Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0041-475120090004&lang=pt vol. 49 num. 4 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Iets vooraf</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512009000400001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>An <i>Incomplete Name</i> poetically represented - explorations of an enigmatic Divine Being in T T Cloete's poetry</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512009000400002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Eksistensiële vrae na oorspronge en bestemmings is een van die deurlopend herkenbare temas in TT Cloete se digterlike oeuvre. 'n Belangrike aspek van hierdie vrae is die naspeur van essensies aangaande 'n enigmatiese Goddelike Wese. Vir die digter is die onomlynbaarheid van dié konsep "'n digterlike speelding". Vormgewing deur middel van die gedig impliseer enersyds presisie maar andersins meerduidigheid. Dit word benut as potensiaal vir 'n spel met verbeeldingryke kennis. In die Cloete-oeuvre beteken dit om voortdurend op reis te wees. Die onoorsigtelikheid van 'n sogenaamde "gekoekte heelal" ondermyn sekerhede en erns word gedekonstrueer tot parodie. Intertekstualiteit speel 'n belangrike rol in die wydlopende waarnemings en bevraagtekenings. Geykte konseptualiserings van God word gedekonstrueer en gegewens uit die religieus-Christelike kanon word in 'n satiriese lig gestel. Onversoenbaarhede in die komplekse verhouding tussen mens en 'n oënskynlik afsydige Maker word op die spits gedryf na aanleiding van die vraag na die sin van lyding en rampe. Godsbeelde uit verskillende tye en kontekste word gejukstaponeer. Evolusie en 'n "Big Bang"-teorie as deel van die menslike drang om te verstaan, word as alternatiewe wetenskaplike uitkomste op gelyke voet ondermyn. Enkele raakpunte tussen Cloete se kreatiewe digterlike spel en die groter religieuse diskoers word aangedui. Die artikel is 'n beperkte leesverslag met vele oopgelate moontlikhede.<hr/>Existential questions concerning origins and destinies are some of the continuous recognizable themes in T T Cloete's poetry. An important aspect of the origin of such questions is an awareness of design which suggests a possibility of super human origin. Cirlot, for instance, refers to the "psychic fact 'God' as a collective archetype, a psychic existent" and that "the universality of an archetype affirms rather than denies the reality of the principle". Through eight volumes of poetry Cloete's fascination with the recognition of such an archetype and the possibility of Divine origin becomes apparent. The titles of these volumes signify "a humble love of earthly and divine things", as the motto at the beginning of one of these volumes suggests. To the poet the impossibility to find an adequate concept signifying Divinity invites not only a tracing of plausible signs, but also a stimulation of poetic creativity. In Cloete's extensive body of poems such mysterium tremendum creates "a poetic toy". Poetic design implies precision as well as multiplexity, the outcome of which is a potential for exploration through play with imaginative knowledge. Cloete's urge for poetic discovery is aptly registered in the title of another of his volumes of poetry, by means of the phrase "holy curiosity", a quote from Einstein which is also included in a poem in the same volume. What is significant of the latter poem is its title, namely "senile thinker" ("geront-denker"). It may suggest that such curiosity is a lifelong quest. In Cloete's body of poetry such creativity signifies to be on a journey continually. Such explorative voyages, which are simultaneously real and imaginative, implement the penetrative eye of the artist, as can be deduced, for example, from a volume of poetry entitled: "From my viewpoint" ("Uit die hoek van my oog"). The poet's urge to get some grip on a so-called "knotted universe" through poetic discovery induces him to focus intently on the appearance of insignia of such variety and complexity that it confronts the explorer with the reality of an enigmatic Divine Being. Cloete's perceptions of "insignia" can be compared to Derrida's philosophical concept of "traces". The poet is not only fascinated by the wonders and wisdom of what he discerns but likewise exhilarates in the many appearances of caricatures. Although he finds himself in inescapable juxtaposition to a Being who can not be confined to an intelligible Name, this complex relation similarly leads to discoveries which can only be played out in poetry. Incompatibilities in the complex relation between human being and a seemingly aloof Maker become particularly apparent when the meaning of suffering and catastrophe is questioned. The immensity of an intertwined surrounding universe continually undermines certainties and deconstructs seriousness into parody. Intertextuality plays a significant role in the diffuse observations and questionings of the poet. It includes texts of a wide variety, namely religious, scientific, artistic and even high-tech examples. Stereotyped conceptualizations of God are deconstructed and examples from the religio-Christian canon are presented satirically. However, the inescapability of incorporating such a Book about God is suggested by the urge of eating as a metaphor for internalizing the Word of God. God images from different eras and contexts are juxtaposed. Evolution and a Big Bang theory as alternative scientific answers are undermined on an equal basis. Efforts to characterize Cloete's signifying of the Numinous must be content with dialectic approaches. Ricoeur likewise warned, from a philosophical viewpoint, that "the dialectic of the naming of God cannot be transformed into a form of knowledge...The being that humanity cannot really name, is held at the mercy of our language." This is one of the most remarkable opportunities for poetic speech, recognized by the poet who becomes aware of "perfect sight". Cloete's diverse and meticulous as well as cosmic perceptions of the human condition, pose a continuous challenge to the researcher. This article, therefore, presents but a limited reading report on the issues mentioned above, conscious of leaving open many spaces or the possibility of alternative viewpoints. <![CDATA[<b>A literary and hymnological glance at Psalm 23</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512009000400003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In hierdie artikel word daar gefokus op die literêre en himnologiese aspekte van Psalm 23. Hierdie psalm word in al sy taalgeledinge ontleed. Die sintaktiese en semantiese fasette van die psalm word ondersoek. Daar word gelet op poëtiese patrone. Sekere stylfigure, soos metafore, word ondersoek. Daar word ook aandag gegee aan die resepsiegeskiedenis van die psalm. In dié opsig word die interpretasie daarvan in die Nuwe Testament en in die kerkgeskiedenis nagegaan. Hierdie ondersoek is noodsaaklik omdat die omdigting van 'n psalm op die verstaan van die grondteks berus. T T Cloete het al 150 psalms vir die Liedboek van die Kerk omdig. 'n Omdigter moet self 'n digter van hoë kwaliteit wees om sy hand aan omdigtings te waag. Cloete voldoen by uitnemendheid aan dié vereiste. In die artikel word sy omdigting op struktuur- en taalvlak ontleed. Daar word ook na die poëtiese gehalte daarvan gekyk. Verder word die musikologiese eise wat die lied stel ook in ag geneem. Die gevolgtrekking waartoe daar in die artikel gekom word, is dat die omdigting van Cloete voortreflik is. Hy slaag uitmuntend daarin om aan die lied 'n teologiese stem te gee wat singend in harte en monde weerklink.<hr/>In this article, the focus is on the literary and hymnological aspects of Psalm 23. This psalm is analyzed in terms of all its linguistic nuances. A network of metaphors is woven around the motif of the shepherd in Psalm 23. This psalm can be divided into four stanzas which are arranged chiastically - verses 1b-3: confession/testimony (He-I), verse 4: a prayer of trust (I-You), verse 5: a prayer of trust (You-I) and verse 6: confession/testimony (I-He). The syntactic and semantic aspects of the Psalm are investigated, while poetic patterns are also considered. Some figures of speech, for instance, metaphors, are scrutinised. Especially the shepherd metaphor captures the attention. The title "shepherd" which is attributed to the ruling king, is often encountered in the court terminology of the Ancient Near East. In the prologue of the Codex of Hammurabi the king is described as a shepherd who is called by Enlil. This Codex mentions that the gods installed the king's office as shepherd and that they visited him. The motif of shepherd frequently appears in the Old Testament. However, the title "shepherd" is not conferred on the ruling king as was the case in Egypt and Mesopotamia. This title is sometimes ascribed to David (2 Samuel 5:2; 7:7; 24:17), however, it is often used when leaders are accused of neglecting their duties (Ezekiel 34:4 foll.). The metaphor of the host is also illuminated. Yahweh is emphasized as a host. Yahweh is the subject of the verbs in these verses. The result is that Yahweh's deeds are emphasized. The expression "Yahweh prepares a table before me" refers to the fact that Yahweh presents his hospitality to the psalmist. The meal is the proof of Yahweh's protecting and caring nature. Also the literary genre of the psalm is investigated. The psalm is not only a psalm of trust or only one of thanksgiving, because features of both these Gattungen are displayed. The text of Psalm 23 gives us comfort. The psalmist's experiences of comfort, protection and support are expressed. One of the functions of the psalm is to encourage the reader/hearer in difficult times. Thus the psalm is also a psalm of trust. Attention is furthermore paid to the reception history of the psalm. In this regard, the interpretation of Psalm 23 is traced in the New Testament and in the history of the church. This investigation is necessary, since one relies on one's understanding of the original text when versifying poetry. The Messianic interpretation of Psalm 23 has an important bearing on the liturgy of baptism and the service of Eucharist. During the fourth and fifth centuries and especially in the catechesis of baptism, every verse of Psalm 23 was connected to Christ and to those who met Christ through baptism. The "green pastures" were the supportive words of the Holy Scriptures as embodied by the catechesis of baptism. The "quiet waters" indicated the water with which someone was bapitised. The "paths of righteousness" evoked associations with catechesis of baptism; more specifically the ethical principles of behaviour which were connected to these catechesis. T T Cloete has versified all 150 Psalms for the "Liedboek van die Kerk" (Hymn book of the Church). Cloete's versification of the psalms is based on the interpretation and understanding of the Hebrew text. All the fabrics of the text are followed and versified in Afrikaans. The versification of a text poses its own challenges. These pertain to matters like rhyme patterns, metaphors, the contemporary nature of the versification and the musical requirements (such as, for example, the word/tone relationship) which hang like a sword above the text. Anyone who dares to versify poetry has to be himself a poet of high quality. Cloete is more than qualified for this task. In this article, his versified poem is analyzed on the level of structure and language. The poetical quality of his work is also considered. Furthermore, the musicological demand of Psalm 23 as a song is taken into consideration. The hand of the poet is restricted by musicological demands. These influence the rhyming words, the syntax, the word order, and even the appropriation of metaphors. The conclusion reached in this article is that Cloete's versification of Psalm 23 is outstanding indeed. He succeeds splendidly in giving the psalm a theological voice which resounds, as a song, in both mouth and heart. <![CDATA[<b>Charles Darwin, the natural sciences and wonderment in the poetry of T T Cloete</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512009000400004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In T T Cloete se digbundels is sy belangstelling in die natuur en die natuurwetenskappe dominante temas. Die digter is besonder belese in veral die eksakte en biologiese wetenskappe. 