Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0041-475120100003&lang=en vol. 50 num. 3 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Meaningfulness as experienced by a group of South Africans</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512010000300001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Positiewe sielkunde, of psigofortologie, fokus op die verstaan en bevordering van psigologiese welstand. Dit is ook gerig op die identifisering en uitbou van sterkpunte by individue, families en gemeenskappe om lewenskwaliteit te bevorder en om voorkomend op te tree. Vanuit verskeie konseptualiserings oor psigologiese welstand het twee denkskole ontstaan, naamlik die hedoniese en eudaimoniese perspektiewe. Betekenisvolheid is een van die kernaspekte van die eudaimoniese verwysingsraamwerk en 'n belangrike komponent vir die verstaan van psigologiese welstand. Hierdie studie fokus op die persoonlike ervaring van betekenisvolheid deur individue op grondvlak. Kwalitatiewe en kwantitatiewe data-insamelingsmetodes is gebruik en aandag is spesifi ek gegee aan die belewing van betekenisvolheid in verskillende lewensdomeine. Ewe veel mans en vrouens (N=104) tussen die ouderdomme 30 en 50 jaar, en ewe veel met sekondêre of tersiêre opleiding, het die Eudaimonic-Hedonic Happiness Instrument (EHHI-i) voltooi nadat ingeligte toestemming verkry is. Kwalitatiewe data is gekodeer, in hoërorde-kategorieë geabstraheer en getransformeer in persentasies response per kategorie. Kwantitatiewe gegewens se gemiddelde tellings per lewensdomein is bereken. Die resultate van die kwalitatiewe sowel as die kwantitatiewe data dui daarop dat familie (1) en spiritualiteit (2) die lewensdomeine is waarin individue die meeste betekenisvolheid ervaar. Daarna volg die lewensdomeine werk, gesondheid, interpersoonlike verhoudinge en persoonlike groei. Die lewensdomeine waarin die respondente die minste betekenisvolheid ervaar het, is ontspanning, lewenstandaard, en gemeenskaps- en sosiale aktiwiteite. Die bevindinge het teoretiese en praktiese implikasies.<hr/>In the field of positive psychology, or psychofortology, there are many theories and explanations about the nature of psychological well-being and how it can be enhanced, yet little is known about lay people's experiences and definitions of happiness, meaningfulness and other facets of well-being. The focus of this study is on meaningfulness as a facet of psychological well-being. In the search for an encompassing conceptualisation of psychological well-being two schools of thought have emerged, namely the hedonic and eudaimonic perspectives. Meaningfulness is a core component of well-being as conceptualised in the eudaimonic perspective. Little is known about how important various life domains are in people's experiences of meaningfulness, and whether there are differences among life domains in this regard. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore what the most meaningful things were in the lives of a group of South Africans as experienced by them on ground level, and what the role of different life domains were in their experience of meaningfulness. As cultural factors may influence the importance of various expressions of psychological well-being, it was decided to select a culturally homogeneous (relatively individualistic) group of Afrikaans and English-speaking participants in early adulthood for this explorative study. This study forms part of the international Eudaimonic-Hedonic Happiness Investigation project (EHHI) conducted in seven countries, and is linked to the FORT3 project (The prevalence of levels of psychosocial health: dynamics and relationships with biomarkers of (ill)health in South African social contexts). The current study reports on the South African data with regard to meaningfulness as experienced by a relatively individualistic cultural group. Equal numbers of males and females (N=104) between the ages 30 and 50 years with secondary or tertiary education training were selected. Respondents were identified by the researchers, after which the "snowball" method was used to reach other possible participants. After giving informed consent, participants completed the Eudaimonic-Hedonic Happiness Instrument (EHHI-i) with open-ended questions on, amongst others, the most meaningful things for people, and why they are meaningful. Rating scales on the degree of meaningfulness experienced in various life domains were also completed. A richness of information was thus sought through triangulation of quantitative and qualitative data-gathering methods. The qualitative data were coded, and codes were abstracted into higher order categories and transformed into percentage responses per category. For the quantitative data the average score per life domain was calculated. Qualitative as well as quantitative findings show that family (1st) and spirituality (2nd) are the two life domains that gave the most meaning in life. It was indicated that meaning was found in the mere belonging to a family and the influence family has on one's personal life. Spirituality gave meaning in knowing that a God exists and that life has a purpose. It may be that, in the South African context, spirituality is used as a coping mechanism to feel in control and to understand difficulties in life. None of the other participating countries in the EHHI project indicated that spirituality was such an important part of meaning in their lives. The other domains that played a valuable role in giving meaning in life were: work, health, interpersonal relations and