline gesien word. Hierdie navorsing toon onteenseglik dat EI die kernelement van 'n sosiaal-emosionele skool-intervensieprogram program moet wees. Positiewe dissipline, demokratiese skoolbestuur en ondersteuning-strukture is ook tydens die studie geïdentifiseer as elemente wat in 'n sosiaal-emosionele intervensieprogram teenwoordig behoort te wees.<hr/>This article reports on a research project which surveyed the link between the teacher's emotional competency in the classroom and the learner's behaviour, by means of action research. The experiences, perceptions and attitudes of learners and educators alike about Emotional Intelligence (EI) in the classroom were researched. This research also looked at how successful EI teaching strategies could be in the prevention of disciplinary problems. Emotional Intelligence is used as an intervention strategy to try and correct learners' misbehaviour. This research is aimed at the programme's applicability within the context of the South African society. This study concentrates specifically on the acquisition of emotional skills by teachers and learners. It has the aim of determining whether emotional skills can be acquired in the complex atmosphere of a school. The main aim of this study was to implement a school based social and emotional intervention programme as a strategy to counter violence and crime in the school concerned. The challenge was to use El in classroom practices as an intervention to prevent violence and crime in the school and create a positive behaviour culture in the school. The general public is made aware of South Africa s high crime figures through the media. It is therefore clear that it is specifically here that people need to be taught EI. The study took place at a high school in Tshwane. A pre-study was undertaken to establish the ongoing problem regarding violence and crime and school management strategies. It seemed that the values of the teaching strategies, school management strategies and violence intervention strategies were at variance at the school. A starting point for the research was therefore to find ways to eliminate these discrepancies. Four teachers who taught different subjects to Grade 9 classes with significant behavioural problems were selected, and 120 learners were involved in the study. With this aim in mind the impact of classroom practices was investigated. The participating teachers therefore consciously made use of EI teaching methods in the classroom for a period of four weeks. The impact the use of EI in the classroom had on the learners'behaviour was evaluated over this period. Teaching actions in the classroom were aimed at equipping the learners with EI. Because of this the learners and teachers participating in this study were asked to complete a structured observation questionnaire. Focus group interviews, field notes and observation were additional for the collection of suitable and revealing data which made it possible to obtain information and to gain insight into it. A comparison between pre- and post-evaluation shows that the learners in all the classes experienced the teachers as being slightly more emotionally skilled in the post-evaluation. The learners' consciousness of EI in the classroom also increased. The results are promising in that the learners more readily accepted the EI of the teachers in the classroom practices. The aim of this research is to ascertain which elements ought to be part of a socio-emotional school intervention programme to prevent violence and crime in the school. This investigation proves without a doubt that EI should be the core element of such a programme. Positive discipline, democratic school management, support structures and parent and community involvement were elements identified in this study as being crucial in a socio-emotional intervention programme. The conclusion is therefore that a school based socio-emotional intervention programme can be used as a strategy to prevent violence and crime in the school. This research has taken the first step towards making school managements and teachers aware of the importance of increasing EI in learners, and that with the teaching of EI they can make a marked difference in the behaviour of the learners. <![CDATA[<b>The effect of intervention on ocular motor control functions and visual-motor integration status of 6- to 8-year old learners with ADHD</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512012000400013&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die doel van die studie was om te bepaal of okulêre motoriese beheer en visueel-motoriese integrasie van jong leerders met ADHD sal verbeter na deelname aan 'n 9-week okulêre motoriese intervensieprogram. Sewe en veertig leerders (25 seuns en 22 dogters) met 'n gemiddelde ouderdom van 6.95 jaar (sa=0.69) is verdeel in drie groepe: 'n eksperimentele groep met ADHD (n=20) wat deelgeneem het aan die intervensieprogram; 'n kontrolegroep wat bestaan het uit leerders met ADHD (n=10) en 'n groep sonder ADHD (n=17). Die Sensoriese Invoersiftingsmeetinstrument en die "Quick Neurological Screening Test II" (QNST-II) is gebruik om die okulêre motoriese beheerstatus van die leerders te bepaal, terwyl die "Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration 4" gebruik is om visueel-motoriese integrasie te assesseer. Kruistabellering is gebruik om verbetering van okulêre motoriese beheer te bepaal, wat matige verbetering ten opsigte van die ernstige probleme met visuele navolging en konvergensie-divergensie by die intervensiegroep getoon het. Afhanklike t-toetsing is verder gebruik om die intervensie-effek met betrekking tot visueel-motoriese integrasie, motoriese koördinasie en visuele persepsie te ontleed, waaruit betekenisvolle verbetering (p<0.05; d=0.38) in die motoriese koördinasie van die intervensiegroep geblyk het.