Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0041-475120080004&lang=es vol. 48 num. 4 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Globalisation and a divided community in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512008000400001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die verskil in invloed van globalisering op wit en swart gemeenskappe in Suid-Afrika word betrag vanuit 'n sosio-ekonomiese gesigspunt. Hierdie invloede kan in perspektief gesien word deur te kyk na die hoofperiodes van maatskaplike veranderings in die Westerse wêreld gedurende die afgelope 800 jaar. Die blanke in Suid-Afrika, in besonder die Afrikaner, is erfgename van hierdie veranderings en kon in Afrika tred hou met die globale veranderings van die onlangse verlede. Die swart bevolking, daarenteen, is nou skielik in die globale era gewerp. Met die gevolglike akkulturasie ontwikkel nou voorheen onbekende "Westerse kwale" soos hartvatsiekte, diabetes en vetsug. Globalisering, met die aggressiewe bemarkingstegnieke van multinasionale maatskappye, tesame met groepsdruk, veroorsaak boonop 'n ongebreidelde skuldlas. Hierdie skuldlas plaas groter druk op werkgewers vir verhoogde salarisse, wat op sy beurt kan lei tot die onttrekking van buitelandse beleggings en toenemende werkloosheid. Hierdie spiraal kan verder lei tot politieke onrus. Vanweë sy agtergrond, kan die blanke 'n noodsaaklike rol speel in die globale ekonomiese wedloop. Om dit te verstewig, sal die beperkings van swart bemagtiging heroorweeg moet word.<hr/>Globalisation is characterised by the economic control of national economies by two entities: multi-national enterprises (MNEs), with their foreign direct investment (FDI) policies, and the international financial institutions, which place neo-liberal economic conditions on loans and economic aid to developing countries. We analyse these influences on the socio-economic structure of the South African community, with special reference to the existence of two disparate developed groups in the country. These two groups, depicted by convention as white and black, respond in different ways to the socio-economic effects of globalisation. The white group is part of the cultural heritage of globalisation, as driven predominantly by European industrialised countries, and is not adversely affected to the same extent as the black group, which has been catapulted into the global era. To analyse the consequences of the impact, we look at five main periods of socio-economic transformations in European, or Western, history. These correspond approximately to: • The period from the Magna Carta of1215 to the establishment of a parliamentary democracy in England after the execution of Charles I in 1649; • The Industrial Revolution from about 1760 to 1830; • The period from the American and French revolutions to the end of World War II (~1780-1946); • The Atomic Age from World War II to about 1990; • The present Global Age. If we combine the second and third transformations we have successive periods of 434, 200, 40 and 15 years. The acceleration of the transformation periods had disruptive effects on the sociological structure of Western society. This structure changed along the periods successively as rural farming, industrial workers, general commerce, technological society and the global village. European society adapted to these transitions over centuries, but the countries of Africa did not have that leisure. Black society now has to cope with aggressive marketing campaigns and peer pressure to transform previously predominant rural societies into consumer ones. One result is reminiscent of European transformation during the second to third periods, which is described as "A society in which all members had relations of obligation and reciprocity to all others gave way to one in which individuals in their different roles were cut off from each other, and related to each other only within the marketplace." This reflects the present change in South Africa from the mutual concern of ubuntu to the competitive style of commerce and consumerism. This acculturation is showing deleterious effects on black society. Previously unknown Western-type diseases such as heart disease and diabetes are emerging as major killers. Obesity is becoming rampant due to changes in eating habits, encouraged by advertising campaigns of fast-food MNEs. Another consequence of modern marketing campaigns is the encouragement of debt. This is a worldwide phenomenon, but in Africa it can lead to serious political instability and social unrest. Uncontrolled debt leads to unreasonable demands for higher salaries, which will discourage further FDI. This will lead to a downward economic spiral and an increase in unemployment. The present collapse of financial institutions in the US holds dire consequences for the economies of emerging markets. It is expected that the flow of funds to the developing world could be cut by 25%, making it imperative that South Africa, the industrial dynamo of Africa, uses all of its human and industrial resources to soften the blow to this continent. In this regard the continual loss of white expertise to the developed world should be reversed as a matter of urgency. The upper middle class white sector in South Africa has adapted relatively effortlessly to global changes, which has resulted in a widening gap in affluence between white and black. The success of the white sector can be ascribed to its historical exposure to globalisation and finding methods to deal with it. The Afrikaner, in its isolation in the past, has been particularly adroit in adapting successfully to global changes. In this regard the white sector, especially its entrepreneurs, must be seen as an asset in competing in the new global economy and that economic development in South Africa is dependent on a greater involvement of this group. For this reason urgent consideration must be given to relax the strictures of affirmative action. <![CDATA[<b>Darker shades of blue</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512008000400002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die Grondwet van die Republiek van Suid-Afrika, 1996, vereis 'n fundamentele herassessering en transformasie van die wese en styl van polisiëring in Suid-Afrika. Dit moet vloei vanuit 'n stelsel waar die menseregte van die meerderheid Suid-Afrikaners tydens die apartheidsjare misken is, tot 'n stelsel wat die vertroue en respek van almal inboesem. Hierdie verandering vereis dat die fundamentele aannames van individuele polisiebeamptes ten opsigte van die organisasie en die omgewing waarin polisiëring funksioneer, sal transformeer. Op hierdie stadium, meer as elfjaar nadat die Suid-Afrikaanse demokrasie tot stand gebring is, is die sentrale vraag in polisiëring of die houdings van nuwelinge in die stelsel wel gemeenskapspolisiëring as die aanvaarde styl van polisiëring ondersteun. Hierdie artikel is 'n poging om die bogenoemde vraag aan te spreek deur vergelykings te tref tussen die houdings van 'n veteenwoordigende steekproef van dieselfde SAPD-nuwelinge in drie fases: toe hulle aangemeld het vir basiese opleiding (Januarie 2005), toe hulle die opleiding voltooi het (Junie 2005), en toe hulle as gegradueerde nuwelinge die polisiediens betree het om die inwoners van Suid-Afrika te dien (Desember 2005). Die studie het bevind dat die meerderheid respondente wat by die SAPD kolleges aangemeld het vir opleiding, reeds matige houdings ter ondersteuning van die polisiekultuur temas solidariteit, isolasie en sinisme gehad het. Die studie het verder ook bevind dat die SAPD basiese opleiding (kollege en veldopleiding) nuwelinge se houdings aangaande die polisiekultuur temas solidariteit, isolasie en sinisme versterk het.