Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0041-475120080001&lang=es vol. 48 num. 1 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Life-in-work: Autobiography in Arnold van Wyk's music</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512008000100001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die artikel handel oor die populêre vraag rakende die konsep van betekenis in die kunsmusiek, meer spesifiek die musiek van die Suid-Afrikaanse komponis Arnold van Wyk (1916-1983). Tydens 'n onderhoud met die komponis in 1982 het hy aanduidings gegee ten opsigte van die skeppingsproses van sy klavierwerk, Nagmusiek (wat geskryf is in 1945-1958). Onlangse insae in sketse en briewe wat betrekking het op hierdie en ander werke het nie alleen die komponis se mededelings bevestig nie, maar ook dit onthul wat gesien kan word as aanduidings van die outobiografiese aard van die musiek. Daar kan geargumenteer word dat die komponis bepaalde aspekte van sy innerlike self en sy lewenstyl teruggehou het, om slegs deur middel van sy musiek tot uitdrukking te bring.<hr/>The essay deals with the popular question regarding meaning in the art of music, in particular in the music of the South African composer Arnold van Wyk (1916-1983). In an interview with the composer in 1982 he gave indications concerning the creative process of his piano work, Night Music (composed 1945-1958). Recent insight into sketches and letters relating to this and other works not only confirmed the composer's communications but also revealed what can be seen as indications of an autobiographical nature of the music. It can be argued that the composer reserved aspects of his inner self and his life-style to be expressed only through his music. <![CDATA[<b>The Academy and opera</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512008000100002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die artikel handel oor die populêre vraag rakende die konsep van betekenis in die kunsmusiek, meer spesifiek die musiek van die Suid-Afrikaanse komponis Arnold van Wyk (1916-1983). Tydens 'n onderhoud met die komponis in 1982 het hy aanduidings gegee ten opsigte van die skeppingsproses van sy klavierwerk, Nagmusiek (wat geskryf is in 1945-1958). Onlangse insae in sketse en briewe wat betrekking het op hierdie en ander werke het nie alleen die komponis se mededelings bevestig nie, maar ook dit onthul wat gesien kan word as aanduidings van die outobiografiese aard van die musiek. Daar kan geargumenteer word dat die komponis bepaalde aspekte van sy innerlike self en sy lewenstyl teruggehou het, om slegs deur middel van sy musiek tot uitdrukking te bring.<hr/>The essay deals with the popular question regarding meaning in the art of music, in particular in the music of the South African composer Arnold van Wyk (1916-1983). In an interview with the composer in 1982 he gave indications concerning the creative process of his piano work, Night Music (composed 1945-1958). Recent insight into sketches and letters relating to this and other works not only confirmed the composer's communications but also revealed what can be seen as indications of an autobiographical nature of the music. It can be argued that the composer reserved aspects of his inner self and his life-style to be expressed only through his music. <![CDATA[<b>The use of the Afrikaans conjunction "wanneer" (when) in subordinate clause embedding</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512008000100003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es By die ontleding van gebruiksdata, blyk dat wanneer in Afrikaans as bywoord en voegwoord in 'n verskeidenheid konstruksies gebruik word. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om die gebruik van die voegwoord wanneer in bysinsinlywing te beskryf. Bysinsinlywing word as 'n soort onderskikking beskou wat van hipotaktiese verbinding verskil met betrekking tot die kohesie tussen die bysin en die hoofwerkwoord. Twee soorte bysinsinlywing staan sentraal in die beskrywing, naamlik inlywing van 'n wanneer-sin AS: sinsdeel en inlywing van 'n wanneer-sin BY: 'n sinsdeel. As sinsdeel vervul die wanneer-sin die funksie van onderwerp, voorwerp, kopulatiewe predikaat of komplement van 'n onoorganklike werkwoord. As nabepaling word 'n wanneer-sin by naamwoordstukke, voorsetselgroepe en infinitiewe ingelyf. Verwantskappe met betreklike voornaamwoorde asook met die bywoord waar, blyk baie duidelik uit die data. Verdere verwantskappe met die komplementeerders dat en of by inlywing as sinsdeel kom na vore. Verwantskappe met ander temporele en kousale voegwoorde word hoofsaaklik in hipotaktiese verbindings geopenbaar. Op semantiese vlak bly die basiese betekenis van "op die tyd dat" grootliks behoue. Die ingelyfde wanneer-sin dui tyd of omstandighede in terme van 'n gebeurtenis aan. In 'n opvolgartikel kom die gebruik van die voegwoord wanneer in hipotaktiese verbindings aan bod.<hr/>The Afrikaans conjunction "wanneer" (when) originated in Dutch with the meaning "at which time". This paper describes the use of "wanneer" in subordinate clause embedding. A follow-up article will discuss hypotactic combining. The description follows the cognitive grammar paradigm. In accordance with that paradigm real examples of actual usage are quoted. Relationships between form and meaning are explored with the understanding that there are no clear boundaries between syntactic and semantic categories. A wide variety of examples was obtained by examining a large corpus of documents obtained from the Internet. Table 1 specifies the usage categories observed. Two important categories, i.e. embedding of a subordinate clause AS: a constituent in the main clause and embedding IN: a constituent are discussed in depth. As background the usage of "wanneer" as adverb and the transition from adverb to conjunction are briefly discussed. Examples are quoted where "wanneer" is a pure adverb and further examples where "wanneer" is transformed into a conjunction. For example, by using reported speech or by answering questions "wanneer" can be