<hr/>The American Psychiatric Association's (APA) (2000) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV) describes attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a persistent pattern of attention deficit or hyperactivity that accrues more often as the typically expected behaviour of an individual's development level and age. Mercugliano (1999) describes ADHD as levels of attention deficit, with or without impulsive and over-active behaviour that is not within the accepted norms of each age group, where the behaviour occurs in different settings and causes problems with functional adapting. The worldwide incidence of ADHD is reported to be between 3% and 7% (Elia et al. 1999; APA 2000). A high percentage of learners with learning problems (25%-80%) also exhibits symptoms of ADHD, which is a possible indication that one problem can lead to the other and vice versa (Cantwell & Baker 1991; Smith 2001). Studies show that learners with ADHD experienced ocular motor control delays as well as problems with their motor development (George et al. 2005; Papavasiliou et al. 2007). If visual problems are experienced because of ineffective ocular motor control functions, problems can also be expected with binocular fusion, visual tracking, ocular alignment, convergence-divergence, fixation, posture, reading habits and visual awareness, which usually go hand in hand with academic-, gross motor- and sport relatedproblems (Auxter et al. 1993; Desrochers 1999; Cheatum & Hammond 2000). Improving visual problems related to misalignment of the eyes, are often approached using binocular vision exercises. Auxter et al. (1993) define binocular exercises as a practice and learning process to help improve visual perception and/or coordination of the two eyes for more effective binocular fusion. Vision therapy can further be described as an individualised intervention that is designed to improve the binocular system, ocular motor control (convergence, divergence, accommodation, visual tracking, ocular lining and fixation), visual processing, visual-motor skills and/or perceptual-cognitive deviations (Orfield et al. 2001; Barrett 2009). However, the essence of vision therapy is to improve eye muscle function. Mahone et al. (2009) found that learners with ADHD experienced significant delays in regards to ocular motor inhibiting and readiness (saccadic latency and adaptability). Mahone et al. (2009) further indicate that girls with ADHD experience more problems with saccadic latency than boys with ADHD. Barrett (2009) indicated that it must first be established what the visual problems are that are directly related to learners with ADHD before strategies can be constructed for successful remediation. This researcher also states that the current available literature still does not provide enough answers in this respect (Barrett 2009). Literature shows that few studies have been done about the effects a visual-motor program (where visual and motor skills are combined as a strategy) will have on the improvement of ocular motor control and visual-motor integration problems of learners identified with ADHD, thus currently leaving this field with unanswered questions in this regard. The aim of this study was to determine what effect a 9-week ocular motor intervention programme will have on the ocular motor control and visual-motor integration status of 6 to 8-year old learners with ADHD. A pre-test-post-test research design based on availability was used during this study where 47 learners (25 boys and 22 girls) with a mean age of 6.95 years (sd=0.69) took part. The participants were divided into three groups: a group with ADHD (n=20) that underwent the visual-motor based intervention and who were then compared to a control group consisting of learners with ADHD (n=10) and a control group without ADHD (n=17). The intervention group took part in a 9-week (3x/week for 45 minutes) visual-motor based intervention (where approximately 5 minutes of each lesson were spent per learner on individual ocular motor control activities). The Sensory Input Systems Screening Test and Quick Neurological Screening Test II (QNST-II) were used to determine the ocular motor control status (fixation; visual pursuit; ocular alignment and convergence-divergence), while the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration Test-4 was used to determine the visual-motor integration, visual perception and motor coordination status. The Disruptive Behaviour Scale (Bester 2006) (control list for ADHD) was used to identifiy learners with ADHD. Learners were divided into classes according to deviations that were found in their ocular motor control (class 1 - no deviations, class 2 - moderate deviations and class 3 - serious deviations). The results were analysed by using cross tabulation. These results showed movement of participants within the classes in all three groups, which indicated both improvement and deterioration. Slight improvements with regard to serious problems in visual tracking (horisontal and vertical) and convergence-divergence were found in the intervention group which was different from what were seen in the other groups. The intervention effect on visual-motor integration, visual perception and motor coordination was further analysed by dependent t-testing, while a co-variance of analysis (ANCOVA) (corrected for pre-test differences) was used to determine the adjusted mean post-test difference