Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0041-475120090002&lang=en vol. 49 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>The implications of a constitutional state for developing countries</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512009000200001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Hierdie artikel begin met 'n historiese perspektief op staat en ekonomie om vervolgens oor te gaan tot 'n tipering van die aard van 'n regstaat in terme van die verskillend-geaarde regsfere in 'n gedifferensieerde samelewing. Daarna word die aard van ontwikkelende lande, die armoedeprobleem en 'n aantal prominente ontwikkelingsteorieë aan die orde gestel. Uit die feit dat oor 'n typerk van 30 jaar (1970 tot 2000) daar in sekere wêrelddele merkwaardige sukses behaal is met pogings om armoede uit te wis, maar dat armoede in sekere ander wêrelddele toegeneem het, volg dit dat breëre samehange verreken moet word in die beoordeling daarvan. Op die basis van hierdie gesigspunte word daar dan gelet op die vraag of die onderliggende beginsels van 'n regstaat 'n belangrike rol in ontwikkelende lande kan speel, onder meer in die lig van bestaande ontwikkelingsteorieë. Die onverbreeklike samehang tussen 'n vrye onderneming-stelsel, die vrye mark en die juridiese borge wat deur 'n regstaat gestel word, begelei kernelemente in die gevolgtrekking waartoe gekom word.<hr/>This article commences with a historical perspective on state and economy in order to arrive at a characterisation of the nature of a constitutional state, in terms of the differently-natured legal spheres within a differentiated society. The focus then shifts to developing countries, the problem of poverty and the relevance of various theories of development. A literature review reveals as alternative theories for economic growth the linear-stages-growth model, the neo-Marxist (or dependency) growth model, the orthodox growth model and the structural growth theory. The single main objective of all these models is the quickest eradication of poverty, but these theories differ with regard to the most suitable ways in which to eradicate poverty on a sustained basis in the shortest possible time. Literature on development strategies currently favours either the orthodox model or the structural model, as the other two models have been discredited owing to recent experiences in economic growth and development. This challenge of poverty eradication has been described as one of melting the "Golden curtain" which separates wealthy countries in the northern hemisphere from the poor countries in the southern hemisphere. Although different models aiming at economic growth and economic development were used by different countries and in different regions, African countries have shown little progress in the eradication of poverty. Factors other than the application of particular development strategies therefore played a role and contributed, depending on the circumstances, either to a faster or to a slower eradication of poverty in different regions and countries. These discrepancies that occurred over a period of 30 years (1970 tot 2000) between certain parts of the world recording remarkable progress in their efforts to combat poverty on the one hand, compared to increases in poverty in other parts of the world on the other, require an assessment which takes into account a more encompassing perspective. On the basis of these considerations the question is then raised in this paper as to whether or not the "just state" can play a significant role in developing countries, inter alia, in the light of existing theories of development. The intimate coherence between a system of free enterprise, the free market and the juridical guarantees of a just state underpins key elements in the formulation of the conclusion of this article. <![CDATA[<b>An approach to financial vulnerability reduction: Financial literacy education within a social development paradigm</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512009000200002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en 'n Beduidende aantal mense in Suid-Afrika, wat in die maatskaplike welsynsisteem geakkom-modeer word, toon gebrekkige finansiële begrip en is derhalwe finansieel kwesbaar. 'n Relevante benadering om mense se finansiële kwesbaarheid te reduseer binne die maatskaplike ontwikkelingsparadigma kan dus 'n bydrae tot die land se teen-armoede-strategie lewer en motiveer die doel van hierdie artikel, naamlik om 'n benadering tot finansiële kwesbaarheids-reduksie binne 'n maatskaplike ontwikkelingsparadigma te konstrueer. Die doel van die artikel word bereik deur die Suid-Afrikaanse maatskaplike ontwikkelingsparadigma te kontekstualiseer, waarna finansiële kwesbaarheid en finansiële geletterdheidsopvoeding binne hierdie konteks verken, beskryf en as praktykrealiteit ondersoek word deur middel van 'n instrumentele kwalitatiewe gevallestudie, bestaande uit tien deelnemers wat by 'n gevestigde nie-regeringsorganisasie (NRO) werksaam is. As uitkoms word kernelemente van finansiële geletterdheidsopvoeding as benadering vir finansiële kwesbaarheidsreduksie binne die plaaslike maatskaplike ontwikkelingsparadigma gekonstrueer. Binne hierdie paradigma is finansiële geletterdheidsopvoeding 'n mikropraktykbenadering wat volgens volwasseneonderrigbeginsels op definitiewe uitgangspunte en perspektiewe gegrond is. Hierdie mikropraktykbenadering behels die bewusmaking en deurlopende, lewenslange aanleer van 'n stel multi-dimensionele persoonsgesentreerde lewensvaardighede. Finansiële geletterdheidsopvoeding verwys ook na situasie-relevante kompetensies, wat bestaan uit spesifieke kennis, waardes en vaardighede binne inheemse kulturele verband en is gefokus op mense se vermoë om hulle beskikbare geld te bestuur. Hierdie benadering kan die grondslag vir suksesvolle inkomstegenereringsprojekte lê, kan as onderbou vir mense se migrasie na die hoofstroomekonomie dien en kan ook na ander lewensterreine getransponeer word. Sodoende word ekonomiese en menslike ontwikkeling binne 'n maatskaplike intervensiekonteks geïntegreer en is dit binne bereik van maatskaplike ontwikkelingspraktisyns om te fasiliteer.<hr/>A significant number of people in South Africa who are accommodated within the social welfare system, display a lack of understanding of financial matters and are therefore financially vulnerable. In South Africa, social welfare policy initiatives are directed by the White Paper for Social Welfare and are primarily focussed on the socio-economic needs of all South Africans, specifically those of the previously disadvantaged and poor people of the country. This White Paper which supplies a macro-policy framework for poverty alleviation, is based on social development theories, combining social and economic objectives. Practitioners of social development however, deal with financially vulnerable people on a daily basis, and within the social development paradigm, must attempt to set into operation the development goals on the micro-practice level. This matter informs the objective of this article, namely to construct an approach to financial vulnerability reduction within a social development paradigm. This could make a contribution to the country's strategy against poverty. In this article the South African social development paradigm will be placed in its proper context, after which financial vulnerability and financial literacy education will be explored and described and also examined as a practice reality by means of an instrumental qualitative case study. Participants in the case study consisted of ten registered social workers employed at an established non-government organisation (NGO). Purposive non-probability sampling was used to select the participants, as these social development practitioners could offer expert opinions on the subject. This particular NGO delivers social development services in several provinces and like other NGOs should adhere to the financial policy of the Department of Social Development. The aim of the case study was to explore how development practitioners perceive and experience the financial vulnerability of their service users (clients) within a social development paradigm as practice reality in South Africa. This goal was attained through the explorative and descriptive nature of the study. Semi-structured interviews were used as research instrument in order to elicit comments most effectively from the participants. Themes arising from the comments were processed and presented in synthesised form in the article, based on and integrated with the literature study, to ensure validity through triangulation. The case study was thus directed towards reaching the goal as set out in the article, as the findings are to be construed as key elements of financial literacy education as an approach to reduce financial vulnerability within the local social development paradigm. The findings show that financial vulnerability reduction by means of financial literacy education is an appropriate micro-practice approach by social development practitioners to attain social development goals within the context of the organisation. This approach therefore provides social development practitioners with a definite, concrete role within the social development paradigm, as they are structurally positioned to deliver financial education to financially vulnerable service users. This can lay the foundation for successful income-generating projects to be implemented. This approach