<hr/>The South African elections of April 1994 ushered in a democracy and redefined the political and social context within which policing in South Africa would take place in the future. The South African Police Service (SAPS) was established on the 27th of January 1995 in terms of section 214 of the Interim Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1993. The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, Act No. 108 of 1996, subsequently made provision under section 205 for the establishment of a National Police Service that is transparent, accountable, representative, legitimate and impartial. The Constitution further implicitly prescribes in section 222 community policing as the style of policing to be adopted by the SAPS as a vehicle to improve police-community relations and, in general, enhance service delivery to all of its citizens.For change in the policing style to be effective and long lasting the ideology must be supported by the life and worldview within the police culture. This includes changing the basic assumptions of individual police officers with regard to the organisation and its environment. To this effect, the Minister of Safety and Security, at the time Mr Sidney Mufimady, stated that: The philosophy of community policing must inform and pervade the entire organisation. Changing the police culture is perhaps one of the most significant challenges facing the new government (South Africa, 1994). In partial achievement of this transformation the SAPS implemented a national policy of ensuring gender equity in the make-up of the Service in order to become more representative of the larger society. Such a policy is likely to have a direct impact on the maintenance of the traditional culture of the South African police as manifested in the previous South African Police (SAP). Alpert, Dunham and Stroshine (2006) have argued that an increase in diversity, to include women, may result in fragmenting, if not destroying the concept of a singular police culture. Specifically it is argued that employment of females may undermine some of the more "masculine qualities of police culture and instead engender a "softer, kinder" form of policing" (Miller, 1999). Paoline, Myers and Worden (2000) have also argued that the inclusion of women in police organisations may effect the negation of many of the characteristics of the police subculture that have emphasized the distrust of and isolation from the public. By contrast, Brogden and Shearing (1993) have suggested that policing style is unlikely to change as a result of changes in recruitment policy. Martin (1980), Sutton (1992), Heidensohn (1992) and Young (1991) also note that women recruited into male-dominated police organisations adapt either by embracing the male police culture, and thus becoming 'defeminised' into police-women; or by taking on a more traditional, service-oriented role, and thus becoming 'de-professionalised' into police-women. This article reports on a preliminary investigation into the presence/absence of deviant police culture themes (solidarity, isolation and cynicism) that go against the grain of principles of community oriented policing - among South African Police Service recruits entering basic police training in January of 2005 and changes that may have occurred in these attitudes over the period of the six-month basic training and the subsequent six-month field training experience. The research found significant evidence that the SAPS is recruiting newcomers that have attitudes that conform to a police culture of solidarity, isolation and cynicism. The study further found that the SAPS basic training (generally) only serves to either maintain or strengthen newcomers ' attitudes in support of a police culture of solidarity, isolation and cynicism. <![CDATA[<b>The development of a crime prevention model within a commercial production area</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512008000400003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Hierdie artikel bespreek vier sentrale temas ten einde 'n model daar te stel vir die verbetering van misdaadvoorkoming op plase van die "Transvaal Suiker Beperk" gebied. Die gedrukte media, kwantitatiewe en kwalitatiewe navorsingsbeginsels is onder andere aangewend om data te versamel. Die temas verwys eerstens na die verbetering van houdings tussen plaasboer en plaaswerker, tweedens na die ontwikkeling van die plaaswerker, derdens na die ondersteuning wat deur die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisie Dienste en ander instansies aan die plaasboer gegee moet word en vierdens na die belangrikheid van misdaadvoorkoming deur teikenverharding. Die gedrukte media en kwantitatiewe en kwalitatiewe navorsingsbeginsels is gebruik om data in te samel en te bepaal tot watter mate misdaad deur die deelnemers ervaar word. Die waarde van die primêre fisiese hindernisse of obstruksies met betrekking tot misdaadvoorkoming is ook in hierdie artikel beklemtoon. Sonder die ondersteuning van konvensionele elektronika, en die insette van die mensfaktor, is fisiese misdaadvoorkomingsmaatreëls van geringe waarde, veral op geografiese uitgestrekte landbougronde. Goeie onderlinge werksverhoudinge en lojale gesindhede word as kern-faktore geïdentifiseer waarop boere kan fokus om misdaad op plase te minimaliseer. Samewerking tussen kommersiële boere en die SAPD kan 'n belangrike bydrae tot die hantering van die probleem lewer. Sodanige samewerking is egter in baie gevalle tot 'n hoë mate afwesig. 'n Positiewe ingesteldheid jeens misdaadvoorkoming op plase is die fondament vir enige suksesvolle misdaadvoorkomings inisiatiewe op plase. Misdaad op plase verdien die aandag van alle sektore in die samelewing. Die GOOM model wat ontwikkel is sodat misdaadvoorkoming op plase verbeter kan word, spruit voort uit die bevindinge van kwantitatiewe en kwalitatiewe navorsing asook die verwerking van toepaslike literatuurstudies.<hr/>This article discusses four central themes essential for the designing of a model with the aim of improving crime prevention on farms in the area of "Transvaal Sugar Limited". The first theme refers to the improvement of attitudes between farmer and farm worker. In this respect the creation of good and positive work relations enhances mutual trust between employer and employee and minimizes the possibility of crime on farms because farm workers remain loyal to their employer by in a sense accepting "co-ownership" of the farm. In this sense one needs to be aware of the fact that various people have different needs which need to be fulfilled and the attitude of the employer is crucially important in this regard. Moreover the recruiting and selection of quality personnel should not be neglected by the employer as it is also an important step for the establishment of future attitudes and relations. Employers should carefully consider prospective candidates by conducting interviews and learning also from previous mistakes select the best candidate. As conflict and relative differences between groups of people are unavoidable, an attempt should initially be made to solve any arising dispute by mutual discussion between farmer and farm worker and by doing so potential conflict may be avoided. In addition better work conditions should be put in place to provide job satisfaction as employees expect to be treated fairly and also be part of a democratic decision making process which in turn will assist them to fulfil their full potential. The second theme revolves around the development of the farm worker by creating sound mutual work relations. The point of departure highlights the fact that the development and training of farm workers regarding their work obligations on the farm enhance the existence of good mutual work relations. Thus it becomes easier for the employer to explain to farm workers the importance of a budget or the impact of non-productivity on the budget results. The management of a worker's development includes performance measurement, performance discussion and development activities. An additional way to develop employees is through the process of job enrichment programmes. The third theme refers to the support which must be given by the South African Police Services and other instances to the farmer. It is absolutely essential that the government of the day supports and assists farmers by means of the optimal use of various resources at its disposal. The South African Police Services and organised agriculture are really in partnership with the farmer/employer