Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0041-475120120003&lang=en vol. 52 num. 3 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>The wonder of constitutionalist Afrikaans</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512012000300001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Hierdie artikel handel oor die welstand van Afrikaans as 'n grondwetmatige taal die vraag synde of die groter kontoere sowel as die fynere nuanses van grondwetmatige demokrasie, soos wat dit die afgelope agtien jaar in Suid-Afrika posgevat het, met goeie (grondwetlike) gevolg in Afrikaans verwoord kan word. Die skrywer maak korte mette met die siening dat Afrikaans se noue assosiasie met apartheid die vooruitsigte daarvan as grondwetmatige taal vir goed bederf het. Ander tale wat eens op 'n tyd ook "onderdrukkerstale" was (byvoorbeeld Engels en Duits) is immers vandag baie respektabele tale van en in grondwetmatige diskoerse. Die skrywer toon aan hoedat Afrikaans met 'n ontwikkelende grondwetlike register kreatief aan konstitusioneel demokratiese begrippe, idees en beginsels uitdrukking kan gee. Die term "vertolking" het byvoorbeeld 'n ruimheid van betekenis wat die toepassingsgerigtheid van wetsen grondwetsverstaan en toepassing raker verwoord as die terme "uitleg" en "interpretasie" wat tradisioneel gebruik word. "Grondwetmatig" is vir die skrywer ook 'n beter byvoeglike naamwoord as "grondwetlik" om 'n toedrag van sake geheel in lyn met die Grondwet aan te dui. Die artikel handel voorts oor die effek van grondwetlike oppergesag en die daarmee gepaardgaande noodsaak vir regterlike selfbeheersing. Leesstrategieë wat sodanige selfbeheersing in die hand werk, word geïdentifiseer, benoem en beskryf. Hieronder tel grondwetskonforme wetsvertolking, subsidiariteit en die grondwetlike sowel as talige neologisme regering van samewerking.<hr/>This article is about the well-being of Afrikaans as a constitutionalist language. The adjective "constitutionalist" is meant to be a translation of the Afrikaans "grondwetmatig" as opposed to "constitutional" which is the English word for "grondwetlik". The question inspiring this contribution is whether the larger contours as well as thefiner nuances of constitutionalist democracy can successfully be verbalised in Afrikaans. The possibility is considered that Afrikaans as potentially a language of constitutionally democratic discourse might have suffered irreparable damage as a consequence of its close association with Apartheid, but the author gives short shrift to this misgiving pointing out that languages such as English and German that were also "oppressors' languages" some time in history, are nowadays very adequate and eminently respectable languages of constitutional-democratic discourse. During the prevalence of a Westminster system in a pre-democratic South Africa Afrikaans was a disadvantaged constitutional language compared to, for instance, English. The latter lent direct access to the escalating post-World War II discourse on human rights. The question thus is whether Afrikaans has (or can develop) a constitutional or, more particularly, a constitutionalist register. The author turns to constitutional literature and jurisprudence to look for examples of how Afrikaans can be relied on to give creative expression to constitutionally democratic concepts, ideas and principles. He points out that the Constitution is a genre text, unique as supreme law, but sharing certain attributes with other enacted law-texts such as statutes. All of these texts should, for instance, be respected as products of legislative action meant to be of effect. To read and apply such texts is more like performing music than like reading a newspaper. This process is adequately expressed by the Afrikaans terminology "vertolk(-ing)" which recognises that elements of an interpreter's own personality and skill go into the process of interpretation and are reflected in the interpretive outcome. In the English language "construction" probably verbalises the process more accurately and adequately than "interpretation". The author proceeds to explain why, in certain instances where the term "grondwetlikheid" is usually used (in Afrikaans), he prefers the term "grondwetmatigheid" instead. He also reflects on the possible meanings of "constitutionalism" and the consequences of labelling the constitutional dispensation in South Africa since 1994 with the tag of "constitutionalism". The second part of the article deals with the consequences of constitutional supremacy and the concomitant need for judicial self-restraint. It is shown that section 172(1)(a) of the Constitution read with section 2 provides for the constitutional review of legislation and administrative action in a rather peremptory vein. Section 172(1)(b), however, leaves room for the mitigation of the absoluteness of section 172(1)(a) by authorising any court order which is just and equitable. Specific orders in this category (explicitly mentioned in the section) are orders limiting the retrospective effect of declarations of invalidity or suspending the effect of such declarations in order to give a legislature or organ of the executive the opportunity to rectify the unconstitutional state of affairs complained of. This result can also be achieved by, for instance, severing unconstitutional words and phrases from a text and striking them down or by reading words and phrases into an impugned provision in order to render it constitutional thus safeguarding them against annulment. Various interpretive strategies commensurate with judicial self-restraint are then discussed. The first of these is the interpretation of statutes in conformity with the Constitution which can take the form of either a restrictive or an extensive reading of a statutory provision in the light of the Constitution and its demands. It is pointed out that this reading strategy is to be distinguished from reading in which a court may order as a form of relief in terms of section 172(1)(b) of the Constitution. Subsidiarity, another strategy commensurate with judicial self-restraint, is also discussed. Subsidiarity mainly has to do with deciding on an appropriate forum to decide a case (jurisdictional subsidiarity) or choosing an appropriate legal norm to resolve an issue (adjudicative subsidiarity). It is pointed out that subsidiary constitutional legislation (giving detailed and concrete effect to provisions of the Constitution) has in recent years played an increasingly important role to help put constitutional issues on the agendas of judicial and political discourse. Some observations are also made about how a constitutional neologism, co-operative government, can serve to induce self-restraint in the actions of the various arms of government (legislative, executive and judicial) in the national, provincial and local spheres. The author concludes