Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe]]> vol. 52 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Democratisation and Standardisation - conflicting objectives for indigenous languages?</b>]]> At first blush, the two concepts, democratisation and standardisation, seem to be in conflict if the objectives underlying the processes they describe are compared, in particular if they are applied to the field of language planning and politics, and especially within the context of the colonial history of Africa and further afield. It is in the nature of standardisation not to tolerate much variety, even in the language to be standardised (especially in the formal registers). The functional requirements of stylistic, sociolectal or geolectal variants in a language community, on the other hand, reflect a wide spectrum of varieties in a given language. Underlying the need for standardisation is the requirement for communication in the form of a unitary code (i.e. a language) which is understood and used by as many members of the community as possible, necessarily and usually in formal contexts. However, a standardised language, like all others, also has need of neutral and informal registers for which the appropriate vocabulary should be available. Such vocabulary originates in everyday speech, while "formal" terminology aimed at the higher functions of language is often compiled by bodies such as language commissions. The standardisation of language is often the result ofa political process, which is a corollary of conquest, colonialism, or (sometimes) democratic change. A standard language, once established, normally possesses a self-perpetuating force - those who have acquired it, do not easily relinquish the concomitant social and political power associated with it. This applies in particular to non-mother-tongue speakers of the standard language, who benefit from the social status and increased access to knowledge associated with it. The result is, predictably, discrimination on the basis of proficiency in the standard, and societal imbalances. Arguments in defence of the selection of a non-indigenous standard are the purportedly equal distribution of disadvantage, as well as the possible unifying force of such a medium. To understand the task facing those who wish to standardise an indigenous language, the four phases traditionally identified by Haugen could be recalled, i. e. selection (macro and micro), codification, acceptance and cultivation (elaboration of functions). This is possibly another reason why already established colonial languages seemed to be an attractive choice at the outset when considering the adoption of an indigenous language for the purposes of standardisation. However, when the intellectual and economic benefits of linguistic democracy are considered, the investment in the enhancement of access to knowledge for entire language communities is well spent. The advantages for the development of human capital in the short and long term for such communities have been proven in countless scientific studies. A common disincentive is the purported "unsuitability" of indigenous languages for use in technical and scientific contexts. However, similar techniques for the creation of terminology are applied by all languages where elaboration of functions takes place, i.e. relexification, use of international cognates, conceptual translation (calquing), the use of informal vocabulary in specialised applications, neologisms, etcetera. Examples of attempts at standardisation or restandardisation of nonstandard varieties, such as in Norway and Albania can be adduced. In Norway, Nynorsk was created to replace Bokmal, but there was a clear differentiation by the speakers between spoken and written requirements, so that the written language gravitated to Bokmal, and the spoken language to Nynorsk. In Albania, where Standard Albanian was based on Tosc, attempts were made at incorporating elements of North Albanian (Gegh) into the standardfor reasons of "justice". However, itfoundered as a result of resistance from intellectuals on the basis that "justice" in standardisation was "impossible". Some lessons from Norway, and also the Magreb (which is subsequently discussed), are that varieties in both Norwegian and Arabic are closely linked to rules of contextuality and register; and that, although there is a greater need for uniformity as regards the form of written standard, the written form ofinformally used items needs to be standardised as well, albeit in a different way. Finally, the use of the internet as agentfor both standardisation and democratisation is briefly investigated. It is apparent that informal standardisation (through codification) is taking place through the production of increased volumes of texts by common users. The production of electronic texts leads to the compilation of corpora, and standardisation of the lexicon takes place on the basis of frequency counts and the use of concordances by NGO's. Some examples of such standardisation (official and unofficial) in Africa are provided. The conclusions drawn from the overview are that: (a) Democratisation and standardisation do not have to represent conflicting objectives for indigenous languages in Africa; (b) Users of language determine the form that is standardised in the end; and (c) Speakers of African languages have the ability to determine not only which language(s) they prefer to use for which purpose, but also the form of such languages.<hr/>Dans cet article, la reconnaissance des langues autochtones dans la société africaine dans le contexte de l'existence d'un nombre restreint de langues standard dans les communautés multilingues est examinee. La standardisation des langues, vue sous tous ses angles, semble aller á l'encontre des objectifs de la democratisation de la société, car elle favorise tous ceux qui parlent une telle langue comme langue maternelle, mais au même temps elle montre de la discrimination contre ceux qui sont obligés á maïtriser la langue standard pour obtenir l'accès aux connaissances et á l'ascension dans l'échelle sociale. Au lieu de servir comme une force unificatrice, elle semble retirer les pouvoirs á certains, tandis que ceux qui sont nés dans le "bon" environnement linguistique en tirent profit excessivement. Ce déséquilibre apparent de la société est abordé de différentes manières, avec plus ou moins de succès, dans de différentes parties du monde. En comparant telles tentatives, á la fois officielles et officieuses, en Afrique et en Europe (en Norvège, en Albanie et en Afrique du Nord), il est également noté que l'avènement de la connectivité électronique dans le monde entier a introduit des manières et des niveaux différents de standardisation des langues autochtones en Afrique, puisque l'alphabétisation est devenue une condition préalable á la participation dans toutes les langues sur l'Internet. Il a également rendu possible la compilation des corpus textuels dans des langues qui étaient auparavant limités aux moyens informels de communication orale. L'inclusion des langues minoritaires autochtones et la codification concomitante du vocabulaire semble remplacer l'élément de conflit entre les deux forces opposées de la standardisation et la démocratisation de la langue, et répondre á la question posée dans le titre. <![CDATA[<b>Poststructuralism and the significance of "Tahrir Square" for political subjectivity</b>]]> In what way should one comprehend the recent events at Tahrir Square in Egypt, where protesters succeeded in deposing the Egyptian dictator, Hosni Mubarak, in a largely peaceful manner, while militant groups hadfailed to do so before? And what are the political implications of this? Hardt and Negri's work on revolution in Commonwealth provides the first angle of incidence into the problematic raised by these questions, as there would have to be a provisional answer to the question concerning adequate theorization of revolution, to be able to vindicate scrutinizing the revolutionary historical events in question in an intellectually responsible and responsive manner. It is argued that these events, as reconstructed largely through journalistic accounts at the time of their unfolding, show a veritable exigency for the process-oriented thought encountered in Deleuze and Guattari's poststructuralist ontology of "desiring machines", "schizophrenic production", "flow", the "body-without-organs" and "process". This, therefore, affords one the second set of theoretical means for articulating the subject of authentically democratic political action. To this may be added Alain Badiou's conception of the subject as "multiply placed" or positioned in space, a poststructuralist approach which is compatible with that of Deleuze and Guattari, while simultaneously amplifying its scope. Badiou's theorization of the political subject along the lines of spatial coordinates has the advantage of allowing one to avoid the "abstract subject", while coming to grips with the spatially situated subject ofpolitical action, as articulated via the "both/and" logic of quasi-transcendental thinking. The latter manifests itself in Badiou's insistence, that it is not sufficient to conceive of the "pure" subject, A, which does not exist as such, but only ever as spatially located, Ap. The fact of the subject being spatially positioned in this relationally unique way is an