values. These results show that the control group without ADHD obtained the best values before and after the intervention with regards to visual-motor integration. These results were expected seeing that the group without ADHD should not have problems with any of the various functions that were assessed during this study, while maturation during the time of the intervention could also have contributed to further improvements. Significant improvements (d=0.38) in comparison to the control group with ADHD (Group 2) were however found in the motor coordination of the intervention group (Group 1), from which it can be concluded that the intervention program had a positive effect on the improvement of these specific skills. A possible explanation for this improvement in motor coordination is that the intervention program focused on the improvement of visual-motor components and the bigger part of the program consisted of activities to improve gross motor skills, which could have contributed to bigger improvements in motor coordination. It can be concluded that vision therapy has possibilities for the improvement of ocular motor problems among ADHD children, which might contribute to improved visual-motor integration, visual perception and motor coordination of such learners. The results ofthis study should however be substantiated by further investigations of the findings of the investigation. <![CDATA[<b>The effect of declining goldmine production levels on employment in the Dr. Kenneth Kaunda District Municipality</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512012000400014&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In hierdie studie word die potensiaal van verskeie ekonomiese sektore in die Dr. Kenneth Kaunda Distriksmunisipaliteit (DKKDM), Noordwes-provinsie, Suid-Afrika, om werk te skep, ondersoek. Die doel van die studie is om sektore te identifiseer wat die potensiaal besit om in die toekoms volhoubaar werk te kan skep. Die DKKDM bestaan uit die plaaslike munisipaliteite van Matlosana (Klerksdorp), Potchefstroom (Tlokwe), Maquassi Hills (Wolmaransstad, Leeudoringstad, Makwassie en Witpoort) en Ventersdorp. Die ekonomieë van hierdie munisipaliteite steun sterk op die goudmynbedryf. Die reserwes van Suid-Afrikaanse goudmyne is besig om te daal en talle mense in die mynbedryf gaan in die afsienbare toekoms hul werk verloor - met al die ontbering en ontwikkelingsuitdagings wat daaruit gaan voortvloei. As navorsingsmetodologie vir hierdie studie is aandeelverskuiwingsontleding benut; 'n tegniek wat dikwels aangewend word in die ekonomiese geografie. Dit verleen insig in die verskuiwings van werksgeleenthede en produksie tussen verskillende sektore asook ruimtelik oor tyd. Dit toon ook die nasionale aandeeleffek op indiensname in die streek, asook die effek van die streek se unieke nywerheidsamestelling en sy ekonomiese mededingendheid. Daar is bevind dat die vervaardigingsubsektore met die hoogste werkskeppingspotensiaal in die DKKDM-streek die vervaardigers van vervoertoerusting, hout en papierprodukte, metaalprodukte en meubels is; terwyl die niemetaalprodukte-sektor ook potensiaal toon. In die dienstesektor, wat die vervaardigingsektor, landbou en mynbou ver oortref, is die grootste potensiële skeppers van werksgeleenthede eiendom, konstruksie, motor- en brandstofverkope en motoronderhoud, ander sakebedrywe en ander dienste. In toekomstige ontwikkelingsprogramme van die gebied behoort hierdie sektore voorkeur te geniet.<hr/>In this study the potential of the various economic sectors of the Dr. Kenneth Kaunda District Municipality (DKKDM) to create future employment, is investigated. The DKKDM encompasses a total of 15 712 km², located in the North West province of South Africa. It comprised the local municipalities of Matlosana (Klerksdorp), Potchefstroom (Tlokwe), Maquassi Hills (Wolmaransstad, Leeudoringstad, Makwassie and Witpoort) and Ventersdorp, including Hartbeesfontein, Stilfontein and Orkney. The economies of these local municipalities are mainly dependent on gold mining. However, the future prospects of South African goldmines are declining since gold deposits are becoming depleted. A large section of the population dependent on the mining industry will face unemployment in the near future, leading to adversity and concomitant development needs if this problem is not addressed in time. The objective of this study is to identify industries with the potential to create future jobs. The production of gold has now been declining for a long time and the trend is bound to persist. During the decade from 1996 to 2006 gold production in South Africa declined, for example, by 60.1 per cent, and with that also South Africa's share in total production of gold, which declined from 79 per cent in 1970 to 19.2 per cent in 2002 - a figure which is even less than it was during the early years of local production in 1894. Shift-share analysis was utilised as research methodology; a technique often applied in studies of economic geography. It provides insight into the shifts of employment and economic production in various sectors over space and time. It also provides information on employment growth of various industries and subsectors in a region, and also divides employment changes into specific elements. It indicates the effect that national trends have on the creation of jobs in a regional, as well as the effects that a region's unique industrial mix and the economic competitiveness of its various industries have on the creation of employment. It does not require much data, which is often an empirical constraint, it can quickly be applied to new data, it is