'n Studie van Cloete se poësie toon hoedat hy sy wye kennis vernuftig met die hulpmiddels van die poësie orden en verrassende verbande aantoon. Opvallend is ook die wyse waarop hy 'n religieuse en spesifiek Christelike perspektief in sy poësie aan die orde stel en onbeskaamd as belydende Christen skryf. Studies het reeds aangetoon dat Cloete se religieuse perspektief veel minder tradisioneel as dié van 'n digter soos Totius is en selfs sommige aanvaarde religieuse opvattings uitdaag en die leser tot nadenke stem. Die evolusieleer het die afgelope 150 jaar tot hewige debatvoering gelei en die mens se wêreldbeeld ingrypend beïnvloed en/of gewysig. Debatvoering oor hierdie radikale en invloedryke wetenskaplike perspektief duur voort en lei steeds tot hewige polemiek (bv. oor die kreasionisme). Cloete skram nie weg van hierdie onderwerpe nie en in heelparty gedigte besin hy oor die ontstaan van die skepping en die ontwikkeling van lewe op aarde. <![CDATA[<b>Dealing with death in our culture</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512009000400005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In T T Cloete se digbundels is sy belangstelling in die natuur en die natuurwetenskappe dominante temas. Die digter is besonder belese in veral die eksakte en biologiese wetenskappe. 'n Studie van Cloete se poësie toon hoedat hy sy wye kennis vernuftig met die hulpmiddels van die poësie orden en verrassende verbande aantoon. Opvallend is ook die wyse waarop hy 'n religieuse en spesifiek Christelike perspektief in sy poësie aan die orde stel en onbeskaamd as belydende Christen skryf. Studies het reeds aangetoon dat Cloete se religieuse perspektief veel minder tradisioneel as dié van 'n digter soos Totius is en selfs sommige aanvaarde religieuse opvattings uitdaag en die leser tot nadenke stem. Die evolusieleer het die afgelope 150 jaar tot hewige debatvoering gelei en die mens se wêreldbeeld ingrypend beïnvloed en/of gewysig. Debatvoering oor hierdie radikale en invloedryke wetenskaplike perspektief duur voort en lei steeds tot hewige polemiek (bv. oor die kreasionisme). Cloete skram nie weg van hierdie onderwerpe nie en in heelparty gedigte besin hy oor die ontstaan van die skepping en die ontwikkeling van lewe op aarde. <![CDATA[<b>Creolization of Symbolism in T T Cloete's poetry</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512009000400006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Hierdie artikel is 'n ondersoek na T T Cloete se gebruik van die internasionale Simbolisme. Die aaname is dat hy daardie digterlike stelsel op drie maniere herskryf het, naamlik om deur vermenging nuwe vorme te ontwikkel, deur die uitdrukkingskrag daarvan te verhoog en deur dit plaaslik en Suid-Afrikaans te maak, maar dit terselfdertyd vir homself toe te eien en dit aan te pas binne sy eie poëtika. Vier aspekte van die Simbolisme word bespreek, naamlik die simbolistiese werkwyse, Simbolisme en musiek, die simbolistiese toon en die korrespondensies. Die vernaamste bevindings is dat Cloete die uitdrukkingskrag van die Simbolisme vergroot het deur dit te moderniseer, maar ook deur dit te deologiseer - dit wil sê deur dit in 'n instrument te omvorm vir die bestudering van Deus, God.<hr/>This article is an investigation of T T Cloete's rewriting of international Symbolism, the assumption being that he has creolized this poetic system in three ways, namely by developing new forms by mixing, by increasing its expressive power and by making it local and South African, but also by appropriating and adapting it to his own poetical system. After pointing out two indications of creolization in Cloete's work, namely the creative mixing of words and concepts and the mixing of indigenous and colonial language, Symbolism is defined as a deliberate exploitation of ambiguity based on the notion of correspondences between all earthly things. Natural elements are used as metaphors, combined with all the resources of language to suggest a deeper or truer but unformulated second content in a poem. Creolization is here, in accordance with the views of É. Glissant, defined as a rhizomatic understanding of texts in complex webs of relations with three important core meanings, namely mixing of languages, cultures and traditions, a making-local that also entails appropriation and emulation and an expansion of the expressive power of the tradition. The analysis of the ways in which Cloete has transformed the symbolist tradition in poetry along these lines focuses on four aspects of Symbolism, namely the symbolist technique, Symbolism and music, the symbolist tone and the correspondences. Cloete's creolization of the symbolist method is explored in two poems, namely "oopooggebed aan ontbyttafel" (open-eyed prayer at the breakfast table) from Allotroop (1985) and "Insinjes" (Ensigns) from Met die aarde praat (Talking to the earth, 1992). In these poems Cloete evokes a second meaning without really giving it form in the way he uses natural things as metaphors and by subtle allusions to the Symbolists and their favourite colours. The latter poem also shows how Cloete enriches the symbolist tradition with words and concepts from natural science but also transforms it into a way of evoking the in-living of God. The next section links Cloete's symbolist use of bird imagery and bird song to the symbolist equation of music and poetry. In Cloete's poetry the ear is a favourite organ, since it brings disparate elements together. The sound of poetry is in his work a powerful instrument for the expression of the coherence of the whole cosmos and for evoking a second meaning, namely the presence of God in everything. The same goes for the way in which Cloete's poetry deals with the symbolist view of the imminence of death and the passing away of all things. His poetry presents an alternative to mortality by showing a universal interconnectedness and by developing new, modern metaphors for the synthetic power of poetry. One of them is the "laseraspaai" (laser I spy) - a modern instrument for spying out the rich interconnected diversity of creation. This universal interconnectedness, the idea that each thing contains a fine hidden essence of every other thing, is a central tenet of Symbolism and is creolized in Cloete's poetry in a variety of ways and, in his different collections, each time in a different metaphor that underlines this interconnectedness as well as the terrible state of being unconnected: juxtaposition, allotropy, entelegy, idiolect, curiosity. The all-inclusive whole is God, and His presence is evoked in Cloete's poetry in a myriad symbolist ways. Mixing languages and creating new compound words are but two of them. Though it focuses in the small and the local, in Cloete's poetry the unique time and place of every element is illuminated by the illimitable and the universal. Everything has its place in a great chain of being. On the whole, Cloete increases the expressive power of Symbolism not only by modernizing, but also by deologizing it, that is, by turning it into an instrument for the study of Deus, God. <![CDATA[<b>T T Cloete and the Drost-effect</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512009000400007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Hierdie artikel is 'n ondersoek na T T Cloete se gebruik van die internasionale Simbolisme. Die aaname is dat hy daardie digterlike stelsel op drie maniere herskryf het, naamlik om deur vermenging nuwe vorme te ontwikkel, deur die uitdrukkingskrag daarvan te verhoog en deur dit plaaslik en Suid-Afrikaans te maak, maar dit terselfdertyd vir homself toe te eien en dit aan te pas binne sy eie poëtika. Vier aspekte van die Simbolisme word bespreek, naamlik die simbolistiese werkwyse, Simbolisme en musiek, die simbolistiese toon en die korrespondensies. Die vernaamste bevindings is dat Cloete die uitdrukkingskrag van die Simbolisme vergroot het deur dit te moderniseer, maar ook deur dit te deologiseer - dit wil sê deur dit in 'n instrument te omvorm vir die bestudering van Deus, God.