means that income-generating projects are initially of secondary importance, as the development practitioners are primarily focussed on enhancing financial literacy as a life skill in the community. Traditionally this constitutes a major part of the intervention by social service professionals. The fundamental premise of this approach is that people's financial vulnerability could be reduced, enabling them to manage looming financial risks. Within the context of this study, financially vulnerable people refer to those users of social welfare services who have little or no continuous financial support, and do not have at their disposal the necessary resources to survive in times of financial distress. Financial vulnerability is viewed here not only from a monetary perspective, but also in terms of people's limited capabilities. People are rendered vulnerable when they are unable to manage their money, which implies a lack of financial literacy, and usually manifests in unmanageable debt. Financially illiterate people are therefore in dire need of a set of indispensable life skills to survive in a globalising environment. These life skills are presented as part of an integrated generic social intervention process, implemented on individual, group and community level through financial literacy education. Within a social development paradigm, financial literacy education is thus a micro-practice approach based on definite points of departure and perspectives in accordance with adult education principles. This education embraces the recognition and continuous, life-long learning of a set of multi-dimensional situation-relevant person-centred life skills within an indigenous cultural context, and is focussed on people's ability to manage their available funds. Partnerships are established between development practitioners and financial institutions, to serve as intervention resource for the presentation of financial literacy programmes. Development practitioners act as a bridge for dialogue between education programmes and vulnerable people and also ensure that financial literacy education programmes assume an appropriate position on a continuum of product marketing and general life skills. Financial education programmes aim to be preventative. The skills of financially vulnerable people are developed towards effective decision-making and having informed opinions about the use and management of money. Accordingly, and with due regard to the specific needs of financially vulnerable people, the content of education programmes is focussed on competencies relating to knowledge, values and skills in respect of financial concepts, financial self-discipline and how to avoid financial exploitation and risks. Acquisition of these values, knowledge and skills, results in a reduction in financial vulnerability, enabling people to participate with confidence in the mainstream economy. This outcome could pave the way for further programmes aimed at income generation, serve as basis for people's migration to the mainstream economy and could be reciprocally transposed to other life spheres. In this way economic and human development are integrated within a social intervention context and placed within reach of social development practitioners to facilitate. Role players should take cognizance of this. <![CDATA[<b>Lacan and the discourse of capitalism</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512009000200003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Hierdie artikel is daarop gemik om Lacan se teorie van die "vier diskoerse", en daarmee saam sy weergawe van die "diskoers van die kapitalis", wat direk hiermee verband hou, duideliker te verstaan. Lacan se teorie word teen die agtergrond van Marx, sowel as Eagleton se karakterisering van kapitaal/kapitalisme uiteengesit. Albei laasgenoemde denkers beklemtoon die kapasiteit van kapitaal om produksie te rewolusionariseer en sodoende die ganse ekonomiese en sosiale veld aan kragte van gelyktydige skepping en vernietiging te onderwerp. Lacan se formele onderskeid tussen vier tipes diskoers, asook hul onvermydelike vervlegtheid met magsrelasies word bespreek. Dit stel 'n mens in staat om die "slimheid" van die kapitalis se diskoers te begryp, daar dit op 'n "klein omkering" van betekenaars op die vlak van die meester se diskoers staatmaak, om sodoende die paradoksale posisie van die sogenaamde "histeriese kapitalistiese meester" teweeg te bring. Die moeilike vraag na moontlike wyses van verset teen, of ondermyning van, die oënskynlik onaanvegbare kapitalistiese diskoers word verder ondersoek aan die hand van die werk van Matthias Pauwels, Naomi Klein, Joel Bakan, Joel Kovel en Benda Hofmeyr.<hr/>This article is aimed at explicating Lacan's theory of the four discourses, within which his account of the discourse of the capitalist is situated. Lacan's theory is outlined against the backdrop of Marx's as well as Eagleton's characterization of capital(-ism), both of which stress its capacity to "revolutionize" production and subject the entire economic and social field to forces of simultaneous creation and dissolution. Lacan's formal distinction among four types of discourse (those of the master, the university, the hysteric, and the analyst) is discussed, with due attention to the meaning of their (sometimes confusing) schematic representation as indication of their ineluctable imbrication with power relations. This enables one to grasp the "cleverness" of the capitalist's discourse, which consists in a "tiny inversion" of signifiers at the level of the "master's discourse", producing the anomalous position of the so-called "hysterical capitalist master" -which turns out, on closer inspection, to be a mere pretence, however, strategically promoting economic (and indirectly, political) interests while masquerading as a relentless critic of those in power. Initially, in his seminar on the four discourses, Lacan appeared to group capitalism under the heading of the "discourse of the university", where knowledge is seen as organizing the social field. A few years later, in the Milan lecture, however, he apparently changed his mind and characterized the capitalist's discourse as "hysterical" instead, with the signifier of the "split subject" organizing the social field - that is, addressing the signifier for knowledge, and repressing the master signifier, which is what, according to Lacan's schema, really orchestrates the ostensible "split subject". In this way a powerful "methodological" conceptual configuration is provided for the analysis of capitalist practices, and ultimately, intellectual strategies for their subversion (although some have raised doubts about this). One may wonder why Lacan changed his mind about the structure of the capitalist's subject. Here it is argued that the change from the schematic representation of capitalist discourse along the lines of the discourse of the university, which has traditionally been in the service of the master, to a schema which highlights the agency of the capitalist in the guise of the "split subject" (the hysteric's signifier), must be understood as reflecting a different strategy on the part of the capitalist, and not a fundamental change regarding the pursuit of economic and political power. It is still the master that orchestrates the pseudo-hysterical postures and behaviour of the capitalist. The fact that, as Pauwels argues, the capitalist defuses potential criticism in advance with an ostensibly hysterical posture, poses difficulties as far as possible resistance or unmasking of this pretence is concerned. This difficult question concerning possible avenues of resistance to or subversion of the ostensibly unassailable capitalist's discourse are subsequently explored via the work of Matthias Pauwels, Naomi Klein, Joel Bakan, Joel Kovel and Benda Hofmeyr. All of these authors uncover, in various ways, the character of capitalism as an inhuman economic practice which operates relentlessly, driven solely by the profit motive, at the cost of other people as well as the environment. For example, Naomi Klein's recent book, The Shock Doctrine, which outlines her assessment of the phase (in the history of capitalism) known as "disaster capitalism", provides just the kind of information and insight to alert one to signs that strategies of resistance are not beyond one's reach, and that there are ways of debunking the hysterical behaviour of the capitalist as mere pretence in the service of power. Lacan's theory therefore proves invaluable in the setting to work of various modes of resistance and subversion of the capitalist position. This paper is an attempt to understand how this could happen (and is perhaps already happening). <![CDATA[<b>Morality as a part of Afrikaner values</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512009000200004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Wat is moraliteit? Die Verklarende Handwoordeboekvan die Afrikaanse Taal beskryf dit as: "Wat betrekking het op die gevoel vir wat goed en reg is: sedelik." Sedelik word weer verder gedefinieer as: "Ooreenkomstig die goeie sedes: deugsaam." Vanuit verskeie geesteswetenskaplike artikels blyk dit dat die sosiale groep se moraliteit by tye deur óf God, óf die kerk, óf die staat, óf die stam óf anders deur al vier hierdie partye gesamentlik bepaal word. Skynbaar bepaal die sekulêre samelewing met sy post-modernistiese perspektiewe deesdae se samelewings se moraliteit. Verskillende sosiale groepe het met ander woorde om verskillende redes verskillende waarde-oordele op verskillende tye. Die postapartheid Suid-Afrika met sy liberale grondwet en groter toeganklikheid tot die globale wêreld² help ongetwyfeld dat die hedendaagse Afrikaner meer vrydenkend raak ten opsigte van moraliteit en waarde-oordele. Jong Afrikaners begin toenemend tuis voel in die geglobaliseerde samelewing waar die postmodernistiese lewens- en wêreldbeskouings aan die orde van die dag is. Daar kan dus tereg vermeld word dat die blanke Afrikaner inderdaad besig is om sy eng konserwatiewe Christelike waardes en norme te ontgroei. Die vraag wat in hierdie artikel onder andere gevra word, is: In welke mate het ons Afrikaners se morele waardes sedert 1994, met die aanbreek van die post-apartheid era, verander?