with the observation that the speakers of South Africa's eleven official languages have a duty to explore the potential of their own language as constitutionalist language not just for the sake of the languages themselves, but also to preserve and promote the treasure of constitutionalism. <![CDATA[<b>A turn in preferential procurement</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512012000300002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In hierdie artikel ontleed en evalueer die skrywers nuwe regulasies oor voorkeurverkryging wat deur die Minister van Finansies uitgevaardig en wat in Desember 2011 van krag geword het. Die skrywers gaan van die standpunt uit dat voorkeurverkryging wanneer die staat koop, geregverdig is in die lig van die benadeling van sekere kategorieë mense in die verlede, maar dat regstellende stappe deur die grondwetlike visie van nierassigheid en nieseksisme begrens behoort te word. Die wetgewende agtergrond tot die nuwe regulasies word ontleed aan die hand van die Grondwet van die Republiek van Suid-Afrika van 1996. Die nuwe regulasies verskil van die voorheen geldende regulasies deurdat die bydrae van 'n besigheid tot omvattende swart ekonomiese bemagtiging nou die enigste grond word waarop dit voorkeurpunte kan verdien wanneer dit met die staat sake doen. Dit beteken dat die vermoë van wit vroue om in die mark te kompeteer beslis agteruitgegaan het, omdat hulle nou voorkeurpunte verbeur waarop hulle vroeër aanspraak kon maak. Die rede hiervoor is die rasgedrewe aard van beleidvoering. Dit veroorsaak dat die nuwe regulasies nie aan die nieseksistiese gees van die Grondwet voldoen nie. Benewens die agteruitgang van die posisie van wit vroue word ander gebreke in die betrokke ondergeskikte wetgewing ten opsigte van funksionaliteit en die bevordering van kleinsake uitgelig.<hr/>In this article the authors analyse and evaluate new preferential procurement regulations by the South African Minister of Finance that came into force on 7 December 2011. The authors accept that preferential procurement is necessary in the light of past discrimination against certain groups, including women, but maintain that the constitutional vision of non-racism and non-sexism sets limits to affirmative action. This vision was at the core of the struggle for a democratic South Africa. The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996, is analysed as background to the legislation governing preferential procurement. Section 217 of the Constitution governs state procurement. This provision authorises preferential procurement and lays down the principles of public procurement, namely fairness, equitability, transparency, competitiveness and cost-effectiveness. However, section 9 dealing with equality must also be brought into the equation. In terms of section 9, equality also means the ability to fully enjoy the benefits associated therewith. Equality between sexes and races is crucial. Affirmative action aims to achieve a greater degree of substantive equality in the long term. The Constitutional Court provided guidance in this regard in the 2004 judgement in the case of Minister of Finance v Van Heerden The Preferential Procurement Policy Framework Act of2000 provides for the possibility of affirmative action to advance or promote persons that were discriminated against on the grounds of race, sex and disability. However, in terms of the new regulations the preference points that a bidder may gain are calculated solely by utilising the score that the bidder achieves in terms of another law, namely the Broad-based Black Economic Empowerment Act of2003 and its Codes of Good Practice. The article sets out the fundamentals of the Codes of Good Practice and how the scores of entities are calculated and then transcribed into preference points in terms of the regulations under consideration. The preference points (with maxima of 10 or 20 as the case may be) are utilised in formulae to level the playing field in government procurement. The new method to calculate preference points means that white women as a group are in a worse position than before. In the past they could earn preference points because of their sex when bidding for contracts. Their ability to compete in the market has now been reduced. The authors argue that sufficient reasons exist to still protect or advance white women. One reason is the underrepresentation of women in the higher echelons of the labour market. The constitutional project is set back when attempts to achieve racial equality function to the detriment of the non-sexist vision of the Constitution. Ironically white men may have gained ground in comparison to white women. Other problems with the new regulations are also identified in the article. The functionality of bids, so necessary in the light of sections 217 and 195(2) of the Constitution is relegated to a mere necessary condition in the evaluation of bids. In this regard the authors are of the opinion that the Minister of Finance did not give full effect to the judgement in the case Sizabonke Civils CC t/a Pilcon Projects v Zululand District Municipality 2011. The tables translating BBBEE scores into preference points are also SMME unfriendly and are not in accordance with the way in which BBBEE scores are calculated in the Codes. For white women and white disabled people preferential procurement in South Africa has taken a turn for the worse. The concern is that other groups might also be excluded from the fruits of preferential procurement in future. The article concludes by indicating two topics for further research: namely the reasons underlying the way the regulations were formulated and the relationship between formal and substantive equality in affirmative action. <![CDATA[<b>Co-operative government and municipal service delivery</b>: <b>realities and challenges</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512012000300003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Hierdie artikel ontleed die stelsel van samewerkende regering in Suid-Afrika met spesifieke verwysing na die mate van ondersteuning aan munisipaliteite om dienslewering te verbeter. Die plaaslike sfeer van regering gaan tans gebuk onder ongekende vlakke van mislukte dienslewering. Die vraag kan tereg gevra word hoe "samewerkend" die regering op alle sfere is om munisipaliteite in hulle diensleweringstaak te ondersteun. In terme van die Grondwet behoort die nasionale en provinsiale sfere van regering munisipaliteite te ondersteun as dié vlak van regering wat mense meer direk beleef. Die artikel stel voorts die onderliggende kwessies wat aandag verdien in die stelsel van samewerkende regering aan die orde en identifiseer veranderlikes wat die toekoms van plaaslike regering wesenlik kan beïnvloed. Die artikel lê enersyds die inherente spanning tussen die relatiewe outonomiteit van munisipaliteite bloot en andersyds word die beginsels van samewerkende regering belig. Daar blyk 'n groeiende gaping te wees tussen die ontwikkelingsmandaat wat die Grondwet aan munisipaliteite toeken en hoe dienslewering daadwerklik geskied.