indication of its concrete singularity, a subject-trait which is comparable with Deleuze and Guattari's notion of the ephemeral subject produced by an ever-changing concatenation of "desiring machines". In addition, Badiou allows one to conceive of "Tahrir Square" as an "event" in the sense of a fundamental modification of the very fabric of social relations, brought into being by a plurality of singular "subjects-in-relation" acting in concert. The true test of this approach to the political subject is the fact that the notion of the subject, which emerges from the theorizations of these poststructuralist thinkers, meshes with evidence that the recent Tahrir Square rebellion avoided the trap of hierarchical political thinking and practice through the promotion of political liberation and radical democratization along the avenue of complex, "rhizomatic", non-hierarchical communications and action. In this manner the paralyzing tendency was precluded, of understanding and practising a mode of thinking and action in terms of oppositional, hierarchical, mutually exclusive "us/them" strategies. Poststructuralist theories such as those employed here have the advantage of eschewing transcendentalist thinking (of the "conditions for the possibility of -type"), instead of which an immanentist, quasi-transcendental thinking strategy is followed, where the conditions of both the possibility and the impossibility of events, processes or entities (that is, of these events as well as of their ruin or dissolution) are articulated. Seen in this light, it is not difficult to construe the "leaderless", "radically democratic" events at Tahrir Square and in Tunisia as an instantiation ofproductive processes constituted by "multiple flows of democratic desire", concretized as a multi-directionally connected series of "desiringmachines". What animated protesters in these spaces were intermittently reconfiguring, interconnected "desiring-machines", themselves constituted by flows of desire, resistant to the perpetual possibility that an illusory, self-identical "body-without-organs" might obtrude itself in the name of leadership, thus jeopardizing the radical democratic potential of the political subject of becoming, as it emerges from the density of democratic protests, and as adumbrated in Deleuze and Guattari's process-ontology. Similarly, these uprisings are easily comprehended as instantiations of Badiou's singular, multiply positioned, plurality of subjects-in-relation who, through the convergence of their action, give rise to what he calls an "event", a happening which fundamentally alters the texture of the discursive constitution of extant society, in this way comprising a "gateway" to unheard-of future possibilities. The article is aimed at outlining the contours of political subjectivity suggested by the preceding considerations with the help of the above-mentioned philosophical perspectives<hr/>Hoe moet 'n mens die onlangse gebeure op Tahrirplein, in Egipte verstaan, waar opstandelinge die Egiptiese diktator, Mubarak, se regering op vreedsame wyse suksesvol omvergegooi het, terwyl militante groepe vroeër nie daarin kon slaag nie? En wat is die politieke implikasies hiervan? Hardt en Negri se werk oor rewolusie bied die eerste invalshoek om hierdie vraag te benader. Deleuze en Guattari se poststrukturalistiese ontologie van "begerende masjiene", "skisofreniese produksie", "vloei", die "liggaam-sonder-organe" en "proses", asook Alain Badiou se opvatting van die subjek as "veelvuldig (in die ruimte) geplaas", voorsien 'n mens in die tweede plek van die teoretiese middele om die subjek van eg-demokratiese politieke handeling te artikuleer. Hierdie benadering tot die politieke subjek aan die hand van ruimtelike koördinate het die voordeel dat dit 'n mens in staat stel om die dwaalspoor van die "abstrakte subjek" te vermy, en die ruimtelikgesitueerde subjek van politieke handeling te verstaan. Die toets hiervoor is dat die subjeksbegrip wat hieruit na vore kom, versoenbaar is met getuienis dat die resente Tahrir-Plein opstand die strikval van hiërargiese politieke denke en praktyk vermy het deur politieke bevryding en radikale demokratisering langs die weg van 'n komplekse, "risomatiese", nie-hiërargiese kommunikatiewe en handelingsweg te bevorder. Hierdeur is die verlammende neiging vermy om denke en handeling in terme van opposisionele, wedersyds-eksklusiewe "ons/hulle" strategieë te begryp en te praktiseer. <![CDATA[<b>Aristotelian-philosophical influences at the Synod of Dort (1618-1619) and the liberating perspective of a Reformational philosophy on divine sovereignty and human responsibility</b>]]> The clash between the Reformed and Arminian parties at the Synod of Dort (1618-1619) and its Canons (1619) can be explained philosophically as the result of different interpretations of the philosophy ofthe pre-Christian Greek philosopher, Aristotle (384-322 BC), which were sanctioned through the methods of eisegesis-exegesis and nature-grace.¹ The present article firstly investigates more in detail Aristotle's philosophy, especially his idea about being, God, doctrine of causality and syllogistic logic. It will explain why this pre-Christian thinker's philosophy (which experienced a revival in Europe from about 1500 to 1650) was attractive to Reformed theologians of the 17th century. At the same time the investigation will reveal the impossibility to achieve a synthesis between an unbiblical philosophy and the Bible when looking for a solution to the problem of divine sovereignty and human responsibility. Therefore, the second main part of this contribution provides an alternative to this age-old problem from the perspective of a Reformational philosophy, founded on God's revelation in his creation and in his Word. The study develops in the following way. The first main section contains an attempt to provide a brief summary of Aristotle's philosophy, mainly derived from his book De mundo, as well as secondary sources. The following aspects are analysed. First his hierarchical ontology or "great chain of being", from the lowest form of being to the godhead, from pure matter (an abstraction) to pure form, from a lack of being to the perfect being (god) are described. Although it does not seem so on the face of it, this is a purely cosmological philosophy, a static way of thinking in which everything has a fixed place in an ontological hierarchy. Secondly, Aristotle's view of god is investigated against his dualistic ontology, dividing reality in two parts, namely, transcendent (god) and non-transcendent (the cosmos). According to Aristotle his god is the first mover or cause, while he himself is immovable, as well as the final aim of everything. As an entirely self-centred and dispassionate being, no religious relationship with him is possible. Apart from superficial similarities between this notion of the divine and that of the Bible, Scripture does not proclaim a deus immutabilis, but a God fully participating in his creation. God's Word also does not teach about a predetermined human being, but a responsible one. In the third place Aristotle's hierarchical and dualistic ontology is causally determined. He distinguishes four different basic causes and explains reality from the transcendent god above to the lowest reality as a chain of cause and effect. In the light of biblical revelation God, however, cannot be regarded as a cause since the relationship of cause and effect is of a cosmic nature. Created reality is also much richer than simply a chain of causes and their consequences. In the fourth place it is argued that Aristotle's syllogistic reasoning cannot be applied to the Biblical concept of God, since he transcends human logical categories. The second and third last phases of Aristotle's development are especially insightful in the light of the philosophical conceptions of Gomarus (1563-1641) and Arminius (1560-1609), discussed in the preceding article in this journal (Van der Walt 2011). Gomarus' philosophical conception, underlying his theology, is in every aspect identical to Aristotle's third last conception (intellectualistic semi-mysticism). And Arminius 'final conception is exactly the same as the second last phase of Aristotle's development (inconsistent empiricism). The only difference being that Aristotle was a pre-Christian thinker, while these two theologians were synthetic Christian thinkers from the 17th century. The significant conclusion is that the real controversy at Dort was not that between the (correct and wrong) interpretations of the Bible of the two opposing parties, but a struggle between different interpretations of the pagan philosopher, Aristotle, possibly based on different phases in his thinking. As mentioned above, the second main section of this investigation is an attempt to find a genuine, Reformational answer to the relationship between God and mankind. The Christian philosopher, D.H.Th. Vollenhoven (1892-1978), provided a starting-point with a new ontology and his definition of religion as "the relationship of humankind to the God of the covenant in obedience or disobedience to his fundamental law of love". His viewpoint is explained as a liberating alternative to that of Reformed Scholasticism at Dort, based on Aristotle's philosophy. Instead of religion being viewed as something supernatural and mystic, and thus only part of human life, Vollenhoven regards religion as an inherent part of human existence, encompassing every aspect of human life. It can, however, be either directed in obedience to God's law of love or in disobedience. In conclusion it is mentioned that the Canons of Dort were initially intended to be a judgement, butfinally they became accepted as a confession. Following a brief discussion about how Reformed people today view the authority of this creed, new creeds or testimonies are suggested which, instead offocussing on dogmatic-ecclesiastical controversies, formulate human beings' various responsibilities in God's worldwide kingdom in different spheres of life. If this happens, the relationship between the sovereign God and the human being's responsibility can be expressed in a new, inspiring way in the contemporary world.