<hr/>This article is an investigation of T T Cloete's rewriting of international Symbolism, the assumption being that he has creolized this poetic system in three ways, namely by developing new forms by mixing, by increasing its expressive power and by making it local and South African, but also by appropriating and adapting it to his own poetical system. After pointing out two indications of creolization in Cloete's work, namely the creative mixing of words and concepts and the mixing of indigenous and colonial language, Symbolism is defined as a deliberate exploitation of ambiguity based on the notion of correspondences between all earthly things. Natural elements are used as metaphors, combined with all the resources of language to suggest a deeper or truer but unformulated second content in a poem. Creolization is here, in accordance with the views of É. Glissant, defined as a rhizomatic understanding of texts in complex webs of relations with three important core meanings, namely mixing of languages, cultures and traditions, a making-local that also entails appropriation and emulation and an expansion of the expressive power of the tradition. The analysis of the ways in which Cloete has transformed the symbolist tradition in poetry along these lines focuses on four aspects of Symbolism, namely the symbolist technique, Symbolism and music, the symbolist tone and the correspondences. Cloete's creolization of the symbolist method is explored in two poems, namely "oopooggebed aan ontbyttafel" (open-eyed prayer at the breakfast table) from Allotroop (1985) and "Insinjes" (Ensigns) from Met die aarde praat (Talking to the earth, 1992). In these poems Cloete evokes a second meaning without really giving it form in the way he uses natural things as metaphors and by subtle allusions to the Symbolists and their favourite colours. The latter poem also shows how Cloete enriches the symbolist tradition with words and concepts from natural science but also transforms it into a way of evoking the in-living of God. The next section links Cloete's symbolist use of bird imagery and bird song to the symbolist equation of music and poetry. In Cloete's poetry the ear is a favourite organ, since it brings disparate elements together. The sound of poetry is in his work a powerful instrument for the expression of the coherence of the whole cosmos and for evoking a second meaning, namely the presence of God in everything. The same goes for the way in which Cloete's poetry deals with the symbolist view of the imminence of death and the passing away of all things. His poetry presents an alternative to mortality by showing a universal interconnectedness and by developing new, modern metaphors for the synthetic power of poetry. One of them is the "laseraspaai" (laser I spy) - a modern instrument for spying out the rich interconnected diversity of creation. This universal interconnectedness, the idea that each thing contains a fine hidden essence of every other thing, is a central tenet of Symbolism and is creolized in Cloete's poetry in a variety of ways and, in his different collections, each time in a different metaphor that underlines this interconnectedness as well as the terrible state of being unconnected: juxtaposition, allotropy, entelegy, idiolect, curiosity. The all-inclusive whole is God, and His presence is evoked in Cloete's poetry in a myriad symbolist ways. Mixing languages and creating new compound words are but two of them. Though it focuses in the small and the local, in Cloete's poetry the unique time and place of every element is illuminated by the illimitable and the universal. Everything has its place in a great chain of being. On the whole, Cloete increases the expressive power of Symbolism not only by modernizing, but also by deologizing it, that is, by turning it into an instrument for the study of Deus, God. <![CDATA[<b>Die deurskynende kelk: Oor vorm en inhoud in die poësie. The transparent chalice: The relation between form and content in poetry (T T Cloete-erelesing, gelewer op 5 November 2009 te Potchefstroom / Paper read in honour of T T Cloete, Potchefstroom on 5 November 2009)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512009000400008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In hierdie artikel word die verhouding tussen vorm en inhoud in die poësie ondersoek en beredeneer as een van die kernvraagstukke van die poësieteorie. Daar word in besonder gelet op ikonisiteit as 'n eienskap van taal en van die poësie en aan enkele taalteorieë wat aan hierdie vraagstuk aandag gee. Aan die hand van die analise van gedigte hoofsaaklik uit die oeuvre van T T Cloete word verskeie ander sake ondersoek soos die medebepalende werking van vorm en inhoud in die poësie, die verband tussen die wetenskap en die kuns asook die versmelting van aanvoeling en kennis in gedigte wat as intellektuele poësie beskryf kan word. In die gevolgtrekking word gestel dat die poësie van T T Cloete tegnies kompleks, vindingryk en boeiend is, maar ook dat hierdie digter in sy werk in gesprek tree met die kulturele en estetiese tradisies waarbinne hy lewe en werk.<hr/>In this article the relation between form and content, one of the classic issues of the theory of poetry, is examined. The point is made that concrete poetry can be regarded as an extreme form of iconic poetry, but iconicity in poetry can assume many other and more subtle forms. The issue of iconicity in language and literature is introduced by referring to the theories of Charles Sanders Peirce and Ferdinand de Saussure which form the basis of the arbitrary view of language. The opposing Platonic paradigm, however, still seems to elicit much interest as is proved by research on iconicity by linguists and literary theorists alike. Reference is made to the peripheral fields of phonosemantics or sound symbolism and the results presented by lexicographers on the almost uncanny regularities in the sound systems of words and their meanings. Antoly Liberman's view that language is motivated and/or iconic in its inception and origin but arbitrary in its history and development is then taken as a point of departure to examine iconic features of various poems by the Afrikaans poet, T T Cloete. A number of poems by T T Cloete are analysed to indicate how form and content are blended and merged to generate meaning and to prove the statement that Cloete is a poet who, par excellence, succeeds in superimposing various codes and modelling systems to create complex meaning in poems. He also succeeds in enhancing the density of meaning in seemingly simple poems by his versatility as a technician. After emphasising the importance of form in poetry the article then focusses on the importance of content. Some poets have both the ability and inclination of concerning themselves with noteworthy and profound content, taking up and extending the classic cultural and aesthetic issues of the tradition in which they work. In some of his poems T T Cloete manages to create a discourse between some of the classic texts of Western thought and his personal view of matters such as female beauty and beauty in general. The emphasis on form is always present in his poems, even when he interprets one of the red photographs of Marilyn Monroe and compares and contrasts her beauty to the role played by Beatrice in Dante's Vita Nuova. In the course of the argument issues such as the connection between the creative aspects of scientific and aesthetic thinking and the relation between intuition and intellectual activity in writing poetry are also addressed. Poetry is described as a form of philosophy on account of the fact that it entails the creative exploration of reality in an attempt to find something new, or even "non-existent", or a new perspective on well-known aspects of ordinary life. The "love of wisdom" which is etymologically implied in the word philosophy, inspires the writing of poetry for some poets but on account of the aesthetic and quicksilver qualities of poetry, poetry could, in my opinion, be identified as "liquified philosophy". The article concludes with the view that in its quest for insight in the human condition, poetry helps to keep alive the sense of wonder which is essential in enabling human beings to overcome the brutalizing conformity of the mass societies in which they live. Poetry can therefore be seen as a constructive force, which helps to connect societies to their past, their present and their future. <![CDATA[<b>"Fides quaerens societatem": Practical Theology in search of social embodiment</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512009000400009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Hierdie artikel bied 'n kort opsomming van sommige van die eiendomlike spanninge in die teologiese vakdissipline van Praktiese Teologie, as uitvloeisel van die grondliggende spanning wat reeds deur die naam gesuggereer word, naamlik praktyk en teologie, of praktyk en teorie. Agt paradigmas waarbinne Praktiese Teologie verstaan kan word, word kortliks opgesom, te wete geloof op soek na begrip, verwoording, handeling, hoop, verbeelding, visualisering, beliggaming en sosiale vergestalting (laasgenoemde die integrerende paradigma). Die uitgangspunt is dat Praktiese Teologie op 'n hermeneutiek van sinduiding rus, wat nie as 'n nuwe vorm van klerikale of ekklesiologiese mag of beheer beskou moet word nie, maar eerder as 'n meewerkende en interaktiewe wyse om die lewe, soos wat dit in die samelewing tot uiting kom en beleef word, te dien en te verryk.<hr/>This article gives a brief overview of some of the characteristic tensions of the theological discipline of Practical Theology, flowing from the basic tension already suggested in the name: practice and theology, or practice and theory. It proposes that Practical Theology will by nature always be in a process of reconstruction; will remain provisional and experimental; and exists within the creative tensions of empirical research and theological conceptualisation, confession and society, core identity and interdisciplinary approaches, induction and deduction, contextualisation and tradition, the Scriptures and communication, calling (vocatio) and denomination, spirituality and academic accountability, university and denominational partners, and so forth. The article summarises eight paradigms within which Practical Theology could be understood: • Fides quaerens intellectum (faith in search of understanding): Here the intention is to understand, interpret and proclaim the revelation of God in a logical and cognitive manner, especially within an ecclesiological context. The emphasis is on teaching. • Fides quaerens verbum (faith in search of words): This entails a narrative and non-directive approach, complemented by fitting modes of communication and discourse. The emphasis is on the act of expression. • Fides quaerens actum (faith in search of acts): The emphasis is on stronger integration of theory and practice, liberation, transformation, and ways of effecting Practical Theology. The focus is on the development of skills. • Fides quaerens spem (faith in search of hope): Here the emphasis is on the understanding and experience of meaning, as well as the means to foster and facilitate such understanding through the liturgy, pastoral care and preaching. The significance of eschatology plays an important role in this regard. • Fides quaerens imaginem (faith in search of images; symbolic expression): Although not meant to oppose the abovementioned emphases, it brings a new dimension into play, namely what has been called aesthetic reason or aesthetic hermeneutics. The emphasis falls on the art of imagination and creative expression. • Fides quaerens visum (faith in search of concrete visualisation): This is linked to the notion of aesthetics. The intention is to aid people to discern traces of God's presence by means of visual and virtual