Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0041-475120100004&lang=en vol. 50 num. 4 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>The differences between the Netherlands and Flanders with respect to South Africa during the apartheid era</b>: <b>an analysis </b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512010000400001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article will deal with five differences between the Netherlands and Flanders, the northern, Dutch-speaking regional state of Belgium, with respect to South Africa during the apartheid era. The Dutch identity cannot be understood without a knowledge of its Calvinist roots. The Netherlands exercised a profound theological influence on South Africa. The Afrikaans Reformed Churches were greatly influenced by the Netherlands. The religious connectedness would play a vital role in the Dutch criticism of apartheid. Dutch theologians, namely Rev J.J. Buskes and Prof. J. Verkuyl, were outspoken in their condemnation of apartheid. Because of its Roman Catholic character Flanders exercised virtually no theological influence on the Afrikaans Reformed Churches. Moral and ethical motives are deeply embedded in the Dutch national character. The postwar generations of the 1960s and 1970s rediscovered morality. The Netherlands would act as the moral conscience of the world. Action groups would campaign on behalf of the "underdog". The Dutch would have a simplified view of the complex racial question in South Africa. White South Africa would be seen as the negative mirror image of the Netherlands. The Dutch felt a sense of guilt regarding developments in South Africa; that sense of guilt was absent in Catholic Flanders. Belgium and the Netherlands experienced the Second World War differently. In the Netherlands the memory of the holocaust was more vivid than in Belgium. About 41 per cent of the Jews in Belgium were murdered. In contrast 71 per cent of the Jews in the Netherlands were murdered. The Dutch authorities also played an active role in the deportation of the Jews. The Dutch thus felt a deep sense of guilt after the war. That being the case, they would actively campaign against any form of discrimination or racism. South Africa would then be seen as a scapegoat. The Belgian colonial adventure in the Congo lasted for only 75 years. The Congo obtained its independence in 1960; however, the Congo did not persist as a moral problem in Belgium. The Belgians were also not consumed with a sense of guilt. The decolonisation of Indonesia was a traumatic process for the Netherlands that lasted for four and a half years. In 1949 the Dutch government was forced to accept the inevitability of Indonesian independence. Western New Guinea was only transferred to Indonesia in 1963. In October 1961 Dr J.A.H.J.S. Bruins Slot, influential editor of the daily Trouw, came to the conclusion that military action and bloodshed was not the solution to the Indonesian question. Bruins Slot then condemned every form of colonialism and racial discrimination. He condemned apartheid in no uncertain terms. He would also draw parallels between Indonesia and South Africa. He urged the South African government to enter into talks with Mandela and Luthuli. Flanders always regarded the preservation and strengthening of language and cultural ties with the Afrikaner as of the utmost importance. The Flemish could identify with the language and cultural struggle of the Afrikaner because of their own struggle for cultural and political emancipation. The Afrikaners could also identify with the motives of the Flemish movement. The Dutch language, however, was never threatened in the Netherlands. Because of their commercial spirit the Dutch language was never an issue to them. In the light of their history, the people in Flanders were traditionally more sympathetic towards South Africa and the Afrikaners. <![CDATA[<b>The contractual dimension of constitutions: new challenges for South Africa?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512010000400002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Despite the fact that the SA Constitution of 1996 has variously been lauded as a "model constitution," even as "one of the world's best constitutions" - especially when viewed from a liberalist-individualist perspective - this contribution maintains that the Constitution displays several shortcomings when viewed from the perspectives of the Afrikaner and Afrikaans-speaking communities, and probably that of other minority-communities in South Africa, as well. These shortcomings from the outset point to the incomplete closure of the social contract and of the constitutional guide-lines generated in the run-up to the first democratic elections for a new government in 1994. The article first draws attention to the historical and dynamic factors which usually act as foundation for social contracts and attempts to identify problems in the South African process, after which it suggests possible remedies for such problems. An exposition of the political theory of political covenant and mutual social contract is given, with special reference to the federalist process leading to the constitution of the United States of America. Having then treated the transference of the social covenant to a secular and social setting, the future of the social contract in South Africa is interrogated and the pressing need identified for the renewal and renegotiation of the