<hr/>Alreeds in die vorige eeu het Gereformeerde teoloë die aandag daarop gevestig dat die Dordtse Leerreëls, opgestel deur die Sinode van Dordt (1618-1619), se visie op die verhouding tussen God en mens (toegespits op die probleem van verkiesing en verwerping) sterk op die Aristoteliese oorsakeleer gesteun het. (Vergelyk ook die vorige artikel van die skrywer, Van der Walt 2011.) In die onderhawige artikel word geargumenteer dat nie slegs Aristoteles se logika of oorsakeleer nie, maar sy hele filosofie 'n belangrike rol by Dordt gespeel het. Daarom word in die eerste hoofdeel sy ontologie, godsidee, oorsakeleer en sillogistiese logika ondersoek. Dit blyk onder andere dat (afgesien van hulle Christelike oriëntasie) twee belangrike standpunte by Dordt (dié van F. Gomarus en J. Arminius) dieselfde filosofiese standpunte gehuldig het as twee van die Stagiriet se filosofiese konsepsies gedurende sy latere lewe. Volgens die skrywer het die Gereformeerd-Skolastieke teoloë by die Sinode se sintese met Aristoteles se filosofie egter verhoed dat 'n suiwer Bybelse standpunt ingeneem is. Daarom handel die tweede hoofdeel van hierdie ondersoek oor 'n latere Christelike filosoof, D.H.Th. Vollenhoven, se meer Reformatoriese alternatief vir die verhouding tussen God en mens. As vertrekpunt word geneem sy omskrywing van religie as die verhouding van die mensheid tot die God van die verbond in gehoorsaamheid of ongehoorsaamheid aan sy fundamentele liefdesgebod. Vollenhoven beskou, in lyn met die Skrif, religie nie as iets misties of bonatuurlik nie, maar as 'n inherente deel van menswees wat elke aspek van die lewe insluit. Ter afsluiting word genoem dat die Dordtse Leerreëls oorspronklik slegs as 'n oordeel oor die Remonstrantisme bedoel was en nie as 'n konfessie nie. Verskillende standpunte oor die huidige gesag van die Leerreëls word genoem. Die outeur se eie standpunt ten opsigte van hierdie 17de-eeuse belydenisskrif is nie dat dit verwerp of opgedateer behoort te word nie. Daar moet eerder besin word oor nuwe, eietyds-relevante, inspirerende belydenisse, wat Christene se verantwoordelikheid in God se allesomvattende koninkryk op alle lewensterreine uitspel. Op dié wyse sal dit reg laat geskied aan 'n integraal-Bybelse visie op religie. <![CDATA[<b>The discipline of history and the New South Africa - should South African history be re-written?</b>]]> History is a discipline of humanities which records and analyses past events. It is a narrative or chronicle of human endeavour and experience in time. Constant change is an intrinsic characteristic of all forms of history. Traditional cyclical views of history have long ago been replaced by a linear cognisance and presentation of past events in a chronological sequence, implying a beginning and an expected fulfilment. This means that previous individuals, societies and developments are unique. Consequently, the question arises whether it is of any use to acquire a thorough knowledge of past events and achievements. A qualified YES would be the appropriate answer. Change is a paradoxical idea. It is the notion of alteration combined with the notion of remaining the same. According to Michael Oakeshott change is nothing other than inherent continuity. One should distiguish between the past as such and written history. The historian must rely on multiple voices of the past, sometimes called representations ofpastness. Such evidence of the past may be found in written documents, oral recollections and artefacts. The historian can never truly know the complete reality of the past. It is the historian's duty to reveal existing myths and to convey to the world what they discover about past reality in order to promote the legitimate use of history and check the abuse of this vital human science. From the explanation of historical scholarship mentioned above it seems unfair and unnecessary to ask whether South African history should be re-written at the commencement of the twenty first century. In the re-writing of South African history new issues, challenges and opportunities must always be addressed within the context of our particular time and environment in a responsible manner. In present day South Africa historians are faced with a complex, fragmented and heterogeneous rainbow nation. A truly South African identity is in continuous development. This requires constant re-interpretation, revision and re-writing of history, based on all available and accessible sources. Each generation is bound to write its own history. Today the wheel of history has undoubtedly turned, due to fresh and challenging questions asked by a new generation. During the previous century four distinct phases of South African history developed, namely English orientated liberal history, Afrikaner nationalistic history, Marxist radical history and Africanist nationalistic history. Today the re-interpretation of South African history demands a new perspective of the South African position within the global household. In a multi-cultural society each group will have to maintain its own particular or private history to appreciate its own identity. Such individual histories may subsequently contribute to a more general and balanced history of South Africa. During the past two decades van Aswegen's History of South Africa to 1854, Liebenberg en Spies' South Africa in the Twentieth Century and Giliomee and Mbenga's A New History of South Africa attempted to re-interpret our past. Such representative histories can never be final. The result will always remain open and incomplete. A multi-perspective approach to the past seems to be, however, the most acceptable and appropriate focus on the vast and intricate background of South Africa's unique population. A few guidelines may serve the purpose of achieving a comprehensive history of South Africa in our present situation. We need to take account of the different prevailing traditions and perceptions of past reality in our communities. We must avoid a tunnel vision in our research approach and appreciate the fact that South Africa is an integral part of the world at large. In a truly democratic society historical consciousness and knowledge will provide essential qualities to a vibrant community life and responsible citizenship.The teaching of history at all levels must be promoted by well trained and enthusiastic teachers and lecturers.The reading culture of society must be supported by well stocked libraries and the availability of electronic media. Newspapers, radio and television must stimulate critical thinking about the past. Cultural museums and heritage sites must constantly remind people of their common roots and proud ancestors. Thus the history of South Africa will be constantly re-assessed and re-written, not because previous historians produced poor histories, but because the context within which their histories were written, has dramatically changed.<hr/>Daar word uit verskillende oorde aangedring op die herskryf van die Suid-Afrikaanse geskiedenis. Dit kan maklik op valse veronderstellings en verwagtinge gebaseer wees. Neem in ag dat geskiedenis as mensgerigte wetenskap fokus op voortdurende inherente verandering. Die skryf van geskiedenis bied talle struikelblokke. Enkele voorbeelde verdien vermelding. Eerstens is die verlede-werklikheid onherhaalbaar. Die dialoog moet multikulturele gesigspunte erken. Beskikbare en toeganklike bronne is beperk. Nuwe vorme van uitbeelding ontwikkel. Postmoderne historici neig om geen finale antwoorde te verskaf op die talle vrae aan die verlede-werklikheid nie. Dit beteken dat daar nooit finale bevindings in die Suid-Afrikaanse geskiedenis kan wees nie. Dit moet in die lig van veranderende omstandighede in die hede voortdurend hersien word. Geskiedskrywing bevat slegs gedeeltelike waarhede aangesien die volledige verlede-werklikheid onbereikbaar bly. Historici van die Suid-Afrikaanse toneel moet vandag diverse persepsies op 'n verantwoor-delike en eerlike wyse hanteer, gebaseer op die beskikbare getuienis. Heersende mites moet ontbloot word en teenswoordige vrae relevant toegelig word uit die beskikbare bronne. Daar is ruimte vir nuwe perspektiewe en 'n meer insluitende Suid-Afrikaanse algemene geskiedenis, sonder om die baanbrekerswerk van talle historici in die verlede te verkleineer. <![CDATA[<b>Questions concerning the drama at Schoonder Sigt</b>: <b>A closer look at the suicide of Robert Jacob Gordon in 1795</b>]]> Colonel Robert Jacob Gordon (1743-1795) is a famous explorer of Southern Africa, its geography, people, flora and fauna. His reputation as Military Commander of the Cape of Good