realities. In this regard, the role of modern technology (internet, mass media, and so forth) is considered. • Fides quaerens corporalitatem (faith in search of embodiment): This is a holistic approach, with emphasis on the embodiment of humans, among others also as the "address" of revelation. Our bodies are central to what we perceive and experience, also in terms of our relationship with God. It is the prime locus of God's presence with us. This understanding of embodiment is of specific importance in Practical Theology, as it entails the notions of contextualisation, immediacy, encountering, embracement, communality, radicalisation and concreteness. • Fides quaerens societatem (faith in search of social embodiment): This is a bridge-crossing approach, taking Practical Theology beyond its exclusively ecclesiological boundaries, striving to interact with a variety of communities (including faith communities) in order to serve and enrich these communities, but also to be served and enriched by them in a collaborative and reciprocal way. The article suggests that Practical Theology hinges on a hermeneutics of significance, which should not be seen as a new form of clerical or ecclesiological power or control, but rather as a collaborative and reciprocal way of serving and enriching life as it is expressed and experienced in society. Whilst Practical Theology has traditionally operated within a clerical and ecclesiological paradigm, this article proposes that the space within which Practical Theology comes to fruition, should be society in the broadest sense of the word. It is within this space that the contributions of the abovementioned eight paradigms are made operational through Practical Theology of significance, in other words Practical Theology that signifies but also generates meaning. Significance forms the centre of the wheel of Practical Theology, which turns within the realms of society. <![CDATA[<b>Music and cultural diversity in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512009000400010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Hierdie artikel gaan uit van die mening dat die politieke versoening, wat tot die vestiging van demokrasie in Suid-Afrika gelei het, nie gepaardgegaan het met 'n ooreenkomstige en gelykwaardige versoening op die sosiale en veral kulturele terreine nie. Hierdie "onafgehandelde besigheid" gee toenemend aanleiding tot spanning op allerlei vlakke, soos die taalkwessie, plekname, interpretasie van die geskiedenis, skoolleerplanne, ens. Ook op die gebied van musiek - veral in die openbare media, die onderwys en die toedeling van fondse - is hierdie probleme merkbaar. Om die bydrae te ondersoek wat musiek kan maak tot versoening van die soort konflik wat potensieel met kulturele diversiteit gepaardgaan, word dit gekoppel aan die begrip menswaardigheid, gebaseer op die opvatting dat musikaliteit 'n universele kenmerk is wat met die evolusie van homo sapiens na vore gekom het. Met musiek (soos met taal) artikuleer die mens sy menswees en dus sy menswaardigheid. Met verwysing na moderne ekumeniese teologie word daar tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat 'n versoening van musikale (en by implikasie ook kulturele) diversiteit slegs op die basis van menswaardigheid en vanuit 'n houding van selfkritiek bereik kan word. Dit gaan daarom dat die ander se estetiese sienings aanvaar word sonder om jou eie sienings prys te gee. Vanuit 'n posisie van selfkritiek word dit moontlik om elkeen se reg te erken om sy eie musikale identiteit te kies terwyl die verskillende musiekstyle terselfdertyd aan kritiek onderwerp kan word. 'n Musikale (en intellektuele) middelgrond word bepleit waar die verskillende musiekstyle met mekaar in interaksie kan tree sonder om noodwendig hulle eie estetiese paradigmas te moet prysgee. Demokrasie verskaf die mees geskikte raamwerk waarbinne dit kan plaasvind. Gebrek aan kulturele versoening in Suid-Afrika, en die konflikpotensiaal wat dit inhou, kan die delikate ooreenkomste wat veertien jaar gelede op politieke terrein bereik is, ongedaan maak. Sodanige musikale versoening sou as 'n belangrike model kon dien vir 'n veel breër kulturele versoening.<hr/>This article takes as its point of departure the opinion that the political reconciliation that led to the establishment of democracy in South Africa was not accompanied by an equivalent reconciliation in the social and especially the cultural spheres of our society. This unfinished business is creating increased levels of tension on various levels of the social life in the South African nation, such as the vexing language question, education, conflicting interpretations of our history, place names, land reform, etc. In the sphere of music - especially in respect of school curricula, the public media and the allocation of funding - such conflict is also noticeable. In order to investigate the contribution that could be made by music towards the resolution of conflict resulting from cultural diversity, it is linked to the concept of human dignity. It is argued that the capacity for music, which is a universal characteristic of homo sapiens, leads to one of the forms of symbolic thinking by which humans articulate their dignity. Humans express their humanness by means of music (and, of course, language) and thus also their dignity. I am able to recognise the dignity of the other in his/her music. Drawing on ideas advanced by contemporary ecumenical theology, it is subsequently proposed that musical diversity can be addressed only by taking on an attitude of self-criticism. It is about the imperative of accepting the aesthetic views of the other without sacrificing one's own. From a position of self-criticism it becomes possible to recognise everyone's right to choose a particular musical identity while at the same time allowing the various musical styles to be subjected to critique. A musical (and intellectual) middle ground is then called for where various musical styles can interact with each other without necessarily giving up their particular aesthetic paradigms. Finally, the tension between musical diversity and democracy is thematised. It is argued that democracy provides the best framework within which musical diversity, as it is discussed in the article, can be accommodated. If cultural reconciliation is not achieved in South Africa, the delicate accord that was reached on the political level in 1994 could be in danger of unravelling. Reconciling musical diversity could provide an important model for such broader cultural reconciliation. <![CDATA[<b>Was the Great Trek really great? A historiographical inquiry into the consequences and significance of the Great Trek</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512009000400011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Sedert die laat negentiende eeu het historici die gevolge en betekenis van die Groot Trek bespreek. Daar kan verskillende hooftendense in die interpretasies onderskei word. Daar is eerstens die vroeë beskouing dat die Trek die beskawing in suidelike Afrika uitgedra het. Tweedens is daar die siening van Afrikaanse historici dat die Groot Trek die totstandkoming van die Afrikanervolk moontlik gemaak het. Derdens het lede van die liberale skool van historici die Trek beskou as 'n ontvlugting van progressiewe Britse beleidsmaatreëls in die Kaapkolonie; dit was 'n ramp vir die ontwikkeling van Suid-Afrika. Vierdens is daar die siening van die radikale skool dat die Groot Trek 'n fase was in die uitbreiding van kapitalisme en kolonialisme in Suid-Afrika. Vyfdens is daar die resente opvatting dat die Groot Trek net een van verskeie migrasies in Suid-Afrika was en nie uitgesonder kan word as van besondere betekenis nie. Sesdens beskou latere Afrikaanse geskiedskrywers die Trek as 'n gebeurtenis met uiteenlopende gevolge. Dit blyk dat historici steeds beïnvloed is deur tydsomstandighede in hul beklemtoning van bepaalde gevolge van die Trek. Sommige van hul stellings oor die langtermyngevolge van die Trek is spekulatief en kan moeilik gestubstansieer word. Gesien binne die perspektief van die huidige tydsgewrig was die Groot Trek primer deel van 'n omvattende proses van verwestering en modernisasie in suidelike Afrika. Alhoewel dit nie as dié sentrale gebeurtenis in die geskiedenis van Suid-Afrika gesien kan word, soos vroeër dikwels beweer is nie, is dit tog een van 'n klein aantal sleutelgebeurtenisse in die geskiedenis van die land.<hr/>Since the late nineteenth century historians have discussed the consequences and significance of the Great Trek. G M Theal, who wrote an authoritative multi-volume history of South Africa, described the Trek as a unique event in the history of modern colonisation. He, together with scholars such as G E Cory and M Nathan, saw the importance of the Great Trek especially in terms of the expansion of Western civilisation and Christianity into the eastern parts of South Africa. During the period between approximately 1900 and 1980 many Afrikaans- speaking historians were strongly influenced by Afrikaner nationalism. They linked the Great Trek to the birth of the Afrikaner nation. Some historians, such as G S Preller and C Beyers, saw the Voortrekkers as people who were already conscious of their identity as a nation and wanted to become free of British dominance. Later historians, such as G D Scholtz, C F J Muller and F A van Jaarsveld, believed that Afrikaner nationalism only developed after the Great Trek, but that the Trek prevented the anglicization of the Boers in the Cape Colony and therefore made possible the development of an Afrikaner nation. W M Macmillan, E A Walker and C W de Kiewiet, three prominent members of the liberal school of historians, also regarded the Great Trek as a very important event in the development of South Africa, but thought that it had mainly negative consequences. In their opinion, the Voortrekkers had escaped from the economic and political changes in the Cape Colony with the aim of preserving an antiquated way of life. In the Boer republics, and later in the Union of South Africa, the racial policies of the Dutch colonial period were continued, instead of the liberal racial policies practised in the Cape Colony under British rule. Some contemporary historians still accept major elements of the early liberal interpretations. Authors with a Marxist viewpoint, such as D Taylor and W M Tsotsi, also regarded the Voortrekkers as representatives of a pre-capitalist economic system, but at the same time saw them as the vanguard of the imperialist advance in Africa; the Voortrekkers were conquerers and the oppressors of the indigenous population. P Delius, T Keegan and others, however, viewed the Voortrekkers as being part of the expanding capitalist system in