Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0041-475120110001&lang=en vol. 51 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Derounding in Afrikaans</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512011000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Afrikaans word gekarakteriseer deur 'n besonder ryk vokaalsisteem. Onder die twaalf vokale tel die drie gemerktegeronde nonagtervokale /9, y, 2/, (SAMPA-simbole, wat korrespondeer met die IPA simbole /œ, y, ø/). Hierdie klanke is die geronde teenhangers van die drie ongemerkte non-agter vokale /@, i, e/ (SAMPA), in IPA konvensie getranskribeer as /y, i, e/. Neem in berekening dat hierdie transkripsies 'n kanoniese of fonologiese weergawe van die vokale is; dit neem dus nie fonetiese variansie, soos die wyd-voorkomende breking van /e/ tot /i@/ in ag nie. Die ontrondingsproses, waarvolgens eersgenoemde drie vokale as ongerond uitgespreek word, is een van die heel bekendstes in Afrikaans. Geen besonderhede van foneties-akoestiese of persepsieaard is egter in die literatuur te vinde nie. In hierdie bydrae word gepoog om hierdie leemte te vul, en wel deur gebruik te maak van die sogenaamde gemengde metode (Eng. mixed method). Nie net word 'n verskeidenheid metodes van data-insameling gebruik nie, maar eweneens ook van verskillende analisemetodes. Sowel produksie- as persepsiegegewens word ingespan. Die hoofeksperiment, 'n akoestiese eksperiment, fokus op die spraak van 16 volwasse moedertaalsprekers van Afrikaans. Vier groepe is ondersoek; vier deelnemers, telkens twee elk per geslag, van die ouderdomsgroepe 20-30 jaar, 40-50 jaar, 60-70 jaar, en 80-90 jaar oud. Almal is inwoners van die noordelike gebiede van Suid-Afrika. Hulle uitspraak van die twee stelle vokale is onder verskillende omstandighede versamel en geanaliseer. Dit hou in meer formele spraak (die lees van leeslyste en volsinne) en minder formeles (die sê van bekende frases - soos een uur ... twaalf uur - asook die tel van een tot twintig). 'n Gedetailleerde beskrywing is gedoen deur gebruik te maak van die belangrikste akoestiese aanduider van ronding (die tweede vokaalformant, F2). Die hoofbevinding van die ondersoek dui op 'n sterk teenwoordigheid van die ontrondingsfenomeen in Afrikaans, en in gevalle waar ontronding nie duidelik teenwoordig is nie, is die akoestiese verskille tussen die twee stelle vokale besonder klein vergeleke by dié in ander, aanverwante tale, soos Sweeds en Nederlands. Hier is egter nog nie sprake van 'n volledige neutralisasie van die eienskap Ronding nie. Daar is wel gevind dat daar blyke is van ten minste twee chronolekte, naamlik dié van heel jong en van heel ou sprekers van Afrikaans. Laastens, op 'n metodologiese vlak, is daar nie, soos moontlik die geval kon wees, radikale verskille in terme van ontronding gevind in die verskeie wyses van data-insameling nie. Die duidelikste blyke daarvan is gevind in die leestake, met name dié waar leeslyste gebruik is. Van die bevindinge is ook relevant vir 'n aantal linguistiese en toegepaste linguistiese areas, soos taaltipologie en die sosiolinguistiek van Afrikaans. Die hooffokus van hierdie artikel is egter nie hierop nie, sodat nie verder daarop ingegaan word nie.<hr/>Afrikaans is a Germanic language, characterised by a rich vowel system, comprising twelve phonemic vowels, among them three abnormal (marked) rounded non-back vowels, viz., in SAMPA notational system /9, y, 2/, corresponding to the more familiar IPA symbols /œ, y, ø/. These sounds are the rounded counterparts of the three normal unrounded non-back vowels /@, i, e/ (SAMPA), in IPA convention transcribed as /ə, i, e/. Rounded non-back vowels are a rarity among the languages of the world. Maddieson (1995) mentions only about 7% of the 535 languages investigated by him. No other case of extensive presence of derounding in languages other than Afrikaans could be traced. It is a well-known view that Afrikaans is typified by a process of active derounding of /œ, y, ø/. This process is an important distinguisher between Afrikaans on the one hand, and the other Germanic languages such as Dutch and Swedish on the other hand. Initially the result of this process was viewed in strong negative terms as being substandard; more recently the presence thereof is described in neutral terms as a typical feature of Afrikaans as language over a broad spectrum. The present contribution concentrated on two additional facets, viz. details concerning production and perception of the vowels in question. In this mixed method study a triangulation design was utilised. This entails quantitative as well as qualitative techniques of data collection and analysis; production over and above perception studies were incorporated with a view to a better understanding of this phenomenon and its characteristics. Apart from a variety of smaller investigations, the main experiment focused on the speech productions of 16 adult speakers of Afrikaans, two male and two female persons each of the age brackets 20-30 years, 40-50 years, 60-70 years, and 80-90 years old. A detailed description is presented of the main acoustic features in terms of the second vowel formant (F2) of these six vowels as produced by the participants. They read a word list as well as some full sentences comprising a balanced set of words containing the vowels in question mentioned above. Furthermore, they produced in a spontaneous manner some frequently used words or phrases that include some of the same vowels. Interesting results were found with respect to a battery of listening tests carried out. A group of listeners (ranging from 14 to 20 participants) had to discriminate between members of roundedunrounded vowels in one instance, and to identify some others in two other tasks. Whereas they generally had no difficulty with auditory stimuli produced by speakers of the oldest group, the same cannot be said for vowels of younger speakers. Most telling is the following fi nding: A word containing either a rounded vowel or its unrounded counterpart (e.g. klere vs. kleure - resp. clothing, colours) when read by a 23 year old speaker were presented auditorily to 14 listeners. Their success rate in identifying the vowels