Hope is, however, not so good. His resistance against the British attack in 1795 was defensive, mostly evading direct combat, and after three months he surrendered. Subsequently, some five weeks later, on the 25th of October 1795, Gordon committed suicide. South African historiography, based on prevailing rumour at the time, was convinced: his suicide was due to feelings of shame and remorse, reaction to social isolation and contempt. People accused Gordon of cowardice and his treacherous defence of the Cape, claiming that as an Orangist and Anglophile, Gordon had handed the Cape over to the British to prevent a Jacobin revolution, whereby he could be assured that the British custody would take care of the Cape until the restoration of the House of Orange. That Gordon was neither a coward nor a traitor, is the thesis of this article; and his suicide therefore had to have had another origin. Indeed, Gordon was an opponent of the 1789 French Revolution, and his Scottish stock might have him helped to cooperate with the British. But he did not neglect his duties and he was not betrayed by the British. Backed up by Commissioner Sluysken and the unanimous Political Council, he followed a defensive line of action, seeing the English opponent being the majority - in guns, men and professional experience - while he was not sure of the reliability of his own men, mercenaries and unruly burgher militia's - the countryside was in open conflict with the Company regime. For three months, Gordon kept the enemy at bay and retained his honour as a soldier, then he surrendered: as a professional soldier, he knew that prolonged warfare was useless, and would result in more victims and much damage. Fighting to the end, sacrificing oneself for one's honour or freedom of the nation - such feelings were foreign to 18th century officers. There is no knowledge of any sign of treason or sneaky cooperation by Gordon with the British army; nor is there any indication of disappointment by Gordon about the policy of the British occupier. Some forty British officers honoured Gordon by being present at his funeral. There was indeed a small number of burghers and soldiers, inspired by Jacobin revolutionary nationalism, who deplored the surrender of the Cape to the British. They wrote to the Government in the Netherlands (by now the Batavian Republic) and accused the Colonial Government of treason. In their writings they called Gordon a coward and his behaviour treasonous and declared his suicide as being the result of remorse (the British forgot their promises to maintain the rights of the Dutch on the Cape Colony), social rejection and isolation. The accusers of the policies of Governor Sluysken and Commander Gordon are well-known: a junior clerk/schoolmaster (H.D. Campagne, as Jacobin agitator expelled by the British andfor years kept imprisoned in England), an artillerist (P. W.Marnitz), an assistant (assistent - C. L. Neethling, expelled, went to Holland), and the assistant ship's doctor (onderchirurgijn - J.P. Woyer, Graaff-Reinet, active in the so-called Swellendam Republic movement). Not the type of people with the knowledge to judge the situation! Their accusations were met with no response by the Batavian Government, which approved the official report by Governor Sluysken. This was an indirect disapproval of Neethling's book which was an attack of Sluysken's report, and he and his comrades were not rewarded for their revolutionary fervour: Neethling got nothing at all, Woyer was sent to the East (where he never arrived), only Campagne got some financial help, while as prisoner in England. It is evident that the South African historiography has given much too much credit to the revolutionary propaganda and gossip of Campagne, Marnitz, Neethling, Woyer and the anonymous pamphlet written in French Apologie de Robert de Gordon (1796). Encapsulated in the anti-imperialistic paradigm, dear to colonial historians (George McCall Theal) and the Afrikaner nationalists (C. Beyers), both the British and the VOC Regime are blamed. The VOC leadership yielded to the reality, and Gordon had nothing to feel embarrassed about: the British were too strong, war is never the ultimate goal. There was not even a British plan to get hold of the Cape for ever, only to secure the Cape from the French hegemony (and the Batavian Republic was a vassal of Paris!). Not only the defence of the Cape, but also the interpretation of the mentality at the Cape, of the so-called Cape Town Jacobins and the "Republican movement" in the outermost districts Swellendam and Graaff-Reinet, have been described according to that paradigm. Their character and impact evidently are misunderstood, and both have been attributed an anachronistic ideology. In the context of this ideological historiography, everybody has explained the suicide of Gordon as idiosyncratic. However, there are many indications for another explanation of Gordon's suicide. Gordon wasn t the kind of man to suffer from gossip or the idiot accusations of stupid common soldiers. People said that his wife had rejected him, driving him to commit suicide - an all too common story. But there were other, serious problems. Since his last journey through the interior parts of the Cape, Gordon was ill. An illness that made him visibly meagre, and sometimes his behaviour was odd. His endeavours to strengthen the walls ofthe forts by hides and woolsacks were an evident example, and his riding around the Cape during the war remarkable. Some of his children, many years later, ended in a lunatic asylum. In a letter, written only two days before his death, Gordon confessed: I am almost distracted; his writing showed how emotions seemed to have overcome him. Gordon was ill. He felt that his tough body and strong mind were deteriorating - the idea to become a shadow of the man he used to be, seemed intolerable to him, and afraid of further physical and psychical decline, he took his pistol and shot himself.<hr/>De befaamde reiziger en ontdekker Robert Jacob Gordon (1743-1795), militair commandant van de Kaap de Goede Hoop, maakte in 1795 een eind aan zijn leven, een maand nadat hij de Kaap had moeten overgeven aan de Engelsen. De historiografie ziet een causaal verband tussen die twee activiteiten: Gordon pleegde zelfmoord, omdat iedereen hem minachtte als een laffe verrader, zelfs door de Engelsen. Dat beeld van Gordon de verrader/zelfmoordenaar is ontleend aan contemporaine geschriften van politieke tegenstanders en klakkeloos overgenomen en doorverteld in de Zuid-Afrikaanse geschiedschrijving, die een nationalistisch-antikoloniaal paradigma aanhangt. Maar Gordon was niet laf en hij heeft de Kaap niet verraden want hij had gedaan wat van een militair 18e-eeuwse officier werd verwacht; het besluit tot de overgave werd door de VOC-top als geheel genomen en werd niet geminacht door de Engelsen. Gordon pleegde dus geen zelfmoord uit wroeging en schaamte, maar omdat hij ziek was en de nog verdere onttakeling van lijf en geest vreesde. <![CDATA[<b>Towards a sensational populist community press?</b>]]> This article examines recent changes made to the front-page of the 104 year old Potchefstroom Herald (the HeraldJ as these represented a significant break from the conservative typography and news agendas of the past. The Herald has seemingly shifted towards a tabloid style or sensational journalism (which includes strong typography and an emphasis on the dramatic and emotional). In order to contextualise the Herald's changes and ascertain whether the said more sensational style has become a general trend amongst South Africa's community newspapers, a number of leading community newspapers are also briefly examined. This is done against the backdrop of the success achieved by daily and Sunday tabloids, for example the Daily Sun and Son. The question is posed whether the once conservative community press is headed in the same direction. A qualitative analysis is made of the size and prominence of headings and photographs, the news agenda and other front-page style elements of the Herald and other community newspapers, such as the populist Vaal Weekly, Vaalweekblad and Western Sun; the semi-populist Polokwane Observer and Northern Review; the more traditional papers with some populist elements, such as the Lowvelder, Tygerburger, Eikestadnuus, Paarl Post and Worcester Standard; and the more traditional Sandton Chronicle and Roodepoort Record. Based on this analysis, it is concluded that the 2010 Herald was quite unique with regard to its tabloid-style, stacked headlines punting stories of crime, accidents and the bizarre. As the sensational populist style of the Herald's front-page was not continued on the inside pages, the newspaper had a dualistic character. The newspaper could, therefore, not be described as a true tabloid. However, it is argued that the Herald made a fundamental shift away from a more sober approach to community journalism. (Subsequently, the Herald has reverted back to a more eclectic approach, which utilises all the recent styles.) While the Herald has gradually shifted to a sensational populism, its circulation figures grew markedly - from just above 7 000 in 2007 to 9 000 in 2010. However, the editor denies that the editorial changes were due to managerial pressure. He also emphasises that the newspaper was sensitive to readers 'preferences. Although the study shows that a number of other community newspapers had become populist to some extent, most newspapers did not follow the Herald's combination of typography and populist news agenda in 2010. It was notable, though, that many of the leading community newspapers incorporated populist elements on their front-pages. It is argued that while commercial and other pressures are real, community newspapers should carefully distinguish between blatant sensationalism on the one hand and lively populism on the other. Should they ignore this distinction, they run the risk of losing their traditional readers. Furthermore, questions could be raised regarding the tabloidisation of the community press, as it could put the newspapers' trustworthiness at risk.