with regard to crime prevention. Farmers do not only desire assistance during a farm attack but also effective service delivery in times of less serious crime incidents. It is the responsibility of the South African Police Services to show more interest by visiting farming communities more often and not only in times of need. They should also ensure that their logistic arrangements are always in order. Employers/farmers should also express greater interest in police activities by for example attending police meetings on a more continuous basis, not employing illegal immigrants and also by themselves taking basic steps in protecting their property and by reporting suspicious persons to the police. The fourth theme refers to the importance of crime prevention through target hardening. These are the steps that can be taken by farmers/employers themselves in order to prevent crime and are supported by modern technological aids. Consequently the farmer confirms ownership of his possessions and to a certain extent crime is transferred to more vulnerable areas. Physical barriers which are integrated with an alarm system serve as basic crime prevention measures implemented on a cost-effective manner by the farmer and thus protecting his property. In this research the printed media, quantitative and qualitative research principles were used to gather data and determine to what extent crime is experienced by the participants. The value of the primary physical barriers or obstructions with regard to crime prevention is also emphasised in this article. The ADSC crime prevention model is developed as a result of this study with the aim of contributing to the prevention of crime on farms. <![CDATA[<b>The relation between stress and self-leadership characteristics among a group of first-line supervisors working in a state organisation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512008000400004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Nieteenstaande die feit dat eerstelyntoesighouers aan 'n breë spektrum van stressors blootgestel word, is min navorsing beskikbaar om die verband tussen stres en selfleierskapfaktore by die groep uit te wys. Navorsing dui aan dat selfleierskapvaardighede 'n belangrike hulpmiddel kan wees om stresvlakke te verminder. Daarom is besluit om die verband tussen stres en selfleierskapfaktore by 'n groep Suid Afrikaanse eerstelyntoesighouers werksaam in 'n staatsorganisasie, te bepaal. Resultate van 'n sodanige navorsing kan sielkundiges/werkgewers help om 'n spesifieke benadering in kommunikering en hantering van probleme met die spesifieke groep, te handhaaf. Ten einde die verband tussen stres en selfleierskapfaktore te bepaal, is die 16- PF Persoonlikheidsvraelys en die Hersiende Selfleierskap Vraelys, op 'n geleentheidsteekproef van 69 eerstelyntoesighouers, afgeneem. Resultate het aangedui dat die volgende selfleierskapfaktore met stres verband hou: selfvergoeding, fokus gedagtes op natuurlike vergoeding /positiewe aspekte van werk, visualisering van suksesvolle prestasie, selfobservasie en selfdoelwitstelling. Verder het selfleierskap as 'n geheel beduidend met vindingrykheid en beslistheid gekorreleer. In die lig van die bogenoemde, is enkele aanbevelings gemaak.<hr/>The world is characterized by political, social and economic environmental changes. Africa and Southern Africa is no exception to this global revolution that is sweeping over managerial and organizational thinking. Internationalisation, for instance, brought along world competition which pressurizes companies to utilise their potential more fully. Stress experienced by managers and employees is an outcome of the abovementioned circumstances and needs to be handled. The South African first-line supervisor in particular is experiencing high levels of stress due to the fact that different needs of subordinates and top management need to be accomodated. Furthermore, research indicated that first-line supervisors often possess inadequate power which makes it difficult to enforce instructions. In the state sector, first-line supervisors have inadequate financial resources making it difficult to plan and implement strategies. Notwithstanding the fact that first-line supervisors experience a broad spectrum of stress, limited research is available that describes the relationship between stress and self-leadership characteristics. Researchers indicated that self-leadership characteristics can be an important tool for supervisors to reduce stress levels. It was decided therefore to determine the relation between stress and self-leadership factors among a group of South African first-line supervisors working in a state organisation. This information can help psychologists/employers to maintain a distinctive approach in communicating and handling problems with the specific group. In order to determine the relation between stress and self-leadership characteristics, the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire as well as The Revised Self-Leadership Questionnaire were applied on an occasional sample of 69 first-line supervisors. Results showed significant relations between the following self-leadership characteristics and stress: self-reward, focus thoughts on natural rewards/positive aspects of tasks, visualizing successful performance, self-observation and self-goal setting. Furthermore self-leadership as a whole correlates with decisiveness and resourcefulness. In the light of the abovementioned results, it is recommended that first-line supervisors reward themselves for good performance (for instance to take time off) and to focus on those tasks which are inherently rewarding. To visualise successful performance, to observe own performance and to set objectives out of that, can also help to reduce stress levels amongst first-line supervisors in the state sector. The abovementioned self-leadership strategies should therefore be included in stress management courses offered to first-line supervisors working in the state sector. Resourcefulness and decisiveness (to prefer taking own decisions and to experience feelings of security, calmness and confidence in self) can also be included in stress management courses. By implementing the abovementioned recommendations, high levels of stress amongst first-line supervisors can be reduced in a pro-active way which will help to improve productivity levels. <![CDATA[<b>The need for a multi-dimensional approach to the problem of discipline in schools</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512008000400005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Hierdie artikel beklemtoon die belangrikheid van behoorlike sosiohistoriese kontekstualisering van dissipline in skole. Die argument wat deur die skrywers ontwikkel is, is dat skole 'n spieëlbeeld is van die samelewings waarin dit voorkom en dat hierdie feit in ag geneem moet word wanneer strategieë vir die hantering van die probleem gekontekstualiseer word. In the Suid-Afrikaanse konteks vra dit vir die erkenning van die impak van eeue van onderdrukking in die koloniale en apartheidsera soos wat dit verband hou met die huidige probleme in die breër samelewing en in skole. Die argument wat deur die skrywers ontwikkel word, hou rekening met die belangrikheid van die sosiohistoriese kontekstualisering van dissiplinêre probleme in skole as 'n sosiale werklikheid en die noodsaak om probleme in die samelewing met dié in skole in verband te bring. Dit word voorts geargumenteer dat die komplekse aard van die probleem wat op hierdie wyse blootgelê word, 'n veelfasettige benadering verg waar alle rolspelers (ook dié buite die skool, op 'n geïntegreerde wyse met die skool saamwerk om gepaste strategieë te ontwikkel, implementeer, moniteer en evalueer en om dit na kritiese refleksie aan te pas, sou die omstandighede dit vereis.