<hr/>What is morality? The Verklarende Handwoordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal describes it as: "That which relates to the sense of what is good and right (moral)". "Moral" is further defined as: "According to good mores: virtuous." The question that arises is: Who or what decides what is good and right, or what is virtuous? For example, there is a Khoi-San saying that goes: "Good is when I steal other people's wives and cattle; bad is when they steal mine" (Stewart 2004:184). From the point of view of a variety of human-scientific articles, it seems that the social group's morality is dictated at times by God, the church, the government and/or the ethnic group - and now, it seems, by the secular community, with its post-modernistic perspectives. It also seems that perceptions regarding morality and virtuousness are relative in nature, because different social groups have different value-orientations at various times. In Nietzsche's framework of thought, value is relative, provisional and time-bound. Nietzsche (1917:87) does not interpret the human being as a static, secluded substance. Moreover, the essence of human life does not lie embedded within the notion of self-preservation - it is contained in self-conquest and the realisation of the potential that is inherent within oneself. Thus, Nietzsche also refers to the human being as a creator. In the light of these convictions, according to Nietzsche, values are nothing other than perspectives that stimulate and direct the self-transcending triumph of the human being. In this sense, values comprise the conditions for the self-transcendent acts that are possible on the part of the human being. The existence of value lies in the fact that it guides the human being in his/her self-conquest. Values are not given objectively to human beings; rather, they originate from the subjective character of human life itself. This means that value is not an isolable entity that exists independently of the human being. What manifests itself as value, is that which stimulates the self-transcendence of human life, within a functional context (Menchken 1920:14-25 and Pitcher 1966:34-37). Although commentators differ regarding the question as to what the full impact of the post-apartheid dispensation was - and still is - on the Afrikaner, it is indisputably true that the political and social transformation that South Africa has undergone since 1994 has indeed been far-reaching in nature; and to a large extent, it has taken the majority of Afrikaners by surprise. Clearly, Afrikaners were not prepared for the changes that ensued, with the result that now, after a period of 14 years; they are being urgently confronted with the need to reflect on their values, moralities, solidarity, role and place in the new South Africa. According to this article, it seems that values and moralities, even amongst Afrikaners, are becoming increasingly dynamic in nature, and that individuals within Afrikaner ranks are diversifying to a greater extent, in terms of the determination of their own values and moralities. Professor P.S. Dreyer (in Nel 1979:39) writes: "In reality and in practice, however, it is always within a concrete situation of time and space that we must appraise, and obey or disobey, the demands of the prevailing values and moralities. The concrete situation of time, in the last instance, signifies history and space, as well as the state and condition of the country as the physical horizon within which the human being is obliged to live" (own translation). The new South Africa, with its liberal constitution, has undoubtedly played a contributing role in causing the modern-day Afrikaner to become more free-thinking in respect of moralities and value-judgements. Young Afrikaners are increasingly beginning to feel at home in the globalised society in which post-modernistic life- and world-views are the order of the day. It can thus rightfully be said that white Afrikaners are indeed outgrowing their narrow, conservative Christian values and norms. This does not mean that young Afrikaners are less Christianity-oriented. All that it means is that Afrikaners' perceptions and value-judgements in respect of Christianity have also undergone a metamorphosis since 1994. <![CDATA[<b>Is the academic work role still sustainable?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512009000200005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Literatuur dui daarop dat die akademiese werksbedeling en, by implikasie, akademici onder geweldige druk verkeer en dat hierdie toedrag van sake waarskynlik moeilik volhoubaar gaan wees vanweë talle eksterne sowel as interne invloede en veranderinge binne en buite hoër onderwys. Hierdie veranderinge dra daartoe by dat die akademiese werksbedeling tans as een van die mees stresbelaaide beroepe beskou word, wat terselfdertyd ook die werkstevredenheid van akademici dienooreenkomstig gaan beïnvloed. Daar is aanduidings in die literatuur dat dit heel waarskynlik in die toekoms gaan toeneem en dat die werksbedeling toenemend veeleisend gaan word, te midde van 'n reeds komplekse taak. Die gevolg hiervan lei tot 'n verskeidenheid negatiewe uitkomste vir die akademiese professie, akademici, hoëronderwysinstellings, hoër onderwys in die algemeen, asook al die ander rolspelers wat direk by hoër onderwys baat.<hr/>Literature indicates that the academic work role and, by implication, academics suffer tremendous pressure and that this role will probably be difficult to maintain and sustain in future. This is the result of numerous external and internal influences within and outside of higher education. The internal and external aspects impacting on higher education should, however, not be regarded in isolation, since there is a systemic interdependence between these aspects which collectively form and dominate the current higher education environment. External aspects which currently influence the academic work role and will continue to do so in future, include globalisation and the increased application of advanced information technology and technology within all aspects of higher education. Literature also indicates a shift in higher education from institutions that were primarily the domain of the elite to institutions that strive to admit a greater variety and larger numbers of students who do not necessarily possess the required academic foundation. The increasing competition among institutions in order to ensure survival and financial sustainability contributes to the fact that - like all other organisations - higher education institutions (and by implication academics) continually have to pay attention to the changing needs and requirements of their primary clients, namely the labour sector, students, and governments. Maintaining and ensuring ongoing quality are currently high on the agenda of higher education and most higher education institutions. Implementing and ensuring quality in higher education institutions relate to and address all aspects of higher education, including curriculum development, teaching and research - all of which must be managed by academics. The academic work role is, however, not only influenced by external realities, but also by various internal realities. One of the primary aims of any higher education institution is making available and establishing high quality teaching and learning experiences for its students. Academic staff members are primarily responsible for establishing and managing these aspects and learning environments. However, the way in which teaching and learning takes place is influenced by numerous aspects, including higher student numbers as a result of, among other things, greater accessibility and the incorporation of technology (as previously mentioned). Literature indicates that research, which is one of the core tasks of any academic, may be under pressure as a result of, among other things, the absence of resources and structures. In addition academics complain about a lack of time to do research because other tasks have to be undertaken concurrently. Yet research is regarded as the most important criterion whereby academics obtain stature and promotion. In addition to teaching and research responsibilities, the work pressure of academics is increased due to further responsibilities in the form of increased community service, and administration and entrepreneurial activities. Although administrative responsibilities form a part of the non-core activities of academics, they require additional time and inputs in an already complex work environment. In order to address the preceding dilemmas resulting from the internal and external realities, part-time teaching staff members are appointed to decrease the teaching load of full-time