Southern Africa. Since the 1960s a number of historians argued that the Great Trek should not be seen as a central event in the development of South Africa. A R Willcox and N Parsons emphasized the similarities between the Great Trek and the Mfecane. N Etherington, who is critical of traditional views of the Mfecane as a dispersal of peoples in Southern Africa caused by the rise of the Zulu kingdom under Shaka, viewed the Great Trek as one of a number of "treks" by various groups during the period 1815-1854. According to him the Great Trek was not larger or more significant than the other migrations and therefore does not deserve to be called "great". During the last four decades several Afrikaans historians pointed out that the Great Trek had a number of diverse consequences. From the perspective of the history of the Afrikaners there were various negative consequences. As a result of the Trek, the Afrikaners remained politically divided for many years. Furthermore, the Trek resulted in the cultural and economic isolation of the Boers. The Great Trek increased the conflicts between the Boers and indigenous tribes, but, on the other hand, stimulated trade between black and white groups. It would appear that in their various interpretations of the consequences of the Great Trek historians were influenced by the circumstances of their own time. Consequences which during a certain period seemed very important are now no longer regarded as particularly significant. De Kiewiet, for instance, pointed out in 1941 that the Great Trek connected the future development of the whole of South Africa with the Afrikaners, but today the Afrikaners are no longer the politically dominant group. Interpretations of the signifance of the Great Trek have also been strongly influenced by philosophical and ideological views. Afrikaner nationalists, African nationalists, Marxists and liberal historians have emphasized different consequences. While the view of the liberal school that the Great Trek caused the continuation of non-liberal racial policies had been influential for a long time, it was challenged by later scholars who regarded racism and apartheid as products of capitalism and colonialism. Some statements on the long term consequences of the Great Trek are speculative and cannot be proved or disproved. Among these are the proposition of several Afrikaner historians that the descendants of the Voortrekkers would have been completely anglicized if they had remained in the Cape Colony; and the statement by De Kiewiet that the Great Trek had prevented the development of separate white and black states in Southern Africa. The Great Trek was an important phase in the Western colonisation of South Africa. Early historians such as Theal saw the colonisation process as a positive development. For African nationalist writers, however, colonisation meant primarily the oppression of the indigenous peoples. Political decolonisation did not bring an end to the process of westernisation and modernisation in Africa, and the dominant political and economic system in South Africa today is mainly of Western origin. The Great Trek was a key event in the history of South Africa, comparable with events such as the British conquest of the Cape Colony in 1806 and the transfer of political power to the black majority in 1994. <![CDATA[<b>Women authors of youth fiction on the Anglo-Boer War: Realism and reconciliation after decades of adventure and nationalism</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512009000400012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Die Anglo-Boereoorlog het 'n baie belangrike invloed op die geskiedenis van die Afrikaner gehad en is as tema ook goed verteenwoordig in die Afrikaanse literatuur vir volwassenes. Aan die ander kant het daar relatief min jeugboeke met hierdie oorlog as tema verskyn. Die moontlikhede wat dié oorlog, waaraan soveel kinders aktief deelgeneem het, aan outeurs gebied het, is nie in die Afrikaanse kinder- en jeugliteratuur ontgin nie. Die vlaag nuwe boeke vir volwassenes wat met die honderdjarige herdenking van die oorlog aan die einde van die eeu in Afrikaans verskyn het, het nie in die kinder- en jeugliteratuur gemanifesteer nie. Géén nuwe Afrikaanse kinder- en jeugboeke met hierdie oorlog as tema het na 1990 verskyn nie. Afrikaanse kinders en jongmense het dus nie die voordele geniet wat sulke boeke dikwels vir volwassenes gehad het nie, naamlik waarheid, versoening en die herskepping van die individuele en die kollektiewe. Word die kinder- en jeugboeke wat in die 1980's oor die oorlog verskyn het, van nader beskou, blyk dit dat hierdie boeke aansienlik verskil van die boeke met die oorlog as tema wat voor hierdie tyd gepubliseer is. Dit is opvallend dat hierdie verandering saamval met die tyd toe vroueskrywers vir die eerste keer oor die oorlog begin skryf het. Voor 1980 is Afrikaanse kinderen jeugboeke oor die oorlog op twee na deur mans geskryf. In hierdie artikel word die veranderinge (soos die uitbeelding van karakters, pogings tot versoening, ens.) wat vroueskrywers teweeggebring het, bespreek. Dit word gedoen aan die hand van 'n aanvanklike vergelyking van die Afrikaanse kinder- enjeugliteratuur wat in verskillende tydperke oor die oorlog geskryf is, met Suid-Afrikaanse fiksie vir volwassenes soos in 1998 deur Eduan Swanepoel in 'n artikel in Stilet bespreek is.<hr/>The Anglo-Boer War has been a very important influence in the history of the Afrikaners, and is well represented as a theme in Afrikaans literature for adults. However, so far relatively few books for young people have appeared with the war as their theme. The potential of this war, in which so many children were active participants, has not been realised properly by authors of Afrikaans children's and youth literature. The wave of new books for adults which appeared in Afrikaans during the centenary of the war at the end of the 20th century did not reach children's and youth literature. No new children's or youth books with the war as theme have appeared after 1990. The role often played by such books for adults - finding the truth, achieving reconciliation and recreating both individuals and the collective - was therefore not available by way of Afrikaans children's and youth literature. In this article five Afrikaans youth books with the Anglo-Boer war as theme that were published between 1985 and 1990 were analysed. These books include Gezina en die bruin wind by Maretha Maartens (1985), Helena in die tyd van die tente by Franci Greyling (1986), Dirkie, Drieka, Frederika by Franci Greyling (1988), Wynand se oorlog by Ria Jordaan (1989) and Eendag was daar 'n oorlog by Heléne le Roux (1990). All these books were written by female authors. If we look more closely at the children's and youth books on the war which appeared in the 1980s, it is evident that they differ considerably from the ones which had been published prior to this. Books on the war before the 1980s can mainly be described as adventure stories against a background of the war. These books have a powerful nationalistic and patriotic message. On the other hand, youth literature appearing in the 1980s is characterised by depictions of female characters' experiences of the war. These female characters are depicted as strong, resolute and undaunted women. The books also reveal a more realistic view ofwar and the meaning of heroism. The emphasis is on the characters' inner growth and the insights which they gain from the war. There is also a clear difference in the depiction of the enemy, while attempts at reconciliation are touched upon without falling into the trap of didacticism. Relations between white and black are depicted with due regard for the altered sociopolitical situation in South Africa during the 1980s, and for the first time the suffering of black people in the war is touched upon. This change coincides with the first contributions of women writers to literature on the war. Before 1980, Afrikaans children's and youth books on the war were with two exceptions written by men. This article discusses the changes introduced by women writers on the Anglo-Boer War. It initially compares the children's andyouth literature on this topic in Afrikaans with South African adult fiction as discussed by Eduan Swanepoel in 1998. Swanepoel identifies in an article in Stilet, five periods ofwhich the first extends from 1902-1910 and is characterised by personal accounts. The second period, 1910-1934, features memoirs with an additional element of fiction. Literature which appeared during the third period, between 1934 and 1948, is overwhelmingly propagandist. After a period featuring trivial popular novels replete with anti-English sentiments (1948-1980), we have the postmodern or postcolonial phase, characterised by a reversal of ideological and political sentiments. As far as Afrikaans youth literature is concerned, the first two phases do not for practical purposes exist. The next two phases identified by Swanepoel can be combined in Afrikaans youth literature. Most of the youth books which appeared during that time were written by Mikro. The postmodern or postcolonial period can be identified in youth literature about the war written by female authors. <![CDATA[<b>Future expectations amongst the youth of the brown population group in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512009000400013&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Normaalweg visualiseer die jeug 'n toekoms waarin hulle as volwaardige burgers kan woon, werk en bydra tot die ontwikkeling van hul vaderland. Hierdie toekomsperspektief is opvoedkundig van groot belang, omdat dit 'n wesenlike faktor in leermotivering is. Die bruin bevolkingsgroep in Suid-Afrika het te kampe met talle maatskaplike, ekonomiese en politieke uitdagings as gevolg van volgehoue marginalisering, ook in die nuwe politieke bedeling in Suid-Afrika. Teen hierdie agtergrond is die volgende navorsingsvraag geformuleer: In watter mate is die bruin jeug skepties oor hul toekoms in Suid-Afrika? 'n Vraelysondersoek is onder Graadll leerders gedoen. Teen die verwagting in het dit geblyk dat respondente oorwegend positief was oor die verwesenliking van hul toekomsideale in Suid-Afrika. Hierdie bevinding hou veel goeds in vir die maatskaplike opheffing en positiewe selfbeeld van Suid-Afrika se bruin gemeenskap.