<hr/>In the contemporary international discourse about the role of Government in society general consensus prevails that the state's role should primarily focus on facilitating the "common good". Within a particular ideological framework a government designs systems and instruments of governance providing essential services to society. South Africa can be characterised as a multi-party democracy displaying characteristics of both unitary and federal systems. The state has relatively autonomous provinces and municipalities, a relatively independent judiciary, and a governing framework in which the supremacy of the Constitution is recognised. In a heterogeneous and diverse society such as South Africa, with features of a complex system, it is to be preferred that decentralisation, devolution and delegation of power and authority to lower spheres of government take place. Decentralisation involves the transfer offiscal, political and administrative responsibilities from higher levels to lower levels of government. The typical political argument for decentralisation revolves around power sharing, improved participation in political processes and increased levels of accountability and responsiveness to local issues. South Africa's political and economic reflection on the role of government in society and the degree of decentralisation resulted in a system of co-operative government. The principles of co-operative government and intergovernmental relations are entrenched in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa Act 108 of 1996 (Chapter 3, Article 40 (1)). These principles are based on the application of authority and powers. It should be done in such a manner that the geographical, functional and institutional integrity of other spheres of government are not affected. The three spheres of government, namely local, provincial and national, are distinctive, interdependent and interrelated. The Constitution (Article 41 (1)) requires that the three spheres co-operate in mutual trust and in good faith. They should practise this co-operation through good mutual relations to assist and support each other. The unified nature of the state is clearly entrenched in the Constitution as the supreme authority of the country. However, with regard to additional provisions in the Constitution, it is clear that other factors may interfere with the distinctiveness of the spheres. This obviously hampers the respective spheres' ability to meet their constitutional obligations. Intergovernmental relations not only refer to all the complex and interdependent bilateral and multilateral relations between the different spheres of government, but also include the fiscal and administrative processes through which resources are allocated between the respective spheres of government. Through the allocation of resources Government is able to prioritise needs, formulate policy, and render services to promote the general welfare of society. The success of such a system is largely dependent on the clear division of responsibilities and accountability between all three spheres of government. In this article the system of co-operative governance in South Africa is analysed, with specific reference to the degree of support rendered to municipalities in order to improve service delivery. The local sphere of government is currently suffering from unprecedented levels of service delivery failures and the question is rightly asked as to how collaborative government acts in support of municipal service delivery. When should provinces, for example, intervene in the affairs of municipalities and what mechanisms are in place to foster co-operation? In terms of the Constiution, the provincial and national spheres should be supportive to municipalities, the latter being the level of government that people experience directly. However, current realities place serious question marks behind the level of support that municipalities receive. There seems to be a growing divide between the developmental mandate of municipalities provided by the Constitution and the realities of service delivery. The article also examines the underlying challenges in the system of co-operative government and explores socio-political and economic variables that could influence the future of local government. The article expounds the inherent tension between the relative autonomy of municipalities on the one hand, and the principles of co-operative governance, on the other. <![CDATA[<b>Higher education as a field of study and research in South Africa</b>: <b>a historical and thematic perspective</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512012000300004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Hierdie artikel ondersoek veral drie aspekte rakende die hoër onderwys as 'n navorsings- en studiegebied in Suid-Afrika. Eerstens word 'n aantal momente uit die geskiedenis van hoëronderwysstudie geskets - veral voor 1994. Daarna word die studieveld beoordeel teen die agtergrond van bestaande internasionale tematiese karterings van die studieveld buite die Verenigde State van Amerika - meer spesifiek teen dié van Malcolm Tight, 'n gerekende hoëronderwyskundige in die Verenigde Koninkryk. Derdens word 'n aantal aangeleenthede aan die orde gestel met die oog op die uitbreiding en verdere ontwikkeling van hierdie veld van studie en navorsing in Suid-Afrika.<hr/>This contribution addresses three issues concerning higher education as a field of study and research in South Africa. It starts off by tracing a number of moments in the historical development of higher education studies and research in South Africa - particularly in the period prior to the 1994 transition of political power. Next, the question of what the field of higher education studies and research entails internationally, is explored. The thematic categorisation of Malcolm Tight from the United Kingdom is used to determine international publication trends as derived from his analysis of406 articles in 17 selective academic journals for the period 2002 - 2003. Tight identified eight major categories or clusters of publications in the field of higher education research. These were: (1) Teaching and learning in higher education; (2) Curriculum planning and design; (3) Student learning experiences; (4) Quality in higher education; (5) Systems and policies in higher education; (6) Institutional management; (7) Academics and academic work; (8) Knowledge and the nature of knowledge in higher education. For the South African position, three different analyses ofstudies and articles on higher education were explored. The first included an analysis by Muller (1998), who analysed 