<hr/>This article accentuates the importance of proper socio-historical contextualisation of the problem of discipline in schools. The authors argue that social reality cannot be separated from the social-historical development from which it emanates and that schools as social realities can therefore not be separated from the social-historical development from which they originate. The need to caution against disregarding a better understanding of disciplinary problems as well as strategies to address these disciplinary problems that is possible through a historical awareness is emphasised. We consider such a disregard or suppression of the past to be be viewed with the necessary critical suspicion with the intent at revealing underlying ideological dimensions. The argument developed by the authors is that schools mirror the societies in which they are situated and that cognisance should be taken of this when conceptualising strategies to address disciplinary problems. In the South African context this begs for the acknowledgement of the impact of centuries of colonial and apartheid oppression as they relate to current problems in the broader society and in schools. The argument developed emphasises the importance of the socio-historical contextualisation of disciplinary problems in schools as a social reality, and the need to relate problems in society to those in schools. It is further argued that the complex nature of the problems described requires a multi-faceted approach where all role players (also those outside of the school) work together with schools in an integrated manner to develop, implement, monitor and evaluate suitable strategies and to adapt these after critical reflection, should the circumstances require it. It is argued that collaboration by various state departments, those in schools, as well as the communities within which the schools are situated, is necessary to bring about social justice. Mention is also made of a number of comprehensive multi-disciplinary strategies which take proper cognisance of the relationship between social-historical context and the problem of discipline. The authors emphasize the role that educators can play in promoting the idea of a democratic society where people act independently and responsibly, inside as well as outside the school. It is the authors' conviction that the idea of a democratic society is appropriate for South Africa as the country and its people are striving to move away from its apartheid past to a long-term commitment to non-racialism, non-sexism and the achievement of social justice in all spheres of private and public life. The article strongly argues that educators should be equipped with this orientation - which the narrowly defined strategies aimed at dealing with disciplinary problems are lacking. The key argument that the article poses is that the implementation of these narrowly defined strategies in isolation is insufficient and could be of greater value as part of more comprehensive, multi-disciplinary strategies which take proper cognisance of the relationship between social-historical context and disciplinary problems. The view is supported that learners be taught to live in peace daily, without uncertainty and ambivalence, to respect different viewpoints, be critical and self-critical, have an open mind, and with the courage to take responsibility for their choices and the consequences thereof. According to the authors, such a view of education can motivate learners to act responsibly and could go a long way in ensuring that disciplinary problems in schools are eradicated. <![CDATA[<b>A review article on types of family rituals and their symbolic meanings for young adults</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512008000400006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die ingrypende impak wat veranderings soos HIV/Vigs en egskeidings op gesinstrukture het, asook die voorkoms van geweld, noodsaak dat daar herbesin word oor die belangrikheid van gesinsrituele. Gesinsrituele speel 'n rol in die vestiging van toeganklike gesinsverhoudings. Dit fasiliteer die ontwikkeling van gesinslede se identiteit en hul geborgenheid. Rituele kom herhaaldelik voor, word hoog aangeskryf en het simboliese betekenis. Jong volwassenes tussen 19 en 22 jaar is gevra om aan die navorsing deel te neem en aan te dui watter tipe rituele in hulle gesinne van oorsprong voorkom asook wat die simboliese betekenis daarvan vir hulle is. Geskrewe data is ingesamel en 'n kwalitatiewe metode van data-ontleding is gebruik om die data te analiseer. Die bevindinge het aangedui dat godsdienstige aktiwiteite, gesinsetes, jaarlikse herdenkings, televisie en gesinsuitstappies as tipiese rituele geïdentifiseer is. Gesinsrituele verbind verskillende generasies met mekaar, bou verhoudings, beklemtoon die unieke aard van gesinne en dien as ondersteuning vir mekaar. Voorts skep dit 'n voorspelbare omgewing wat aan gesinslede 'n gevoel van behoort gee en waarin gesinslede selfvertroue ontwikkel. Waar gesinsrituele ontbreek het, is beskrywings gekenmerk deur vyandige en meganistiese interpersoonlike kontak en min emosionele inhoude is opgemerk. Hierdie afwesigheid van emosionele inhoude was veral opvallend in gesinstrukture wat gekenmerk is deur verandering, soos egskeiding. Die bevindinge van hierdie navorsing het verreikende implikasies vir die voorkoms van nuwe gesinstrukture, soos kinderhoofhuishoudings en enkelouergesinne.<hr/>The far-reaching impact of events such as HIV/AIDS and divorce on family structures, together with the prevalence of violence in South Africa, necessitate a new look at the significance of family rituals. Family rituals can be seen as uniquely meaningful family interactions that transmit the family's enduring beliefs, values, attitudes and goals, and provide the family with a sense of stability and a means of socialisation. Family rituals play a role in the establishment of accessible family relationships. They facilitate the development of the identities and emotional security of family members. Rituals are repetitive, are highly valued and have symbolic meanings. They add meaning to family life and can support a family's stability during turbulent times and transition. Healthy rituals in family life may buffer families from the negative effects of environmental stress and serve as a protective factor. Young adults between 19 and 22 years were invited to participate in the research and to describe the types of rituals occurring in their core families, together with their symbolic meanings. Written data were collected and a qualitative data analysis method was applied. The findings indicated that religious activities, family meals, anniversaries, television and family outings were identified as typical rituals. The high incidence of rituals pertaining to religious activities was surprising. It may be due to the fact that the participants were students studying at a traditional, value-driven university. Family meals played an important role in family integration. The physical space in which the meal takes place fostered emotional intimacy between family members. The young adults in this group described annual celebrations and anniversaries as one of the rituals present in their families; with birthdays and Christmas being events that were especially celebrated. Watching television was also seen as an important family ritual. Family outings such as shopping, picnics or going on an outing were also considered significant family rituals. Family outings can have the important function of bonding. The variety of rituals that were identified suggests that the extent of interpersonal contact exists on a continuum. Some rituals, such as watching television together, required little personal interaction, while visits and sharing meals were based on intimate interpersonal interactions. It was clear, however, that the type of ritual performed gained its significance from the symbolic value attached to that ritual. This research found that family members' bonds were strengthened and maintained through family rituals and that a unique identity was developed with which family members could identify. Within their safe family boundaries, family members were given opportunities to develop interpersonal skills. These skills were evident in mutually respectful relationships that benefited the family as a socialisation unit, and were also transferred to the broader context of society. The repetitive nature