<hr/>Die 104-jaaroue Potchefstroom Herald (die Herald) se verandering in voorbladstyl word hier ondersoek omdat dit tekens toon van sensasionele populisme (wat visueel sterk tipografie en 'n swaar klem op die dramatiese en emosionele insluit). Om die Herald in breër konteks te plaas, word ander toonaangewende gemeenskapskoerante ook ondersoek om vas te stel of genoemde populisme 'n algemene neiging by Suid-Afrikaanse gemeenskapskoerante is. Uit die kwalitatiewe analise van die Herald se voorblaaie blyk dit dat die blad in sy 2010-gedaante besonder was: die voorbladontwerp en agenda het wesenlike ooreenkomste met dié van die sensasionele poniepers getoon, maar die binneblaaie het die styl van 'n konvensionele gemeenskapskoerant gehad. In die lig van dié dubbelslagtige benadering, kan die koerant in sy 2010-gedaante nie voorkomsgewys as 'n volwaardige sensasieponie bestempel word nie. Die impak van koerantvoorblaaie kan egter nie onderskat word nie. Daarom kan die neiging tot al sterker tipografie en die vestiging oor baie jare van 'n emosioneel gelaaide voorbladagenda nie gering geskat word nie. Dit verteenwoordig 'n fundamentele verskuiwing weg van 'n meer besadigde joernalistiek. Hoewel ander gemeenskapskoerante in mindere of meerdere mate populistiese kenmerke toon, is daar tog steeds 'n beduidende aantal gemeenskapskoerante wat 'n geheel en al ander styl as die Herald van 2010 navolg. Daar word hier geargumenteer dat gemeenskapskoerante fyn moet onderskei tussen 'n blatante sensasionalisme en 'n lewendige populisme ten einde hul bestaande lesers nie te verloor nie. Boonop bring dit vrae na vore oor die geloofwaardigheid van sulke koerante. <![CDATA[<b>Multidisciplinary collaboration</b>: <b>A necessity for education innovation</b>]]> The operational context of the research reported in this paper is teaching a module on Information Literacy at university level. The specific focus is on the array of learning style preferences of the academic staff responsible for offering the module and of academic and professional staff responsible for curriculum innovation. The learning style profile data set is used as point of departure for professional development activities. Continuing professional development of academic staff at universities has become an imperative in South Africa. This is inter alia a consequence of the new education dispensation that emphasises the importance of higher education and training that has recently resulted in the South African government appointing a minister of higher education and training for thefirst time. This imperative is underscored by several initiatives taken by higher education institutions in the country. The University of Pretoria is no exception: Professional development of academic staff is increasingly being highlighted in policy documents, in the welcoming speech of the newly appointed Principal, strategic initiatives in this regard by the office ofthe Vice-principal responsible for undergraduate studies, the Departmentfor Education Innovation that takes responsibility for academic staff development and the Division for Higher Education in the Faculty of Education that offers a formal higher education qualification. The curriculum innovation process reported is an integral part of the professional development of all involved. The Department of Information Science, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment at the University of Pretoria is responsible for offering a semester module on Information Literacy to all first year students across all faculties annually. The module is presented to more than 8000 students. A textbook, "Navigating Information Literacy: Your information society survival toolkit", written by subject specialists from the Department is used as learning material for the module. Although the module has an acceptable pass rate, the scholarly application of the applicable skills linked to the subject content and learning outcomes is limited and in some cases lacking in subsequent academic years of study. In their endeavour to empower students to develop as lifelong learners the Department introduced a collaborative project. It is entitled "Facilitating Whole Brain Information Literacy: A multidisciplinary research project." At the same time, to empower all staff involved, the Department embarked on a research project that covers aspects such as professional development of staff, which forms the focus ofthis paper. The professional development of academic staff is one of the sub-projects. The overarching project consists of the following sub-projects: - Professional development of academic staff - Information literacy across the curriculum - Education innovation - Leadership and management in higher education - Community engagement These sub-projects are closely integrated and confirm the multidisciplinary nature of the project. The multidisciplinary team consists of information science specialists, librarians, instructional designers, educational consultants and staff development professionals. They were invited to participate in a collaborative process to enhance the curriculum, and to design and develop teaching and learning material. The learning material has been developed as a lecturer's "toolkit" that aims at enhancing information literacy skills across the curriculum and instilling a culture of applied information literacy within the learners. The overarching research project commenced with a baseline study. It entailed a quantitative approach to determining the learning style preferences of a cohort of first year students, the lecturers and other professional staff involved. For this purpose the Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument (HBDI) (Herrmann 1996) was used. The baseline study, presented at different conferences highlighted the fact that students have different thinking and learning preferences. Therefore, a teaching methodology embracing the notion of "one style fits all" is not effective. It was decided that Herrmann's Whole Brain principles would be applied to all aspects of the project, including multidisciplinary collaboration and cooperation in the context of curriculum innovation. The academic programme under discussion is currently put under a scholarly lens as an investigation from within the Department. An internal locus of control viewpoint is taken when it comes to quality assurance. A scholarly and action research-driven approach is taken. As epistemological underpinning and impetus for education innovation, whole brain learning forms the crux. As research paradigm and process for professional learning action research is promoted. Action research is considered most applicable when it comes to professional development and practitioner research. This paper briefly links the baseline data of the two groups of lecturers and the group of students as background to the discourse on multidisciplinary collaboration below. The curriculum innovation group consists of an array of staff members. So-called professionals include an education consultant, designers of learning material and an information specialist from the library. Two groups of lecturers are implied. A group of senior academics are responsible for developing the academic programme under discussion. The offering of the programme is the responsibility of a group of 16 assistant lecturers. A summary of the research findings highlights the fact that it is clear that the team effort, as discussed in the article, can only be a success if the team consists of members from different disciplines - scholars with the subject knowledge needed for offering the module in question, namely information science and other scholars in the field of curriculum development, higher education and instructional design. For this reason the term multidisciplinary team is used in the title and throughout the text. The success of the collaboration depends on the important condition that each team member is given the opportunity to contribute to the process from the perspective of his/her own preferred mode of thinking. Learning processes that present themselves during the curriculum development process are used as opportunities for professional growth. Each team member is offered the opportunity to reflect on his/her practice thatforms part of a constructivist approach to the professional learning process that enriches the curriculum development discourse.