analytically clear, utilises plain logic and is easy for policymakers to comprehend, apply and utilise. Between 1996 and 2010 the DKKDM region lost many job opportunities. Employment figures of goldmines declined by an annual average of 4.4 per cent during the first decade of the third millennium. Between 1999 and 2006 goldmines lost in access of 87 000 jobs. It was only the region's unique combination of industries that led to the creation of new jobs and limited further job losses - especially in the services sectors. The national influence on the DKKDM was weak, but most job opportunities were lost due to the particular regions' inability to be economically competitive. The results indicate that the manufacturing subsectors with the highest employment creation potential in the DKKDM region are transport equipment, wood and paper products, metal products and furniture. The non-metallic products sector also shows potential. The study also compared the potential ability of sectors to create jobs, in relation to the size of the particular industries, but that did not significantly change the results. A similar study was conducted and published using the gross value-added or gross regional products of the various sectors in the SDM region and similar results were obtained. The service sectors outperform manufacturing, agriculture and mining by far. The service sectors are extensive and are growing fast. Their performance did not decline during the two economic crises that the world faced during 1998 and 2008. In the service sectors of the DKKDK most jobs are created due to the national share and industrial mix effects, but the region's sectors are not competitive. Among the service sectors the major job creators are property, construction, motor vehicle and fuel sales and maintenance, other businesses and other services, closely followed by wholesale, retail and repair services. These sectors merit priority treatment in future development programmes for this region. <![CDATA[<b>Redakteursnota vir Spesiale Tema - Besinning oor die geesteswetenskappe en menslike geestelikheid</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512012000400015&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In hierdie studie word die potensiaal van verskeie ekonomiese sektore in die Dr. Kenneth Kaunda Distriksmunisipaliteit (DKKDM), Noordwes-provinsie, Suid-Afrika, om werk te skep, ondersoek. Die doel van die studie is om sektore te identifiseer wat die potensiaal besit om in die toekoms volhoubaar werk te kan skep. Die DKKDM bestaan uit die plaaslike munisipaliteite van Matlosana (Klerksdorp), Potchefstroom (Tlokwe), Maquassi Hills (Wolmaransstad, Leeudoringstad, Makwassie en Witpoort) en Ventersdorp. Die ekonomieë van hierdie munisipaliteite steun sterk op die goudmynbedryf. Die reserwes van Suid-Afrikaanse goudmyne is besig om te daal en talle mense in die mynbedryf gaan in die afsienbare toekoms hul werk verloor - met al die ontbering en ontwikkelingsuitdagings wat daaruit gaan voortvloei. As navorsingsmetodologie vir hierdie studie is aandeelverskuiwingsontleding benut; 'n tegniek wat dikwels aangewend word in die ekonomiese geografie. Dit verleen insig in die verskuiwings van werksgeleenthede en produksie tussen verskillende sektore asook ruimtelik oor tyd. Dit toon ook die nasionale aandeeleffek op indiensname in die streek, asook die effek van die streek se unieke nywerheidsamestelling en sy ekonomiese mededingendheid. Daar is bevind dat die vervaardigingsubsektore met die hoogste werkskeppingspotensiaal in die DKKDM-streek die vervaardigers van vervoertoerusting, hout en papierprodukte, metaalprodukte en meubels is; terwyl die niemetaalprodukte-sektor ook potensiaal toon. In die dienstesektor, wat die vervaardigingsektor, landbou en mynbou ver oortref, is die grootste potensiële skeppers van werksgeleenthede eiendom, konstruksie, motor- en brandstofverkope en motoronderhoud, ander sakebedrywe en ander dienste. In toekomstige ontwikkelingsprogramme van die gebied behoort hierdie sektore voorkeur te geniet.<hr/>In this study the potential of the various economic sectors of the Dr. Kenneth Kaunda District Municipality (DKKDM) to create future employment, is investigated. The DKKDM encompasses a total of 15 712 km², located in the North West province of South Africa. It comprised the local municipalities of Matlosana (Klerksdorp), Potchefstroom (Tlokwe), Maquassi Hills (Wolmaransstad, Leeudoringstad, Makwassie and Witpoort) and Ventersdorp, including Hartbeesfontein, Stilfontein and Orkney. The economies of these local municipalities are mainly dependent on gold mining. However, the future prospects of South African goldmines are declining since gold deposits are becoming depleted. A large section of the population dependent on the mining industry will face unemployment in the near future, leading to adversity and concomitant development needs if this problem is not addressed in time. The objective of this study is to identify industries with the potential to create future jobs. The production of gold has now been declining for a long time and the trend is bound to persist. During the decade from 1996 to 2006 gold production in South Africa declined, for example, by 60.1 per cent, and with that also South Africa's share in total production of gold, which declined from 79 per cent in 1970 to 19.2 per cent in 2002 - a figure which is even less than it was during the early years of local production in 1894. Shift-share analysis was utilised as research methodology; a technique often applied in studies of economic geography. It provides insight into the shifts of employment and economic