of rituals contributed to the establishment of a safe and predictable environment, which protected the boundaries of the family and its members so that the various family functions could take place. Forming an identity and developing interpersonal skills such as empathy, respect and an awareness of other people were critical for functioning in any human context. From this research it became clear that family rituals linked different generations to each other, strengthened relationships, emphasised the uniqueness of families and supplied a mutually supportive structure. They also created a predictable environment that gave family members a sense of belonging, and that nurtured self-confidence. Where family rituals were lacking, descriptions were typified by antagonistic and mechanistic interpersonal contact, and little emotional content could be discerned. The lack of emotional content was particularly apparent in family structures characterised by changes such as divorce. The findings of this research have far-reaching implications for upcoming new family structures such as child-headed households and single-parent families. <![CDATA[<b>Gender and racial differences in 6 and 7 year old children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) in learning related abilities and ADHD</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512008000400007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Suid-Afrika het 'n diverse bevolkingsamestelling wat verteenwoordiging van verskillende rasgroepe insluit. Hierdie diversiteit word gekompliseer deur wisselende ekonomiese omstandighede wat stimulasie vanjong kinders voordat hulle skool toe gaan kan beïnvloed. Koördinasieagterstande op 'n jong ouderdom word in verband gebring met leer- en aandagtekortprobleme wat met die ontwikkeling van jong kinders kan inmeng. Die doel van die studie was om te bepaal of geslags- en rasverskille ten op sigte van leerverwante vaardighede en ADHD by 6-7-jarige skoolbeginners voorkom wat met ontwikkelingskoordinasieversteurings (DCD) geïdentifiseer is. Nege-en-negentig leerders (N=99) is ewekansig vir die studie geselekteer wat die verskillende rasgroepe proporsioneel verteenwoordig het [Wit (n = 37), Swart (n = 50) en Kleurling (n = 12)]. Die Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC), Aptitude Test for School Beginners Test Battery (ASB), Taylor Hyperactivity Checklist en Modified Conner's Abbreviated Teacher vraelyste is gebruik om die groep te evalueer. Die resultate het 'n nie-betekenisvolle geslagsinteraksie tussen DCD (MABC totaal < 15e persentiel) en leerverwante vaardighede aangedui (p&gt;0.05), alhoewel een subitem, naamlik koördinasie en die ADHD totaal wel geslagsverskille uitgewys het. 'n Variansie analise (ANOVA) opgevolg met 'n Tuckey post hoc toets het aangedui dat numeriese en verbale begripvaardighede deur ras beïnvloed word. Identifisering van motoriese ontwikkelingsagterstande en aanbieding van motoriese ontwikkelingsprogramme kan as voorkomende strategies by voorskoolse kinders aangewend word om diè probleme te voorkom.<hr/>Early childhood is regarded as a unique period of a child's life, as this is a time in which they develop physically, emotionally, intellectually and socially. Proper development of fundamental motor skills are therefore important during this period as it forms essential building blocks for more complex motor skills and perceptual motor development, while it is also a critical part of a young child's school readiness make-up. Research findings report co-morbidity between problems such as Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), learning related problems and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and also that problems such as these interfere with the sound development of a significant percentage of school children (Sugden & Sugden, 1991:329; Missiuna, 1994:227; Winnick, 2005:195). South Africa has a diverse population including different racial groups. Adding to this complexity, people in this country come from different economical backgrounds which may impede on the stimulation young children receive before they enter the formal school system. Although differences in the motor development of children from different racial groups are reported in the literature, few research findings with regard to coordination difficulties, learning related problems and ADHD differences among children from different racial groups are found in the literature. Gender differences are reported, indicating boys to experience more problems compared to girls with DCD (ratio 2-3:1); learning related problems (3-15 times) and ADHD (ratio 2-9:1). A study by Pienaar (2005:322) indicates that Black and Coloured children between the ages of 10 and 12 years had higher percentages of problems in fine motor skills compared to White and Indian children, while White boys and Indian girls had more ball skill problems compared to Black and Coloured children. No literature could however be found regarding racial differences for ADHD and learning related problems among school beginners with DCD. The aim of the study was therefore to determine whether gender and racial differences exist between school beginners in the age group 6 to 7 years diagnosed with DCD with regard to ADHD and learning-related problems. Ninety-nine (N=99) learners were identified, randomly and proportionally representative of various ethnic groups [White (n = 37), Black (n = 50) and Coloured (n = 12)], and evaluated with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC), Aptitude Test for School Beginners Test Battery (ASB), Taylor Hyperactivity Checklist and the Modified Conner's Abbreviated Teacher questionnaire through which a combined ADHD total was obtained. The learning-related skills (determined with the ASB) of boys (n = 47) and girls (n = 52) who were classified by the MABC as DCD (< 15e percentile) were compared with those of boys and girls without DCD by means of t-testing (p< 0.05, StatSoft, 2006). The results indicate a non-significant gender interaction between DCD and learning-related problems, although gender differences with regard to the ADHD total and one sub-item of the ASB, namely coordination, was found. An ANOVA followed by a Tuckey post hoc analysis indicated the numerical skills of Black children with coordination problems were significantly poorer than White and Coloured children, while their verbal comprehension skills and their ASB total only differed significantly from White children. It can be concluded that boys and girls diagnosed with DCD do not differ much regarding learning related problems (boys only tested poorer in coordination skills than girls). Boys with DCD, however, experienced significantly more attention related problems once diagnosed with DCD. The racial groups also did not differ much, although difficulties pointing to numerical and verbal comprehension problems among young Black children were indicated by the results. Although more research is needed to back up the findings of this study, it is necessary to address the differences found, especially those which are substantiated by other research findings. Most of the identified differences need to be addressed by teachers in the pre-school years, and motor intervention programmes during this period could be very effective in addressing problems such as coordination and attention difficulties (especially for the boys), and perceptual motor activities (for numeric and verbal comprehension) among Black children who show motor backlogs. <![CDATA[<b>Paas-gedigte</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512008000400008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Suid-Afrika het 'n diverse bevolkingsamestelling wat verteenwoordiging van verskillende rasgroepe insluit. Hierdie diversiteit word gekompliseer deur wisselende ekonomiese omstandighede wat stimulasie vanjong kinders voordat hulle skool toe gaan kan beïnvloed. Koördinasieagterstande op 'n jong ouderdom word in verband gebring met leer- en aandagtekortprobleme wat met die ontwikkeling van jong kinders kan inmeng. Die doel van die studie was om te bepaal of geslags- en rasverskille ten op sigte van leerverwante vaardighede en ADHD by 6-7-jarige skoolbeginners voorkom wat met ontwikkelingskoordinasieversteurings (DCD) geïdentifiseer is. Nege-en-negentig leerders (N=99) is ewekansig vir die studie geselekteer wat die verskillende rasgroepe proporsioneel verteenwoordig het [Wit (n = 37), Swart (n = 50) en Kleurling (n = 12)]. Die Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC), Aptitude Test for School Beginners Test Battery (ASB), Taylor Hyperactivity Checklist en Modified Conner's Abbreviated Teacher vraelyste is gebruik om die groep te evalueer. Die resultate het 'n nie-betekenisvolle geslagsinteraksie tussen DCD (MABC totaal < 15e persentiel) en leerverwante vaardighede aangedui (p&gt;0.05), alhoewel een subitem, naamlik koördinasie en die ADHD totaal wel geslagsverskille uitgewys het. 