371 titles of research projects as well as master's and doctoral titles that were registered on the Nexus database of the National Research Foundation for the period 1993 -1997. A second analysis, by Uys and Frick (2009), comprised the abstracts of 1237 articles which were published in the South African Journal of Higher Education in the period 1987- 2007. Although not directly comparable to Muller's, this analysis indicated similar as well as different clusters of research undertaken. A third analysis, by Wilkinson and Van Jaarsveldt (2009), comprised 159 articles published by the South African Journal of Higher Education between 2006 and 2007 as one section of their research. The other section looked at 382 titles of master's and doctoral theses as registered on the database of the National Research Foundation for the period 2006 - 2007. From a comparison between the international analysis by Tight on the one hand and the three South African analyses on the other, it was concluded that while the Tight mapping was largely confirmed by the South African anlyses, two further local themes have emerged and another seems to be evolving. The new themes are (9) Transformation in/of higher education and (10) Higher Education and community involvement. A theme that seems to be evolving, is research on the role and use of electronic information and communication systems in higher education, while research on quality issues in higher education seems to be on the downturn or, at least, not growing. Finally, the authors have highlighted a number of issues for possible future exploration in order to extend and promote higher education as a field of research and studies in South Africa. These include the continuing and pressing question of student access to higher education, the relationship of higher education to other levels of post-school education and the effects of the economic downturn worldwide on higher education institutions and systems. It is also suggested that a more accurate and continuous mapping of the field can assist policy makers, study leaders and postgraduate students in making more informed choices on selecting and funding research priorities and topics in the field of higher education studies and research. <![CDATA[<b>A preliminary impact study of a university, school and private sector partnership project</b>: <b>hope for disadvantaged students through mentorships</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512012000300005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Die Universiteit Stellenbosch verkeer onder druk om sy diversiteitsprofiel te verbeter sodat dit in lyn is met die transformasiedoelwitte van die regering soos uiteengesit in die Witskrif op Hoër Onderwys van 1997. Terselfdertyd is die Universiteit onder druk om 'n rol te speel in armoede-verligting van die benadeelde gemeenskappe rondom Stellenbosch. Die gehalte van die onderwys in die voorheen benadeelde skole is egter so swak dat baie min leerders uit hierdie gemeenskappe kwalifiseer om hul studies op universiteit voort te sit. In reaksie op hierdie uitdagings het die Universiteit 'n opvoedkundige filosofie aanvaar wat bekend staan as 'n "pedagogie van hoop" (Freire 1970). Dit het gelei tot die ontstaan van inisiatiewe soos die Rachel's Angels-skole-vennootskapsprojek, gegrond op die beginsels van gemeenskapsinteraksie. Die projek het ten doel om die kapasiteit van belowende leerders uit benadeelde gemeenskappe te verbeter met behulp van 'n mentorskapprogram sodat hul kanse op toegang tot universiteit sal verbeter. Hierdie artikel gee 'n oorsig van hierdie projek, waarna 'n impakstudie volg om te bepaal of die projek die verwagte uitkomste bereik het. Die bevindinge van die impakstudie dui daarop dat, uit die benadeelde skole wat aan die projek deelneem, meer leerders universiteitstoelating kry, groeipyne ten spyt. So word betekenis gegee aan die Universiteit se strewe na 'n "pedagogie van hoop".<hr/>Successful access to higher education for black students in particular remains a challenge to all tertiary institutions in South Africa. This is the opinion of Prof. Russel Botman, Rector of Stellenbosch University (SU). It is therefore of concern that the SU strategic framework document (SU 2010a) states that the increase in our country's student population projected by the National Commission for Higher Education in 1997 (DBO 1997) has not been attained. This is in contrast with the University's vision for the future, which commits itself to an academic institution of excellence and a respected knowledge partner that contributes towards the development of South Africa and welcomes a diversity of people and ideas. But according to a report by the Centre for Higher Education Transformation (CHET)¹ little demographic transformation had occurred in respect of who participates in higher education. This is an indication that black students' chances of gaining access to university have in fact decreased. Despite this authorities continue to insist that the percentage of black students in public higher-education institutions be increased. The Ministry's vision is of a transformed, democratic, non-racial and non-sexist system of higher education that will promote equity of access and fair chances of success to all who are seeking to realise their potential through higher education (DBO 1997). The Vice-Rector of SU (Fourie 2009b:16) expands on this: "Besides the moral-ethical considerations, pressure is also being placed on universities by higher education policy to diversify their student and staff compositions and to remove measures that could exclude certain groupings". Stellenbosch University is thus under pressure to align its diversity profile with the transformation goals set by the government, as proclaimed in the White Paper on Higher Education of1997. At the same time the University also experiences pressure from the broader community to answer to the call of alleviating poverty in disadvantaged communities (SU 2010a). However, the standard of teaching in previously disadvantaged schools in the surrounding areas is such that very few students qualify to further their studies at university level. The question therefore is what the University can do to draw students that will rise to these challenges. In his response the University announced a strategy referred to by the current vice-chancellor (Botman 2007) as a "pedagogy of hope". This seems to have been inspired by the neo-Marxist Brazilian educationalist Paulo Friere'spublication Pedagogy of the oppressed (1970). According to this strategy the University will search for and exploit opportunities that will lead to "the farm owner's daughter and the farm worker's son sitting in the same class" (Botman 2007). This gave rise to initiatives such as the Rachel's Angels Schools Partnership Project, which is based on the principles of community interaction.