personal growth. The life domains that proved relatively less meaningful in the respondents' lives were leisure/relaxation, life standard and activities involving the community and society. The lack of meaningful involvement in the community could probably be traced back to South Africa's history, and there are indications suggesting that at present Afrikaans and English speaking South Africans may tend to focus internally on themselves and their families. However, this seems to be a global trend. The results showed that intrinsic rather than external motivations give meaning to life. Theoretically it is important to note that the degree of meaningfulness experienced differs in various life domains and that the content of meaningfulness in a person's life should be evaluated accordingly. A better knowledge of psychological well-being and meaningfulness can be valuable in the development of interventions and therapeutic programmes. Psychological well-being can be enhanced and pathology prevented by taking into account and implementing methods that involve the most important specifi c meaningful life domains in people's lives. <![CDATA[<b>The afrikaner's experience of transformation and nation building in post apartheid South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512010000300002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Baie Afrikaners ervaar nasiebou en transformasie traumaties. Vir hulle is dit omgekeerde rassisme en blatante diskriminasie. Op die oog af het Suid-Afrikaners sedert 1994 (en moontlik selfs al vanaf 1990) vordering met spontane nasiewording gemaak. Die verdwyning van gedwonge rasseskeiding, die vreedsame oorgang na demokratiese regering, President Nelson Mandela se versoeningspogings en die prestasies van nasionale sportspanne het alles hiertoe bygedra. Desnieteenstaande is die ANC na sestien jaar van regeer nog steeds vasbeslote om nasiebou van bo af op sentralistiese wyse, te dryf. Die rede, wil 'n mens aflei, is dat die natuurlike roete veels te lank sal duur en dat sukses nie noodwendig verseker is nie. Professor Francois Venter, oudvoorsitter van die Afrikanerbond, meld dat die uiteinde van hierdie transformasie en nasiebou inisiatiewe is dat daar vandag onder Afrikaners, en veral denkende Afrikaners, 'n wydlopende kulturele malaise is, wat manifesteer in onttrekking, politieke onbetrokkenheid, swartgalligheid, sinisme, en so meer. In hierdie artikel word die voorspelling gemaak, dat ondanks al hierdie moontlike bedreigings van transformasie, Afrikaner-etnisiteit oor die volgende tien jaar baie sterk na vore gaan tree. Die ironie is dat dit juis hierdie geforseerde prosesse van nasiebou en transformasie is wat opnuut weer momentum aan Afrikaners gee om hulle kultuurinhoud en -waardes as 'n kleinood op te pas en te beskerm. Die feit dat die ANC-regering voortdurend in nuwe wetgewing bly fokus op Afrikaners se eksterne identiteitselemente (soos byvoorbeeld velkleur) laat Afrikaners basies met geen ander keuse nie as om 'n samehorigheidsgevoel te ervaar en te ontwikkel.<hr/>In terms of their numbers, Afrikaners have always been in the minority in their locality (South Africa). During the apartheid years, Afrikaners were the dominant role-players in South Africa, and they created rigid legislation that was stringently prescriptive with respect to the other peoples who inhabited South Africa alongside of them (Slabbert 1999:61-63). In many respects, this legislation was discriminatory and degrading (Du Preez 2000:20). In post apartheid South Africa, Afrikaners have lost their dominance in government; and, moreover, their status was diminished, virtually overnight, to that of a minority group within their locality (Slabbert 1999:104). Afrikaners were thus necessarily constrained to make certain adjustments very rapidly in a post apartheid South Africa. Now that they have a full-blown minority status in the new South Africa, Afrikaners are being confronted with the realities of nation building and transformation. Outwardly, South Africans appear to have made progress since 1994 (and possibly even since 1990), in spontaneously becoming a nation The disappearance of forced racial separation, the peaceful transition to a democratic government, President Nelson Mandela's reconciliation efforts and the achievements of national sports teams all contributed towards this progress. Notwithstanding these positive developments, the ANC government remains determined to drive nation building from above, in a centralistic manner (Scholtz 1999:6). One is tempted to infer that the reason for this is that the natural route would take far too long to follow, and that success is not guaranteed. Although the ANC-in-government has adopted a more accommodating attitude towards nationhood, according to Geldenhuys (2000:13), a strong Jacobinical tendency already seems to have become discernible in this regard. Thus, an ANC discussion document of 1997 refers to the "identity of the South African nation in the making". What is needed - so it is claimed - "is a continuing battle to assert African hegemony in the context of a multi-cultural and non-racial society". In the same vein, reference is also made to "a process of building an African nation" and "our Africanness as a nation" (Venter 1999b:22). The nation building and transformation process has been, and continues to be, a traumatic one for Afrikaners (Van der Merwe 2010:197-199). Many elements of nation building are experienced by them as reverse racism and blatant discrimination. As a result of the fact that the ANC government