appointed academic personnel. Although temporary teaching staff members are utilised, full-time academics still bear the supervisory responsibilities and carry the administrative load associated with this type of appointment by higher education institutions. Higher education institutions - more so than any other organisation - depend on the intellectual abilities and the commitment of academic staff. The intellectual and creative abilities of this group largely determine the existence and sustainability of higher education institutions. The preceding changes and realities contribute to the academic work role being one of the most stressful careers, while simultaneously also influencing the work satisfaction of academics. There are indications in the literature that this will most probably increase in future and that the work role will escalate and be more demanding in the midst of an already complex task. If the academic work role is not reviewed it may lead to a variety of negative outcomes for a variety of stakeholders. These include the academic profession, academics, higher education institutions, and higher education in general, as well as all the other role-players who directly benefit from higher education, as already mentioned in the literature. <![CDATA[<b>The service quality of the PUK Rugby Institute</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512009000200006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Kliëntetevredenheid is van kardinale belang vir die PUK Rugby Instituut (PRI). Die kliënte van die PRI bestaan uit studentespelers wat hoë verwagtinge koester van die PRI om die nodige ontwikkelingswerk te doen op sport sowel as akademiese terrein. Empiriese navorsing is ingespan om die kliënte (spelers) se tevredenheid te toets. Daar is ook 'n vergelyking getref tussen sogenaamde Prioriteitspanne van die PRI (PUK 1, 0/21A en 0/19A) en Nie-prioriteitspanne (PUK 2, PUK 3 en ander onderouderdom spanne). Die dienskwaliteit is gemeet by al die spanne en die diensvlakke kan as bevredigend beskryf word. Veral die Prioriteitspanne evalueer die diens van die PRI as uitstekend. Die effekgrootte is gebruik om betekenisvolle verskille in diens te meet, en daar is bevind dat daar nie prakties betekenisvolle verskille voorkom tussen die dienstevredenheid van Prioriteitspanne en dié van Nie-prioriteitspanne nie. Verder is daar vyf onderliggende faktore geïdentifiseer deur middel van 'n faktor-ontleding wat 'n bevredigende 55% van die variansie verklaar. Hiervan is faktor 1, Sukses behaal deur die afrigtingspan, die belangrikste aangesien dit 31% van die variansie verklaar. Die ander vier faktore is: Vaardigheid van spelers, Regstellende kommunikasie, Klerasie, en Addisionele spelersbetrokkenheid.<hr/>The PUK Rugby Institute (PRI) was founded in 2000 and earmarked to be of strategic importance in the marketing of the university as well as in the role sport plays in the tertiary environment. It is imperative that the NWU rugby team(s) do well as the image of tertiary rugby has been substantially lifted as a result of the extensive media, and especially television, coverage it receives in the Varsity-cup (and other clashes). As a result, the PRI identified a number of key performance areas to ensure success on and off the field. One of these key performance areas is intent on ensuring that a high quality of service is rendered to the customers of the PRI, namely the players (and their parents). Customer service is important because not only does it guarantee satisfied players, but it also results in high quality new players being recruited. The players have high expectations of the university and especially the PRI because it is seen as not only the agent of development on the rugby field, but also on academic terrain. However, no objective measure of customer service, or the measurement of satisfaction levels, exists at the PRI. The research dealt with in this article addresses the development of a research instrument and methodology to do just that. The theoretical research concentrates on the theory of customer satisfaction and then specifically on the measurement thereof. Two models of customer service were analysed to determine their applicability in the case of measuring the customer service levels of the PRI. They were the Kano model and the Servqual model. In addition, the concept of a tailor-made measuring instrument was also researched. The outcome of the theoretical research was that, due to the uniqueness of the PRI, a tailor-made instrument should be developed specifically for the needs of the PRI. Another advantage of the tailor-made instrument is that a more detailed analysis of customer satisfaction is possible. As such, a questionnaire was developed to measure the levels of customer satisfaction specifically at the PRI. A 5-point Likert scale was employed to record the service perceptions in a number of categories. These service quality categories that were identified are: Development of individual player skills, clothing, feedback on performance, rehabilitation of injuries, academic performance, the coach, discipline and the image of the PRI. The empirical research was then performed to actually evaluate the level of customer service satisfaction of customers (players). A distinction was made between Priority teams (PUK 1, 0/21A and 0/19A) on the one hand, and Non-priority teams (PUK 2, PUK 3 and the other under-aged teams) on the other Questionnaires were distributed amongst players with the request that they complete and return them. A response rate of 90,3% resulted due to the controlled environment of data collection. The data were subjected to the reliability and internal consistency test of Cronbach alpha, and showed a favourable coefficient of 0.96. Results consist of calculating the mean values of service satisfaction across all the categories identified, a comparative analysis of perceived differences and its practical significance, and a factor analysis. The calculated mean values show that the PRI generally performed well in the categories, but that the Priority team players are even more pleased with the service quality than the Non-priority teams. However, an analysis of the practical significance of the different service quality levels was performed by means of the effect size. The analysis showed no practical significant differences in the service quality. In addition, the analysis includes a principle factor analysis (Varimax rotation). Five factors were extracted, explaining a cumulative variance of 55%. Of these five factors, factor 1, Success of the coaching team, is the most important as it explains 31% of the variance. The other factors are: Skills of players, Corrective communication, Clothing and Additional player commitment. <![CDATA[<b>The self-perceived quality of life of staff caring for adults with intellectual disabilities</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512009000200007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Hierdie artikel doen verslag oor 'n studie wat gedoen is oor die persepsies van versorgingspersoneel by 'n fasiliteit vir volwassenes met intellektuele gestremdheid aangaande hul lewensgehalte. Die doel van die studie was om die lewensgehalte te verstaan van versorgingspersoneel wat na volwassenes met intellektuele gestremdheid omsien. Daar is gebruik gemaak van teorieë met betrekking tot die positiewe sielkunde, met spesifieke verwysing na fortigeniese aannames. Hierdie kwalitatief interpreterende studie is uitgevoer in 'n fasiliteit vir volwassenes met intellektuele gestremdheid en 12 versorgers by die fasiliteit het vrywillig deelgeneem. Data is ingesamel deur gestruktureerde oop-einde vrae, asook informele en fokusgroeponderhoude, en later tematies geanaliseer. Die temas wat in die studie aangespreek is, wentel om die versorgers se 1) definisie van lewensgehalte, 2) hul persepsie van hul huidige lewensgehalte, 3) hul persepsie van die negatiewe faktore, stressore, positiewe ervarings en psigofortologiese faktore wat 'n uitwerking op hul lewensgehalte uitoefen en 4) moontlikhede om hul lewensgehalte te verbeter.. Die bevindings toon 'n paradoks van sorgverskaffing aan waar die deelnemers nie slegs oor sorgverskaffing rapporteer nie, maar ook oor die ontvangs van sorg in hul verhoudinge met volwassenes met intellektuele gestremdheid. In hierdie verhouding blyk dit dat sorgverskaffing 'n fortigenese faktor en ook 'n wyse vir interpersoonlike. florering is vir die meeste van die deelnemers. Gegrond op die bevindings word verskeie aanbevelings gedoen rakende verdere navorsing ten einde die lewensgehalte te verbeter van die personeel wat sorg verskaf aan volwassenes met intellektuele gestremdhede.