<hr/>Die operasionele konteks van die navorsing waaroor hier gerapporteer word, is die onderrig van 'n module oor Inligtinggeletterdheid op universiteitsvlak. Die spesifieke fokus word geplaas op die verskeidenheid leerstylvoorkeure van die akademiese en professionele personeel wat verantwoordelik is vir kurrikuluminnovering. Data oor leerstylvoorkeure dien as vetrekpunt vir navorsing oor professionele ontwikkeling. Die voortgesette professionele ontwikkeling van akademiese personeel by universiteite het dwingend noodsaaklik geword. Hierdie toedrag van sake is onder andere die gevolg van die nuwe onderwysstelsel wat die belangrikheid van hoër onderwys en opleiding beklemtoon. Dit het gelei tot die skep van 'n Ministerie vir Hoër Onderwys en Opleiding. Hierdie imperatief word deur hoër onderwysinstansies deur middel van talle inisiatiewe ondersteun. Die kurrikuluminnoveringsproses waaroor gerapporteer word, vorm 'n integrerende deel van die professionele ontwikkeling van diegene wat betrokke is. As samevatting van die navorsingsbevindinge kan dit onomwonde gestel word dat die spanpoging, soos in die artikel beskryf, alleenlik suksesvol is omdat die span uit spanlede vanuit 'n verskeidenheid dissiplines bestaan - kundiges met die nodige vakkennis ter sprake in die module onder bespreking, naamlik inligtingkunde en ander vakkundiges wat in kurrikulumontwikkeling, hoër onderwys, en instruksionele ontwerp spesialiseer. Derhalwe word die term multidissiplinêre span in die titel en deurgaans in die teks gebruik. 'n Belangrike voorwaarde vir die sukses van die samewerking wat ter sprake is, is dat die spanlede mekaar die ruimte gun om elkeen binne sy/haar eie voorkeurdenkmodus 'n bydrae te kan lewer. Leerprosesse wat tydens kurrikulumontwikkelingsessies ter sprake kom, word as geleenthede vir professionele ontwikkeling benut. Elke spanlid kry die geleentheid om oor sy/haar eie prakyk te reflekteer, wat deel vorm van 'n konstruktivistiese professionele leerproses wat die diskoers oor kurrikuluminnovering verryk. <![CDATA[<b>The career orientation of final year teacher training students</b>]]> The research was prompted by the assumption that the many problems in South African education (e.g. continuous curiculum changes, insufficient in-service training and support, classroom overcrowding, discipline problems,administrative paperwork, low teacher morale, high teacher attrition rate, low societal status of the teaching profession) must have an adverse effect on the career orientation of teacher training students. Our research was embedded in the theoretical framework of eco-systemic theory (Bronfenbrenner 1990), through which we indicated how the teacher is surrounded and influenced by various societal systems in four levels of proximity: the micro, meso, exo and macro levels. From these systems we established the conceptual framework, in which we discussed negative forces on the teacher as these are eminent in societal expectations about the teacher, the professional identity of the teacher and the retention rate in the teaching profession. The discussion ofthese negative forces and their impact affirmed our initial assumption and led to our research question: To what extent are teaching training students positively inclined towards a career in teaching? This question implied attention to a) the career motivation, and b) the moral values of the modern South African teaching training student. The empirical study was conceptualised as a pilot project. We involved the full number of final year teaching training students at one of the largest education faculties in South Africa, namely at the University of Pretoria. The students (n = 403) were asked to complete a questionnaire which focused inter alia on respondents' exposure to daily news, reasonsfor choosing the education career path, attitudes towards the teaching profession and medium to long term prospects in the profession. Moral inclinations were also probed, e.g. with items on religion, discipline, language of instruction, multicultural teaching and being a role model. The questionnaire findings were verified in a focus group interview with five purposively selected respondents in the questionnaire survey. Our findings nullified our initial assumptions. Not only were the students strongly committed to their chosen career, notwithstanding the questionable societal status of the teaching profession and the formidable teaching challenges (of which they were apparently keenly aware), but they also conveyed a strong message about moral values and the teacher's role in modelling those in and beyond the school. Our findings are prospective and certainly need verification on a broader scale. We are also planning a follow-up study with the same respondents, once they have completed two years of full time teaching. The findings could serve as impetus for education management measures to ensure that aspiring teachers' level of commitment is sustainable. One of these measures could be an online advice and counselling service for beginner teachers.<hr/>Die navorsing het ontstaan uit die aanname dat die onderwysproblematiek in Suid-Afrika (voortdurende kurrikulumwysigings, gebrekkige indiensopleiding, dissiplineprobleme, lae beroepsmotivering onder onderwysers en gebrekkige aansien van die onderwysberoep) 'n negatiewe uitwerking op die beroepsinstelling van onderwysstudente het. Vanuit die teoretiese raamwerk wat gebruik is, naamlik Bronfenbrenner (1990) se ekosistemiese samelewingsmodel, is die negatiewe kragte wat op die onderwys inwerk, nader toegelig. In die lig van die intensiteit van hierdie kragte het die volgende as navorsingsvraag gedien: In welke mate het die huidige onderwysstudent 'n positiewe beroepsingesteldheid? In 'n vraelysopname onder 403 finalejaar onderwysstudente, is die aanvanklike aanname verkeerd bewys. Die vraelysrespondente was nie alleen positief ingestel teenoor hul toekomstige loopbaan in die onderwys nie, maar hulle was ook uitgesproke oor hul taak daarin as morele rolmodelle. Die positiewe aard van ons voorlopige bevindings onderstreep alreeds die absolute noodsaaklikheid van onderwysbestuursmaatreëls om die volhoubaarheid van beginneronderwysers se positiewe beroepsingesteldheid te verseker. 'n Elektroniese advies- en motiveringsdiens vir beginneronderwysers kan heel moontlik as eerste en uitvoerbare projek hiertoe dien. <![CDATA[<b>Conditional constructions using "indien" in scientific journals (Part 2</b>: <b>Marked constructions)</b>]]> This paper is the second part of a two-part description of the use of the Afrikaans conjunction "indien" (if) in scientific journals. The research framework, the data corpus and the nature of the conditional constructions are the same as in Part 1 and are not repeated here. This paper deals with non-basic, i.e. marked constructions and analyses the syntactic, semantic and pragmatic aspects of marked constructions. "Indien" constructions are considered to be marked when they contain incomplete clauses or the subordinate clause follows the main clause. In some sentences the clauses are not hypotactically bound. The paper starts with a table giving the frequencies of the placement of the "indien" clause in the sentence. The data show that there are different motives for using the marked (q,p) order in sentences. Some cases can be explained by the discourse where a connection with a preceding part is needed. Sometimes the usage is syntactically mandated. Complex sentence structure, deep embedding and a change in the condition type often lead to placement of the subordinate clause near the end of the sentence. Associated adverbs change the meaning of the subordinate clause and the q,p order is semantically motivated in those cases. In the data the following factors were identified that caused the q,p order. Cohesion with the preceding discourse through adverbs, pronouns and nouns was noted in the q,p order. The q,p order is also used in definitions and descriptions to draw focus to the term being described or defined. In complex sentences the conditional construction is not always dependent on the main verb. Deep embedding or dependency on noun phrases may cause the q,p ordering. "Indien" constructions, where the main clause contains a comparison, tend to have the marked order. When the"indien"-clause is part of an infinitive, it is placed after the main clause. When the "indien" construction is embedded in a relative clause the q,p order is generally used. "Indien" clauses are placed at the end of a sentence if they are embedded in a complement clause of a noun phrase. Using "dit" (this) as a preliminary subject of a copulative verb causes the q,p order. Several associated adverbs cause the q,p order. The adverb "slegs" (only) and its less formal synonyms "net", "alleen" and "alleenlik" are often associated with "indien". When a conjunction is preceded by an adverb, the combination can change the type of relationship between the apodosis and the protasis. The construct "slegs indien" (only if) implies multiple possible mental spaces, where only one is accepted. The construct implies a strong condition or restriction. It is possible to regard "slegs indien" as a composite conjunction with a meaning close to "mits" (provided that). Other adverbs in the data include "selfs" (even), "ook" (also), "veral" (especially) and "behalwe" (except). "Veral indien" (especially if) implies that more than one mental space exists, but that a particular one is preferred. The corpus contains eleven cases with "veral indien" of which ten exhibit the q,p order An "indien" clause can be placed in a main clause in such a way that the main clause is interrupted. The "indien" clause