persists in building racial labels into its legislation, Afrikaners have developed an aversion to nation building, since the racial labelling is primarily aimed at placing white people in South Africa, and specifically Afrikaners, at a disadvantage, regardless of the fi ne words and noble motives contained in the South African Constitution. Despite all of these possible threats that nation building and transformation may hold for the Afrikaner, I would like to make the prediction that Afrikaner ethnicity - notwithstanding the "total onslaught" of nation building and transformation - will come very strongly to the fore in the course of the next ten years. The irony is that it is precisely this process of nation building and transformation that will offer renewed momentum and motivation to Afrikaners to look after and protect their cultural content and values as a precious treasure. The fact that the government continually persists in focusing on the external identity elements of Afrikaners (such as skin colour) in new legislation, leaves Afrikaners with no other choice than to develop a sense of solidarity. The government continues to single out white people in general, and Afrikaners in particular, as people who cannot really be "Africans", or who are not like the rest of the rainbow nation (Buys 2004:15, Slabbert 2006:57-63 and Venter 2004). The rest of the South African peoples are unconditionally considered by the ANC government to be part of the rainbow nation. It is only white people, and in particular Afrikaners, who are first required to carry out penance and to make sacrifices before they can be regarded as part of the rainbow nation (Bornman 2005:366-389). By means of this approach, the ANC government, with its "nation building" initiatives, is in fact achieving the opposite of what is purportedly intended. <![CDATA[<b>Franchisees' level of satisfaction with the opportunities and threats of franchising</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512010000300003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Konsessiehouers kla dikwels dat konsessiegewers nie aan hul behoeftes voldoen nie en daar is 'n algemene persepsie dat konsessiehouers ontevrede is met die geleenthede en beperkings van konsessies. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om ondersoek in te stel na die vlak van tevredenheid van konsessiehouers met die geleenthede en beperkings van konsessies. Die volgende konsessieelemente word by die ondersoek betrek: opleiding deur die konsessiegewer voorsien, die gebruik van 'n gevestigde handelsmerk, konsessies as 'n volledige besigheidstelsel (produk), die toekenning van spesifi eke geografiese gebiede en plaaslike en nasionale advertensie-veldtogte. Die data verteenwoordig twee groepe van dieselfde konsessie, naamlik konsessiehouers wat vir minder as twee jaar as konsessiehouers funksioneer en konsessiehouers wat vir twee jaar en langer as konsessiehouers funksioneer. Oorweging word gegee aan die mate waarin die twee groepe die konsessie-elemente verskillend waarneem. Die bevindings dui aan dat daar 'n hoë vlak van tevredenheid by konsessiehouers bestaan ten opsigte van die geleenthede en beperkings van konsessies, met die uitsondering van geïdentifiseerde uitdagings wat verder ontwikkel kan word om konsessiehouers se vlak van tevredenheid te verhoog.<hr/>Franchisees often complain that franchisors do not meet their needs in general, supported by a belief that franchisees are dissatisfied with the opportunities and constraints of franchises. The objective of this article is to investigate franchisees' level of satisfaction with the opportunities and constraints of franchises, including the following franchise elements: training provided by the franchisor, the use of an established trade name, franchising as a complete business system (product), the allocation of specific geographical areas, and local and national advertising campaigns. Data were collected by means of a self-administrated questionnaire that was sent to the selected population. A census survey was conducted in association with 75 (51%) of the 145 franchisees whose postal addresses are available on the internet. Respondents were requested to arrange their level of agreement in relation to pre-stated variables on a 5-point Likert scale (ranging from "strongly disagree" to "strongly agree"). Of the 145 questionnaires that were posted to franchisees, 77 (53%) were received back. Of these 75 (51,7%) could be used while two (1,3%) were rejected because they were incomplete. The SPSS (15) statistical package was used for the processing of raw tabulated data as part of the statistical analysis process. A Cronbach-alpha coefficient of 0,785 was obtained. This indicates an expectable level of internal consistency and the reliability of the measurement instrument that was used in this study. The data represent two groups of the same franchise, namely franchisees who have functioned as franchisees for two years and less and franchisees who have functioned as franchisees for two years and longer. Consideration is given to the degree to which the two groups observe the franchise elements differently. The population of franchisees that have been franchise holders for between nil and two years as franchisees is slightly smaller than that of the franchisees who have been franchise holders for two years and longer. Franchisees are satisfied with: the margins on products as provided by franchisors, the franchisors' current promotional activities, the support received from the franchisor in the selection process