correctly was only 43%. These results too suggest less derounding in the case of the older speaker, and, consequently, also point in the direction of the existence of two chronolects. This in turn also could be a sign of a diachronic shift in the case of the vowel system of Afrikaans. Indications of similar modifications to other vowels of Afrikaans seem relatively clear, but defi nite results are not yet available. This study mainly reveals the following: derounding indeed seems to be a robust phenomenon of Afrikaans. Nontheless, seemingly a complete neutralisation is not present (yet). Even in cases where no salient derounding takes place the phonemic rounded vowels /9, y, 2/ turn out to be much closer in acoustic terms to their unrounded phonemic counterparts /@, i, e/. Typical F2 values that are associated with the presence of derounding are in the case of full sentences: 1819 Hz for unrounded /@/ compared to 1782 Hz for its rounded counterpart /9/, and, likewise, 2298 Hz for unrounded /e/ but 2250 Hz for the rounded member of this pair, viz. /2/. Unrounded /i/ shows a similar small difference with the rounded /y/, namely 2328 Hz and 2349 Hz respectively. These differences are clearly not significant, seemingly sharply different to languages such as Swedish and Dutch, where F2 values for /i/ and /y/ are highly different - values for Swedish were measured as F2's 2747 Hz for (/i/), and only 2477 Hz for (/y/). Respective measurements Dutch (F2 = 2895 Hz; 2327 Hz) show a similar clear difference. Comparatively similar results for vowels in the case of isolated words were found. In this regard I found some indication of the presence of two different chronolects: in some instances the 80-90 year old speakers tend not to deround to the same degree as especially the youngest group (20-30). Older speakers also showed a presence of derounding in their spontaneous speech, but not to the same extent as in the case of the more formal tasks. Furthermore, the youngest group shows a smaller difference between rounded and unrounded vowels than the other groups. Again, the comparative difference in the case of the oldest group is more salient. The findings may have some relevance for language typology and the sociolinguistics of Afrikaans. As the main focus of this study lies on the descriptive level, I will not elaborate on this facet here. <![CDATA[<b>The establishment of Solidarity's Helping Hand as a successful community based welfare organisation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512011000100002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Die vakbond Solidariteit, voorheen bekend as die Suid-Afrikaanse Mynwerkersunie, was waarskynlik die eerste vakbond in Suid-Afrika om sy eie, private welsynsdepartement tot stand te bring. Die oorspronklike doelwit van hierdie welsynsdepartement wat in 1949 gestig is, bekend as die Helpende Hand, was om Afrikaner-mynwerkers wat as gevolg van werksverwante ongelukke of omstandighede ongeskik vir werk geword het, finansieel te ondersteun. In 2001 is die welsynsdepartement opnuut bekendgestel om voortaan as Solidariteit Helpende Hand bekend te staan. Die Helpende Hand se bestek van welsynsbystand is ook uitgebrei na die groter Afrikaanssprekende gemeenskap selfs buite die vakbond en sodoende het dit tot 'n suksesvolle gemeenskaps gebaseerde welsynsorganisasie ontwikkel. Die organisasie se projekte behels onder andere noodlenigingskemas ten opsigte van voedselvoorsiening, 'n nasionale akademiese beursfonds en materiële bystand aan ouetehuise en kinderhuise.<hr/>The trade union Solidarity, formerly known as the South African Mine Workers' Union, is apparently the fi rst union in the country to create its own, private welfare department. Established in 1949, the original aim of the Helping Hand fund was to financially assist Afrikaner mineworkers who became unfit for work due to work-related disabilities. Between 1949 and 1997, the department's welfare assistance schemes had had varied successes although its welfare fund grew steadily, and at times, even spectacularly. One of these early enterprises, which had limited success, was the founding of the Transvaal Doll and Ornament Company in Alberton. The proceeds of this doll making factory were utilised as a supplementary income for widows whose husbands had become victims of miners' phthisis. However, due to a lack of entrepreneurial experience and capital the company was liquidated in 1951. Since 1997, under the management of Flip Buys, the union had been restructured and subsequently it was renamed Solidarity. The restructuring of the welfare department in particular was based on the Israeli Histadrut. The Histadrut is a labour service delivery organisation with interests in education, job creation, general services, sports, trade and industry, insurance and health and pension schemes. Although there were many differences between the Israeli labour situation and that of South Africa, Buys was convinced that Solidarity could learn from the experience of the Histadrut and base its own plans for the future on that model. In 2001 Solidarity's welfare department was relaunched as Solidarity Helping Hand. Various factors contributed to this initiative. State welfare spending became racially biased. In Gauteng Province, for instance, welfare subsidies to organisations which had catered for poor whites were phased out. Affirmative action policies contributed to a renewed poor white problem. This in turn aggravated the housing and food needs of such persons. In its new structure the Helping Hand initiated various innovative projects and also extended its scope of welfare assistance to the wider Afrikaans-speaking community. In terms of social welfare it has been transformed into a successful community based welfare organisation. In 2005 Solidarity Helping Hand was registered with the Department of Welfare as a non-profi t Article 21 company. Among other things, its projects included food relief schemes for white squatter camps and school feeding schemes for Afrikaner poor white children, as well as material assistance to old age and children's homes. For instance, in 2005, with the liquidation of the DRD goldmine at Stilfontein, Solidarity