solemn social contract between all South African citizens. The role and the potential of the political parties in this visualised process is briefly discussed, but largely discounted because of the steady erosion in the public's perceptions of politicians' credibility and trustworthiness. The article closes with a plea for a renewal of the solemn social accord between South Africans, a process to be initiated by civilian organisations and individuals from the grassroots upwards, so that the country might re-enter its destined path with a new sense of purpose and unity. The germs of such a movement are, in fact, already discernible. The deterioration in Afrikaner (and other minority) perceptions of the efficacy of the South African constitution ran concomitantly with the drafting and implementation of the constitution of 1996 (which set aside many important constitutional guide-lines determined by the national Convention for a Democratic South Africa) (Codesa), the one-sidedness of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission and its processes and the failure of the "Government of National Unity" (Giliomee(2003): The Afrikaners: the Biography of a People). Chief among these perceptions is the dwindling of the legitimate interpretative community of the constitution down to the government and its supporters and, in addition, the poor representation of minorities in parliament, the continuance of the Westminster "winner takes all"-approach to the outcomes of elections and the general abuse of the rights of minorities, in particular those pertaining to language rights. In surveying the rather modern notion of the social accord as the result of a covenant reached, initially, between God and man and, later, between a ruler and his subjects, attention is given to the substantial contribution of Jean Cauvin (Calvin) and his adherents (Althusius and others). The American federal constitution is treated as a case-study in the attainment of a solemn, yet mostly secular, covenant or accord between citizens with varied interests and inhabiting widespread and substantial territories. In the last instance, the future of the social accord in South Africa is discussed and the suggestion is made that an informal process, from the grass-roots level upwards, and with the inclusion of all civic communities, be set in motion in the search and formulation of a new and solemn social accord which would truly embody a common set of social and community values. A groundswell of consensus could set the scene for a re-interpretation or even partial re-phrasing of the South African constitution which may put to rest many of the present objections to it. A new consensus in South Africa could cure many of the social maladies presently experienced and set the scene for a new era for political success in South Africa, one that is sorely needed. <![CDATA[<b>A critical assessment of a few of the literary prizes awarded by The South African Academy for Science and Arts</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512010000400003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The literary prizes awarded annually by Die Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns (The South African Academy for Science and Arts) are widely recognized as prestigious awards. The Hertzog prize for literature is in pecuniary terms not the most important literary award in the Afrikaans Literary Field, but due to its historical importance (dating back to 1917) and its canonizing influence it is still regarded as the most important registration of literary prowess, "mapping of the literary field", thus contributing to the literary prestige of writers. In this critical assessment of the literary prizes by Die Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns (Die Akademie) the literary prizes of Die Akademie (the composition/ structure and functioning of the literary commission, its rules of procedure and several contentious awards in the past) are scrutinized against the backdrop of international literary awards. Although it is widely accepted that literary awards and prizes make a contribution to sales and prestige, not everyone is convinced of the primate of literary considerations in the awarding of prizes. Often literary prizes and awards are seen by skeptics as dictated by economic trends and influence of sponsors. Subsidy by the state can also be seen as a subtle form of censureship. What must be borne in mind is that the concept of value as a so-called inherent property of an object has been vehemently refuted in the past decades and the current view is that value is seen as relative and relational, "as the product of the dynamics of the economic system" (Herrnstein-Smith). ln the remaining part of the article several contentious literary awards made by Die Akademie in the last 100 years, and the criticism levied against (some of) these awards, are evaluated.This criticism often entails speculation that Die Akademie has yielded to political and ideological pressures. The conclusion is that although this has indeed been the case in a few instances (like that of Uys Krige) in the majority of cases Die Akademie's judgement and evaluation have been grounded in fairly objective literary criteria and has stood the test of time. <![CDATA[<b>Surrogate equivalence in bilingual dictionaries with specific reference to zero equivalence in dictionaries for African