production in various sectors over space and time. It also provides information on employment growth of various industries and subsectors in a region, and also divides employment changes into specific elements. It indicates the effect that national trends have on the creation of jobs in a regional, as well as the effects that a region's unique industrial mix and the economic competitiveness of its various industries have on the creation of employment. It does not require much data, which is often an empirical constraint, it can quickly be applied to new data, it is analytically clear, utilises plain logic and is easy for policymakers to comprehend, apply and utilise. Between 1996 and 2010 the DKKDM region lost many job opportunities. Employment figures of goldmines declined by an annual average of 4.4 per cent during the first decade of the third millennium. Between 1999 and 2006 goldmines lost in access of 87 000 jobs. It was only the region's unique combination of industries that led to the creation of new jobs and limited further job losses - especially in the services sectors. The national influence on the DKKDM was weak, but most job opportunities were lost due to the particular regions' inability to be economically competitive. The results indicate that the manufacturing subsectors with the highest employment creation potential in the DKKDM region are transport equipment, wood and paper products, metal products and furniture. The non-metallic products sector also shows potential. The study also compared the potential ability of sectors to create jobs, in relation to the size of the particular industries, but that did not significantly change the results. A similar study was conducted and published using the gross value-added or gross regional products of the various sectors in the SDM region and similar results were obtained. The service sectors outperform manufacturing, agriculture and mining by far. The service sectors are extensive and are growing fast. Their performance did not decline during the two economic crises that the world faced during 1998 and 2008. In the service sectors of the DKKDK most jobs are created due to the national share and industrial mix effects, but the region's sectors are not competitive. Among the service sectors the major job creators are property, construction, motor vehicle and fuel sales and maintenance, other businesses and other services, closely followed by wholesale, retail and repair services. These sectors merit priority treatment in future development programmes for this region. <![CDATA[<b>On the Spiritual</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512012000400016&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In die artikel word uitgegaan van die standpunt dat die geestelike ten grondslag van die geesteswetenskappe in 'n krisis verkeer. Ter motivering hiervan word die volgende aangevoer. In die eerste afdeling word geluister na 'n historiese wenk vanuit die verlede. Ten grondslag van hierdie historiese verwysings (in die besonder na die Hoë Middeleeue en die ervaring van die geestelike soos wat dit onder meer in die Gotiese katedraal na vore tree) lê die gedagte dat daar inderdaad historiese voorbeelde bestaan op grond waarvan afgelei kan word dat die geestelike vandag in 'n krisis is. In die tweede afdeling word verwys na die moderne breuk tussen die geestelike en die materiële en die verskralende werking wat dit op die betekenis van sowel die geestelike as die materiële in die moderne wêreld het. In die derde en laaste afdeling word die krisis van die gees in verband gebring met die moderne historisme en in die besonder met die feit dat die geestelike vanweë die historisme van sy opdraggewende gesag (sy "behoort") gestroop word. Hierdie toestand lei daartoe dat die geesteswetenskappe weerloos in die aangesig van die dominante neoliberale denkraamwerk aan openbare instellings gelaat word.<hr/>Linking up with the discussion in a previous edition of the Journal of Humanities on the present state of "human spirituality" (Volume 52:1, March 2012), it is argued in this article that talk about the crisis of the human spirit is indeed legitimate. However, unlike the trend among authors in the mentioned edition of JH to isolate the crisis from the religious and metaphysical tradition, it is argued in this article that it must be evaluated against this background. While "Jerusalem" and "Athens" in the past formed the necessary preconditions to the important place awarded to the spiritual in Western culture, the present crisis is marked by the absence of these sources. Without falling prey to the nostalgic yearning for a forgotten paradise of the spirit, it is argued that the crisis can best be understood when compared to a previous historical era. In this regard brief reference is made to the High Middle Ages, and more specifically the latter's tendency to express its high regard for the spiritual by means of Gothic architecture. In comparison with the latter's tendency to direct the gaze of the believer upwards to the spiritual, contemporary architecture, as exemplified by the "mall", horizontalises the gaze of the consumer, fixing it in a reductive fashion on the material. In the second section of the article the focus shifts to a closely related argument based on the history of ideas. Although "Jerusalem" and "Athens" gave an unqualified preference to the spiritual above the material, the spiritual and the material were also seen as necessarily intertwined and mutually dependent. In contrast, modern thought isolates the spiritual from the material, causing a reduction in the meaning of both. While the material