of a distribution point, fi nancial support provided by the franchisor, product and market information as provided by the franchisor, the rate of development of new products by the franchisor and the financial potential of the geographical areas allocated to their franchises. The franchisor understands the training needs of franchisees. The franchisor provides operational support by means of an operational manual. Franchisees do not operate 100% in accordance to the processes as prescribed in the franchisor's operational manual. All distribution points of the franchisor meet the same standard with regard to design and layout. The franchisor does meet the franchisees' needs with regard to products and services provided by the franchisor, including the quality of products that are available in the current product range. Franchisees join the franchise because of the brand name of the franchise and the professional services offered by the franchisor. Franchisees are satisfied with the current franchise fees. The current franchisor product range does not compare favourably with competitors' products with regard to product research, new product development, pricing strategies, packaging and product planning. The perception exists that the current franchise agreement is in favour of the franchisor only. This paper offers a new perspective on the generalisation that franchisees are not satisfied with the opportunities and constraints of franchises. The findings indicate a high level of satisfaction among franchisees with the opportunities and constraints of franchises, with the exception of identified challenges that could be developed further in order to increase franchisees' level of satisfaction - contrary to popular belief. <![CDATA[<b>Using hemispheric integration and film (<i>Fiela se kind</i>) as teaching strategy to improve reading</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512010000300004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Alhoewel die twee hemisfere van die menslike brein identies voorkom, toon navorsing dat elke hemisfeer oor gespesialiseerde funksies beskik. Die linkerhemisfeer is hoofsaaklik gespesialiseer om verbale kognitiewe vaardighede (bv. lees) te fasiliteer. Die regterhemisfeer is weer vir visuele en ruimtelike vaardighede gespesialiseer. Alhoewel die twee hemisfere elk gespesialiseerde funksies verrig, is die menslike brein altyd intak; dit wil sê die brein word optimaal benut as die twee hemisfere geïntegreerd funksioneer. By die onderrig van lees is dit dus belangrik dat 'n strategie wat integrasie tussen die twee hemisfere bewerkstellig en oordrag van begrip vergemaklik, nagestreef word. Uit die literatuurstudie blyk dit dat die gebruik van media soos rolprente tot hierdie integrasie kan bydra. In hierdie studie is die leesprobleme by graad 7-leerders (die ondersoekgroep) van een spesifieke skool ondersoek deur middel van 'n gevallestudie ondersteun deur 'n literatuurstudie. Eerstens het die literatuurondersoek 'n teoretiese begronding van lees verskaf. Dit het twee problematiese aspekte van lees ingesluit, naamlik gebrekkige leesbegrip en gebrekkige leesvlotheid. Tweedens is katalisators wat lees kan bevorder, naamlik die media, verken. As deel van die ondersoek is leesonderrigstrategieë ontwerp, gegrond op leerders se belangstelling in die media. Daarna is dit by die ondersoekgroep geïmplementeer om die sukses daarvan te bepaal. Uit die resultate blyk dit dat hemisferiese integrasie die leesvermoë van leerders in die ondersoekgroep kan verbeter mits daar betyds aan die leerders se leesprobleme aandag geskenk word. Die studie bevraagteken die doeltreffendheid van tradisionele leesonderrig en stel as alternatief 'n benadering geskoei op die beginsel van hemisferiese integrasie en gegrond op die media voor.<hr/>Although the two hemispheres of the human brain appear to be identical, research shows that each hemisphere is responsible for specialised functions. The left hemisphere is specialised for high cognitive functions such as reading, while the right hemisphere is specialised for skills of a visual and spatial nature. It is important to note that although each hemisphere is responsible for separate functions, the two hemispheres operate best when the human brain is intact, i.e. when the two hemispheres function as an integrated unit. When teaching reading it is important for educators to structure their teaching strategy in such a way as to enhance the integration between the two hemispheres which will facilitate transmission of reading comprehension. From the literature review it became clear that the use of certain media, such as films, can add to hemispheric integration. This study involved an investigation into the improvement of reading of Grade 7 learners (the study group). The research methodology used was a case study supported by a literature review. Firstly, the literature review provided a theoretical basis of reading. This included two problematic areas in reading, i.e. reading comprehension and reading fl uency. Secondly, catalysts that can improve reading, namely the media, were investigated. As part of the investigation strategies for teaching reading were designed based on learners' interest in the media. Then these strategies were implemented in the study group in order to measure their success. The results show that learners' reading abilities can improve with hemispheric integration if their problems are diagnosed early and they receive the necessary help. This study questions the efficacy of traditional approaches to reading