languages</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512010000400004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The focus in a general bilingual dictionary is on the item presenting translation equivalents for the words represented by the lemma signs. Three major types of equivalent relations prevail, i.e. full equivalence, partial equivalence and zero equivalence. These different relations of equivalence confront lexicographers with different challenges to ensure that the users will be able to achieve an optimal retrieval of information from a given dictionary article. Ideally, suitable translation equivalents in the target language would be available for each source language item. Instances where a suitable translation equivalent is not available occur in any given language pair to be treated as source and target. Adamska-Sałaciak (2006:99) goes as far as to state that "due to interlingual anisomorphism a bilingual dictionary is, strictly speaking, an impossibility" and that "all we can hope to produce are better or worse approximations". Lexicographers have an obligation towards their specific users to ensure a presentation and treatment of translation equivalents that will enable an unambiguous retrieval of information from the data on offer in the comment on semantics of a bilingual dictionary. The nature and extent of this treatment should be determined by the needs and reference skills of the intended target user group, the user situation and the lexicographic functions of the specific dictionary. There are frequent instances in any given language pair where a suitable translation equivalent is not available to be treated as source and target language in a bilingual dictionary. This is known as zero equivalence and can be regarded as the most complex type of equivalence to be dealt with in a bilingual dictionary. A linguistic gap can be identified when the speakers of both languages are familiar with a certain concept, but when one language does not have a word to refer to it, whereas the other language does have such a word. A referential gap can be postulated when a lexical item from language A has no translation equivalent in language B. This would be because the speakers of language B do not know the referent of the lexical item from language A. This article addresses the various ways in which lexicographers of different dictionaries deal with the lack of equivalence and the subsequent use of surrogate equivalents. There are a number of strategies that the lexicographer can use when dealing with instances of zero equivalence, e.g. the use of glosses, paraphrases, illustrations and even text boxes with lexicographic comments. This article suggests different types of surrogate equivalents based on user needs, and it will be done in accordance with the relevant dictionary functions, i.e. the cognitive function and the communicative functions of text reception, text production and translation. It will be indicated that lexicographic treatment of zero equivalence is a major factor in bilingual dictionaries bridging, for example, Afrikaans or English with African languages. In many cases a substantial part, even a large number of sequential lemmas in any given alphabetical stretch, comprise zero equivalence. Such instances, mostly in respect of cultural terms pose a great challenge to the lexicographer. They vary in nature and complexity and call for different and innovative ways of lexicographic treatment. In this article the focus will be on the nature and extent of zero equivalence in the African languages, and different types of surrogate equivalents form the basis of the discussion. A distinction will also be made between different levels of surrogate equivalence. The approach is contemplative as well as transformative, with the emphasis on the needs of target users in respect of text reception and text production. Acknowledging different degrees of complexity in the relation of surrogate equivalence leads to a tiered view of the concept. The first level in the hierarchy provides for linguistic gaps where a mere gloss or brief paraphrase of meaning will suffice. More complicated are the gaps where the surrogate equivalent also has to provide grammatical guidance. The top tier in the hierarchy provides for referential gaps where taboo, culture-specific or sensitive values have to be expressed. The lexicographer has to utilise available treatment options maximally and select the most appropriate one(s) in each case. <![CDATA[<b>A preliminary investigation into the state of education after 1994 in selected schools in the Western Cape</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512010000400005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Since South Africa became a democracy in 1994, the country has been subjected to deep-rooted socio-political and socio-economic change which inevitably has left its mark on the education system. Because there were just too many inequalities and injustices it made sense that the education system had to change. There are concerns, however, that the new education system does not deliver the expected results. The current pool of human capital in the Western Cape does not demonstrate the knowledge and skills required for the province to implement its socio-economic development programme(s). Subsequently the human capital development strategy was launched to address certain challenges in the province, such as the high unemployment rate among youth and the lack of skills to