Helping Hand became involved, in conjunction with the Stilfontein community, in a food relief scheme that supported approximately 3000 persons for fi ve months. A Solidarity Helping Hand Bursary Fund was established in 2003. By 2007 bursaries to the value of R1.2 million had already been paid out to 377 students whose parents were members of Solidarity. In 2009 the bursary scheme was extended. A Solidarity Helping Hand Afrikaans Bursary and Professional Training Institute were launched in order to give prospective Afrikaans students access to a larger variety of bursaries. By 2009, 60 years after its humble beginnings in 1949, Solidarity Helping Hand had grown into an organisation with 21 staff members employed both in its head office in Pretoria and a regional office in the Western Cape. Twenty five branches have also been established all over South Africa. In an era of inadequate service delivery by the state, also in terms of welfare services, the Helping Hand has achieved a proud track record of comprehensive and praiseworthy welfare projects. Its stated objective is to be a future-driven organisation which functions within a Christian value system and strives to break the circle of poverty. Afrikaans communities should be equipped to find solutions for the welfare needs in their environment. According to Buys, people should be empowered rather than become part of a welfare state and dependent on state welfare. For Solidarity's Helping Hand the solution, therefore, is self-help. <![CDATA[<b>The possible change of Outcomes-Based Education in the Foundation Phase classroom</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512011000100003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en 'n Hele aantal punte van kritiek op die toepassing van Uitkomsgebaseerde Onderwys (UGO) in die Suid-Afrikaanse onderwys is die afgelope aantal jare geopper en die sukses daarvan word ernstig betwyfel. Volgens Spady, die vader van UGO, het UGO in Suid-Afrika gefaal en moet dit onmiddellik gestaak word. Hy is van mening dat die groot administratiewe las wat op onderwysers gelaai is, die belangrikste rede is waarom die onderwysers se aandag afgetrek is van effektiewe onderwys. Die nuwe Minister van Basiese Onderwys, Angie Motshekga, is van mening dat UGO 'n te groot las op onderwysers gelaai het. Motshekga het daarom 'n radikale verandering in die aard van onderwys in die vooruitsig gestel en belowe dat sekere wetgewing en beleid in hierdie verband sal verander. In hierdie artikel word spesifiek die onderwysers, van die Grondslagfase, self aan die woord gestel ten opsigte van die probleme wat met die implementering van UGO ondervind is, asook ten opsigte van die veranderinge wat voorgestel is. Die fokus word ook geplaas op die wyse waarop hierdie onderwysers die veranderinge verstaan en laastens hoe hulle die uitwerking van die veranderinge op die opleiding van onderwysers verstaan. Die kwalitatiewe navorsingstradisie is toegepas en die navorser het die verlangde inligting aan die hand van onderhoude ingesamel. Uit die navorsing is dit duidelik dat die onderwysers ten gunste is van die voorgenome veranderinge en dat hulle van mening is dat daar meer spesifiek op lees, skryf en wiskundige bevoegdhede gefokus moet word. Voorts het hulle die vertroue uitgespreek dat die voorgenome verandering wel hul administratiewe werkslading sal verlig. Hulle is ook bekommerd dat daar in die voorstelle baie min na die doeltreffende opleiding van onderwysers verwys word.<hr/>Outcomes-Based Education (OBE) has experienced a huge amount of criticism in South Africa during the past couple of years and the success thereof has been called into question daily. According to Spady, outcomes-based education has failed in South Africa and it should be stopped immediately. He is convinced that a too heavy administrative load is placed on teachers and that it has taken the focus off effective learning in the classroom. The quality of education in South Africa is not up to standard and teachers are very negative about the current situation in classrooms. Some of the most important problems teachers experience are the large classes, the huge amount of paperwork that should be done, that time is still a limiting factor, that there is no uniformity in the education system, that too much emphasis is placed on assessment, that there are too many learning outcomes and assessment standards to achieve in one year, that the training of teachers is unsatisfactory, that the needs of all the learners are still not taken into account in the classroom, that the government gives very little support in providing sufficient resources to schools and that, especially in the Foundation Phase, insuffi cient opportunity is provided for concrete learning experiences. The new minister of basic education in South Africa and the previous MEC for education in Gauteng, Angie Motshekga, is of the opinion that the burden OBE places on teachers is too severe. Minister Motshekga promises a radical change in the education system of South Africa and she aims at revising certain legislature. Minister Motshekga appointed a task team to advise the Department of Education regarding positive changes that need to be made to OBE. The curriculum policy, curriculum structure and support in the implementation of the proposed changes are taken into account in the task team's report. The conclusion that the task team came to is, that although OBE had some positive outcomes, it is necessary to put the emphasis back on the knowledge aspect of positive learning. Clear guidelines should be given for " ... the what to teach and how to teach it". In the recommendations it is suggested that a five-year plan should be developed to clarify and simplify the education policy, that the role of subject advisors should be developed, that the workload of teachers should be made more productive, that assessment should be simplifi ed, that the transition from the Foundation Phase to the Intermediate Phase should be made easier, that the provision of learning material should be improved and that the training of teachers should be improved and made more practical. In this article the problems teachers experience