instruction and proposes an alternative approach based on the principle of hemispheric integration and the use of the media. <![CDATA[<b>Afrikaner and Zulu perspectives on the Battle of Blood River, 16 December 1838</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512010000300005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In hierdie artikel word die telkens uiteenlopende Afrikaner- sowel as Zoeloeperspektiewe oor een van die mees omstrede gebeurtenisse in die Suid-Afrikaanse geskiedenis, naamlik die Slag van Bloedrivier, onder die loep geneem. Dit sluit beide geskrewe verslae en herinnerings oor die geveg in. Aangesien daar heelwat meer in Afrikaans en deur Afrikaners as deur Zoeloes oor die geveg geskryf is, word daar meer aandag aan Afrikaner as Zoeloeperspektiewe gegee. Dit is opvallend dat die menings van Afrikaners en Zoeloes oor verskeie belangrike aspekte, veral wat die verloop en uitslag van die geveg betref, ooreenstem. Tog is daar verskille wat in die artikel aangetoon word. Voorts is dit opvallend dat daar van ongeveer 1970 af by verskeie Afrikaanse skrywers 'n groot interpretasie-verandering ingetree het. Waar ouer skrywers geneig was om die Voortrekkeroorwinning aan goddelike ingryping toe te skryf, asof dit 'n wonderwerk was, het 'n nuwe geslag Afrikaanse skrywers na rasioneel-verklaarbare redes vir die oorwinning gesoek. En waar vroeëre skrywers geneig was om die uitslag as 'n oorwinning van Christendom oor barbarisme te beskou, neig die nuwe skrywers weg van sodanige oordele en toon hulle heelwat meer empatie met Dingane se bedreigde posisie as wat vroeëre skrywers gedoen het. Die finale gevolgtrekking in die artikel is dat die laaste woord oor Bloedrivier steeds nie gespreek is nie - geskiedenis is en bly 'n vakgebied van veranderende perspektiewe.<hr/>The purpose of this article is to investigate the divergent ways in which Afrikaner and Zulu commentators have treated the events of the Battle of Blood River, and also how interpretations have changed in the course of years and generations. This battle is a controversial event in South African history and an impressive number of studies on it have been produced. The battle furthermore figures prominently in Zulu oral tradition. Each report represents a standpoint. There is no single, generally accepted Afrikaner perspective and indeed neither a unitary Zulu viewpoint. The mere fact that appreciably more studies of the battle by authors who can be regarded as Afrikaners (or who regard themselves as such) than studies by Zulus have appeared over the years, means that there are more detailed and extensive Afrikaner than Zulu perspectives. As a result more attention is given in the article to Afrikaner than to Zulu viewpoints. The article also provides a broad overview of the events that led to the Battle of Blood River as well as the events of the battle itself and of its consequences. This will assist a reader who only has limited knowledge of the events to follow the analysis of perspectives. It is noticeable that the opinions of Afrikaners and Zulus on numerous important aspects, including the course and the outcome of the battle, often concur. There are nevertheless differences which are indicated in the article. It is pointed out in the article that previous studies, especially in Afrikaans, have tended to be extremely one-sided and offensive towards the Zulus, but that later generations of writers tended to reveal empathy for the position in which the Zulu monarch Dingane found himself by the end of 1838. Furthermore, earlier Afrikaans writers tended to overlook the military sophistication of the Zulu army that participated in the battle. Probably the biggest change in Afrikaner perspectives occurred from the 1970s onwards. Whereas previous generations of Afrikaans authors tended to ascribe the Voortrekker victory to divine intervention, latter day Afrikaans historians focused on factors of a more mundane nature. Secondly, earlier Afrikaans authors tended to interpret the outcome of the battle as a victory of Christianity over barbarism - a perspective that has now largely disappeared from Afrikaans studies. The conclusion reached in the article is that the final word on Blood River will probably never be spoken - history is by nature a subject of changing perspectives. <![CDATA[<b>Drama chronicle 2008-9</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512010000300006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Hierdie artikel ondersoek die vraag of formeel gepubliseerde dramatekste, dit wil sê dramatekste wat in papierformaat by uitgewerye verskyn het, 'n getroue voorstelling van die stand van die Afrikaanse drama en teater in 2008 en 2009 bied. In die bespreking word aangedui dat die korpus Afrikaanse dramatekste in dié twee jaar, soos in vorige jare, verbreed het indien die betekenis van die konsep publiseer uitgebrei word. In die artikel word dié konsep geïnterpreteer om ook die beskikbaarstelling van dramas wat nie net in papierformaat by uitgewerye verskyn het nie, maar in enige ander vorm in die openbare domein beskikbaar gestel is, in te sluit. Teen die agtergrond van dié interpretasie sluit die artikel gevolglik verwysings na dramas in wat in 2008-9 in papierformaat uitgegee is, asook dramaopvoerings tydens kunstefeeste, radiodramauitsendings, die plasing van dramas op internet en dramatekste wat in reaksie op skryfkompetisies voorgelê is. Die bespreking kom tot die gevolgtrekking dat, soos in 1989, toe die indaba met die titel Afrikaanse drama: hoeksteen of grafsteen plaasgevind het, verskeie gevaarligte vir die Afrikaanse drama in 2008 en 2009 geflikker het. Nogtans is tekste deur gevestigde dramaturge, soos Deon Opperman (Kaburu, 2008) en Reza de Wet (Blou uur, 2009), en 'n opkomende dramaturg, naamlik Adriaan Meyer met Prinsloo versus (2009), steeds gepubliseer. Met Opperman, De Wet en Meyer se dramas as vertrekpunte blyk daar wel ooreenkomste tussen sommige formeel gepubliseerde dramas en dramas in ander gepubliseerde kategorieë te wees, onder andere die verskynsel van globalisering, die voorstelling van kunstenaars en hul kunstenaarskap, en die beperkte voorkoms van In-Yer-Face Theatre.