was henceforth seen as dead and pure malleable material at the disposal of the modern subject, the spiritual in turn was withdrawn from the external world and made to exist only in the inner recesses of subjective feelings, moods, and convictions. The last section continues the emphasis on the history of ideas. Following on the argument above it is argued that the contemporary crisis of the spirit can be traced back to the dominance of historicism in the humanities and the resultant lack of belief in die authority of the spiritual. While the tradition associated the spiritual with the authoritative command to realise a condition beyond the material (see the ideal of Bildung at the modern university), a rampant historicism destroyed the very precondition thereof, leaving the humanities defenceless in the face of the neo-liberal philosophies ruling our public institutions. <![CDATA[<b>Utility or spirit? The state of the humanities in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512012000400017&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In hierdie bydrae word die bevindinge en aanbevelings van die Academy of Science of South Africa (ASSAf) se verslag oor die toestand waarin die geesteswetenskappe in Suid-Afrika verkeer wat in 2011 gepubliseer is, krities onder die loep geneem. Na 'n kort opsomming van die belangrikste gevolgtrekkings van die verslag, word 'n kritiese blik op die metodologie van die sogenaamde "konsensusstudie" gewerp. Daarna word die aandag gevestig op bepaalde vooronderstellings waarop die wyer debat rondom die stand van die geesteswetenskappe berus. ASSAf se bevindinge op grond waarvan hulle ook bepaalde aanbevelings maak oor hoe die gediagnoseerde krisis aangepak kan word, poog om 'n aantal van hierdie problematiese vooronderstellings te bevraagteken. By nadere ondersoek blyk hierdie (laasgenoemde) pogings egter net 'n skynprotes te wees teen die instrumentele logika van die heersende neoliberale bestel wat in werklikheid die verslag se pleidooi onderlê. Die belangrikste vooronderstellings sluit in: (1) die vooronderstelde waterskeiding tusssen die geesteswetenskappe en die natuur- of eksakte wetenskappe; (2) die onkritiese aanname dat enige vorm van wetenskap (ook die geestesweten-skappe) "regstreeks bruikbaar" moet wees. (3) Laastens, die vooronderstelling dat "die geesteswetenskappe" na 'n konsekwent gedefinieerde en koherente geheel verwys terwyl dit in werklikheid 'n sambreelterm is wat in verskillende kontekste (in díe verslag teenoor ander verslae asook die breër debat, byvoorbeeld) verskillend aangewend word en dikwels 'n ander versameling dissiplines saamgroepeer. Ten slotte, lig ek my pleidooi ten gunste van die "nieregstreekse bruikbaarheid" van die geesteswetenskappe toe aan die hand van die dekonstruktiewe strategie wat die binêre logika van nut-of-niks wil uitdaag met 'n "beide/en"-benadering wat daarop aandring dat die nieregstreekse nuttigheidswaarde van kritiek 'n noodsaaklike voorvereiste is vir werkbare alter-natiewe oplossings<hr/>This contribution critically considers the findings and recommendations of the report published in 2011 by the Academy of Science of South Africa (ASSAf) on the state of the humanities in South Africa. The study concludes that the humanities are in crisis, but despite the crisis situation in which they find themselves it is undeniable that they are indispensable. The humanities are indispensable because of their use or instrumental value as providing "the glue of Ubuntu" (ASSAf 2011:32) and nurturing "the intellectual lifeblood of a democratic project" (ibid., pp. 14, 137). In other words, the humanities are of vital importance because they teach us how to be truly "human" and how to live with other "humans" in "society" by uncovering our mutual dependence and fostering a feeling of solidarity (ibid., p. 25). The fact that the humanities convey essential analytical, interpretative and problem solving skills is constitutive oftheir human- and community-building capacity. According to ASSAf this ideal model of what it means to be "human" and what constitutes "community", which the humanities are equipped to realise, is premised on the humanistic philosophy of Ubuntu that defines the essence of being human in terms of our mutual connectedness. The study opposes this "ideal" model to the neo-liberal model that engenders competition, individualisation, self-responsibilisation and fragmentation instead of a sense of solidarity and fellow feeling. In other words, the study defends the humanities on the basis of their instrumental value in the realisation of the ideal (Ubuntu-inspired) model of community. They teach essential communication skills that facilitate "being truly human" or a "human-centred community", which the study considers to be the heart or "spirit" of the humanities (p. 33). Ubuntu - essentially the idea that we are truly human only through other people - is not a politically neutral concept or philosophy, however. It is fundamentally complicit with the neo-liberal politico-economic policy which the post-apartheid government took over from their predecessors. Hence, the crux of my critique against the ASSAf-study is that it defends the humanities on the basis of their instrumental value and at the expense of their intrinsic value that supposes an autonomous position independent of political, economic or ideological prejudices or affiliations. The instrumental nature of their exposition undermines the "spirit" of the humanities, which they claim to defend and rests upon the very neo-liberal logic which they in principle oppose. The critique levelled against the ASSAf-report proceeds by