<hr/>The brown population in South Africa is not only faced with numerous social, economic and political challenges but also experiences a lack of collective identity. Hendricks (2005:118) points out that the origin of the brown population group can be traced back to historical social atrocities like slavery, murder and rape. The collective identity of the brown population is often shrouded in a lack of self-confidence and psychological empowerment, which left them over the years without any significant economic or political power (Adhikari 2002:123). During the Apartheid dispensation, two measures in particular had a devastating effect on the brown population group, namely the Group Areas Act (South Africa 1950) and the Act on the Separate Representation of Voters (South Africa 1951). By means of the former, many people of colour were forced to move to other, separate and often second rate residential areas, whilst the latter resulted in far reaching political marginalisation. High expectations that this situation would change after 1994 were gradually but surely disappointed. The coloured population group's feelings of marginality - and of betrayal amongst some disillusioned former supporters of the anti-apartheid movement - have since been exacerbated by a perceived loss of status in the new South Africa. Over the years, sociologists have busied themselves with the question about the extent to which an uncertain sense of identity contributes to social problems which manifest in violence and crime. Concerning the brown population group, such a link seems to have been established with considerable certainty (Williams 2002; Laubscher 2003). Compared to other population groups, the incidence of social problems is actually the highest amongst brown people (Laubscher 2003). Ideally, the youth strives for a future in which they can live, work and contribute as full-fledged citizens towards the development of their country. Such a future perspective is educationally of high relevance, because it is a significant factor in the motivation to learn. In view of the brown population group's continued precarious position, the following research question was formulated: To what extent are brown adolescents sceptical about their future in South Africa? Grade 12 learners would have been the ideal target group for this research since they are on the brink of stepping into the future. However, since principals generally do not wish the academic programme of Grade 12 learners to be disturbed, the study focused on Grade 11 learners in the assumption that the data gained from this group would not be significantly different. After an initial focus group interview with a Grade 11 group to identify main themes and categories, these were used to develop a questionnaire for wider use in a questionnaire survey. The schools involved were purposively selected in order to acquire data from semi-urban and urban settings in which the brown population group is strongly represented, or the majority. The questionnaires were personally delivered and collected, and a response rate of nearly 100% could thus be achieved. In view of the already mentioned identity search and related problems, it was assumed that this would be reflected in a rather negative outlook on the future amongst the youth of the brown population group. Contrary to this expectation the foremost research conclusion was that the respondents held a predominantly positive view on their future in South Africa. This finding bodes well for the learning motivation of brown adolescents, and for the social upliftment and positive self-concept of South Africa's brown population group. <![CDATA[<b>The ANC and the national democratic revolution: Political and strategic perspectives</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512009000400014&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Die Nasionaal-Demokratiese Rewolusie (NDR) is as konsep en ideologiese raamwerk baie bekend binne die denkpatroon van die ANC en sy bondgenote. Anders as wat soms verwag is, is die NDR as denkraamwerk nie na 1994 opgehef nie, maar slegs in 'n strategiese en taktiese sin geherposisioneer onder die vlag van sosiale, politieke en ekonomiese transformasie. By die onlangse Polokwane Konferensie van die ANC (einde 2007) het die organisasie verskeie resolusies aanvaar wat in lyn is met die grondbeginsels van die NDR wat ook neerslag gevind het in die ANC se 2009-verkiesingsmanifes. Hierdie artikel fokus op die NDR as politiek-ideologiese denkraamwerk met die beklemtoning van polities-strategiese aspekte.<hr/>Recently the leader of the officiai opposition, Helen Zilie, said the following: "The ANC's National Democratic Revolution (NDR) is not only incompatible with democracy, but it lies at the heart of virtually every crisis we face. The electricity crisis, the arms deal, the manipulation of the criminal justice system, the weakening of parliament and threats to the media and the judiciary can all be traced back to the NDR". The ANC 's reaction to this was: "Our tasks are clear: We must advance in unity as we mobilise the masses to build a caring national democratic society. Our National Democratic Revolution will not be halted" (ANC Today, 22-28 February 2008:3, 6). At the recent Polokwane Conference of the ANC this organisation's commitment to the NDR was confirmed once again, and matters such as poverty relief, job creation and greater social and economic equality were seen to be important priorities of the "Revolution". However, closer examination reveals that the NDR is apparently a direct consequence of complex ideological schools of thought as these are anchored within the broader framework of the philosophy and ideology of revolution; and adapted to distinctive South African political, economic and social circumstances. Political transformation and its underlying philosophy actually only represents a specific face or phase of the NDR and does not necessarily exclude other viewpoints, perspectives and strategies (historic or future). The following aspects need to be accentuated against this background: • The NDR defines the "religion" of the thinking of the National Democratic Movement (NDM=ANC and others) and is also the "leitmotif within the greater ideological framework. • The application thereof is often extremely pragmatic (situational) to keep pace with the distinctive South African context and changes within this context. • The NDR is the fundamental framework (paradigm of ratiocination) within which the "broad church" of the ANC thinks and reaches consensus over matters. (The Polokwane Conference was a striking example of exactly this!) • The application context of the NDR must constantly be reinterpreted to determine its success (or otherwise) and to link up with changing (read new) circumstances. (This is why STRATEGY AND TACTICS: are revised anew at each National Conference!) • Ideologically the NDR draws on complex thinking and tendencies regarding the theory and practice of revolution, for instance Classical Marxism, Leninism, Stalinism (especially the idea of "revolution from above") and Maoism as well as ratiocination pertaining to decolonisation and existentialism. • A huge number of Afrikaans-speaking people (including politicians and community leaders) have a very limited understanding of this way of thinking (or even no understanding at all) and therefore do not have the ability to interpret current policy and practice meaningfully and set up antipodes for this - where and if needed. With especially the last-mentioned aspect in mind, the aim of the present article is, firstly, to enable readers better to understand the NDR as the "hard core" of the ANC; and, secondly, to grasp the government's way of thinking as it pertains to South African politics, economy and the society. Although this presentation will touch on a number of strategic aspects of South African politics, it must not be confused with a strategic analysis of the macro-political environment and scenario analysis of the South African political situation. The primary aim is only to get a perspective on the soul of the National Democratic Movement and, in particular, of the ANC. The article focuses, inter alia, on the following: • Revolution as a concept and the application thereof within the framework of the NDR. • A structural analysis of the NDR. Unrestricted. • The dynamics of the NDR. • The future of the NDR. <![CDATA[<b>Perceptions of managers in the public sector regarding the relevance of training and education of entrants to the labour market</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512009000400015&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Die toepaslikheid van die opleiding en ontwikkeling wat deur tersiêre instellings verskaf word, word dikwels uit verskillende oorde bevraagteken. Die vraag is wat as maatstaf behoort te geld om hieroor 'n besluit te kan neem. Baie opvoedkundiges en sakelui glo dat die behoeftes en vereistes van die arbeidsmark die deurslag behoort te gee wanneer besluite oor kurrikuluminhoud van tersiêre opleidingsprogramme onder die soeklig kom. Die doel van hierdie studie was om juis te bepaal wat hierdie behoeftes en vereistes van die arbeidsmark is, veral vanuit die perspektief van bestuurders in die openbare sektor wat 'n prominente werkgewer is. 'n Geleentheidsteekproef bestaande uit bestuurders wat organisasies in die openbare sektor in stedelike en plattelandse areas en op verskillende bestuursvlakke in die Vrystaat en Noord-Kaapland verteenwoordig, is geselekteer. Inligting is bekom deur middel van vraelyste en fokusgroeponderhoude. Deelnemers se response is verwerk en geïnterpreteer ooreenkomstig die riglyne van inhoudsontleding. Nuttige inligting is ingesamel aangaande die toepaslikheid van opleiding en ontwikkeling, asook die werksverwante tekortkominge van toetreders tot die arbeismark vanuit die oogpunt van bestuurders in die openbare sektor.