with OBE are discussed, as well as what the possible change of the education system in South Africa will entail, how foundation phase teachers understand this possible change and fi nally, the effect of this possible change on the training of teachers. The qualitative research method was applied and the researcher gathered information by conducting interviews. It is clear that the teachers are in favour of the possible change, provided the main focus will once more be on reading, writing and arithmetic and the possible change lessens their workload and improves the quality of education in the Foundation Phase classroom. They feel that this possible change will empower teachers again and that, if the implementation is well planned and well-structured, education in South Africa will improve. Teachers will be able to start enjoying the teaching profession again and will be able to feel in control of the learning process. <![CDATA[<b>The incidence of depression symptoms amongst learners 12 and 13 years of age</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512011000100004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Navorsing wat gedoen is oor depressie onder vroeë adolessente berus grootliks op data wat deur ouers verskaf is, en lewer uiteenlopende resultate. Tydens hierdie literatuurstudie is bevind dat daar 'n toename in die voorkoms van depressie onder vroeë adolessente is. Hierdie empiriese studie is dus onderneem om te bepaal wat die voorkoms van depressiesimptome onder 12- en 13-jarige leerders in 'n primêre skool is, asook om te bepaal of daar enige intervensie plaasvind. Die gestandaardiseerde selfevalueringskaal, die "Children's Depression Inventory" (CDI), is as meetinstrument gebruik om die voorkoms van depressie te bepaal, terwyl 'n selfgestruktureerde vraelys gebruik is om biografiese besonderhede van die leerders te bekom. Die resultate van hierdie navorsing toon aan dat 10,8% van die respondente wel aan die kriteria vir depressiesimptome voldoen. Riglyne vanuit die literatuur is saamgestel om ouers en onderwysers bewus te maak van die vroeë waarskuwingstekens van depressie onder jong adolessente.<hr/>The main aim of this research was to determine whether learners aged 12 and 13 years in a primary school experience symptoms of depression. It is a well-known fact that today's learners often experience feelings of downheartedness. The experience of downheartedness may be of a temporary nature but Johnson (2004) warns that this emotion may lead to depression. This age group has been purposefully selected for this research because learners in this group are extremely vulnerable in terms of significant biological, cognitive and social changes. These learners are currently in Grade 7 which often is the highlight of their primary school career. Together with positive feelings, some of the learners might also experience feelings of fear for the secondary school that lies ahead. This dual state of emotions can cause great confusion in their minds. The occurrence of excitement and highlights combined with fear is called the "top-dog phenomenon". This phenomenon combined with the effects of biological changes can give rise to the occurrence of symptoms of depression. The increasing occurrence of depression amongst adolescents can be as high as 20 to 30 percent for diagnosable depressive disturbances (Berk 2003:197). This indicates that two to three out of every ten adolescents in the general population will probably experience depressive disturbances. The causes of depression are multiple, including a chemical imbalance in the brain, psychological factors, or a combination of the two. Hormonal changes, apathy and boredom, peer pressure, conflict with superiors, relationship problems, family problems, excessive worrying, school and examination stress, bullying, genetic causes and many more factors can cause depression. The more factors present in the learner's life, the greater the chances of him/her developing a mental disturbance. To diagnose depression successfully, a multi-dimensional approach with different modes, for example, clinical interviews or self-evaluation questionnaires and information from the parents and the learner him/herself should be taken. When diagnosing children and adolescents, it is very important to keep the different factors of the learners' developmental dimension in mind. Neglecting to identify or diagnose symptoms of depression in adolescence, can lead to the following behaviour: drug abuse, anti-social behaviour, restlessness, truancy, problems at school, promiscuity, decreased hygiene and an increase in sensitivity to rejection. It is furthermore important to realise that adolescents who have been diagnosed with depression run a greater risk of repeated episodes of depression. Symptoms of depression during adolescence give rise to such a severe feeling of hopelessness that it can be a trigger for and a forecast to suicide. The literature study that informed this study was verified by an empirical study where a standardised self-evaluation scale namely the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) as well as a self-structured questionnaire were implemented. The results indicated that 10,8% of the respondents do meet the criteria for symptoms of depression. The biographical variables indicated significant correlations between symptoms of depression and gender, the relationship between the learners and their fathers and mothers, and the learners' feelings about the volume of tasks and homework with which they had to cope. Correlations were established also between symptoms of depression and bullying at school, and a strong correlation between depression and the learners' need to discuss their problems with someone. Because this research has indicated that a significant number of the involved learners most certainly do experience symptoms of depression, the researcher found it necessary to compile a set of guidelines on these symptoms. These guidelines were compiled from the literature to serve as warning signals for depression in early adolescence and can be of great assistance to educators and parents. The indication by learners that they do experience a great