has a parenthetic character in those cases and is often placed between commas, parentheses or attention hyphens. The binding does not show the typical hypotactic firmness. Most ofthese internal clauses act as post-determiners ofnouns. The purpose of the internal "indien" clauses seems to be to indicate a restriction of the state of affairs in the main clause. The data contain sentences where the subordinate clause containing "indien" is shortened to a stock phrase. Examples are "indien nie" (if not), "indien wel" (if so), "indien nodig" (if necessary), "indien ter sake" (if relevant) and "indienprakties uitvoerbaar" (iffeasible). These stock phrases occur in all three possible positions, at the start of the sentence (p,q order), at the end of the sentence (q,p order) or internally embedded in the main clause. The shortening is observed in various degrees and is not always down to a stock phrase. Where the stock phrases occur between commas, the phrase can usually be extended to a complete phrase without changing the meaning of the sentence. There is, however, a set of shortened constructions that cannot be extended to complete clauses without changing the meaning of the sentence. In these cases the "indien" constructions are used as a strengthening or weakening of a term. They are incorporated as post-determiners of nouns, adjectives or adverbs. The q,p order is used in statements about the past where the "indien" construction describes the conditions under which the event in the main clause happened. Statements in the generic present tense tend to use the q, p order when restricting adverbs are present. Two subcategories that were described in part 1 were not found with the q, p order. These are "academic communications" and statements that make derivations from the state of affairs in the past. Predictions rarely use the q,p order, because of the iconicity in time or causality: p has to hold before q can be considered. No commands using the q,p order were found in the corpus. Questions do exist where the "indien" construction creates a hypothetical mental space to serve as background. Rhetorical questions used to criticise scientific argument are present in the q, p order. The paper concludes with an overview diagram ofthe marked "indien" constructions, showing the different types and their relationship in terms of the Theory of Mental Spaces. In conclusion the paper notes that the marked constructions can be categorised in the same broad usage categories than the basic constructions discussed in Part 1. Two sub-categories were only observed with p, q order. Additionally, the p, q order was observed in sentences with different types of clause linking. More research is necessary to investigate the type and strength of the binding between the protasis and the apodosis.<hr/>Hierdie artikel vorm die tweede deel van 'n beskrywing van voorwaardelike konstruksies met indien soos in wetenskaplike tydskrifte aangetref. In die eerste deel is basiese konstruksies onder die loep geneem, terwyl hierdie deel oor gemerkte konstruksies handel. Konstruksies met verkorte bysinne of indien-uitdrukkings word as gemerk beskou. 'n Volledige konstruksie word as gemerk beskou wanneer dit nie met die protasis begin nie. Die agterplasing van die protasis word in terme van diskoersverwante, semantiese en sintaktiese faktore verklaar: posisie van die konstruksie in die groter diskoers, fokus in die sin, betekenisnuansering deur bywoorde, inlywing by sinsdele en inlywing as sinsdele. Dit blyk dat 'n skrywer volgens sy/haar kommunikatiewe doel 'n keuse ten opsigte van die protasis-apodosis-volgorde kan uitoefen, maar dat die keuse soms deur sintaktiese faktore beperk word. Die gebruike van gemerkte indien-konstruksies met hipotaktiese binding, kan soos basiese konstruksies geklassifiseer word volgens die mate van die waarskynlikheid dat 'n stand van sake gerealiseer sal word. Twee van die subkategorieë wat by die basiese volgorde voorkom, is egter nie in die gemerkte volgorde aangetref nie. In die beskrywing word na die rol van indien as ruimtebouer verwys en aan die einde van hierdie artikel word 'n oorsig oor die soorte indien-konstruksies in die korpus met verwysing na denkruimtes verskaf. Verdere navorsing is nodig om dieper op die aard en sterkte van die binding tussen protasis en apodosis in te gaan. <![CDATA[<b>Voices from behind the farm gate</b>: <b>The people-nature "conversation" in Dwaalpoort by Alexander Strachan</b>]]> Alexander Strachan's latest novel ties in with the tradition of the farm novel. Dwaalpoort brings about an enrichment ofthis genre through the intertwining of magical-realist elements and qualities of the modern farm novel, but especially through the unique narrative style and its implications. The novelistic background involves the new socio-political dispensation in South Africa. The ending of the older dispensation manifests itself in issues such as farm dispossession, land reform and the transfer of ownership. On Dwaalpoort cattle farming has made way for game capturing and hunting safaris, and the events cover the weekend during which Judge Jurgens van der Beul comes to bag a game trophy. The power of the novel lies in the division of voices between man and animal. The story is told from the perspectives of six different characters: five human beings and Mhlophe, leader of the troupe of white hartebeest, which in the novel represents the primal spirit of nature. Mhlophe speaks the first and the final word in the novel, an authoritative addition to the voices that speak in between. Through varying perspectives shape is given to the idea centring on man and animal living together consciously within the shared natural environment lying behind the gate. This article focuses on the analysis of the human-nature "conversation" in Dwaalpoort. This leads to the identification of aspects of ecological discourse in Strachan's novel, and also to a reconnaissance of the ways of manifestation of the underlying principles thereof, which Matthew Teorey deduces from the work of the writer on nature, Craig Childs. According to Teorey (2010:35) ecological discourse relates to a physical/sensory, intellectual and psychical effort to achieve a deeper form of respect and communion with other species in the greater context of the cosmos. This in turn is linked to the challenge to listen "actively", attentively and with an open mind to the silences and voices of nature. In Dwaalpoort there are, to a differing extent, indications in the different characters of their level of participation in "conversation" with nature. Through this expression is given to a more encompassing form of contact with and understanding of animals, and to a more profound reflection about the place of and the link between man and animal within the great biotic sphere. An absorbing given emerges from the study of the nature of the communication between man and other species in Dwaalpoort. This involves the way in which "conversation" of this nature can be advantageous where man overcomes the communicative limitations with nature, which cultural systems seem to impose, through acting outside specific culturo-ideological systems. Rentia acts outside the pattern ofpatriarchal domination, maintained by her father (Mafika), in order to have the opportunity to experience the finer nuances of ecological discourse. She resists a system where man's voice and purse call the shots, as a result of which veld and animal have to bend the knee before environmentally destructive farming practices. Her sharing attitude and her desire to maintain a balance motivate her obsessive protection of the white hartebeest in the gorge on the farm against commercial hunting practices. She finds much to read in the sounds and movements of the animals on the farm and she demonstrates close attention to the processes of sensory, intellectual and psychical formations of links with the surrounding natural community, in line with the principles of ecological discourse. Bullet is a hunter functioning from the intellectual framework of acquisition and control. Still the bond with his dogs does create for him the "ear" through which snatches of the voices of nature can penetrate. Guided by the ghost of his dead dog, stripped of the role of hunter and decision-maker, a nightly exodus for him becomes an initiation into a world of barely decipherable messages through the "voice " and eyes ofthe dog. He also hears the condemnatory "accusations" from nature. In this situation, where Bullet steps outside the dominating thought pattern of the hunter, something of a conversation comes into being in the reflection about what the animal has to say to the human being. Jurgens van der Beul is a power-mad judge, decision-maker about the lives of the animals whose stuffed headsfill his trophy room, and ofpeople about whom he makes judgements in court. The episode during which his wife, his ultimate "trophy", becomes the sexual prey of another man leads to a sense of loss of control. Jurgens, too, relinquishes the established intellectual frameworks built around the power roles of hunter and judge during a magical encounter with Mhlophe at the end of the novel. On the way to a section of burnt, ruined veld on the farm - the result of Mafika's farming practices - Jurgens, in a process of magical-realist transformation, becomes the landowner who waits for the leading antelope. He accepts that vengeance is being exacted through the greater power of nature, and a remarkable form of "conversation" comes into existence between man and animal. Traces of which can be found through investigating the parallels between this meeting and an earlier hunting trip involving a kudu cow, with a clear allusion to the way in which the roles of man and animal have been switched. Something of the struggle of the animal emerges within the experiential field of man in this quiet communication occurring through the exchange of experience between man and animal. The novel reveals, in both the hunter-figures, something of the achievement of a deeper form of respect and communion with other species, which after all is the objective of an ecological discourse. It also emphasizes, in the closing sections, an altered perspective in man about a relationship, even equality, between hunter and animal. The form and intensity of the "conversation" between human characters and animals in the novel vary. What is clear, however, from the analysis of the man/nature discourse in Dwaalpoort, is the much greater openness to contact which accompanies the situations in which man moves outside culturally-determined systems of dominant thought and action.