² The project aims to build the capacity of promising students from disadvantaged communities with the aid of a mentorship programme. This will enable them to bridge the gap between school and university successfully. This article presents an overview of the project as well as a report on its impact. The educational theories which underpin the Rachel's Angels project can be considered to be constructivist in nature, founded upon a philosophy that is student centred and based on a view in which knowledge is not absolute, but is actively constructed by the student. The study aims to establish whether the project has achieved the desired outcomes. If employed successfully, SU will give effect to its transformation agenda, which includes increased participation by a diverse corps of students, willingness to react to social and economic needs and growing cooperation between higher education institutions and all sectors of society. The results of the impact study indicate that, despite growing pains, the project has already made a meaningful contribution in building the capacity of disadvantaged students. The implications for the University are to continuously engage in partnerships with previously disadvantaged schools in order to unlock the potential of disadvantaged students. Not only will it reflect positively on the University's diversity profile, but at the same time give meaning to the University's quest for a "pedagogy of hope". <![CDATA[<b>A measuring instrument to determine the image of a high school</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512012000300006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Die beeld van 'n sekondêre skool is die bemarkingsmiddel waardeur 'n sekondêre skool in die mark geïdentifiseer word en so 'n skool teen ander hoërskole in die omgewing of land opgeweeg word. Hierdie studie fokus op die ontwikkeling van 'n beeldmeetinstrument wat as 'n bestuursinstrument gebruik kan word en waardeur 'n sekondêre skool al die fasette wat die beeld beïnvloed, kan evalueer, die swak en goeie punte kan identifiseer en daardeur aksieplanne inisieer om die beeld van die sekondêre skool te verbeter. Die navorsing is gedoen deur vanuit die literatuur 'n beeldmeetinstrument te identifiseer en te konstrueer. Hierdie meetinstrument is kwantitatief getoets deur van 'n Likert-skaal-vraelys gebruik te maak. Die resultate van die studie toon bo alle twyfel dat die meetinstrument geldig en betroubaar is om die beeld van die sekondêre skool te bepaal. 'n Struktuurvergelykingsmodel is ontwikkel om die meetinstrument te toets. Dit is gedoen deur middel van faktorontleding, om sodoende die interafhanklikheid en korrelasies van elke area tot die beeld te bepaal, en daardeur is die relatiewe belangrikheid van elkeen van die komponente van die beeld bepaal. Die meetinstrument se passing is bepaal deur van die passingsindekse gebruik te maak. Die meetinstrument beskik oor uitstekende passingsindekswaardes en bevredigende korrelasie koëffisiënte, en is dus 'n bruikbare meetinstrument wat deur hoërskole gebruik kan word om hul beeld te meet.<hr/>The image of a school is a competitive marketing tool that defines a school among other schools in a specific area. The image measuring instrument developed in this study can be applied as a management tool through which schools in general can evaluate all the different facets contributing to the image of a school, and identify positive and negative factors requiring action plans for maintenance or development. The initial English school image model by Howard (1998) was used in its adapted form (2003) and applied to the South African school environment as a point of departure in developing a school image measuring instrument for South Africa. The empirical research was done by means of a quantitative questionnaire with a sample size of450 students, parents and teachers randomly selected from each class in the school. The design of the questionnaire stemmed from the literature study done, and in total 345 responses were received (signifying a satisfactory response rate of 76.7%). The primary objective of the study is to construct a quantitative measuring instrument to determine the image of a school. The theoretical measuring instrument identified four key areas that influence a school's image, namely the environment, school culture, product catalogue and delivery mechanisms. This theoretical measuring instrument and the measuring criteria pertaining to each key area were empirically validated and tested to be reliable. A structured questionnaire, measuring each one of the four key areas, was used as a measuring instrument. The empirical study showed that this questionnaire was valid, and as such measured what it was supposed to measure. In addition, the analysis of the data also showed that the reliability is beyond suspicion as the Cronbach alpha, as reliability coefficient, exceeded the 0.70 margin with ease. As a consequence, these four areas were deemed to be suitable for measuring the image of a school. The measurement of the image of the secondary school was done by developing a structural equation model. The model determined the exact influence of each of the areas of the measuring instrument onto the image as well as onto each other. The following results were obtained: A highly satisfactory correlation of 0.79 exists between the Environment contributions and the image of the school, where the environment consists of the parents, the Department of Education and the school's governing body; The School culture consists of the history of the school, the climate within the school, recognition, appearance, discipline, safety and religion. A highly satisfactory 0.82 correlation exists between the school culture and the image. A high correlation of 0.85 exists between the Product catalogue and the image of the school. The Product catalogue is supported by academics, sport, leadership and tertiary alignment. Lastly, image is supported by a high correlation of 0.84 between Delivery mechanisms and the school image. This area consists of the principal, teachers, infrastructure and technology infrastructure of the school. Furthermore, the developed structural equation model showed a satisfactory fit on a number of fit indices. The favourable correlations as well as the satisfactory fit indices led to the final conclusion, which is that the measuring instrument to determine the image of a school is a reliable and valid tool to use, and that the measuring instrument can be operationalised in the market. <![CDATA[<b>The experience of late adolescents of assertiveness in the work environment</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512012000300007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Die fokus van hierdie navorsing is op die belewenis van laat-adolessente ten opsigte van selfhandhawing in verhoudings in die werkomgewing. Die navorsers het opgelet dat laatadolessente by 'n spesifieke tegniese opleidingskollege se sosiale vaardighede, en veral hul selfhandhawing tussen volwassenes, gegewe hul ouderdom, ongepas voorkom. Die emansipasieproses van laat-adolessente wek dikwels gemengde gevoelens omdat hulle na volwassewording uitsien, maar dit terselfdertyd vrees. 