need for a person with whom they may discuss their problems, serves as a warning that any adult working with adolescents should heed. <![CDATA[<b>People's experiences in a natural environment in the Vredefort Dome, South Africa</b>: <b>implications for spatial development</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512011000100005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Mense beleef kognitiewe, gevoels- en spirituele ervarings wanneer hulle in interaksie met natuurlike omgewings verkeer. Die meeste navorsing oor mense se interaksie met natuurlike omgewings fokus op die gesondheidsvoordele wat dit inhou. Daar is weinig inligting beskikbaar oor navorsing waar die insigte van gedragswetenskaplikes en ruimtelike beplanners gekombineer word om mense se interaksies in natuurlike omgewings te ondersoek ten einde die implikasies vir die ontwikkeling van natuurlike omgewings te bespreek. Die doel van die navorsing was om die spontane reaksies wat mense in 'n natuurlike omgewing ervaar en uitgedruk het, te beskryf en om voorstelle te maak wat deur stads- en streekbeplanners geraadpleeg kan word wanneer riglyne vir ontwikkeling voorgestel word. 'n Intrinsieke gevallestudie is gebruik en 12 deelnemers is deur middel van doelgerigte steekproefneming by die navorsing betrek. Kwalitatiewe navorsing is gebruik en data is deur middel van foto's, fokusgroepgesprekke en indiepte individuele onderhoude ingesamel en tematies ontleed. Die bevindinge dui daarop dat mense kognitiewe, affektiewe en spirituele ervarings in die natuurlike omgewing beleef het. Voorts is ook bevind dat uiteenlopende ervarings oor dieselfde omgewing ervaar is. Die nodigheid hiervan vir stads- en streekbeplanners is dat hulle moet kennis neem van die sensitiewe aard van die verhouding tussen mense en die natuurlike omgewing, aangesien dit belangrike implikasies het vir mense se geestesgesondheid. Verder word voorgestel dat die oënskynlike teenstrydige aard van die persoonlike betekenisse wat mense uit hulle interaksie met die natuurlike omgewing ontwikkel, nie geïgnoreer moet word in die beplanning van ontwikkelings nie, maar eerder deur middel van innoverende prosesse van openbare deelname, verreken moet word.<hr/>Humans are holistic beings who engage with natural environments on a cognitive, affective and spiritual level. Research has indicated a clear link between physical and mental health and experiences of nature. When people are alienated from nature due to limited opportunities to visit pristine natural environments, increasing development and the ubiquitous availability of technology, psychological health decreases, whilst emotional and even physical health problems emerge. Little information is available on how human behavioural sciences, such as psychology, and spatial disciplines, such as urban and regional planning, can work together to optimise human-nature interaction - especially in rural nature contexts. A close link exists between people and natural environments. Since most of the research on human-nature interaction focuses on restorative interventions to deal with abnormal behaviour, or on broad trends for large groups of people, it is not clear what the spontaneous experiences of people's interaction with natural environments, comprise. The purpose of this study was to explore spontaneous experiences in natural environments with the aim to discuss implications for spatial development purposes. Two questions were used to guide the research, being: What spontaneous experiences are expressed when people are in natural environments? And: How can gained insights from such experiences be used in the formulation of guidelines for the planning of natural, untainted environments? The research was executed at Kromdraai, an undeveloped farm situated in the Vredefort Dome, South Africa. The Vredefort Dome Area falls within the boundaries of two provinces, the North West and the Free State, and the Vaal River, the largest tributary of the Orange River in South Africa and 1120 kilometres long, runs through the area. The natural landscape includes hills and ridges offering displays of vertical rock layers exposed due to the result of the meteorite crater impact, as well as the Vaal River. Abundant vegetation includes 99 identified plant species, while 450 different bird species and 70 butterfly species have been identified and rare fauna such as the rooikat, aardwolf, leopard, and rock dassie are also found. A qualitative research method was used to obtain the data. An intrinsic case study design was used and 12 participants were requested to share their experiences of their interaction with nature. Participants received cameras and maps and were free to walk the farm. They were asked to photograph anything they came across and regarded as important. Afterwards all participants were requested to participate in a focus group discussion. Participants were requested to share the meaning and the relevance of the photo's they took. Two sets of data were obtained and both the textual and visual data were subsequently analysed thematically. The findings showed that the participants' interactions with pristine natural environments emerged on cognitive, affective and spiritual levels. They expressed experiences such as a sense of escape (cognitive freedom); curiosity, hope and feelings of calmness (affective dimension); as well as feeling closer to God (spiritual experiences) in their interaction with nature. The findings also revealed diverse meanings that people hold regarding their interaction with the natural environment. The relevance that the findings might hold for spatial disciplines, such as urban and regional planning, is an indication of the need to be sensitive to the different relational dimensions that emerge when people interact with natural environments. Development should aim to protect the sensitive nature of the meanings that people attach to the natural environment. In addition, it was found that the seeming discrepancy between personal meanings attached and the views of spatial disciplines can be overcome by negotiation - which should be part of informed public participation. Suggestions are made to explore innovative public