<hr/>This article investigates the question whether formally published plays, i.e. plays published in paper format, present a reliable picture of the state of Afrikaans drama and theatre in 2008 and 2009. Continuing a trend from previous years, the article shows that the number of unpublished plays contributed considerably to the expansion of Afrikaans drama and theatre in 2008 and 2009. The discussion departs from the idea that published plays may include plays that are not presented in paper format. As applied in the article, the notion of published plays, therefore, include plays published in paper format, as well as performances at arts festivals, radio broadcasts, the publication of plays on internet, and plays submitted to drama competitions. Despite an expansion in the number of published Afrikaans plays similar to previous years, the article concludes that one can discern a number of threats to Afrikaans drama. Examples include discouraging attendances of stage performances of plays at arts festivals in general, the financial consequences of the down-turn in the global and South African economy that adversely influence patrons' ability to attend festivals, and publishers favouring play scripts that could potentially be prescribed for the school market. Despite these threats, and similar to the situation during the decade following the conference titled Afrikaanse drama: hoeksteen of grafsteen (Afrikaans drama: cornerstone or tombstone) in 1989, plays such as Kaburu (2008) by Deon Opperman, Blou uur (2009) by Reza de Wet, and Prinsloo versus (2009) by Adriaan Meyer, continue to be published. These plays reflect continuances and ruptures in Afrikaner society and culture at the time of their publication. Kaburu (2008), for instance, reflects the continuing focus the playwright has on topicalities that broadly relate to his representation of Afrikaner identity, in this case his portrayal of identity framed by the theme of an Afrikaner diaspora. Blou uur (2009), on the other hand, refl ects de Wet's exploration of representations of nostalgia and magical realism associated with some of her previous plays, such as Op dees aarde (1991). Similar to some plays in her trilogies, Trits and Vrystaat-trilogie, Blou uur additionally focuses on the relationships between female and (absent) male characters. Meyer's play, Prinsloo versus, which the playwright based on the life and writing of controversial Afrikaans novelist Koos Prinsloo, represents both continuances and ruptures. Thematically, Prinsloo versus relates to Afrikaans plays reflecting metatheoretical issues. Employing devices labelled by Sierz (2001) as In-Yer-Face Theatre, along with its use of gay codes, strong language and blasphemy, clearly indicate a rupture from plays produced in the period covered by this article. <![CDATA[<b>Managers' and employees' attitudes towards people with physical disabilities in the workplace</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512010000300007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Suid-Afrika is 'n land wat die afgelope twee dekades ingrypende veranderinge in die politieke arena ondergaan het. Hierdie veranderinge het aanleiding gegee tot verbeterde bestuur van die diverse Suid-Afrikaanse bevolking, wat die doeltreffende bestuur van persone met gestremdhede noodsaak. Gestremdheid is 'n internasionale verskynsel wat plaaslik, nasionaal en internasionaal kommentaar ontlok. Persone met gestremdhede verteenwoordig 'n groot persentasie van die bevolking wat graag wil werk, maar werkloos bly aangesien bestuurders nie hulle potensiaal erken nie. Die hoofrede vir die uitsluiting van persone met gestremdhede van die hoofstroom, is negatiewe houdings en vooroordele van persone sonder gestremdhede teenoor persone met gestremdhede, asook 'n gebrek aan bewustheid van die vermoë van persone met gestremdhede. Verskeie faktore beïnvloed die houdings van persone sonder gestremdhede teenoor persone met gestremdhede, byvoorbeeld die strategiese prioriteit wat bestuurders aan persone met gestremdhede gee. In die lig van bogenoemde, is die doel van hierdie studie om bestuurders en werknemers se houding teenoor persone met fisieke gestremdhede in die werksplek te ondersoek. Uit die resultate wat in die studie verkry is, kan verskeie aanbevelings gemaak word, byvoorbeeld dat bestuurders 'n verhoogde bewustheid van die voordele van 'n diverse werksmag moet ontwikkel, en meer spesifiek van die bydrae wat persone met gestremdhede in die werksplek kan lewer<hr/>South Africa experienced drastic changes in the political arena during the past two decades. These changes have given rise to improved management of the diverse South African population, compelling the effective management of people with disabilities. "People with disabilities" can be defined as people who have a long term and recurrent physical or mental defi ciency which significantly hinders the possibility of gaining access to, or of being promoted