take advantage of work and entrepreneurial opportunities. The strategy has a threefold aim namely to improve the following key strands: the conditions of education, the environment of education and the quality of education, each with its own education foci. In this paper the current state of post-apartheid education in South Africa with special reference to the Western Cape is investigated by measuring it against the human capital development strategy. By using a literature review the following education foci are examined: school management and governance; basic functionality, school infrastructure and provision of educators; transformation; a positive school climate; the role of teacher unions; parental involvement; school safety, security and health; a relevant curriculum; quality of teaching and teacher development; and learner performance. This is done in order to determine what progress, if any, has been made since 1994 to develop a pool of human capital in the province that will be able to face the challenges of the new democracy. During the second phase of this study each focus was investigated by means of a questionnaire administered at sixty selected primary and secondary schools in the Western Cape. Principals at these schools were asked to complete the questionnaires because questionnaires are a good way of collecting certain types of information quickly and relatively cheaply as long as subjects are sufficiently disciplined" (Bell 1998:76). During the design of the questionnaire it was decided to make use of closed questions because the structure imposed on the respondents' answers provides the researcher with information which is of uniform length and in a form that lends itself nicely to being qualifi ed and compared (Denscombe 1998:101). It was not practical to have the questionnaire completed by all the schools in the Western Cape. Therefore it was decided to take the option of a representative sample "because the researcher has some notion of the probability that these will be a representative cross-section of the whole" (Denscombe 1998:34). The researcher ensured that the sample was representative of all schools in the Western Cape with regards to race, previous departments, language and income. It must be taken into consideration that most schools in the Western Cape cater for the poor and middle class Afrikaans speaking Coloured population. Participating schools came from poor, middle class and wealthy schools. With regards to the former education departments the sample was representative of former Model C-schools, (white), Council of Representatives (coloured) and the Department of Education and Training (black). As far as Language of Learning and Teaching (LoLT) is concerned, both Afrikaans and English schools as well as double medium schools were included in the survey. The responses from the principals were compared with the data obtained from the literature review. From the results it is clear that although the education department has made significant progress with three key aspects of education, i.e. the conditions of education, the environment of education and the quality of education in the province, there is still some work to be done before the youth in this province, especially in black schools, will be in a position to take up their rightful place in a democratic society. <![CDATA[<b>Development and integration of multimedia teaching and learning support material (LTSM) to support reading skills</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512010000400006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The Department of Education, educators, parents and various stakeholders are concerned about the literacy levels of learners in South-African schools. Various national and international studies revealed shockingly low levels and underachievement. In 2006 the Department of Education revealed the disturbing fact that 61% of South African learners still cannot read by the end of grade 3. Results of a systemic evaluation that was undertaken in 2007 revealed an alarmingly low average of 36% for literacy. The Department of Education launched various investigations to establish why the levels of reading proficiency for South African learners are so poor. The Foundations for Learning Campaign was one of the responses to address these concerns and an effort to assist teachers in facilitating literacy skills effectively. South African educators are experiencing increased pressure to teach literacy skills (including reading) effectively. It is imperative that effective reading instruction should commence in the foundation phase, where the basis for more advanced skills is established. In order to help learners to become better readers, teachers need support to deal with problems typically experienced in South African classrooms. These problems include large classes, a lack of teaching expertise/ training as well as a lack of resources in many classrooms. The purpose of this study was to describe how recently developed multimedia learning and teaching support material (MLTSM) by means of a digital book disc (DBD) can enhance the reading skills of foundation phase learners. It also describes the benefits of the DBD for the South African school context and the potential it has to enrich and support reading instruction in the foundation phase. The DBD is a form of electronic mobile learning facilitated by a DVD player that can be used as MLTSM. The DBD uses