'n Variansie analise (ANOVA) opgevolg met 'n Tuckey post hoc toets het aangedui dat numeriese en verbale begripvaardighede deur ras beïnvloed word. Identifisering van motoriese ontwikkelingsagterstande en aanbieding van motoriese ontwikkelingsprogramme kan as voorkomende strategies by voorskoolse kinders aangewend word om diè probleme te voorkom.<hr/>Early childhood is regarded as a unique period of a child's life, as this is a time in which they develop physically, emotionally, intellectually and socially. Proper development of fundamental motor skills are therefore important during this period as it forms essential building blocks for more complex motor skills and perceptual motor development, while it is also a critical part of a young child's school readiness make-up. Research findings report co-morbidity between problems such as Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), learning related problems and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and also that problems such as these interfere with the sound development of a significant percentage of school children (Sugden & Sugden, 1991:329; Missiuna, 1994:227; Winnick, 2005:195). South Africa has a diverse population including different racial groups. Adding to this complexity, people in this country come from different economical backgrounds which may impede on the stimulation young children receive before they enter the formal school system. Although differences in the motor development of children from different racial groups are reported in the literature, few research findings with regard to coordination difficulties, learning related problems and ADHD differences among children from different racial groups are found in the literature. Gender differences are reported, indicating boys to experience more problems compared to girls with DCD (ratio 2-3:1); learning related problems (3-15 times) and ADHD (ratio 2-9:1). A study by Pienaar (2005:322) indicates that Black and Coloured children between the ages of 10 and 12 years had higher percentages of problems in fine motor skills compared to White and Indian children, while White boys and Indian girls had more ball skill problems compared to Black and Coloured children. No literature could however be found regarding racial differences for ADHD and learning related problems among school beginners with DCD. The aim of the study was therefore to determine whether gender and racial differences exist between school beginners in the age group 6 to 7 years diagnosed with DCD with regard to ADHD and learning-related problems. Ninety-nine (N=99) learners were identified, randomly and proportionally representative of various ethnic groups [White (n = 37), Black (n = 50) and Coloured (n = 12)], and evaluated with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC), Aptitude Test for School Beginners Test Battery (ASB), Taylor Hyperactivity Checklist and the Modified Conner's Abbreviated Teacher questionnaire through which a combined ADHD total was obtained. The learning-related skills (determined with the ASB) of boys (n = 47) and girls (n = 52) who were classified by the MABC as DCD (< 15e percentile) were compared with those of boys and girls without DCD by means of t-testing (p< 0.05, StatSoft, 2006). The results indicate a non-significant gender interaction between DCD and learning-related problems, although gender differences with regard to the ADHD total and one sub-item of the ASB, namely coordination, was found. An ANOVA followed by a Tuckey post hoc analysis indicated the numerical skills of Black children with coordination problems were significantly poorer than White and Coloured children, while their verbal comprehension skills and their ASB total only differed significantly from White children. It can be concluded that boys and girls diagnosed with DCD do not differ much regarding learning related problems (boys only tested poorer in coordination skills than girls). Boys with DCD, however, experienced significantly more attention related problems once diagnosed with DCD. The racial groups also did not differ much, although difficulties pointing to numerical and verbal comprehension problems among young Black children were indicated by the results. Although more research is needed to back up the findings of this study, it is necessary to address the differences found, especially those which are substantiated by other research findings. Most of the identified differences need to be addressed by teachers in the pre-school years, and motor intervention programmes during this period could be very effective in addressing problems such as coordination and attention difficulties (especially for the boys), and perceptual motor activities (for numeric and verbal comprehension) among Black children who show motor backlogs. <![CDATA[<b>Gedigte</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512008000400009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Suid-Afrika het 'n diverse bevolkingsamestelling wat verteenwoordiging van verskillende rasgroepe insluit. Hierdie diversiteit word gekompliseer deur wisselende ekonomiese omstandighede wat stimulasie vanjong kinders voordat hulle skool toe gaan kan beïnvloed. Koördinasieagterstande op 'n jong ouderdom word in verband gebring met leer- en aandagtekortprobleme wat met die ontwikkeling van jong kinders kan inmeng. Die doel van die studie was om te bepaal of geslags- en rasverskille ten op sigte van leerverwante vaardighede en ADHD by 6-7-jarige skoolbeginners voorkom wat met ontwikkelingskoordinasieversteurings (DCD) geïdentifiseer is. Nege-en-negentig leerders (N=99) is ewekansig vir die studie geselekteer wat die verskillende rasgroepe proporsioneel verteenwoordig het [Wit (n = 37), Swart (n = 50) en Kleurling (n = 12)]. Die Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC), Aptitude Test for School Beginners Test Battery (ASB), Taylor Hyperactivity Checklist en Modified Conner's Abbreviated Teacher vraelyste is gebruik om die groep te evalueer. Die resultate het 'n nie-betekenisvolle geslagsinteraksie tussen DCD (MABC totaal < 15e persentiel) en leerverwante vaardighede aangedui (p&gt;0.05), alhoewel een subitem, naamlik koördinasie en die ADHD totaal wel geslagsverskille uitgewys het. 'n Variansie analise (ANOVA) opgevolg met 'n Tuckey post hoc toets het aangedui dat numeriese en verbale begripvaardighede deur ras beïnvloed word. Identifisering van motoriese ontwikkelingsagterstande en aanbieding van motoriese ontwikkelingsprogramme kan as voorkomende strategies by voorskoolse kinders aangewend word om diè probleme te voorkom.