<hr/>The relevance and appropriateness of training and education have become an important issue that is being debated in many circles of society, including the government, educational institutions, the labour market, the private sector, the public sector, economists and consumers. Pertinent questions are being asked regarding the real definitions of relevance and appropriateness, the criteria that should be applied, the needs that should be addressed, and the functions that should be allocated to the respective role players. These questions are complex and difficult to answer clearly, especially in the light of the ever changing external and internal environments and the associated demands. Educational institutions which are preparing and equipping students for their future careers are therefore necessitated to ask themselves whether or not the training and development that they are providing are still relevant and appropriate. According to many educationists training and education can only be appropriate and relevant when the demands of the labour market can be addressed sufficiently. The purpose of this study was to determine these demands, especially from the view point of managers in the public sector, which is an important employer. A sample of 67 managers representing organizations in public sectors in urban and rural areas in the Free State and the Northern Cape, and from different managerial levels of the organizations, was selected. Information was obtained by means of questionnaires and focus group interviews. Paticipants 'responses were processed and interpreted according to the ground rules of content analysis. Useful information regarding the relevance of the training and education, as well as job related shortcomings of labour market entrants was acquired. Many managers indicated that tertiary institution training is not specific enough to address the unique needs of specific organizations, and that in-service training should be conducted to orientate newcomers to the unique characteristics and demands of a specific work environment, and to equip them with more specific job related skills and expertise. Another trend that emerged as a result from the study is that in addition to job related skills and expertise, life skills like interpersonal skills and problem-solving skills are also required in the work environment. Managers in the public sector identified numerous specific job related shortcomings of entrants to the labour market, including the inability to integrate theory and practice with one another; lack of sufficient job related practical knowledge; unrealistic expectations regarding salaries, fringe benefits and promotion opportunities; as well as a lack of a broad range of generic life skills. Examples of specific life skills that are lacking include self-confidence, the ability to work in diverse groups, interpersonal skills, commitment to achieve organizational goals, verbal communication skills, an internal locus of control, maturity, problem-solving skills, independent decision-making skills, work ethics, self-discipline, time management, quality of services, presentation skills, punctuality, self-actualisation, common sense, internal drive, adaptability and flexibility, stress management, conflict management, endurance and perseverance, humility, emotional intelligence, ability to see the bigger picture, and balancing the respective life roles. <![CDATA[<b>Gedigte</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512009000400016&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Die toepaslikheid van die opleiding en ontwikkeling wat deur tersiêre instellings verskaf word, word dikwels uit verskillende oorde bevraagteken. Die vraag is wat as maatstaf behoort te geld om hieroor 'n besluit te kan neem. Baie opvoedkundiges en sakelui glo dat die behoeftes en vereistes van die arbeidsmark die deurslag behoort te gee wanneer besluite oor kurrikuluminhoud van tersiêre opleidingsprogramme onder die soeklig kom. Die doel van hierdie studie was om juis te bepaal wat hierdie behoeftes en vereistes van die arbeidsmark is, veral vanuit die perspektief van bestuurders in die openbare sektor wat 'n prominente werkgewer is. 'n Geleentheidsteekproef bestaande uit bestuurders wat organisasies in die openbare sektor in stedelike en plattelandse areas en op verskillende bestuursvlakke in die Vrystaat en Noord-Kaapland verteenwoordig, is geselekteer. Inligting is bekom deur middel van vraelyste en fokusgroeponderhoude. Deelnemers se response is verwerk en geïnterpreteer ooreenkomstig die riglyne van inhoudsontleding. Nuttige inligting is ingesamel aangaande die toepaslikheid van opleiding en ontwikkeling, asook die werksverwante tekortkominge van toetreders tot die arbeismark vanuit die oogpunt van bestuurders in die openbare sektor.<hr/>The relevance and appropriateness of training and education have become an important issue that is being debated in many circles of society, including the government, educational institutions, the labour market, the private sector, the public sector, economists and consumers. Pertinent questions are being asked regarding the real definitions of relevance and appropriateness, the criteria that should be applied, the needs that should be addressed, and the functions that should be allocated to the respective role players. These questions are complex and difficult to answer clearly, especially in the light of the ever changing external and internal environments and the associated demands. Educational institutions which are preparing and equipping students for their future careers are therefore necessitated to ask themselves whether or not the training and development that they are providing are still relevant and appropriate. According to many educationists training and education can only be appropriate and relevant when the demands of the labour market can be addressed sufficiently. The purpose of this study was to determine these demands, especially from the view point of managers in the public sector, which is an important employer. A sample of 67 managers representing organizations in public sectors in urban and rural areas in the Free State and the Northern Cape, and from different managerial levels of the organizations, was selected. Information was obtained by means of questionnaires and focus group interviews. Paticipants 'responses were processed and interpreted according to the ground rules of content analysis. Useful information regarding the relevance of the training and education, as well as job related shortcomings of labour market entrants was acquired. Many managers indicated that tertiary institution training is not specific enough to address the unique needs of specific organizations, and that in-service training should be conducted to orientate newcomers to the unique characteristics and demands of a specific work environment, and to equip them with more specific job related skills and expertise. Another trend that emerged as a result from the study is that in addition to job related skills and expertise, life skills like interpersonal skills and problem-solving skills are also required in the work environment. Managers in the public sector identified numerous specific job related shortcomings of entrants to the labour market, including the inability to integrate theory and practice with one another; lack of sufficient job related practical knowledge; unrealistic expectations regarding salaries, fringe benefits and promotion opportunities; as well as a lack of a broad range of generic life skills. Examples of specific life skills that are lacking include self-confidence, the ability to work in diverse groups, interpersonal skills, commitment to achieve organizational goals, verbal communication skills, an internal locus of control, maturity, problem-solving skills, independent decision-making skills, work ethics, self-discipline, time management, quality of services, presentation skills, punctuality, self-actualisation, common sense, internal drive, adaptability and flexibility, stress management, conflict management, endurance and perseverance, humility, emotional intelligence, ability to see the bigger picture, and balancing the respective life roles. <![CDATA[<b><i>Kaburu: 'n drama vir die verhoog</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512009000400017&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Die toepaslikheid van die opleiding en ontwikkeling wat deur tersiêre instellings verskaf word, word dikwels uit verskillende oorde bevraagteken. Die vraag is wat as maatstaf behoort te geld om hieroor 'n besluit te kan neem. Baie opvoedkundiges en sakelui glo dat die behoeftes en vereistes van die arbeidsmark die deurslag behoort te gee wanneer besluite oor kurrikuluminhoud van tersiêre opleidingsprogramme onder die soeklig kom. Die doel van hierdie studie was om juis te bepaal wat hierdie behoeftes en vereistes van die arbeidsmark is, veral vanuit die perspektief van bestuurders in die openbare sektor wat 'n prominente werkgewer is. 'n Geleentheidsteekproef bestaande uit bestuurders wat organisasies in die openbare sektor in stedelike en plattelandse areas en op verskillende bestuursvlakke in die Vrystaat en Noord-Kaapland verteenwoordig, is geselekteer. Inligting is bekom deur middel van vraelyste en fokusgroeponderhoude. Deelnemers se response is verwerk en geïnterpreteer ooreenkomstig die riglyne van inhoudsontleding. Nuttige inligting is ingesamel aangaande die toepaslikheid van opleiding en ontwikkeling, asook die werksverwante tekortkominge van toetreders tot die arbeismark vanuit die oogpunt van bestuurders in die openbare sektor.<hr/>The relevance and appropriateness of training and education have become an important issue that is being debated in many circles of society, including the government, educational institutions, the labour market, the private sector, the public sector, economists and consumers. Pertinent questions are being asked regarding the real definitions of relevance and appropriateness, the criteria that should be applied, the needs that should be addressed, and the functions that should be allocated to the respective role players. These questions are complex and difficult to answer clearly, especially in the light of the ever changing external and internal environments and the associated demands. Educational institutions which are preparing and equipping students for their future careers are therefore necessitated to ask themselves whether or not the training and development that they are providing are still relevant and appropriate. According to many educationists training and education can only be appropriate and relevant when the demands of the labour market can be addressed sufficiently. The purpose of this study was to determine these demands, especially from the view point of managers in the public sector, which is an important employer. A sample of 67 managers representing organizations in public sectors in urban and rural areas in the Free State and the Northern Cape, and from different managerial levels of the organizations, was selected. Information was obtained by means of questionnaires and focus group interviews. Paticipants 'responses were processed and interpreted according to the ground rules of content analysis. Useful information regarding the relevance of the training and education, as well as job related shortcomings of labour market entrants was acquired. Many managers indicated that tertiary institution training is not specific enough to address the unique needs of specific organizations, and that in-service training should be conducted to orientate newcomers to the unique characteristics and demands of a specific work environment, and to equip them with more specific job related skills and expertise. Another trend that emerged as a result from the study is that in addition to job related skills and expertise, life skills like interpersonal skills and problem-solving skills are also required in the work