<hr/>The concept "quality of life" is a product of as well as a means to the universal movement towards empowerment of individuals, equity and "health for all" (World Health Organisation, 1995, 1998). As a sensitising concept and social construct, quality of life facilitates programmatic, community and societal change. Within the field of intellectual disabilities there is a rising interest in improving the quality of life of people with intellectual disability. This is enhanced by the movement towards deinstitutionalisation, which generally sees staff caregivers as providers of a quality product. Accordingly, there is a growing emphasis on staff stress and well-being in order to improve service delivery. Within the field of positive psychology there is a need for a greater emphasis on staff well-being and positive experiences. It is argued, however, that there is not sufficient theory crediting the range of experiences and perceptions of staff caregivers (Hastings & Horne, 2004). Prior research on staff caregivers generally focused on pathology, for example stress and burnout. The study on which the article is based, focused on the perceptions of formal caregivers in an institution for the intellectually impaired about their quality of life. The aim was to understand the self-perceived quality of life of staff caring for adults with intellectual disabilities using Positive Psychology theories, and, more specifically, fortigenic principles. We focused on negative factors, pure positive experiences and fortigenic factors that enable movement to the wellness or disease poles of a health/disease continuum. It was envisaged that the study could make a contribution to the field of intellectual disabilities by expanding the focus on staff well-being and thereby enhancing service delivery. It could also possibly add to the field of positive psychology by increasing our understanding of what makes for health (quality) and not disease. This qualitative interpretive study was conducted in an institution for adults with intellectual impairment. Twelve caregivers at the institution willingly participated. Purposive sampling was used and data were generated through structured open-ended, informal questions and a focus group interview. The results were subsequently analysed thematically. The aim of the analysis was to investigate the caregivers 'perceptions regarding their quality of life. The themes discussed in the study centre on 1) the caregivers' definition of quality of life, 2) their perception of their current quality of life, 3) their perception of the negative factors, stressors, positive experiences and psychofortological factors that impact on their quality of life, and 4) possibilities for improving their quality of life. The findings indicate a paradox of caregiving where the participants report not only on caregiving, but also on care-receiving within their relationship with the adults with intellectual disabilities. What they receive from the relationship with the adults with intellectual disabilities is unconditional acceptance and meaningfulness that seems to protect them against the stressors of everyday life. Therefore, in this relationship, caregiving seems to be a fortigenic factor for most of the participants and also a means towards interpersonal flourishing. On the basis of these findings several recommendations are made for further research, with a view to striving towards improving the quality of life of staff caring for adults with intellectual disabilities. Further research could possibly focus on caregiving as a fortigenic factor with specific reference to meaningfulness and unconditional acceptance received by staff caregivers in their relationship with the adults with intellectual disabilities. Another possibility would be to focus on the similarities and differences between these results on the one hand, and the perceptions of formal caregivers of individuals with more severe disabilities on the other. The possible pathogenic side to caregiving as a fortigenic factor also leaves room for further exploration. <![CDATA[<b>Colonial names of countries in Africa before and after uhuru</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512009000200008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Die belangrikste algemene motiewe vir naamsverandering word bespreek met tiponimiese veranderinge gesien en geanaliseer as 'n ideologiese daad deur diegene met mag beklee en in staat om 'n bepaalde status quo te wysig ten einde gesag, wettigheid en selfrespek te bevestig. Die kwessies wat aangeraak word is: die uitwerking van die "wedloop om Afrika"op die Kontinent; die oproep om uhuru en die aard van Afrikanisering en die daaruit voortvloeiende wegdoen met koloniale landname; en ten slotte die aard en oorsprong van die Afrika landname wat na uhuru weer in ere herstel is.<hr/>This article inevestigates the most important general motives for name changing with toponymical changes being viewed as an ideological act by those invested with power to change a specific status quo in order to assert authority, legitimacy and self-esteem. Various concepts are touched upon: colonialism, imperialism, exploitation, anti-colonialism, decolonization and uhuru, the African word for freedom. During the period of decolonization this call for the shaking off of colonial oppression through the achievement of national independence echoed throughout the Continent. After decolonization and as black governments progressed, more patriotic symbols and ceremonies made their appearance to establish the importance of African heroism and noble deeds. After decolonization words like liberation and democracy, transformation, racism, divisive past became prevalent. The feeling among blacks was one of "centuries of wrong" during which the voice of Africans was silenced and trampled upon while they were treated as nothing more than colonized peoples. The central issue became the repressive colonial heritage and its detrimental effects on African identities. Africa had to be freed from the odour of its colonial past and what better place to start than reclaiming the African names of countries? The traces of colonialism had to be removed and the suppressed Africans healed by rethinking and repossessing the names of their countries. One of the questions that presents itself is the destabilizing effect of the European "scramble for Africa" when the Continent was carved up into political territories during the Berlin Conference in 1884-5. Britain and France acquired the largest possessions, but Germany, Italy, Spain, Portugal and Belgium all took possession of regions in Africa. What becomes clear is that colonialism had a destabilizing influence on many ethnic groups. All this led to the disturbance of the local balances of power and ethnic separations where previously they did not exist and it also resulted in fierce enmity between African ethnic groups such as Ruanda, for example. An important strand is the call for uhuru and the development of an ethos of Afro-centrism which was reflected in the riddance of the so-called "colonial hangovers" and the changing of the names of places, towns and cities, leaders and events in truly national terms. More than hundred decolonized states made their appearance worldwide after 1945 when Western actions and views on the history and culture of subservient peoples were seriously questioned. Black states wished to redeem their self-respect through reinstating the original names given by the inhabitants to African areas and countries. The manifold colonial name changes of geographical areas and countries are discussed such as the present Democratic Republic of the Congo, the name of which was changed no fewer than nine times, and the Kingdom of Benin, which changed names five times. It appears that personal craving for power, ethnic conflict and political faction differences became the driving force for manifold name changes. A full list is given of the countries of which the names were changed after colonial occupation, the year of their independence as well as their present name. In conclusion, the nature and origin of the twenty six African land names re-instituted after Uhuru are discussed in terms of the topography of the particular area especially the presence of water: Zambia (the Zambesi river), Chad (lake "Tsade"), Malawi (lake "Malawi"), Togo (from the Ewe name for water "to" and beach "go"); references to kings and kingdoms (Ethiopia from "Ityopp", the founder of the city of Actum), Mali (from an antique Islamic kingdom), Mozambique (from the name of a sultan Musa Ben Mbiki); ethnicity (Equatorial Guinea from the Berber word "gnawa" for black man), Mauritania (from the Spanish word for Moor), Guinea Bissau (from the Berber equivalent for country of the blacks, "Akal-n-iguinawen"), Botswana (after the country's inhabitants, the Tswana). <![CDATA[<b>Polish accounts of South Africa in the beginning of the 20<sup>th</sup> century: An Aesopian undercover</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512009000200009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This paper focuses on the historical accounts of South Africa published in Polish at the time of the Second Anglo-Boer War. That period was marked by the most intense European interest for South Africa. The Polish response to the Anglo-Boer conflict was no less animated, with its own specific social-historical background. Between 1795-1918, as a result of the partitions of Poland by three powerful neighbours: Russia, Prussia (later Germany) and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the country was missing from the map of Europe. It was in the Russian occupation zone in Warsaw that the support for the fighting Boers was most clearly visible. In the German and the Habsburgian sectors, the publicity of the conflict was much more balanced. A hypothetical defeat of the English posed a threat of further strengthening the political status of Germany, which would be likely to exert an adverse effect on the fate of Poland. In all three partition zones, however, the context of the attempts at the liberation of the small Boer Republics and their uprising against the British Empire was compared to the subjugation of Poland. The comparisons were conducted in a subtle and careful manner, particularly in the Russian