'n Postmoderne konstruktivistiese navorsingsparadigma is in hierdie navorsing gebruik. 'n Kwalitatiewe, verkennende, beskrywende en kontekstuele navorsingsontwerp is gevolg. Die doel van die navorsing was om laat-adolessente se belewenisse met betrekking tot hul eie self- handhawing teenoor hul meerderes, gelykes en ondergeskiktes in die werkomgewing te verken en te beskryf. Semi-gestruktureerde onderhoude is met die deelnemers gevoer aan die hand van drie scenario's. Daar is gevind dat die laat-adolessente voel hulle word blootgestel in hul werksituasies. As gevolg hiervan beleef hulle ontreddering en vind hulle dit moeilik om hul behoeftes in die werkomgewing te kan kommunikeer. Hulle beleef dat hulle geblameer word en versamel vroegtydig bewyse om hul eie onskuld te kan bewys. Hulle beleef dat hulle maklik deur hul toesighouers geïntimideer word. Gevolglik is hulle geneig om aggressiewe taal en gedrag te gebruik om hulself te verdedig. Hulle gebruik hanteringsmeganismes, wat met fisiese en psigologiese distansiëring van die probleem gepaardgaan, om beheer oor 'n situasie te kry. Wanneer hulle beleef dat hulle bedreig word, oorweeg hulle ook bedanking as 'n alternatief en wil 'n ander werk soek. Riglyne vir die fasilitering van selfhandhawende gedrag by laatadolessente is geformuleer.<hr/>This research focuses on the experience of late adolescents of assertiveness in the work environment. The development of people's social skills stems from and is maintained by means of interaction with other people. This is a crucial stage of development during late adolescence when proficiency in work ethics, relationships and especially assertiveness should be shaped, as these have direct bearing on the situation when someone does not act in an assertive manner in the work environment. People who are able to act in an assertive manner are capable of expressing their feelings, thoughts and convictions without any aggression, in a non-destructive way, and to act in neither an extremely controlling nor an inappropriately reticent manner. The researchers became aware of the fact that the behaviour, social skills and especially the assertiveness of a number of late adolescents at a specific private technical training college, given their age, appeared inappropriate in the workplace. They communicate ineffectively and are not able to verbalise expectations regarding their needs in the work environment. The researchers wondered whether these adolescents would be able to communicate in an adult manner with employees, as well as to what extent they would be able to take a stand solely on their own behalf, when having to contend with possible challenges in the work environment. The emancipation of late adolescents often gives rise to mixed emotions experienced by them. They simultaneously look forward to and fear the process of becoming adults, often resulting in their withdrawing themselves. Other persons often tend to view them as being incompetent. They strive after independence and criticise any boundaries, which in turn often involves them in conflict. They reveal low quality problem-solving skills that relate to superficial intra- and interpersonal skills in relationships with other persons. A postmodern constructivist paradigm (Creswell 2007:20-21) was followed in this research. This qualitative, explorative and descriptive research investigated the experience of assertiveness of late adolescents in the work environment. The aims were to explore and describe the manner in which late adolescents experience their own assertiveness in relation to superiors, peers and subordinates in the work environment. The students were invited to participate in the research. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the participants and applicable scenarios were used. The data was analysed by applying Tesch's open coding approach (Babbie & Mouton 2006:276,277). After the data had been analysed, it was established that late adolescents find it difficult, feel exposed and experience distress in communicating their needs. They also experience being unjustly blamed and need tangible substantiation in order to prove their perceived innocence. They are easily intimidated by superiors, which causes them to settle for the preferences of other people. When they experience that they are backed into a corner, they tend to use aggressive language and behaviour. They employ coping mechanisms to gain control of the situation, resulting in physical and psychological dissociation from the problem. Alternatively they will consider resigning and start looking for other employment. Guidelines for the facilitation of assertive behaviour among late adolescents are given in order to enable them to act assertively in the work environment. These guidelines further focus on self-acceptance and self-awareness, developing an internal locus of control, and eliciting manners in which stress and anxiety can be managed. Finally, the development of constructive communication skills is addressed. <![CDATA[<b>The context of the Royal Academy of Music in Munich and its South African born students, 1902-1909</b>: <b>Mabel Wuesto, Vera de Villiers, Daisy Bosman and Irma Lohner</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512012000300008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Die jaarboeke van die Königliche Akademie der Tonkunst in München toon dat daar vier Suid-Afrikaans gebore vroue in die vroeë twintigste eeu (1902-1909) aan die instansie studeer het. Die konsep "plek" is die uitgangspunt van die artikel. Watter invloede sou die plek München en die Koninklike Toonkuns-akademie op die identiteit van studente uit Suid-Afrika kon hê? Aan watter omstandighede, dosente en medestudente is hulle blootgestel? Wat was dus die konteks waarbinne hulle studeer het? Dit is duidelik dat die Toonkuns-akademie 'n konserwatiewe instelling was waar daar byvoorbeeld 'n streng onderskeid tussen manstudente en damestudente getref is. Die Akademie het oorspronklik uit drie afdelings bestaan: "'n Voorbereidende Skool, 'n Hoër Vroulike Afdeling en 'n Hochschule vir studente van die manlike geslag - die eintlike Akademie". Die belangrikste bronne is die jaarboeke wat elke jaar verskyn het (beskikbaar in die Beierse Staatsbiblioteek en die argief van die Hochschule für Musik und Theater in München) en die volumes met studenterapporte wat vanaf die akademiese jaar 1900/1901 beskikbaar is (Hochschule für Musik und Theater). Ongelukkig is daar geen briewe aan en van die bestuur van die Akademie beskikbaar nie (soos wel van die Hochschule in Berlyn die geval is). Die volgende vier persone word bespreek: Mabel Wuesto (gebore in Kimberley, viool, 1902-1904), Vera de Villiers (Pretoria, klavier, 1902-1904), Daisy Bosman (Bloemfontein, sang, 1906-1908 ) en Irma Lohner (Pretoria, sang, 1907-1909). Navorsing oor die lewens van hierdie persone is nou nodig sodat vasgestel kan word hoe hulle later die omvangryke indrukke en ervaring wat hulle in die "plek" München en die "plek" Königliche Akademie der Tonkunst versamel het deur middel van hulle nuwe ontwikkelde identiteit aan hulle gemeenskappe oorgedra het.