in employment. Disability is an international phenomenon that elicits local, national and international commentary. People with disabilities represent a big proportion of those who want to work, but often remain unemployed because managers do not acknowledge their potential. The main reasons for the exclusion of people with disabilities from the main stream are negative attitudes and bias from people without disabilities towards them, as well as a lack of awareness of their abilities. Therefore, people without disabilities show different responses to people with physical disabilities, ranging from negative responses on one end of the continuum such as exclusion, to positive responses on the other such as mutual adaptation. Attitude can be described as an idea (cognitive component) inspired by emotion (affective component) which predisposes a certain category of behaviour (behavioural component) to a specific class or social situation. Furthermore, there are several factors which can influence the attitudes of people without disabilities towards people with disabilities, such as the strategic priority that managers need to give to people with disabilities. In view of the above, the purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of managers and employees towards people with physical disabilities in the workplace. It is a quantitative study which made use of a survey research. The respondents who were involved in the study were managers and employees from several large and small companies in the Free State who were students at the school of management of a local university. The Scale of Attitudes toward Disabled Persons (SADP) was applied and completed anonymously. Sixty three respondents participated, consisting of 33 managers and 30 employees. It was apparent from the results that the attitude of both managers and employees towards people with physical disabilities in the workplace was neutral. A neutral score can be interpreted as the absence of a positive attitude, apathy towards people with disabilities or denial of the potential of people with disabilities. This neutral response can be interpreted also as an unwillingness of people without disabilities to express their true attitude towards people with disabilities. Therefore, answers that are seen as socially desirable are given instead of answers reflecting the respondents' true attitudes. Whatever the case may be, the result in practice is that people without disabilities do not make a purposeful attempt to employ or utilize people with disabilities fully. It can also be an indication of the uncertainty of managers and employees about the ways in which the needs of people with disabilities should be addressed, as well as how interaction with these individuals should take place. Therefore, people without disabilities prefer to interact with people who are similar to them. This has the further implication that people without disabilities prefer to employ people who are similar to them. This research, to a certain degree, underwrites previous research claiming that people with disabilities experience work related discrimination and unjust treatment. This includes reduced benefits and opportunities of working overtime, as well as unrealistic expectations about their inputs, and different negative behaviours towards people with disabilities. Negative attitudes towards people with disabilities are not verbalised blatantly, but do come to the fore in the apathetic attitudes of employees and managers towards them. From the results obtained in the study, several recommendations can be made such as that managers need to develop a heightened awareness of the benefits of a diverse workforce, and more specifically of including people with disabilities. The legal aspects, as well as the implications of the employment of people with disabilities, must be brought to the attention of employers as well as employees in organisations. By implementing different attitude changing strategies in organisations, a pro-active attempt is made to create a heightened awareness of the needs and potential of people with disabilities. It also follows from the results of the research that an attitude scale, standardised to the South African context and distinguishing between different types of disabilities, can be developed. The scale must be available in more than one language and be suitable for persons with an educational level of grade 12 and higher. Finally, in any further research on the attitude of people without disabilities towards people with disabilities in South Africa, an attempt must be made to obtain subjects who represent the diverse South African population. In this way, an attempt can be made to standardise the scale for the South African context. <![CDATA[<b>Afrikaans speech norms and prescriptive Afrikaans norms</b>: <b>is there enough scope for grammatical diversity in standard Afrikaans?