and German zones where the preventive censorship was the strictest. Since any direct call for the preservation of the national identity would have been too dangerous, writers imposed their own restrictions on their texts, evading interference on the side of an official censor. In this way, the Anglo-Boer War became a perfect ersatz for the expression of the idea of liberation. Polish writers applied a specific code of communication, the Aesopian language, in order to depict similarities between Poles and Boers. Lev Loseff defined this specific strategy as "a special literary system, one whose structure allows interaction between author and reader at the same time that it conceals inadmissible content from the censor". The Aesopian style of writings on the Polish-South African connection will be illustrated here on the basis of two books on South Africa published shortly after the outbreak of the Second Anglo-Boer War and intended to make Polish readers familiar with the history of the Boer Republics and the background of the British-Boer conflict. The first book, Transvaal and the Boers (1899), was an adaptation based on a publication of a German philologist and specialist in the field of African languages, August Seidel, and originally printed in 1898. The introduction to this volume, which constitutes the basis for the analysis in this paper, was written by Julian Ochorowicz. The second book under scrutiny here - The Boers and Kruger: An outline of the history of Transvaal (1900), written by Zugmunt Siupski, was a response to the Polish version of the aforementioned publication by Seidel. Both authors aimed at offering a history class to Polish readers. The Polish translation of Seidel (with the introduction by Ochorowicz) and Slupski's book were published in the initial stage of the Anglo-Boer War when the Boers still had a hypothetical chance of victory. Thus an aim unattainable for the Poles, the dream of liberation was about to come true in South Africa. Siupski's book in particular utilized the South African history as a cover to a secure presentation of certain contents. The author applied some historical similarities in his interpretation of the past of both countries, thus creating a kind of a transnational, Polish-Afrikaner mythology. In line with Siupski's understanding, the subjugated, freedom-loving Poles and Afrikaners had once made a pact with God (the chosen people ideology) but they had violated it and lost its advantages through internal hostility (anarchistic nobility in Poland in the 17th century, political conflict in Transvaal after the foundation of the Transvaal Republic). Both peoples were punished for their sins and sacrificed on the altar of history, as the author puts it, using a biblical metaphor. However, there still existed, according to Siupski, a chance to retrieve the lost national identity. The chance was to be located in patriotism and the attachment to mother-tongue. In the case of Siupski's book, as mentioned above, the history of South Africa is only used as a camouflage for the author's support of the fight for the victory of certain ideals and values. <![CDATA[<b>"Rather a virgin than a widow": Two Latin erotic poems attributed to Anna Maria van Schurman (1607-1678)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512009000200010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Uit recente publicaties als Women Writing Latin (2002), Women Latin Poets (2005), komt naar voren dat een beduidend aantal vrouwen sinds de Romeinse tijd in het Latijn geschreven heeft. Tot die groep behoort ook Anna Maria van Schurman (1607-1678), de eerste studente in Europa en meest geleerde vrouw van haar tijd. In dit artikel wil ik stilstaan bij twee erotische gedichten in het Latijn die volgens mij niet, maar volgens de conservator van de UB van de Universiteit van Amsterdam wel op haar naam kunnen blijven staan. De gedichten moeten zelfs terug naar de Koninklijke Bibliotheek waar ze thuishoren. In de bijlage geef ik een eerste vertaling van deze gedichten.<hr/>Recent, fascinating publications such as Women Writing Latin (2002) and Women Latin Poets (2005) show us that a significant number of women have written in Latin since the Roman Empire up till now. Anna Maria van Schurman (1607-1678), the first female student in Europe and the most learned woman of her time, was one of them. Born in Cologne, she lived most of her long life behind the Domcathedral in Utrecht, Holland, where she became known for her knowledge of at least fourteen languages (German, Dutch, English, French, Latin, Greek, Italian, Hebrew, Aramaic, Arabic, Syriac, Samaritan, Persian and Ethiopic). She even composed a grammar for Ethiopic. Van Schurman was a multi-talented woman. She was an artist, wrote poetry and corresponded with many learned men and women of the European Res Publica Litteraria (the Republic of Letters), for example from England and Ireland: Simonds D' Ewes, James Harrington, Bathsua Makin, John Owen, Elisabeth Stuart, Queen Henrietta Maria, Samuel Collins, Samuel Rutherford, Dorothy Moore, John Dury, William Penn, Utricia Swann-Ogle and Archibald Hamilton. Part of herwork in Latin, Greek, Hebrew and French was published as the Opuscula Hebraea Graeca Latina et Gallica, prosaica et metrica, a book that was reprinted several times and can still be found in most of the European Libraries. It contains also her Dissertatio De Ingenii Muliebris ad Doctrinam et meliores Litteras aptitudine, translated into English as The Learned Maid. Thousands of people visited her, among these queens, such as Christina van Sweden and Maria de Gonzages of Poland included. Later in life she left the academy, city and church of Utrecht, joined the radical wandering protestant group of the Labadists and condemned her "worldly" learning. As a defence she wrote a learned autobiography in Latin, the Eukleria In this article I will concentrate on her Latin poems. It was after all a Latin poem written on invitation ofprofessor Voetius that in the end gave her admission to the university. I have been able to trace more than 60 Latin poems, most of them unpublished. In the corpus two rather erotic poems stand out. These poems are in the possession of the University Library of the University of Amsterdam and are titled "Ad Janum Meierum, Nuptias Danicas spectantem, Amatorem regi similem esse" ("For Janus Meijer, who was a spectator at the Danish wedding, that a lover is similar to a king") and " Ad Ioannem Fridericum Gronovium. Virgines Viduis Praeferendas esse" ("For Johannes Fredericus Gronovius, that virgins should be preferred above widows"). I will argue that they are fremdkörper in her oeuvre, considering the facts that the poems are not in her handwriting or style, that women were not allowed to write love and erotic poetry at all, and that she herself was bound by a promise to her father on his deathbed, to celebrate celibacy her whole life. However, the most important fact I discovered was that Vincent Fabricius from Hamburg was the author. He had the poems published in Leyden in 1638. Not only the authorship of the poems but also their location at the University Library of Amsterdam should be corrected. They should be given back to the Royal Library in The Hague where they belong as number 58 of manuscript KB 133 B 8. How they got in Amsterdam is not known yet. In the attachment of this article I will provide a translation of both poems. <![CDATA[<b>Poems</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512009000200011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Uit recente publicaties als Women Writing Latin (2002), Women Latin Poets (2005), komt naar voren dat een beduidend aantal vrouwen sinds de Romeinse tijd in het Latijn geschreven heeft. Tot die groep behoort ook Anna Maria van Schurman (1607-1678), de eerste studente in Europa en meest geleerde vrouw van haar tijd. In dit artikel wil ik stilstaan bij twee erotische gedichten in het Latijn die volgens mij niet, maar volgens de conservator van de UB van de Universiteit van Amsterdam wel op haar naam kunnen blijven staan. De gedichten moeten zelfs terug naar de Koninklijke Bibliotheek waar ze thuishoren. In de bijlage geef ik een eerste vertaling van deze gedichten.