<hr/>The yearbooks of the Königliche Akademie der Tonkunst (Royal Academy of Music) in Munich show that there were four South African born women who studied at the Academy in the early 20th century between 1902 and 1909. The concept of "place " is the point of departure for this article. According to Beard and Gloag in their Musicology: The Key Concepts (2005:131-132) this concept "has gained importance as a result of the relativism of postmodern theories." Beard and Gloag regard "identity", "gender", "ethnicity", "race" and "subjectivity" as other concepts which can be taken into consideration when working with the concept of "place ". This comes about as a result of these concepts'discursive and reflexive relationship with "place". The article focuses on the developing identity (musical or otherwise) of the South African born students in the context of the Königliche Akademie der Tonkunst, which from 1892 had been the continuation of the Königliche Musikschule (the Royal School of Music). The most important questions raised by the concept of "place" are the following: What was the influence that the "place", with its specific social circumstances, had on its inhabitants? And what was the role certain inhabitants of the "place" played in the lives of other inhabitants of the "place"? More specifically: What influence did the place (Munich) and the institution (the Royal Academy of Music) have on the South African students? What were the circumstances and who were the lecturers andfellow students they were exposed to? Therefore: What was the context in which they studied? It is clear that the Royal Academy of Music in Munich was a conservative institution. For example, a strict distinction was made between male andfemale students. The different sexes had to use different stairs in the building, and classes were presented as far as possible in separate groups. The Academy consisted of three sections: the Preparatory School, the Higher Female Section, and the "Hochschule" for male students (called "the real Academy"). The most important sources are the yearbooks which have appeared annually since 1875 (available in the Bavarian State Library and the archive of the present Hochschule für Musik und Theater in Munich) and the volumes containing student reports from the academic year 1900/1901 onwards (archive of the Hochschule für Musik und Theater). From these volumes more personal information can be gleaned. Unfortunately, there are no personal letters to or from the authorities ofthe Academy available (like there are ofthe Hochschule in Berlin). A set ofessays was compiled by Schmitt, Geschichte der Hochschule für Musik und Theater München von den Anfangen bis 1945 (History of the Hochschule für Musik und Theater Münchenfrom the beginning until 1945). In this book (2005), Bernd Edelmann covers the period 1874-1914. The 16-year-old Mabel Wuesto, born in Kimberley in 1885, enrolled at the Preparatory School in 1902for her studies in violin playing with Franz Drechsler. She is the first South African born student included in the volumes of student reports. After studying at the Preparatory School for about two and a half years, she was accepted into the Higher Female Section, but terminated her studies in 1904. In September 1902, Vera de Villiers from Pretoria started studying the piano with Martin Krause (1853-1918) who later became the teacher (at the Stern Conservatorium in Berlin) of the famous pianists Edwin Fischer and Claudio Arrau. She was 22 years old and stayed until 1904. Daisy Bosman had an extraordinary life. She grew up in Bloemfontein after having been in a concentration camp at Kroonstad during the Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902). Her husband, Jacques (a brother of the eccentric pianist Bosman di Ravelli who claimed to have studied at the Music Conservatorium in Leipzig), was a prisoner of war in Admednagar in India and studied art in Munich. The 27-year-old Daisy's teacher for singing between 1906 and 1908 was Bernhard Günzburger, who ten years earlier had taught Jeannie Muller from Graaff Reinet. Daisy Bosman later became a champion of the Afrikaans art song. Before the outbreak of World War II in September 1939, she left South Africa in February 1939for Germany with her husband and ill daughter, Maxie, who had studied singing at the Academy between 1931 and 1933. Jacques and Maxie Bosman soon passed away. It is not certain when and where in Europe Daisy Bosman died during World War II. Born in Pretoria on 18 February 1885, Irma Lohner gave Munich as her home city when she started her singing studies with Günzburger in April 1907. She changed her teacher to Bianca Bianchi-Pollini from the academic year 1907/1908 and studied until February 1909. In the reports, students were awarded marks between 1 and 3. The South African born students received good marks for their studies and never attained less than a 1 for their conduct. At the student concerts in the Königliche Akademie der Tonkunst, the South African born pupils were exposed to a wide variety of fellow students. Other concerts were given by the excellent teachers or visiting artists. The place Munich as a centre of music offered many other attractions, like the opera houses. These circumstances would have had a tremendous influence on the developing artistic identity of the students. Further research is needed on the ensuing lives of these four women in order to determine how they conveyed to their communities the extensive impressions and experiences they had gathered in Munich. http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512012000300009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[Corrigendum]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512012000300010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Die jaarboeke van die Königliche Akademie der Tonkunst in München toon dat daar vier Suid-Afrikaans gebore vroue in die vroeë twintigste eeu (1902-1909) aan die instansie studeer het. Die konsep "plek" is die uitgangspunt van die artikel. Watter invloede sou die plek München en die Koninklike Toonkuns-akademie op die identiteit van studente uit Suid-Afrika kon hê? Aan watter omstandighede, dosente en medestudente is hulle blootgestel? Wat was dus die konteks waarbinne hulle studeer