<hr/>Alexander Strachan se roman, Dwaalpoort, sluit aan by die tradisie van die plaasroman deur ondermynend in te speel op die literêre konvensies van die klassieke plaasroman. Die verhaal word vanuit die perspektief van ses verskillende karakters vertel: vyf mense en Mhlophe, leier van die trop wit hartbeeste, wat in die roman die oergees van die natuur verteenwoordig. Die analise van die "gesprek" wat voortkom uit die menslike en dierlike "stemme" in Dwaalpoort het eerstens die doel van die identifisering van aspekte van ekologiese diskoers in die roman. Verder dien dit ter verkenning van die manifesteringswyses van die beginsels van ekologiese diskoers, wat Matthew Teorey uit die natuurskrywer Craig Childs se werk aflei, in Strachan se roman. 'n Boeiende bevinding is die wyse waarop "gesprekvoering" tussen die mens en ander spesies bevoordeel word waar die mens kommunikasiebeperkinge, opgelê deur kulturele sisteme, oorkom deur buite bepaalde kultureel-ideologiese sisteme te tree. Rentia, die plaaseienaar, tree buite die patroon van patriargale dominansie om die fyner nuanses van ekologiese diskoers te beleef. Sy leef in navolging van haar grootouma, wie se waagmoedigheid om buite-om die kultureelideologiese voorskrifte van haar tyd haar eie lewensreëls te formuleer ook met 'n meer ongebonde en innige natuurverbintenis in verband gebring kon word. Bullet en Jurgens laat die gevestigde denkraamwerke en die magsrolle van jagter en regter agter. Hulle kom tot meer omvattende kontak met en begrip vir die dier, asook tot grondiger nadenke oor die skakeling tussen mens en dier binne die groot biotiese gemeenskap. <![CDATA[<b>From novel to film</b>: <b>no Disgrace for J M Coetzee. An investigation into the process of film adaptation</b>]]> Adaptations of literary works have always played a prominent role in the history of film. However, these adaptations were always judged by literary critics from the perspective of their own literary prejudices. This necessarily led to the film as genre being seen as inferior to the literary genre. Against this backdrop one may make the assumption that, shouldfilm narrative be definedfrom within a literary domain, the film will, based on its own unique characteristics, be secondary to the literary work on which it is based. This article does not aim to establish a hierarchy between the literary text and its film version, but intends to make the reader aware of a significant paradigm shift since the nineties as to the importance of film adaptation as an entity in its own right. To reach this point, however, the development offilm adaptation is scrutinised from three seminal eras, namely: the era 1960-1990, characterised by so-called Fidelity criticism, the era 1990-2003, characterised by processes such as inter semiotic translation, and the era since 2003, characterised by the focus on a hermeneutic model. The film adaptation of Nobel prize winner J M Coetzee's novel Disgrace, directed and produced by Steve Jacobs with Anna-Maria Monticelli as screenwriter and co-producer, comes under scrutiny. It is discussed as an adaptation that may be interpreted by using Linda Cahir's (2006) criteria for the creation and interpretation offilm adaptations. This article will argue that literature does not exist in a vacuum and is constantly being rewritten through the various cultural contexts wherein it exists. The study of the film adaptation of Disgrace shows how popular cultural literary adaptations can function as living texts which become part of organic, meaningful processes in the community.<hr/>In hierdie artikel word nie gepoog om 'n hiërargie te probeer vasstel tussen die literêre teks en sy filmweergawe nie, maar bloot die leser bewus te maak van 'n noemenswaardige denkverskuiwing vanaf die negentigerjare na die belang van filmverwerking as entiteit in eie reg. 'n Oorsig word gegee van die aard van filmverwerking deur die fokuspunte in die ontwikkeling daarvan, en die besondere verband tussen die geskrewe en visuele teks uit te stip. Literatuur bestaan nie in 'n vakuum nie en word deurgaans herskryf deur die vele veranderende kulturele kontekste waarbinne dit bestaan. Die bestudering van die filmverwerking van Disgrace toon by uitstek aan hoe die bestudering van populêre kulturele verwerkings van literatuur kan funksioneer as 'n lewende teks wat deel word van organiese, betekenisvormende prosesse binne die gemeenskap. <![CDATA[<b>Music entrepreneurship</b>: <b>An indispensable part of tertiary music curricula</b>]]> After decades of continual growth in the performing arts industries between 1960 and 1980 many performing arts organizations now find themselves facing crises on various fronts. Initially the ruptured dot com bubble of 2000 brought a halt to this growth. However, more recently the American sub-prime crises (2008-2009), as well as the current economical woes of Europe, have created an environment that is not conducive to supporting the arts financially. This article poses the pertinent and somewhat awkward question as to the relevance of 21st-century conservatory (tertiary) music education in its existing formats and its applicability to the contemporary market place. The study followed a two pronged approach. Firstly, an MBA¹ field study was conducted using input from practising musicians (locally and overseas), as well as established South African music entrepreneurs, in a mixed methods approach. Secondly, a six month post-doctoral Fulbright research project was conducted at the School of Music at the University of South Carolina (USA) where the findings from the first phase of the study were compared to teaching practices at the South Carolina Institute of Arts Entrepreneurship. The results of the first two phases of the study culminated in the findings presented here. Arts entrepreneurship is defined and its position within the creative economy highlighted whilst recent developments in arts entrepreneurship education, with specific reference to two main curricular approaches, are discussed. The role that music entrepreneurship plays in correctly positioning students for the modern workplace is emphasised. A list of critical skills is discussed as well as personality traits that successful music entrepreneurs possess. The five ecologies model, as part of a suggested music curriculum, is also presented. The conclusion drawn from the findings of the research firstly indicate that music entrepreneurship is not only an age-old concept, but also a very relevant proficiency to be mastered by musicians of the 21st century. Secondly, certain critical skills and proficiencies as well as personality traits are conducive to the future success of prospective music entrepreneurs. Finally, tertiary music departments owe it to their students to expose them to entrepreneurship in the arts in order to prepare them properly for life as professional musicians.<hr/>Slegs 0,065 persent van die totale bevolking van die VSA en die Europese Unie is werksaam in poste wat vir musikante gestruktureer is. Daar is lank reeds 'n ooraanbod van musici wat met onvoldoende vaardighede toegerus is vir professionele oorlewing in die hedendaagse samelewing. Bogenoemde situasie is deels die gevolg van onderriginstellings wat krampagtig vasklou aan 19de-eeuse onderrigpraktyke in die hoop dat dit genoegsaam sou wees vir die voorbereiding van 21ste-eeuse kunstenaars. Die realiteit is dat alternatiewe kunsbeoefening buite die tradisionele werksomgewing van die onderwys en die simfonieorkes ondersoek moet word; een alternatief is die sogenaamde kuns- of musiekentrepreneurskap. Hierdie artikel, gebaseer op 'n MBA-veldstudie asook uitgebreide Fulbright postdoktorale navorsing, poog om die ontwikkeling van kunsen-trepreneurskapsonderrig te belig aan die hand van ontwikkelinge in die kreatiewe industries oor die laaste dekade. Die potensiaal van kunsentrepreneurskapskurrikula om nuwe professionele geleenthede vir musikante te skep, word ondersoek. Verskillende onderrigmodelle word uitgelig, en daar word tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat nie te veel professionele musikante werksaam is nie, maar wel dié met die verkeerde vaardighede.