<hr/>Recent, fascinating publications such as Women Writing Latin (2002) and Women Latin Poets (2005) show us that a significant number of women have written in Latin since the Roman Empire up till now. Anna Maria van Schurman (1607-1678), the first female student in Europe and the most learned woman of her time, was one of them. Born in Cologne, she lived most of her long life behind the Domcathedral in Utrecht, Holland, where she became known for her knowledge of at least fourteen languages (German, Dutch, English, French, Latin, Greek, Italian, Hebrew, Aramaic, Arabic, Syriac, Samaritan, Persian and Ethiopic). She even composed a grammar for Ethiopic. Van Schurman was a multi-talented woman. She was an artist, wrote poetry and corresponded with many learned men and women of the European Res Publica Litteraria (the Republic of Letters), for example from England and Ireland: Simonds D' Ewes, James Harrington, Bathsua Makin, John Owen, Elisabeth Stuart, Queen Henrietta Maria, Samuel Collins, Samuel Rutherford, Dorothy Moore, John Dury, William Penn, Utricia Swann-Ogle and Archibald Hamilton. Part of herwork in Latin, Greek, Hebrew and French was published as the Opuscula Hebraea Graeca Latina et Gallica, prosaica et metrica, a book that was reprinted several times and can still be found in most of the European Libraries. It contains also her Dissertatio De Ingenii Muliebris ad Doctrinam et meliores Litteras aptitudine, translated into English as The Learned Maid. Thousands of people visited her, among these queens, such as Christina van Sweden and Maria de Gonzages of Poland included. Later in life she left the academy, city and church of Utrecht, joined the radical wandering protestant group of the Labadists and condemned her "worldly" learning. As a defence she wrote a learned autobiography in Latin, the Eukleria In this article I will concentrate on her Latin poems. It was after all a Latin poem written on invitation ofprofessor Voetius that in the end gave her admission to the university. I have been able to trace more than 60 Latin poems, most of them unpublished. In the corpus two rather erotic poems stand out. These poems are in the possession of the University Library of the University of Amsterdam and are titled "Ad Janum Meierum, Nuptias Danicas spectantem, Amatorem regi similem esse" ("For Janus Meijer, who was a spectator at the Danish wedding, that a lover is similar to a king") and " Ad Ioannem Fridericum Gronovium. Virgines Viduis Praeferendas esse" ("For Johannes Fredericus Gronovius, that virgins should be preferred above widows"). I will argue that they are fremdkörper in her oeuvre, considering the facts that the poems are not in her handwriting or style, that women were not allowed to write love and erotic poetry at all, and that she herself was bound by a promise to her father on his deathbed, to celebrate celibacy her whole life. However, the most important fact I discovered was that Vincent Fabricius from Hamburg was the author. He had the poems published in Leyden in 1638. Not only the authorship of the poems but also their location at the University Library of Amsterdam should be corrected. They should be given back to the Royal Library in The Hague where they belong as number 58 of manuscript KB 133 B 8. How they got in Amsterdam is not known yet. In the attachment of this article I will provide a translation of both poems. <![CDATA[<b><i> </i></b><b><i>Encyclopedic Prosopographical Lexicon of Byzantine History and Civilization</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512009000200012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Uit recente publicaties als Women Writing Latin (2002), Women Latin Poets (2005), komt naar voren dat een beduidend aantal vrouwen sinds de Romeinse tijd in het Latijn geschreven heeft. Tot die groep behoort ook Anna Maria van Schurman (1607-1678), de eerste studente in Europa en meest geleerde vrouw van haar tijd. In dit artikel wil ik stilstaan bij twee erotische gedichten in het Latijn die volgens mij niet, maar volgens de conservator van de UB van de Universiteit van Amsterdam wel op haar naam kunnen blijven staan. De gedichten moeten zelfs terug naar de Koninklijke Bibliotheek waar ze thuishoren. In de bijlage geef ik een eerste vertaling van deze gedichten.<hr/>Recent, fascinating publications such as Women Writing Latin (2002) and Women Latin Poets (2005) show us that a significant number of women have written in Latin since the Roman Empire up till now. Anna Maria van Schurman (1607-1678), the first female student in Europe and the most learned woman of her time, was one of them. Born in Cologne, she lived most of her long life behind the Domcathedral in Utrecht, Holland, where she became known for her knowledge of at least fourteen languages (German, Dutch, English, French, Latin, Greek, Italian, Hebrew, Aramaic, Arabic, Syriac, Samaritan, Persian and Ethiopic). She even composed a grammar for Ethiopic. Van Schurman was a multi-talented woman. She was an artist, wrote poetry and corresponded with many learned men and women of the European Res Publica Litteraria (the Republic of Letters), for example from England and Ireland: Simonds D' Ewes, James Harrington, Bathsua Makin, John Owen, Elisabeth Stuart, Queen Henrietta Maria, Samuel Collins, Samuel Rutherford, Dorothy Moore, John Dury, William Penn, Utricia Swann-Ogle and Archibald Hamilton. Part of herwork in Latin, Greek, Hebrew and French was published as the Opuscula Hebraea Graeca Latina et Gallica, prosaica et metrica, a book that was reprinted several times and can still be found in most of the European Libraries. It contains also her Dissertatio De Ingenii Muliebris ad Doctrinam et meliores Litteras aptitudine, translated into English as The Learned Maid. Thousands of people visited her, among these queens, such as Christina van Sweden and Maria de Gonzages of Poland included. Later in life she left the academy, city and church of Utrecht, joined the radical wandering protestant group of the Labadists and condemned her "worldly" learning. As a defence she wrote a learned autobiography in Latin, the Eukleria In this article I will concentrate on her Latin poems. It was after all a Latin poem written on invitation ofprofessor Voetius that in the end gave her admission to the university. I have been able to trace more than 60 Latin poems, most of them unpublished. In the corpus two rather erotic poems stand out. These poems are in the possession of the University Library of the University of Amsterdam and are titled "Ad Janum Meierum, Nuptias Danicas spectantem, Amatorem regi similem esse" ("For Janus Meijer, who was a spectator at the Danish wedding, that a lover is similar to a king") and " Ad Ioannem Fridericum Gronovium. Virgines Viduis Praeferendas esse" ("For Johannes Fredericus Gronovius, that virgins should be preferred above widows"). I will argue that they are fremdkörper in her oeuvre, considering the facts that the poems are not in her handwriting or style, that women were not allowed to write love and erotic poetry at all, and that she herself was bound by a promise to her father on his deathbed, to celebrate celibacy her whole life. However, the most important fact I discovered was that Vincent Fabricius from Hamburg was the author. He had the poems published in Leyden in 1638. Not only the authorship of the poems but also their location at the University Library of Amsterdam should be corrected. They should be given back to the Royal Library in The Hague where they belong as number 58 of manuscript KB 133 B 8. How they got in Amsterdam is not known yet. In the attachment of this article I will provide a translation of both poems. <![CDATA[<b><i>'n Vreemdeling op deurtog</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512009000200013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Uit recente publicaties als Women Writing Latin (2002), Women Latin Poets (2005), komt naar voren dat een beduidend aantal vrouwen sinds de Romeinse tijd in het Latijn geschreven heeft. Tot die groep behoort ook Anna Maria van Schurman (1607-1678), de eerste studente in Europa en meest geleerde vrouw van haar tijd. In dit artikel wil ik stilstaan bij twee erotische gedichten in het Latijn die volgens mij niet, maar volgens de conservator van de UB van de Universiteit van Amsterdam wel op haar naam kunnen blijven staan. De gedichten moeten zelfs terug naar de Koninklijke Bibliotheek waar ze thuishoren. In de bijlage geef ik een eerste vertaling van deze gedichten.<hr/>Recent, fascinating publications such as Women Writing Latin (2002) and Women Latin Poets (2005) show us that a significant number of women have written in Latin since the Roman Empire up till now. Anna Maria van Schurman (1607-1678), the first female student in Europe and the most learned woman of her time, was one of them. Born in Cologne, she lived most of her long life behind the Domcathedral in Utrecht, Holland, where she became known for her knowledge of at least fourteen languages (German, Dutch, English, French, Latin, Greek, Italian, Hebrew, Aramaic, Arabic, Syriac, Samaritan, Persian and Ethiopic). She even composed a grammar for Ethiopic. Van Schurman was a multi-talented woman. She was an artist, wrote poetry and corresponded with many learned men and women of the European Res Publica Litteraria (the Republic of Letters), for example from England and Ireland: Simonds D' Ewes, James Harrington, Bathsua Makin, John Owen, Elisabeth Stuart, Queen Henrietta Maria, Samuel Collins, Samuel Rutherford, Dorothy Moore, John Dury, William Penn, Utricia Swann-Ogle and Archibald Hamilton. Part of herwork in Latin, Greek, Hebrew and French was published as the Opuscula Hebraea Graeca Latina et Gallica, prosaica et metrica, a book that was reprinted several times and can still be found in most of the European Libraries. It contains also her Dissertatio De Ingenii Muliebris ad Doctrinam et meliores Litteras aptitudine, translated into English as The Learned Maid. Thousands of people visited her, among these queens, such as Christina van Sweden and Maria de Gonzages of Poland included. Later in life she left the academy, city and church of Utrecht, joined the radical wandering protestant group of the Labadists and condemned her "worldly" learning. As a defence she wrote a learned autobiography in Latin, the Eukleria In this article I will concentrate on her Latin poems. It was after all a Latin poem written on invitation ofprofessor Voetius that in the end gave her admission to the university. I have been able to trace more than 60 Latin poems, most of them unpublished. In the corpus two rather erotic poems stand out. These poems are in the possession of the University Library of the University of Amsterdam and are titled "Ad Janum Meierum, Nuptias Danicas spectantem, Amatorem regi