first critically assessing the methodology of the so-called "consensus study". Attention is subsequently drawn to the various presuppositions that underlie the wider debate on the state of the humanities. The findings of the study, which form the foundation for a number of recommendations as to how the diagnosed crisis of the humanities might be addressed, aim to uncover the problematic nature of these presuppositions. Upon closer investigation, however, these attempts at problematisation prove to be more of an apparent than a real protest against the instrumentalist logic of the existing neo-liberal order, which in reality animates the argumentative thrust of the entire study. The most important presuppositions include the following: (1) the presupposed rigid demarcation between the humanities and the natural or hard sciences; (2) the uncritical assumption that all forms of science (including the humanities) should have a "direct" or immediately apparent use-value. And finally, (3) the presupposition that "the humanities" refers to a consistently defined and coherent whole, while in actual fact it serves as an umbrella term deployed differently in different contexts (in this study as opposed to other reports as well as the wider debate, for example), often grouping a slightly different collection of disciplines together that conflates the difference between "abstract" (e.g. Philosophy) and "applied" (e.g. Education or Law) forms of knowledge. In the final instance, an argument is put forward in favour of the "indirect utility" of the humanities, an argument that is fleshed out with the aid of the deconstructivist strategy that challenges the binary logic of "utility-or-nothing" with a "both/and" approach that insists that the indirect utility of critique serves as necessary condition for practicable alternative solutions. <![CDATA[<b>Sciences of the spirit</b>: <b>Free or enslaved</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512012000400018&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Hierdie artikel probeer aantoon in watter mate die geesteswetenskappe geannekseer word tot 'n posisie van knegskap aan ekonomistiese, managerialistiese, informasionistiese en reduksionistiese ideologieë. In die proses word hulle beroof van wat die mees eie aan hulle is en word hulle daardeur effektief verhinder om hul deurslaggewende, kennismatige, eties-transformasionele rol in die samelewing, in gemeenskappe en in institusionele kontekste (wetenskapkontekste ingesluit) te vervul. Die geesteswetenskappe word opgeroep om nie toe te gee aan die drastiese aftakeling en uiteindelike opoffering van hul mees eie taak wat aan hulle opgedwing word nie, soos onder andere deur ASSAf se konsensusdokument en die Manifes vir die Geestes- en Sosiale wetenskappe van die Departement van Hoër Onderwys bepleit nie, maar om hierdie taak (dit is hulle dwingende alternatief) doelgerig en roepingsbewus her-op-te-neem tot selfbevryding en samelewings-bevryding (wat insluit wetenskap en institusionele bevryding). So 'n strategie sal hulle in staat stel om inventief te werk aan die vyf sake wat bespreek is: omvattende geletterdheid (lees, skryf, dink), waarheid (in al die manifestasies daarvan), kennis (inligting en wetenskap), sin (en wêreld), mens (gees, die geestelike en geestelikheid), met laasgenoemde as die voorwaarde vir al die ander en waarsonder globale katastrofe die mensheid onteenseglik bedreig.<hr/>This article tries to identify the key issues that threaten the sciences of the spirit with their denigration, and eventually their catastrophic downfall. The economistic political economy of science, political policies promoting at all cost the Market economy, the informationalistic notion imposed on knowledge, and the scientistic-reductionistic rationalisation of science towards a position of research and nothing more are the main culprits. It is suggested that these different issues are in effect working in an hegemonical way towards the radical dismantling of the authenticity of the sciences of the spirit, the outcome of which will be, and which is to a great extent already the case, the degrading, annexation and enslavement of these sciences to the position of servitude and dependence, and eventually of obsolescence. It is highly imperative for these sciences to realise the possibility of an alternative to this position of servitude, the condition of which would be that they remain free and independent. In order to achieve this alternative they have to be alert for various semblances of solutions to their crises, with the explicit pretence of salvaging their fate by cryptic, disastrous alternatives that will ensure and even unceremoniously deepen their downfall instead of redeeming their fate. It is not possible to salvage the sciences of the spirit by applying cosmetic strategies as if the relief of their crises can be effectuated by adding some kind of glamour to their appearance. Their unequivocal mission should be fully to commit themselves to a situation radically different from such cosmetic endeavours. Their real and deepest challenge is perhaps more of an ethical nature in the sense of working towards a radical comprehensive materialisation of societal, political, institutional and cognitive transformation, which require a certain definite freedom from economistic parameters and superficial populistic political ambitions. As a matter of fact, their ambition, on the contrary, should be to liberate the economy from precisely such economistic enslavement, and politics from any superficial, one-sided and opportunistic strategies. They have to warn firmly against the destructive