<hr/>Early childhood is regarded as a unique period of a child's life, as this is a time in which they develop physically, emotionally, intellectually and socially. Proper development of fundamental motor skills are therefore important during this period as it forms essential building blocks for more complex motor skills and perceptual motor development, while it is also a critical part of a young child's school readiness make-up. Research findings report co-morbidity between problems such as Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), learning related problems and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and also that problems such as these interfere with the sound development of a significant percentage of school children (Sugden & Sugden, 1991:329; Missiuna, 1994:227; Winnick, 2005:195). South Africa has a diverse population including different racial groups. Adding to this complexity, people in this country come from different economical backgrounds which may impede on the stimulation young children receive before they enter the formal school system. Although differences in the motor development of children from different racial groups are reported in the literature, few research findings with regard to coordination difficulties, learning related problems and ADHD differences among children from different racial groups are found in the literature. Gender differences are reported, indicating boys to experience more problems compared to girls with DCD (ratio 2-3:1); learning related problems (3-15 times) and ADHD (ratio 2-9:1). A study by Pienaar (2005:322) indicates that Black and Coloured children between the ages of 10 and 12 years had higher percentages of problems in fine motor skills compared to White and Indian children, while White boys and Indian girls had more ball skill problems compared to Black and Coloured children. No literature could however be found regarding racial differences for ADHD and learning related problems among school beginners with DCD. The aim of the study was therefore to determine whether gender and racial differences exist between school beginners in the age group 6 to 7 years diagnosed with DCD with regard to ADHD and learning-related problems. Ninety-nine (N=99) learners were identified, randomly and proportionally representative of various ethnic groups [White (n = 37), Black (n = 50) and Coloured (n = 12)], and evaluated with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC), Aptitude Test for School Beginners Test Battery (ASB), Taylor Hyperactivity Checklist and the Modified Conner's Abbreviated Teacher questionnaire through which a combined ADHD total was obtained. The learning-related skills (determined with the ASB) of boys (n = 47) and girls (n = 52) who were classified by the MABC as DCD (< 15e percentile) were compared with those of boys and girls without DCD by means of t-testing (p< 0.05, StatSoft, 2006). The results indicate a non-significant gender interaction between DCD and learning-related problems, although gender differences with regard to the ADHD total and one sub-item of the ASB, namely coordination, was found. An ANOVA followed by a Tuckey post hoc analysis indicated the numerical skills of Black children with coordination problems were significantly poorer than White and Coloured children, while their verbal comprehension skills and their ASB total only differed significantly from White children. It can be concluded that boys and girls diagnosed with DCD do not differ much regarding learning related problems (boys only tested poorer in coordination skills than girls). Boys with DCD, however, experienced significantly more attention related problems once diagnosed with DCD. The racial groups also did not differ much, although difficulties pointing to numerical and verbal comprehension problems among young Black children were indicated by the results. Although more research is needed to back up the findings of this study, it is necessary to address the differences found, especially those which are substantiated by other research findings. Most of the identified differences need to be addressed by teachers in the pre-school years, and motor intervention programmes during this period could be very effective in addressing problems such as coordination and attention difficulties (especially for the boys), and perceptual motor activities (for numeric and verbal comprehension) among Black children who show motor backlogs. <![CDATA[<b>Die Nihilisme: Notas oor ons tyd</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512008000400010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Suid-Afrika het 'n diverse bevolkingsamestelling wat verteenwoordiging van verskillende rasgroepe insluit. Hierdie diversiteit word gekompliseer deur wisselende ekonomiese omstandighede wat stimulasie vanjong kinders voordat hulle skool toe gaan kan beïnvloed. Koördinasieagterstande op 'n jong ouderdom word in verband gebring met leer- en aandagtekortprobleme wat met die ontwikkeling van jong kinders kan inmeng. Die doel van die studie was om te bepaal of geslags- en rasverskille ten op sigte van leerverwante vaardighede en ADHD by 6-7-jarige skoolbeginners voorkom wat met ontwikkelingskoordinasieversteurings (DCD) geïdentifiseer is. Nege-en-negentig leerders (N=99) is ewekansig vir die studie geselekteer wat die verskillende rasgroepe proporsioneel verteenwoordig het [Wit (n = 37), Swart (n = 50) en Kleurling (n = 12)]. Die Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC), Aptitude Test for School Beginners Test Battery (ASB), Taylor Hyperactivity Checklist en Modified Conner's Abbreviated Teacher vraelyste is gebruik om die groep te evalueer. Die resultate het 'n nie-betekenisvolle geslagsinteraksie tussen DCD (MABC totaal < 15e persentiel) en leerverwante vaardighede aangedui (p&gt;0.05), alhoewel een subitem, naamlik koördinasie en die ADHD totaal wel geslagsverskille uitgewys het. 'n Variansie analise (ANOVA) opgevolg met 'n Tuckey post hoc toets het aangedui dat numeriese en verbale begripvaardighede deur ras beïnvloed word. Identifisering van motoriese ontwikkelingsagterstande en aanbieding van motoriese ontwikkelingsprogramme kan as voorkomende strategies by voorskoolse kinders aangewend word om diè probleme te voorkom.<hr/>Early childhood is regarded as a unique period of a child's life, as this is a time in which they develop physically, emotionally, intellectually and socially. Proper development of fundamental motor skills are therefore important during this period as it forms essential building blocks for more complex motor skills and perceptual motor development, while it is also a critical part of a young child's school readiness make-up. Research findings report co-morbidity between problems such as Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), learning related problems and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and also that problems such as these interfere with the sound development of a significant percentage of school children (Sugden & Sugden, 1991:329; Missiuna, 1994:227; Winnick, 2005:195). South Africa has a diverse population including different racial groups. Adding to this complexity, people in this country come from different economical backgrounds which may impede on the stimulation young children receive before they enter the formal school system. Although differences in the motor development of children from different racial groups are reported in the literature, few research findings with regard to coordination difficulties, learning related problems and ADHD differences among children from different racial groups are found in the literature. Gender differences are reported, indicating boys to experience more problems compared to girls with DCD (ratio 2-3:1); learning related problems (3-15 times) and ADHD (ratio 2-9:1). A study by Pienaar (2005:322) indicates that Black and Coloured children between the ages of 10 and 12 years had higher percentages of problems in fine motor skills compared to White and Indian children, while White boys and Indian girls had more ball skill problems compared to Black and Coloured children. No literature could however be found regarding racial differences for ADHD and learning related problems among school beginners with DCD. The aim of the study was therefore to determine whether gender and racial differences exist between school beginners in the age group 6 to 7 years diagnosed with DCD with regard to ADHD and learning-related problems. Ninety-nine (N=99) learners were identified, randomly and proportionally representative of various ethnic groups [White (n = 37), Black (n = 50) and Coloured (n = 12)], and evaluated with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC), Aptitude Test for School Beginners Test Battery (ASB), Taylor Hyperactivity Checklist and the Modified Conner's Abbreviated Teacher