similem esse" ("For Janus Meijer, who was a spectator at the Danish wedding, that a lover is similar to a king") and " Ad Ioannem Fridericum Gronovium. Virgines Viduis Praeferendas esse" ("For Johannes Fredericus Gronovius, that virgins should be preferred above widows"). I will argue that they are fremdkörper in her oeuvre, considering the facts that the poems are not in her handwriting or style, that women were not allowed to write love and erotic poetry at all, and that she herself was bound by a promise to her father on his deathbed, to celebrate celibacy her whole life. However, the most important fact I discovered was that Vincent Fabricius from Hamburg was the author. He had the poems published in Leyden in 1638. Not only the authorship of the poems but also their location at the University Library of Amsterdam should be corrected. They should be given back to the Royal Library in The Hague where they belong as number 58 of manuscript KB 133 B 8. How they got in Amsterdam is not known yet. In the attachment of this article I will provide a translation of both poems. <![CDATA[<b><i>Songs of the veld and other poems</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512009000200014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Uit recente publicaties als Women Writing Latin (2002), Women Latin Poets (2005), komt naar voren dat een beduidend aantal vrouwen sinds de Romeinse tijd in het Latijn geschreven heeft. Tot die groep behoort ook Anna Maria van Schurman (1607-1678), de eerste studente in Europa en meest geleerde vrouw van haar tijd. In dit artikel wil ik stilstaan bij twee erotische gedichten in het Latijn die volgens mij niet, maar volgens de conservator van de UB van de Universiteit van Amsterdam wel op haar naam kunnen blijven staan. De gedichten moeten zelfs terug naar de Koninklijke Bibliotheek waar ze thuishoren. In de bijlage geef ik een eerste vertaling van deze gedichten.<hr/>Recent, fascinating publications such as Women Writing Latin (2002) and Women Latin Poets (2005) show us that a significant number of women have written in Latin since the Roman Empire up till now. Anna Maria van Schurman (1607-1678), the first female student in Europe and the most learned woman of her time, was one of them. Born in Cologne, she lived most of her long life behind the Domcathedral in Utrecht, Holland, where she became known for her knowledge of at least fourteen languages (German, Dutch, English, French, Latin, Greek, Italian, Hebrew, Aramaic, Arabic, Syriac, Samaritan, Persian and Ethiopic). She even composed a grammar for Ethiopic. Van Schurman was a multi-talented woman. She was an artist, wrote poetry and corresponded with many learned men and women of the European Res Publica Litteraria (the Republic of Letters), for example from England and Ireland: Simonds D' Ewes, James Harrington, Bathsua Makin, John Owen, Elisabeth Stuart, Queen Henrietta Maria, Samuel Collins, Samuel Rutherford, Dorothy Moore, John Dury, William Penn, Utricia Swann-Ogle and Archibald Hamilton. Part of herwork in Latin, Greek, Hebrew and French was published as the Opuscula Hebraea Graeca Latina et Gallica, prosaica et metrica, a book that was reprinted several times and can still be found in most of the European Libraries. It contains also her Dissertatio De Ingenii Muliebris ad Doctrinam et meliores Litteras aptitudine, translated into English as The Learned Maid. Thousands of people visited her, among these queens, such as Christina van Sweden and Maria de Gonzages of Poland included. Later in life she left the academy, city and church of Utrecht, joined the radical wandering protestant group of the Labadists and condemned her "worldly" learning. As a defence she wrote a learned autobiography in Latin, the Eukleria In this article I will concentrate on her Latin poems. It was after all a Latin poem written on invitation ofprofessor Voetius that in the end gave her admission to the university. I have been able to trace more than 60 Latin poems, most of them unpublished. In the corpus two rather erotic poems stand out. These poems are in the possession of the University Library of the University of Amsterdam and are titled "Ad Janum Meierum, Nuptias Danicas spectantem, Amatorem regi similem esse" ("For Janus Meijer, who was a spectator at the Danish wedding, that a lover is similar to a king") and " Ad Ioannem Fridericum Gronovium. Virgines Viduis Praeferendas esse" ("For Johannes Fredericus Gronovius, that virgins should be preferred above widows"). I will argue that they are fremdkörper in her oeuvre, considering the facts that the poems are not in her handwriting or style, that women were not allowed to write love and erotic poetry at all, and that she herself was bound by a promise to her father on his deathbed, to celebrate celibacy her whole life. However, the most important fact I discovered was that Vincent Fabricius from Hamburg was the author. He had the poems published in Leyden in 1638. Not only the authorship of the poems but also their location at the University Library of Amsterdam should be corrected. They should be given back to the Royal Library in The Hague where they belong as number 58 of manuscript KB 133 B 8. How they got in Amsterdam is not known yet. In the attachment of this article I will provide a translation of both poems. <![CDATA[<b><i>Annerlike Afrikaans</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512009000200015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Uit recente publicaties als Women Writing Latin (2002), Women Latin Poets (2005), komt naar voren dat een beduidend aantal vrouwen sinds de Romeinse tijd in het Latijn geschreven heeft. Tot die groep behoort ook Anna Maria van Schurman (1607-1678), de eerste studente in Europa en meest geleerde vrouw van haar tijd. In dit artikel wil ik stilstaan bij twee erotische gedichten in het Latijn die volgens mij niet, maar volgens de conservator van de UB van de Universiteit van Amsterdam wel op haar naam kunnen blijven staan. De gedichten moeten zelfs terug naar de Koninklijke Bibliotheek waar ze thuishoren. In de bijlage geef ik een eerste vertaling van deze gedichten.<hr/>Recent, fascinating publications such as Women Writing Latin (2002) and Women Latin Poets (2005) show us that a significant number of women have written in Latin since the Roman Empire up till now. Anna Maria van Schurman (1607-1678), the first female student in Europe and the most learned woman of her time, was one of them. Born in Cologne, she lived most of her long life behind the Domcathedral in Utrecht, Holland, where she became known for her knowledge of at least fourteen languages (German, Dutch, English, French, Latin, Greek, Italian, Hebrew, Aramaic, Arabic, Syriac, Samaritan, Persian and Ethiopic). She even composed a grammar for Ethiopic. Van Schurman was a multi-talented woman. She was an artist, wrote poetry and corresponded with many learned men and women of the European Res Publica Litteraria (the Republic of Letters), for example from England and Ireland: Simonds D' Ewes, James Harrington, Bathsua Makin, John Owen, Elisabeth Stuart, Queen Henrietta Maria, Samuel Collins, Samuel Rutherford, Dorothy Moore, John Dury, William Penn, Utricia Swann-Ogle and Archibald Hamilton. Part of herwork in Latin, Greek, Hebrew and French was published as the Opuscula Hebraea Graeca Latina et Gallica, prosaica et metrica, a book that was reprinted several times and can still be found in most of the European Libraries. It contains also her Dissertatio De Ingenii Muliebris ad Doctrinam et meliores Litteras aptitudine, translated into English as The Learned Maid. Thousands of people visited her, among these queens, such as Christina van Sweden and Maria de Gonzages of Poland included. Later in life she left the academy, city and church of Utrecht, joined the radical wandering protestant group of the Labadists and condemned her "worldly" learning. As a defence she wrote a learned autobiography in Latin, the Eukleria In this article I will concentrate on her Latin poems. It was after all a Latin poem written on invitation ofprofessor Voetius that in the end gave her admission to the university. I have been able to trace more than 60 Latin poems, most of them unpublished. In the corpus two rather erotic poems stand out. These poems are in the possession of the University Library of the University of Amsterdam and are titled "Ad Janum Meierum, Nuptias Danicas spectantem, Amatorem regi similem esse" ("For Janus Meijer, who was a spectator at the Danish wedding, that a lover is similar to a king") and " Ad Ioannem Fridericum Gronovium. Virgines Viduis Praeferendas esse" ("For Johannes Fredericus Gronovius, that virgins should be preferred above widows"). I will argue that they are fremdkörper in her oeuvre, considering the facts that the poems are not in her handwriting or style, that women were not allowed to write love and erotic poetry at all, and that she herself was bound by a promise to her father on his deathbed, to celebrate celibacy her whole life. However, the most important fact I discovered was that Vincent Fabricius from Hamburg was the author. He had the poems published in Leyden in 1638. Not only the authorship of the poems but also their location at the University Library of Amsterdam should be corrected. They should be given back to the Royal Library in The Hague where they belong as number 58 of manuscript KB 133 B 8. How they got in Amsterdam is not known yet. In the attachment of this article I will provide a translation of both poems.