participation methods to obtain relevant and useful information about the personal meanings that people attach to natural environments. <![CDATA[<b>Demografie - die toekoms wat reeds gebeur het</b>: <b>Wêreldtendense met spesiale verwysing na Suid-Afrika</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512011000100006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Mense beleef kognitiewe, gevoels- en spirituele ervarings wanneer hulle in interaksie met natuurlike omgewings verkeer. Die meeste navorsing oor mense se interaksie met natuurlike omgewings fokus op die gesondheidsvoordele wat dit inhou. Daar is weinig inligting beskikbaar oor navorsing waar die insigte van gedragswetenskaplikes en ruimtelike beplanners gekombineer word om mense se interaksies in natuurlike omgewings te ondersoek ten einde die implikasies vir die ontwikkeling van natuurlike omgewings te bespreek. Die doel van die navorsing was om die spontane reaksies wat mense in 'n natuurlike omgewing ervaar en uitgedruk het, te beskryf en om voorstelle te maak wat deur stads- en streekbeplanners geraadpleeg kan word wanneer riglyne vir ontwikkeling voorgestel word. 'n Intrinsieke gevallestudie is gebruik en 12 deelnemers is deur middel van doelgerigte steekproefneming by die navorsing betrek. Kwalitatiewe navorsing is gebruik en data is deur middel van foto's, fokusgroepgesprekke en indiepte individuele onderhoude ingesamel en tematies ontleed. Die bevindinge dui daarop dat mense kognitiewe, affektiewe en spirituele ervarings in die natuurlike omgewing beleef het. Voorts is ook bevind dat uiteenlopende ervarings oor dieselfde omgewing ervaar is. Die nodigheid hiervan vir stads- en streekbeplanners is dat hulle moet kennis neem van die sensitiewe aard van die verhouding tussen mense en die natuurlike omgewing, aangesien dit belangrike implikasies het vir mense se geestesgesondheid. Verder word voorgestel dat die oënskynlike teenstrydige aard van die persoonlike betekenisse wat mense uit hulle interaksie met die natuurlike omgewing ontwikkel, nie geïgnoreer moet word in die beplanning van ontwikkelings nie, maar eerder deur middel van innoverende prosesse van openbare deelname, verreken moet word.<hr/>Humans are holistic beings who engage with natural environments on a cognitive, affective and spiritual level. Research has indicated a clear link between physical and mental health and experiences of nature. When people are alienated from nature due to limited opportunities to visit pristine natural environments, increasing development and the ubiquitous availability of technology, psychological health decreases, whilst emotional and even physical health problems emerge. Little information is available on how human behavioural sciences, such as psychology, and spatial disciplines, such as urban and regional planning, can work together to optimise human-nature interaction - especially in rural nature contexts. A close link exists between people and natural environments. Since most of the research on human-nature interaction focuses on restorative interventions to deal with abnormal behaviour, or on broad trends for large groups of people, it is not clear what the spontaneous experiences of people's interaction with natural environments, comprise. The purpose of this study was to explore spontaneous experiences in natural environments with the aim to discuss implications for spatial development purposes. Two questions were used to guide the research, being: What spontaneous experiences are expressed when people are in natural environments? And: How can gained insights from such experiences be used in the formulation of guidelines for the planning of natural, untainted environments? The research was executed at Kromdraai, an undeveloped farm situated in the Vredefort Dome, South Africa. The Vredefort Dome Area falls within the boundaries of two provinces, the North West and the Free State, and the Vaal River, the largest tributary of the Orange River in South Africa and 1120 kilometres long, runs through the area. The natural landscape includes hills and ridges offering displays of vertical rock layers exposed due to the result of the meteorite crater impact, as well as the Vaal River. Abundant vegetation includes 99 identified plant species, while 450 different bird species and 70 butterfly species have been identified and rare fauna such as the rooikat, aardwolf, leopard, and rock dassie are also found. A qualitative research method was used to obtain the data. An intrinsic case study design was used and 12 participants were requested to share their experiences of their interaction with nature. Participants received cameras and maps and were free to walk the farm. They were asked to photograph anything they came across and regarded as important. Afterwards all participants were requested to participate in a focus group discussion. Participants were requested to share the meaning and the relevance of the photo's they took. Two sets of data were obtained and both the textual and visual data were subsequently analysed thematically. The findings showed that the participants' interactions with pristine natural environments emerged on cognitive, affective and spiritual levels. They expressed experiences such as a sense of escape (cognitive freedom); curiosity, hope and feelings of calmness (affective dimension); as well as feeling closer to God (spiritual experiences) in their interaction with nature. The findings also revealed diverse meanings that people hold regarding their interaction with the natural environment. The relevance that the findings might hold for spatial disciplines, such as urban and regional planning, is an indication of the need to be sensitive to the different relational dimensions that emerge when people interact with natural environments. Development should aim to protect the sensitive nature of the meanings that people attach to the natural environment. In addition, it was found that the seeming discrepancy between personal meanings attached and the views of spatial disciplines can be overcome by negotiation - which should be part of informed public participation. Suggestions are made to explore innovative public participation methods