questionnaire through which a combined ADHD total was obtained. The learning-related skills (determined with the ASB) of boys (n = 47) and girls (n = 52) who were classified by the MABC as DCD (< 15e percentile) were compared with those of boys and girls without DCD by means of t-testing (p< 0.05, StatSoft, 2006). The results indicate a non-significant gender interaction between DCD and learning-related problems, although gender differences with regard to the ADHD total and one sub-item of the ASB, namely coordination, was found. An ANOVA followed by a Tuckey post hoc analysis indicated the numerical skills of Black children with coordination problems were significantly poorer than White and Coloured children, while their verbal comprehension skills and their ASB total only differed significantly from White children. It can be concluded that boys and girls diagnosed with DCD do not differ much regarding learning related problems (boys only tested poorer in coordination skills than girls). Boys with DCD, however, experienced significantly more attention related problems once diagnosed with DCD. The racial groups also did not differ much, although difficulties pointing to numerical and verbal comprehension problems among young Black children were indicated by the results. Although more research is needed to back up the findings of this study, it is necessary to address the differences found, especially those which are substantiated by other research findings. Most of the identified differences need to be addressed by teachers in the pre-school years, and motor intervention programmes during this period could be very effective in addressing problems such as coordination and attention difficulties (especially for the boys), and perceptual motor activities (for numeric and verbal comprehension) among Black children who show motor backlogs. <![CDATA[<b>Die Afrikaanse Bybel vir Dowes breek deur die klankgrens</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512008000400011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Suid-Afrika het 'n diverse bevolkingsamestelling wat verteenwoordiging van verskillende rasgroepe insluit. Hierdie diversiteit word gekompliseer deur wisselende ekonomiese omstandighede wat stimulasie vanjong kinders voordat hulle skool toe gaan kan beïnvloed. Koördinasieagterstande op 'n jong ouderdom word in verband gebring met leer- en aandagtekortprobleme wat met die ontwikkeling van jong kinders kan inmeng. Die doel van die studie was om te bepaal of geslags- en rasverskille ten op sigte van leerverwante vaardighede en ADHD by 6-7-jarige skoolbeginners voorkom wat met ontwikkelingskoordinasieversteurings (DCD) geïdentifiseer is. Nege-en-negentig leerders (N=99) is ewekansig vir die studie geselekteer wat die verskillende rasgroepe proporsioneel verteenwoordig het [Wit (n = 37), Swart (n = 50) en Kleurling (n = 12)]. Die Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC), Aptitude Test for School Beginners Test Battery (ASB), Taylor Hyperactivity Checklist en Modified Conner's Abbreviated Teacher vraelyste is gebruik om die groep te evalueer. Die resultate het 'n nie-betekenisvolle geslagsinteraksie tussen DCD (MABC totaal < 15e persentiel) en leerverwante vaardighede aangedui (p&gt;0.05), alhoewel een subitem, naamlik koördinasie en die ADHD totaal wel geslagsverskille uitgewys het. 'n Variansie analise (ANOVA) opgevolg met 'n Tuckey post hoc toets het aangedui dat numeriese en verbale begripvaardighede deur ras beïnvloed word. Identifisering van motoriese ontwikkelingsagterstande en aanbieding van motoriese ontwikkelingsprogramme kan as voorkomende strategies by voorskoolse kinders aangewend word om diè probleme te voorkom.<hr/>Early childhood is regarded as a unique period of a child's life, as this is a time in which they develop physically, emotionally, intellectually and socially. Proper development of fundamental motor skills are therefore important during this period as it forms essential building blocks for more complex motor skills and perceptual motor development, while it is also a critical part of a young child's school readiness make-up. Research findings report co-morbidity between problems such as Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), learning related problems and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and also that problems such as these interfere with the sound development of a significant percentage of school children (Sugden & Sugden, 1991:329; Missiuna, 1994:227; Winnick, 2005:195). South Africa has a diverse population including different racial groups. Adding to this complexity, people in this country come from different economical backgrounds which may impede on the stimulation young children receive before they enter the formal school system. Although differences in the motor development of children from different racial groups are reported in the literature, few research findings with regard to coordination difficulties, learning related problems and ADHD differences among children from different racial groups are found in the literature. Gender differences are reported, indicating boys to experience more problems compared to girls with DCD (ratio 2-3:1); learning related problems (3-15 times) and ADHD (ratio 2-9:1). A study by Pienaar (2005:322) indicates that Black and Coloured children between the ages of 10 and 12 years had higher percentages of problems in fine motor skills compared to White and Indian children, while White boys and Indian girls had more ball skill problems compared to Black and Coloured children. No literature could however be found regarding racial differences for ADHD and learning related problems among school beginners with DCD. The aim of the study was therefore to determine whether gender and racial differences exist between school beginners in the age group 6 to 7 years diagnosed with DCD with regard to ADHD and learning-related problems. Ninety-nine (N=99) learners were identified, randomly and proportionally representative of various ethnic groups [White (n = 37), Black (n = 50) and Coloured (n = 12)], and evaluated with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC), Aptitude Test for School Beginners Test Battery (ASB), Taylor Hyperactivity Checklist and the Modified Conner's Abbreviated Teacher questionnaire through which a combined ADHD total was obtained. The learning-related skills (determined with the ASB) of boys (n = 47) and girls (n = 52) who were classified by the MABC as DCD (< 15e percentile) were compared with those of boys and girls without DCD by means of t-testing (p< 0.05, StatSoft, 2006). The results indicate a non-significant gender interaction between DCD and learning-related problems, although gender differences with regard to the ADHD total and one sub-item of the ASB, namely coordination, was found. An ANOVA followed by a Tuckey post hoc analysis indicated the numerical skills of Black children with coordination problems were significantly poorer than White and Coloured children, while their verbal comprehension skills and their ASB total only differed significantly from White children. It can be concluded that boys and girls diagnosed with DCD do not differ much regarding learning related problems (boys only tested poorer in coordination skills than girls). Boys with DCD, however, experienced significantly more attention related problems once diagnosed with DCD. The racial groups also did not differ much, although difficulties pointing to numerical and verbal comprehension problems among young Black children were indicated by the results. Although more research is needed to back up the findings of this study, it is necessary to address the differences found, especially those which are substantiated by other research findings. Most of the identified differences need to be addressed by teachers in the pre-school years, and motor intervention programmes during this period could be very effective in addressing problems such as coordination and attention difficulties (especially for the boys), and perceptual motor activities (for numeric and verbal comprehension) among Black children who show motor backlogs.