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512010000300008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en RÉSUMÉ Les normes de l'Afrikaans parlé et de l'Afrikaans standard Y a-t-il lieu de reconnaître la diversité grammaticale de l'Afrikaans? Dans le contexte sociolinguistique actuel où l'Afrikaans, dans sa forme prescriptive, perd en visibilité, il semble approprié de réouvrir un ancien débat: l'Afrikaans standard doit-il refléter les normes du registre Afrikaans informel ou sa propre tradition écrite? Il est difficile de répondre à cette question sans un examen préliminaire de la variation qui prévaut actuellement dans l'Afrikaans parlé. Pour faciliter cette tâche, nous avons assemblé un corpus d'Afrikaans parlé sous la forme de sept échantillons composés de locuteurs Blancs et Métis, subdivisés en trois groupes générationnels. Afin de déterminer s'il y a lieu ou non de parler de convergence vers l'Afrikaans standard, un total de 15 variables morphosyntactiques a été sélectionné et soumis à une analyse statistique. Les résultats de cette analyse montrent qu'il peut y avoir convergence entre échantillons soit en direction de la variante prescriptive, soit en direction de la variante non-standard. Il s'avère que, dans tous les cas, les locuteurs Blancs restent les plus proches de la norme prescriptive. Il s'avère aussi que, malgré l'écart systématique observable entre Blancs et Métis, tous deux ont généralement tendance à converger mutuellement, sans que cette convergence ne se fasse nécessairement en direction de la norme prescriptive.<hr/>Afrikaans may be a standardized language, but it is acknowledged that the standardization it has undergone is not quite thorough and should be continued, particularly at the grammatical level. How the standardization process should be continued has, however, been the topic of a debate that emerged in the 1990s: should Standard Afrikaans reflect spoken varieties or its own written tradition? The origin of that debate was the fear that the gap between Standard Afrikaans and spoken varieties would, in the long term, widen and alienate a growing number of Afrikaans speakers, undermining its position and status in the process. Against today's background of the diminishing visibility of Standard Afrikaans not only in the media but also in education, that debate arguably deserves to be reopened once more. But then, arguably, that debate cannot dispense with a clear idea of linguistic variation in the Afrikaans speech community, and in particular in the informal register. And the central question which must be asked in reference to that informal register is: how deep is the imprint that Standard Afrikaans has left on it as a result of compulsory education and exposure to the media? And considering today's changed sociolinguistic settings: is that imprint diminishing, allowing informal spoken Afrikaans to evolve its own rules? In order to answer these questions, a corpus of informal spoken Afrikaans has been collected among both White and Coloured speakers, subdivided into three distinct age cohorts, contained in seven samples spread across the three historical dialect zones of the Afrikaans language area. In the process, further possible geographical subdivisions of the Afrikaans speech community were taken into account, such as the urban/rural divide and the recent political border that separates Namibian Afrikaans speakers from their South African peers. In order to test the possibility of convergence with or divergence from the prescriptive norm, a total of 15 morphosyntactic variables with a standard variant and a non-standard variant were singled out for analysis. Among these are a range of variables whose non-standard variant is typically associated with Coloured varieties (e.g. non-standard onse vs. standard ons, "our", non-standard hulle se vs. standard hulle, "their"), and that I thus refer to as "ethnic variants", while the diffusion of the remaining variables is generally not described in ethnic terms (e.g. non-standard Verb Second in relative clauses vs. standard Verb Final). The first step in our analysis consists of looking at the invidivual diffusion of each of the 15 variables. The overall picture is that general convergence is sometimes observable in the direction of the prescriptive variant, but also at other times away from it. Also, there are cases of divergence between samples, observable when some of the samples are converging towards the prescriptive variant while others are moving away from it. An important observation is that Whites generally stand closest to the prescriptive variant. The second step in our analysis consists of a multivariate analysis involving all variables simultaneously in order to allow generalizations on convergence with and divergence from the prescriptive norm. The overall picture yielded by that multivariate analysis is again one that illustrates the prevalence of a systematic linguistic gap between Coloured and White varieties, showing White varieties to be linguistically more homogeneous than Coloured varieties. What it further illustrates is a general trend of mutual convergence between the South African White and Coloured samples. In other words, Afrikaans varieties (at least in South Africa) are becoming more homogeneous without necessarily getting closer to the prescriptive norm. I argue that this observation should be taken into account in any attempt to further standardize Standard Afrikaans grammar. On the basis of the observations described above, there seems to be scope for improving the representativity of the Standard Afrikaans norm. Enhancing the representativity of the Standard Afrikaans norm need not entail scrapping specific grammatical variants. Rather, it could mean acknowledging variation by mentioning variants which are typical of the informal registers of Afrikaans alongside their prescriptive equivalents. I argue here that one merit of this approach is that it reduces the gap between spoken and written registers without doing away with the latter, while also acknowledging ethnic diversity in spoken Afrikaans. http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512010000300009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en