to obtain relevant and useful information about the personal meanings that people attach to natural environments. <![CDATA[<b>Een groot mirakel</b>: <b>de Afrikaanse literatuur in Nederland in 2010</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512011000100007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Mense beleef kognitiewe, gevoels- en spirituele ervarings wanneer hulle in interaksie met natuurlike omgewings verkeer. Die meeste navorsing oor mense se interaksie met natuurlike omgewings fokus op die gesondheidsvoordele wat dit inhou. Daar is weinig inligting beskikbaar oor navorsing waar die insigte van gedragswetenskaplikes en ruimtelike beplanners gekombineer word om mense se interaksies in natuurlike omgewings te ondersoek ten einde die implikasies vir die ontwikkeling van natuurlike omgewings te bespreek. Die doel van die navorsing was om die spontane reaksies wat mense in 'n natuurlike omgewing ervaar en uitgedruk het, te beskryf en om voorstelle te maak wat deur stads- en streekbeplanners geraadpleeg kan word wanneer riglyne vir ontwikkeling voorgestel word. 'n Intrinsieke gevallestudie is gebruik en 12 deelnemers is deur middel van doelgerigte steekproefneming by die navorsing betrek. Kwalitatiewe navorsing is gebruik en data is deur middel van foto's, fokusgroepgesprekke en indiepte individuele onderhoude ingesamel en tematies ontleed. Die bevindinge dui daarop dat mense kognitiewe, affektiewe en spirituele ervarings in die natuurlike omgewing beleef het. Voorts is ook bevind dat uiteenlopende ervarings oor dieselfde omgewing ervaar is. Die nodigheid hiervan vir stads- en streekbeplanners is dat hulle moet kennis neem van die sensitiewe aard van die verhouding tussen mense en die natuurlike omgewing, aangesien dit belangrike implikasies het vir mense se geestesgesondheid. Verder word voorgestel dat die oënskynlike teenstrydige aard van die persoonlike betekenisse wat mense uit hulle interaksie met die natuurlike omgewing ontwikkel, nie geïgnoreer moet word in die beplanning van ontwikkelings nie, maar eerder deur middel van innoverende prosesse van openbare deelname, verreken moet word.<hr/>Humans are holistic beings who engage with natural environments on a cognitive, affective and spiritual level. Research has indicated a clear link between physical and mental health and experiences of nature. When people are alienated from nature due to limited opportunities to visit pristine natural environments, increasing development and the ubiquitous availability of technology, psychological health decreases, whilst emotional and even physical health problems emerge. Little information is available on how human behavioural sciences, such as psychology, and spatial disciplines, such as urban and regional planning, can work together to optimise human-nature interaction - especially in rural nature contexts. A close link exists between people and natural environments. Since most of the research on human-nature interaction focuses on restorative interventions to deal with abnormal behaviour, or on broad trends for large groups of people, it is not clear what the spontaneous experiences of people's interaction with natural environments, comprise. The purpose of this study was to explore spontaneous experiences in natural environments with the aim to discuss implications for spatial development purposes. Two questions were used to guide the research, being: What spontaneous experiences are expressed when people are in natural environments? And: How can gained insights from such experiences be used in the formulation of guidelines for the planning of natural, untainted environments? The research was executed at Kromdraai, an undeveloped farm situated in the Vredefort Dome, South Africa. The Vredefort Dome Area falls within the boundaries of two provinces, the North West and the Free State, and the Vaal River, the largest tributary of the Orange River in South Africa and 1120 kilometres long, runs through the area. The natural landscape includes hills and ridges offering displays of vertical rock layers exposed due to the result of the meteorite crater impact, as well as the Vaal River. Abundant vegetation includes 99 identified plant species, while 450 different bird species and 70 butterfly species have been identified and rare fauna such as the rooikat, aardwolf, leopard, and rock dassie are also found. A qualitative research method was used to obtain the data. An intrinsic case study design was used and 12 participants were requested to share their experiences of their interaction with nature. Participants received cameras and maps and were free to walk the farm. They were asked to photograph anything they came across and regarded as important. Afterwards all participants were requested to participate in a focus group discussion. Participants were requested to share the meaning and the relevance of the photo's they took. Two sets of data were obtained and both the textual and visual data were subsequently analysed thematically. The findings showed that the participants' interactions with pristine natural environments emerged on cognitive, affective and spiritual levels. They expressed experiences such as a sense of escape (cognitive freedom); curiosity, hope and feelings of calmness (affective dimension); as well as feeling closer to God (spiritual experiences) in their interaction with nature. The findings also revealed diverse meanings that people hold regarding their interaction with the natural environment. The relevance that the findings might hold for spatial disciplines, such as urban and regional planning, is an indication of the need to be sensitive to the different relational dimensions that emerge when people interact with natural environments. Development should aim to protect the sensitive nature of the meanings that people attach to the natural environment. In addition, it was found that the seeming discrepancy between personal meanings attached and the views of spatial disciplines can be overcome by negotiation - which should be part of informed public participation. Suggestions are made to explore innovative public participation methods to obtain relevant and useful information about the