dimensions of transformational policies and strategies in favour of a more comprehensive and constructive theory of form-giving to a formless and unstructured society, with sometimes fatal consequences for individuals. For the fulfilment of these objectives a number of central and crucially important issues should be highlighted and intensively and extensively explored by these sciences: human spirituality and what it really means to be human, both as singular individuals and as members of communities; comprehensive literacy and the ability to think, write and read properly should be pursued at all cost and against the odds; the much neglected notion of truth should be brought into the open as the most debatable issue to be reflected upon; a ruthless uncovering of reductionistic tendencies in the pursuit of the best possible science and the production, invention and dissemination of true and life-changing knowledges; the absence of meaning as the source and manifestation of nihilism should clearly be identified and its recovery and the re-invention of the world and the reenchantment of "world" as the home of meaning, should be enthusiastically pursued, fully aware of the fact that the sciences of the spirit are the only ones equipped for this lofty endeavour. Let these challenges be pursued wholeheartedly. <![CDATA[<b>Legal scholarship, the humanities and a few thoughts on justice</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512012000400019&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In die artikel besin die outeur oor die verhouding tussen die reg en die geesteswetenskappe in die konteks van die nasleep van apartheid. Sy spreek kommer uit oor die algemene sentiment wat voortspruit uit die ASSAf-verslag en Handves vir die Geestes- en Sosiale wetenskappe, wat 'n eng funksionalistiese, nie-intrinsieke waarde aan hierdie dissiplines toedig. Ulrike Kistner se steun vir 'n derde ruimte vir die kritiese geesteswetenskappe wat in die teken staan van Hannah Arendt se omskrywing van vryheid (te onderskei van bevryding) word ondersteun. Tradisionele benaderings tot die reg wat die reg as 'n outonome dissipline beskou, is nie oop vir die moontlike invloed en waarde van die geeswetenskappe vir regstudie en regsopvoeding nie. Die outeur staan egter self krities teenoor die mate waarin sommige regsgeleerdes steun op multidissiplinêre perspektiewe, aangesien hierdie perspektiewe ook 'n eng funksionalistiese benadering tot die geesteswetenskappe volg. Ter afsluiting bespreek sy kortliks voorbeelde van 'n respekvolle omgang met die geesteswetenskappe as deel van 'n besinning oor geregtigheid.<hr/>In this article the author reflects on the relationship between the law and the humanities in the context of the aftermath of apartheid. She raises some concerns with regard to the general sentiment that emanates from the ASSAf report and the Charter on the Humanities and Social Sciences which would appear to limit the contribution of these disciplines to a narrow functionalism devoid of any intrinsic value. She refers to two articles published recently by South African scholars on the state of both the university and the humanities. The first article laments the university's uncritical embrace of corporatisation, resulting in the concomitant loss of collegiality. The other focuses on how even critical responses to the state's approach towards the humanities fall into the trap of again delimiting the humanities; advocating, instead, a third space, within which the humanities would be enabled to develop a selfconscious critical stance. The author underwrites Ulrike Kistner's support of this third space that is linked to Hannah Arendt's definition of freedom (distinguished from liberation). Traditional approaches to law which regard the law as an autonomous discipline are not open to the possible influence and value of the humanities for legal scholarship and legal education. The author, however, is also critical of the extent to which some legal scholars rely on multi-disciplinary approaches, since these perspectives also follow a narrow functionalist approach to the humanities. By way of conclusion she discusses shortly a few examples of a respectful engagement with the humanities as part of a reflection on justice. She highlights the contemplations on law, justice and the humanities of James Boyd White, Marianne Constable and Ari Hirvonen. Law and literature scholar James Boyd White rejects the view of the law as a system of rules and policy as well as the view of the law as an abstract mechanical bureaucratic system. To him law is "an inherently unstable structure of thought and expression"... "not a set of rules at all, but a form of life" (2012:1). Marianne Constable's take on justice is to focus on the exploration of speech and the silences from which speech emanates. She focuses on the imperfect nature of language and translates this into law - as language, law is imperfect, incomplete and unknowable. Ari Hirvonen, through the work of Sarah Kofman, considers the possibility of a new humanism that does not comply with a set of universal morals, but rather imagines and creates communities based on irreducible difference. The author argues that these examples are valuable for the depth of engagement with justice from a humanities perspective, showing that they could also give direction to critical legal scholarship and critical legal education within the present South African context. http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512012000400020&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512012000400021&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es