het? Dit is duidelik dat die Toonkuns-akademie 'n konserwatiewe instelling was waar daar byvoorbeeld 'n streng onderskeid tussen manstudente en damestudente getref is. Die Akademie het oorspronklik uit drie afdelings bestaan: "'n Voorbereidende Skool, 'n Hoër Vroulike Afdeling en 'n Hochschule vir studente van die manlike geslag - die eintlike Akademie". Die belangrikste bronne is die jaarboeke wat elke jaar verskyn het (beskikbaar in die Beierse Staatsbiblioteek en die argief van die Hochschule für Musik und Theater in München) en die volumes met studenterapporte wat vanaf die akademiese jaar 1900/1901 beskikbaar is (Hochschule für Musik und Theater). Ongelukkig is daar geen briewe aan en van die bestuur van die Akademie beskikbaar nie (soos wel van die Hochschule in Berlyn die geval is). Die volgende vier persone word bespreek: Mabel Wuesto (gebore in Kimberley, viool, 1902-1904), Vera de Villiers (Pretoria, klavier, 1902-1904), Daisy Bosman (Bloemfontein, sang, 1906-1908 ) en Irma Lohner (Pretoria, sang, 1907-1909). Navorsing oor die lewens van hierdie persone is nou nodig sodat vasgestel kan word hoe hulle later die omvangryke indrukke en ervaring wat hulle in die "plek" München en die "plek" Königliche Akademie der Tonkunst versamel het deur middel van hulle nuwe ontwikkelde identiteit aan hulle gemeenskappe oorgedra het.<hr/>The yearbooks of the Königliche Akademie der Tonkunst (Royal Academy of Music) in Munich show that there were four South African born women who studied at the Academy in the early 20th century between 1902 and 1909. The concept of "place " is the point of departure for this article. According to Beard and Gloag in their Musicology: The Key Concepts (2005:131-132) this concept "has gained importance as a result of the relativism of postmodern theories." Beard and Gloag regard "identity", "gender", "ethnicity", "race" and "subjectivity" as other concepts which can be taken into consideration when working with the concept of "place ". This comes about as a result of these concepts'discursive and reflexive relationship with "place". The article focuses on the developing identity (musical or otherwise) of the South African born students in the context of the Königliche Akademie der Tonkunst, which from 1892 had been the continuation of the Königliche Musikschule (the Royal School of Music). The most important questions raised by the concept of "place" are the following: What was the influence that the "place", with its specific social circumstances, had on its inhabitants? And what was the role certain inhabitants of the "place" played in the lives of other inhabitants of the "place"? More specifically: What influence did the place (Munich) and the institution (the Royal Academy of Music) have on the South African students? What were the circumstances and who were the lecturers andfellow students they were exposed to? Therefore: What was the context in which they studied? It is clear that the Royal Academy of Music in Munich was a conservative institution. For example, a strict distinction was made between male andfemale students. The different sexes had to use different stairs in the building, and classes were presented as far as possible in separate groups. The Academy consisted of three sections: the Preparatory School, the Higher Female Section, and the "Hochschule" for male students (called "the real Academy"). The most important sources are the yearbooks which have appeared annually since 1875 (available in the Bavarian State Library and the archive of the present Hochschule für Musik und Theater in Munich) and the volumes containing student reports from the academic year 1900/1901 onwards (archive of the Hochschule für Musik und Theater). From these volumes more personal information can be gleaned. Unfortunately, there are no personal letters to or from the authorities ofthe Academy available (like there are ofthe Hochschule in Berlin). A set ofessays was compiled by Schmitt, Geschichte der Hochschule für Musik und Theater München von den Anfangen bis 1945 (History of the Hochschule für Musik und Theater Münchenfrom the beginning until 1945). In this book (2005), Bernd Edelmann covers the period 1874-1914. The 16-year-old Mabel Wuesto, born in Kimberley in 1885, enrolled at the Preparatory School in 1902for her studies in violin playing with Franz Drechsler. She is the first South African born student included in the volumes of student reports. After studying at the Preparatory School for about two and a half years, she was accepted into the Higher Female Section, but terminated her studies in 1904. In September 1902, Vera de Villiers from Pretoria started studying the piano with Martin Krause (1853-1918) who later became the teacher (at the Stern Conservatorium in Berlin) of the famous pianists Edwin Fischer and Claudio Arrau. She was 22 years old and stayed until 1904. Daisy Bosman had an extraordinary life. She grew up in Bloemfontein after having been in a concentration camp at Kroonstad during the Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902). Her husband, Jacques (a brother of the eccentric pianist Bosman di Ravelli who claimed to have studied at the Music Conservatorium in Leipzig), was a prisoner of war in Admednagar in India and studied art in Munich. The 27-year-old Daisy's teacher for singing between 1906 and 1908 was Bernhard Günzburger, who ten years earlier had taught Jeannie Muller from Graaff Reinet. Daisy Bosman later became a champion of the Afrikaans art song. Before the outbreak of World War II in September 1939, she left South Africa in February 1939for Germany with her husband and ill daughter, Maxie, who had studied singing at the Academy between 1931 and 1933. Jacques and Maxie Bosman soon passed away. It is not certain when and where in Europe Daisy Bosman died during World War II. Born in Pretoria on 18 February 1885, Irma Lohner gave Munich as her home city when she started her singing studies with Günzburger in April 1907. She changed her teacher to Bianca Bianchi-Pollini from the academic year 1907/1908 and studied until February 1909. In the reports, students were awarded marks between 1 and 3. The South African born students received good marks for their studies and never attained less than a 1 for their conduct. At the student concerts in the Königliche Akademie der Tonkunst, the South African born pupils were exposed to a wide variety of fellow students. Other concerts were given by the excellent teachers or visiting artists. The place Munich as a centre of music offered many other attractions, like the opera houses. These circumstances would have had a tremendous influence on the developing artistic identity of the students. Further research is needed on the ensuing lives of these four women in order to determine how they conveyed to their communities the extensive impressions and experiences they had gathered in Munich.