personal meanings that people attach to natural environments. <![CDATA[<b>The A to Z of the Anglo-Boer War: the A to Z guide series, no 200</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512011000100008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Mense beleef kognitiewe, gevoels- en spirituele ervarings wanneer hulle in interaksie met natuurlike omgewings verkeer. Die meeste navorsing oor mense se interaksie met natuurlike omgewings fokus op die gesondheidsvoordele wat dit inhou. Daar is weinig inligting beskikbaar oor navorsing waar die insigte van gedragswetenskaplikes en ruimtelike beplanners gekombineer word om mense se interaksies in natuurlike omgewings te ondersoek ten einde die implikasies vir die ontwikkeling van natuurlike omgewings te bespreek. Die doel van die navorsing was om die spontane reaksies wat mense in 'n natuurlike omgewing ervaar en uitgedruk het, te beskryf en om voorstelle te maak wat deur stads- en streekbeplanners geraadpleeg kan word wanneer riglyne vir ontwikkeling voorgestel word. 'n Intrinsieke gevallestudie is gebruik en 12 deelnemers is deur middel van doelgerigte steekproefneming by die navorsing betrek. Kwalitatiewe navorsing is gebruik en data is deur middel van foto's, fokusgroepgesprekke en indiepte individuele onderhoude ingesamel en tematies ontleed. Die bevindinge dui daarop dat mense kognitiewe, affektiewe en spirituele ervarings in die natuurlike omgewing beleef het. Voorts is ook bevind dat uiteenlopende ervarings oor dieselfde omgewing ervaar is. Die nodigheid hiervan vir stads- en streekbeplanners is dat hulle moet kennis neem van die sensitiewe aard van die verhouding tussen mense en die natuurlike omgewing, aangesien dit belangrike implikasies het vir mense se geestesgesondheid. Verder word voorgestel dat die oënskynlike teenstrydige aard van die persoonlike betekenisse wat mense uit hulle interaksie met die natuurlike omgewing ontwikkel, nie geïgnoreer moet word in die beplanning van ontwikkelings nie, maar eerder deur middel van innoverende prosesse van openbare deelname, verreken moet word.<hr/>Humans are holistic beings who engage with natural environments on a cognitive, affective and spiritual level. Research has indicated a clear link between physical and mental health and experiences of nature. When people are alienated from nature due to limited opportunities to visit pristine natural environments, increasing development and the ubiquitous availability of technology, psychological health decreases, whilst emotional and even physical health problems emerge. Little information is available on how human behavioural sciences, such as psychology, and spatial disciplines, such as urban and regional planning, can work together to optimise human-nature interaction - especially in rural nature contexts. A close link exists between people and natural environments. Since most of the research on human-nature interaction focuses on restorative interventions to deal with abnormal behaviour, or on broad trends for large groups of people, it is not clear what the spontaneous experiences of people's interaction with natural environments, comprise. The purpose of this study was to explore spontaneous experiences in natural environments with the aim to discuss implications for spatial development purposes. Two questions were used to guide the research, being: What spontaneous experiences are expressed when people are in natural environments? And: How can gained insights from such experiences be used in the formulation of guidelines for the planning of natural, untainted environments? The research was executed at Kromdraai, an undeveloped farm situated in the Vredefort Dome, South Africa. The Vredefort Dome Area falls within the boundaries of two provinces, the North West and the Free State, and the Vaal River, the largest tributary of the Orange River in South Africa and 1120 kilometres long, runs through the area. The natural landscape includes hills and ridges offering displays of vertical rock layers exposed due to the result of the meteorite crater impact, as well as the Vaal River. Abundant vegetation includes 99 identified plant species, while 450 different bird species and 70 butterfly species have been identified and rare fauna such as the rooikat, aardwolf, leopard, and rock dassie are also found. A qualitative research method was used to obtain the data. An intrinsic case study design was used and 12 participants were requested to share their experiences of their interaction with nature. Participants received cameras and maps and were free to walk the farm. They were asked to photograph anything they came across and regarded as important. Afterwards all participants were requested to participate in a focus group discussion. Participants were requested to share the meaning and the relevance of the photo's they took. Two sets of data were obtained and both the textual and visual data were subsequently analysed thematically. The findings showed that the participants' interactions with pristine natural environments emerged on cognitive, affective and spiritual levels. They expressed experiences such as a sense of escape (cognitive freedom); curiosity, hope and feelings of calmness (affective dimension); as well as feeling closer to God (spiritual experiences) in their interaction with nature. The findings also revealed diverse meanings that people hold regarding their interaction with the natural environment. The relevance that the findings might hold for spatial disciplines, such as urban and regional planning, is an indication of the need to be sensitive to the different relational dimensions that emerge when people interact with natural environments. Development should aim to protect the sensitive nature of the meanings that people attach to the natural environment. In addition, it was found that the seeming discrepancy between personal meanings attached and the views of spatial disciplines can be overcome by negotiation - which should be part of informed public participation. Suggestions are made to explore innovative public participation methods to obtain relevant and useful information about the personal meanings that people attach to natural environments.