multimedia (written and spoken words, visual illustrations or animation) presented in a mobile format (portable DVD players). According to Mayer's cognitive theory of multimedia learning, the working memory includes both visual and auditory channels and learning is enhanced when both these channels are used during multimedia supported learning activities. The proposed model provides guidelines for the development and integration of MTLSM on a DBD to enable learners to become skilled in reading and writing, while enjoying the process of becoming literate. The DBD focuses on phonemic awareness, word recognition, reading comprehension and fluency as important components of reading instruction. Shared reading instruction activities where learners follow the text and join in when they are able to do so, improves motivation. Stories, poems and songs that relate to the themes (context) in the classroom, are examples of the different kinds of text used on the DBD. Relevant teaching and learning principles that support reading proficiency while using the DBD, are discussed. These include active learner participation, motivation, reinforcement of positive attitudes, self assessment and immediate feedback. The study also demonstrates how relevant learning material that relate to the learner's experience, edutainment and scaffolding can contribute to effective reading instruction. Different multimedia principles that support and enhance reading profi ciency are also explained. The DBD enables the teacher to facilitate enrichment (additional stories) as well as remedial activities, where learners experiencing difficulties/problems, can repeat learning activities according to their individual needs. The differentiated stories allow learners with varying abilities to choose activities that relate to their developmental level providing the appropriate level of challenge. Thematic stories and other reading material can also be produced by individual teachers to enhance the relevancy of the content for the learner's world, experience and interest. The DBD addresses some of the problems typical of South African schools. These include a lack of electricity, educational and developmental resources and qualifi ed/competent teachers. The DBD provides a cost effective, user friendly, yet effective learning and teaching aid that can be used by learners individually, as well as in group context. The low cost of DVD's and DVD players as well as the fact that they can be used with batteries, make them accessible to all learners and teachers. By integrating the DBD in foundation phase classrooms, teachers can facilitate the reading proficiency development of learners. <![CDATA[<b>The profile of the adult male as a mentor for adolescent boys from the West coast</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512010000400007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Historically, mentorship was a role men fulfilled with regard to younger boys and existed even before the word mentoring was ever used. However, in South Africa this role has faded and is no longer necessarily fulfilled purposely by men, particularly if seen from a psychosocial perspective. Adult men as natural mentors for adolescent boys are not always equipped with the necessary knowledge and skills to enter into such a role. The role as mentor in this specific situation demands a considerable amount of time and attention from the adult male and, in addition, it requires an understanding of the perceptions of the adolescent. Although biological fathers are their sons'first natural mentors, they seem not always to be quite that much involved in their children's lives. Some adolescent boys have the benefit of an external mentor - someone outside the family system. Although the majority of the biological fathers want a mentor for their adolescent boys, only a handful of them are willing to allow someone else to fulfil this role. Many of these biological fathers are also willing to mentor someone else, but only a few actually do it. This mentor relationship exposes the mentee to a broader social network for higher quality of life standards. The age and generation of the mentor influences the style of the mentor relationship. It is necessary, though, to understand the mentors and the mentees within their generation and the characteristics known to their age. According to the literature, one of the characteristics of the X-er mentors is that they are more stable in their family system with less separation and divorces. The family structure of the mentor also has a known influence both on him and the mentor relationship. This mentoring with an adolescent boy is not of a corporate nature, but has a psychosocial origin. The personality of the mentor plays a huge role in this kind of mentoring relationship. Certain characteristics of the mentor are touching to the mentees and need to be enhanced. The involvement of the mentor and the mentee in social activities is important to both of them. The mentor's general way of living serves as an example to the mentee. Hence the mentor should, for example, avoid using substances and coming into confl ict with the law. The spiritual dimension, or the need for transcendence, as referred to in Maslow's hierarchy, is a very important element for the mentor in the mentoring relationship. This article focuses on the profi le of the adult male who mentors an adolescent boy in a natural mentor relationship. <![CDATA[<b>Globale