environment. Managers in the public sector identified numerous specific job related shortcomings of entrants to the labour market, including the inability to integrate theory and practice with one another; lack of sufficient job related practical knowledge; unrealistic expectations regarding salaries, fringe benefits and promotion opportunities; as well as a lack of a broad range of generic life skills. Examples of specific life skills that are lacking include self-confidence, the ability to work in diverse groups, interpersonal skills, commitment to achieve organizational goals, verbal communication skills, an internal locus of control, maturity, problem-solving skills, independent decision-making skills, work ethics, self-discipline, time management, quality of services, presentation skills, punctuality, self-actualisation, common sense, internal drive, adaptability and flexibility, stress management, conflict management, endurance and perseverance, humility, emotional intelligence, ability to see the bigger picture, and balancing the respective life roles. <![CDATA[<b>"En hy is Willem en ek is Dot"</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512009000400018&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Die toepaslikheid van die opleiding en ontwikkeling wat deur tersiêre instellings verskaf word, word dikwels uit verskillende oorde bevraagteken. Die vraag is wat as maatstaf behoort te geld om hieroor 'n besluit te kan neem. Baie opvoedkundiges en sakelui glo dat die behoeftes en vereistes van die arbeidsmark die deurslag behoort te gee wanneer besluite oor kurrikuluminhoud van tersiêre opleidingsprogramme onder die soeklig kom. Die doel van hierdie studie was om juis te bepaal wat hierdie behoeftes en vereistes van die arbeidsmark is, veral vanuit die perspektief van bestuurders in die openbare sektor wat 'n prominente werkgewer is. 'n Geleentheidsteekproef bestaande uit bestuurders wat organisasies in die openbare sektor in stedelike en plattelandse areas en op verskillende bestuursvlakke in die Vrystaat en Noord-Kaapland verteenwoordig, is geselekteer. Inligting is bekom deur middel van vraelyste en fokusgroeponderhoude. Deelnemers se response is verwerk en geïnterpreteer ooreenkomstig die riglyne van inhoudsontleding. Nuttige inligting is ingesamel aangaande die toepaslikheid van opleiding en ontwikkeling, asook die werksverwante tekortkominge van toetreders tot die arbeismark vanuit die oogpunt van bestuurders in die openbare sektor.<hr/>The relevance and appropriateness of training and education have become an important issue that is being debated in many circles of society, including the government, educational institutions, the labour market, the private sector, the public sector, economists and consumers. Pertinent questions are being asked regarding the real definitions of relevance and appropriateness, the criteria that should be applied, the needs that should be addressed, and the functions that should be allocated to the respective role players. These questions are complex and difficult to answer clearly, especially in the light of the ever changing external and internal environments and the associated demands. Educational institutions which are preparing and equipping students for their future careers are therefore necessitated to ask themselves whether or not the training and development that they are providing are still relevant and appropriate. According to many educationists training and education can only be appropriate and relevant when the demands of the labour market can be addressed sufficiently. The purpose of this study was to determine these demands, especially from the view point of managers in the public sector, which is an important employer. A sample of 67 managers representing organizations in public sectors in urban and rural areas in the Free State and the Northern Cape, and from different managerial levels of the organizations, was selected. Information was obtained by means of questionnaires and focus group interviews. Paticipants 'responses were processed and interpreted according to the ground rules of content analysis. Useful information regarding the relevance of the training and education, as well as job related shortcomings of labour market entrants was acquired. Many managers indicated that tertiary institution training is not specific enough to address the unique needs of specific organizations, and that in-service training should be conducted to orientate newcomers to the unique characteristics and demands of a specific work environment, and to equip them with more specific job related skills and expertise. Another trend that emerged as a result from the study is that in addition to job related skills and expertise, life skills like interpersonal skills and problem-solving skills are also required in the work environment. Managers in the public sector identified numerous specific job related shortcomings of entrants to the labour market, including the inability to integrate theory and practice with one another; lack of sufficient job related practical knowledge; unrealistic expectations regarding salaries, fringe benefits and promotion opportunities; as well as a lack of a broad range of generic life skills. Examples of specific life skills that are lacking include self-confidence, the ability to work in diverse groups, interpersonal skills, commitment to achieve organizational goals, verbal communication skills, an internal locus of control, maturity, problem-solving skills, independent decision-making skills, work ethics, self-discipline, time management, quality of services, presentation skills, punctuality, self-actualisation, common sense, internal drive, adaptability and flexibility, stress management, conflict management, endurance and perseverance, humility, emotional intelligence, ability to see the bigger picture, and balancing the respective life roles. <![CDATA[<b>Dié biografie van Afrikaans gaan inlig, skok én teleurstel</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512009000400019&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Die toepaslikheid van die opleiding en ontwikkeling wat deur tersiêre instellings verskaf word, word dikwels uit verskillende oorde bevraagteken. Die vraag is wat as maatstaf behoort te geld om hieroor 'n besluit te kan neem. Baie opvoedkundiges en sakelui glo dat die behoeftes en vereistes van die arbeidsmark die deurslag behoort te gee wanneer besluite oor kurrikuluminhoud van tersiêre opleidingsprogramme onder die soeklig kom. Die doel van hierdie studie was om juis te bepaal wat hierdie behoeftes en vereistes van die arbeidsmark is, veral vanuit die perspektief van bestuurders in die openbare sektor wat 'n prominente werkgewer is. 'n Geleentheidsteekproef bestaande uit bestuurders wat organisasies in die openbare sektor in stedelike en plattelandse areas en op verskillende bestuursvlakke in die Vrystaat en Noord-Kaapland verteenwoordig, is geselekteer. Inligting is bekom deur middel van vraelyste en fokusgroeponderhoude. Deelnemers se response is verwerk en geïnterpreteer ooreenkomstig die riglyne van inhoudsontleding. Nuttige inligting is ingesamel aangaande die toepaslikheid van opleiding en ontwikkeling, asook die werksverwante tekortkominge van toetreders tot die arbeismark vanuit die oogpunt van bestuurders in die openbare sektor.<hr/>The relevance and appropriateness of training and education have become an important issue that is being debated in many circles of society, including the government, educational institutions, the labour market, the private sector, the public sector, economists and consumers. Pertinent questions are being asked regarding the real definitions of relevance and appropriateness, the criteria that should be applied, the needs that should be addressed, and the functions that should be allocated to the respective role players. These questions are complex and difficult to answer clearly, especially in the light of the ever changing external and internal environments and the associated demands. Educational institutions which are preparing and equipping students for their future careers are therefore necessitated to ask themselves whether or not the training and development that they are providing are still relevant and appropriate. According to many educationists training and education can only be appropriate and relevant when the demands of the labour market can be addressed sufficiently. The purpose of this study was to determine these demands, especially from the view point of managers in the public sector, which is an important employer. A sample of 67 managers representing organizations in public sectors in urban and rural areas in the Free State and the Northern Cape, and from different managerial levels of the organizations, was selected. Information was obtained by means of questionnaires and focus group interviews. Paticipants 'responses were processed and interpreted according to the ground rules of content analysis. Useful information regarding the relevance of the training and education, as well as job related shortcomings of labour market entrants was acquired. Many managers indicated that tertiary institution training is not specific enough to address the unique needs of specific organizations, and that in-service training should be conducted to orientate newcomers to the unique characteristics and demands of a specific work environment, and to equip them with more specific job related skills and expertise. Another trend that emerged as a result from the study is that in addition to job related skills and expertise, life skills like interpersonal skills and problem-solving skills are also required in the work environment. Managers in the public sector identified numerous specific job related shortcomings of entrants to the labour market, including the inability to integrate theory and practice with one another; lack of sufficient job related practical knowledge; unrealistic expectations regarding salaries, fringe benefits and promotion opportunities; as well as a lack of a broad range of generic life skills. Examples of specific life skills that are lacking include self-confidence, the ability to work in diverse groups, interpersonal skills, commitment to achieve organizational goals, verbal communication skills, an internal locus of control, maturity, problem-solving skills, independent decision-making skills, work ethics, self-discipline, time management, quality of services, presentation skills, punctuality, self-actualisation, common sense, internal drive, adaptability and flexibility, stress management, conflict management, endurance and perseverance, humility, emotional intelligence, ability to see the bigger picture, and balancing the respective life roles.