mediavryheid en plaaslike uitdagings</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512010000400008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Historically, mentorship was a role men fulfilled with regard to younger boys and existed even before the word mentoring was ever used. However, in South Africa this role has faded and is no longer necessarily fulfilled purposely by men, particularly if seen from a psychosocial perspective. Adult men as natural mentors for adolescent boys are not always equipped with the necessary knowledge and skills to enter into such a role. The role as mentor in this specific situation demands a considerable amount of time and attention from the adult male and, in addition, it requires an understanding of the perceptions of the adolescent. Although biological fathers are their sons'first natural mentors, they seem not always to be quite that much involved in their children's lives. Some adolescent boys have the benefit of an external mentor - someone outside the family system. Although the majority of the biological fathers want a mentor for their adolescent boys, only a handful of them are willing to allow someone else to fulfil this role. Many of these biological fathers are also willing to mentor someone else, but only a few actually do it. This mentor relationship exposes the mentee to a broader social network for higher quality of life standards. The age and generation of the mentor influences the style of the mentor relationship. It is necessary, though, to understand the mentors and the mentees within their generation and the characteristics known to their age. According to the literature, one of the characteristics of the X-er mentors is that they are more stable in their family system with less separation and divorces. The family structure of the mentor also has a known influence both on him and the mentor relationship. This mentoring with an adolescent boy is not of a corporate nature, but has a psychosocial origin. The personality of the mentor plays a huge role in this kind of mentoring relationship. Certain characteristics of the mentor are touching to the mentees and need to be enhanced. The involvement of the mentor and the mentee in social activities is important to both of them. The mentor's general way of living serves as an example to the mentee. Hence the mentor should, for example, avoid using substances and coming into confl ict with the law. The spiritual dimension, or the need for transcendence, as referred to in Maslow's hierarchy, is a very important element for the mentor in the mentoring relationship. This article focuses on the profi le of the adult male who mentors an adolescent boy in a natural mentor relationship. <![CDATA[<b>Swartskaap</b>: <b>Odette Schoeman</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512010000400009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Historically, mentorship was a role men fulfilled with regard to younger boys and existed even before the word mentoring was ever used. However, in South Africa this role has faded and is no longer necessarily fulfilled purposely by men, particularly if seen from a psychosocial perspective. Adult men as natural mentors for adolescent boys are not always equipped with the necessary knowledge and skills to enter into such a role. The role as mentor in this specific situation demands a considerable amount of time and attention from the adult male and, in addition, it requires an understanding of the perceptions of the adolescent. Although biological fathers are their sons'first natural mentors, they seem not always to be quite that much involved in their children's lives. Some adolescent boys have the benefit of an external mentor - someone outside the family system. Although the majority of the biological fathers want a mentor for their adolescent boys, only a handful of them are willing to allow someone else to fulfil this role. Many of these biological fathers are also willing to mentor someone else, but only a few actually do it. This mentor relationship exposes the mentee to a broader social network for higher quality of life standards. The age and generation of the mentor influences the style of the mentor relationship. It is necessary, though, to understand the mentors and the mentees within their generation and the characteristics known to their age. According to the literature, one of the characteristics of the X-er mentors is that they are more stable in their family system with less separation and divorces. The family structure of the mentor also has a known influence both on him and the mentor relationship. This mentoring with an adolescent boy is not of a corporate nature, but has a psychosocial origin. The personality of the mentor plays a huge role in this kind of mentoring relationship. Certain characteristics of the mentor are touching to the mentees and need to be enhanced. The involvement of the mentor and the mentee in social activities is important to both of them. The mentor's general way of living serves as an example to the mentee. Hence the mentor should, for example, avoid using substances and coming into confl ict with the law. The spiritual dimension, or the need for transcendence, as referred to in Maslow's hierarchy, is a very important element for the mentor in the mentoring relationship. This article focuses on the profi le of the adult male who mentors an adolescent boy in a natural mentor relationship.