transformed from an adverb to a conjunction. As a conjunction "wanneer" is a typical subordinating conjunction that is followed by the typical Afrikaans subordinate clause ordering. Syntactically "wanneer" introduces a subordinate clause, but semantically the subordination is not always valid as is the case with other subordinating conjunctions. The difference between embedding and hypotactic combining is explained following Taylor, using "participants" and "circumstances". Participants are inherent entities that are complements of the main verb. Circumstances are optional modifiers; they can be omitted in a sentence. In embedding AS: constituent the subordinate clause introduced by "wanneer" is a complement of the main verb. It is therefore a participant and cannot be omitted. In the corpus the following types of incorporation AS: a constituent were observed: object, subject, predicate and complement of an intransitive verb. Subordinate "wanneer" clauses as objects of transitive verbs were observed following "communication" verbs. When "wanneer" clauses were observed as subjects the use of an empty "dit" (it) as temporary subject was also seen. In copula constructions, "wanneer" clauses were found as copulative predicates. Sometimes an author mixes the references to time and space, using time as a metaphoric space. Complements of intransitive verbs using "wanneer" were found in sentences with verbs like "plaasvind" (take place), "gebeur" (happen), "ontstaan" (originate) and "voorkom" (occur). Huddleston and Pullum describe a similar phenomenon in English with the verbs "happen", "live", "occur" and "take place" which take complements of temporal location. Embedding IN: a constituent represents a deeper kind of embedding. The "wanneer" clause now forms a post qualifier to a plethora of words or word groups. This article discusses nouns, noun clauses, prepositions, comparatives and infinitives. "Wanneer" clauses used as post qualifiers to nouns, show similarities to relative clauses. Following Ponelis they can be called adverbial relative clauses. The "wanneer" clause can be restrictive or appositional. The antecedent of the restrictive "wanneer" clause is a time indicator like "dag" (day), "maand" (month), "jaar" (year), "geleentheid" (occasion), "oomblik" (instant), "moment" (moment), "punt" (point) and "dag en datum" (day and age). In some cases "wanneer" can be replaced by "waarop" (whereupon). An appositional adverbial subordinate clause provides further information about the antecedent. The connection between the main clause and the subordinate clause is weaker and is usually reflected by punctuation. Sometimes the "wanneer" clause is separated from the antecedent by the verb. There is a range of looseness between appositional subordinate clauses and their antecedents from immediate to parenthetical. Typical antecedents are adverbials like "later" (later). "Wanneer" clauses can act as complements to prepositions like "oor" (over) "van" (of) and "vir" (for). The "wanneer" clause forms part of the prepositional group that is incorporated as a complement or post qualifier of another clause. Comparative constructions using "wanneer" can be comparisons of equality or comparisons of inequality. Comparisons of inequality use the comparative degree of an adjective + "as wanneer ..." (than when...) while comparisons of equality use "soos wanneer ..." (as when ...). Embedding in an infinitive is another example of deep embedding. In the quoted examples the "wanneer" clause is a time adverbial to the verb in the infinitive. This infinitive is a constituent in a subordinate clause that is embedded as an object clause. The adverbial only qualifies the infinitive verb and can be seen as a local qualifier. The "wanneer" clause is less adverbial because the infinitive has noun characteristics. There are various borderline cases. The examples being actual usage data do not always consist of a single main clause and a single subordinate clause. Examples are given of embedding of the "wanneer" clause together with its main clause into relative and complement clauses. Coordination with other time adverbials is also documented. Hidden or elided clauses were also observed. While hypotactic combining is not the central theme of this paper a few examples are given to contrast hypotactic combining and embedding. The paper concludes that "wanneer" can be used in a variety of embedding constructions. This variety manifests itself primarily on the syntactical level. On the semantic level "wanneer" manifests itself as an indicator of time, expressed as an event. "Wanneer" has categorical relationships with interrogative pronouns and interrogative adverbs. This has led to it being described as an interrogative conjunction. When incorporated AS: a constituent in the main clause, it shows a close relationship to the so called "grammatical conjunctions" "dat" (that) and "of" (or). There is a clear difference in the use of "wanneer" in embedding and hypotactic combining. "Wanneer" shows its similarities to other temporal and causal conjunctions mainly in hypotactic combining. The use of "wanneer" in embedding is therefore a less conjunctive use. <![CDATA[<b>The political convictions of Hans van Rensburg (1898-1966): Continuity and change</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512008000100004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In hierdie artikel word die kontinuïteit en verandering in die politieke oortuigings van dr JFJ ("Hans") van Rensburg (1898-1966) ondersoek en gerekonstrueer. Die artikel bied 'n oorsig oor Van Rensburg se politieke oortuigings sedert die 1914-rebellie, sy loopbaan in die staatsdiens, sy leierskap van die Ossewabrandwag tot en met sy deelname aan die apartheidsbestel in die middel-sestigerjare van die vorige eeu. Die uiteensetting steun op sy geskrifte en openbare uitsprake, sowel as argivale navorsing wat na sy eie werk verwys. Aan die einde word 'n besluit oor Van Rensburg se politieke oortuigings gemaak, veral met verwysing na die vraag oor sy toewyding aan Nasionaal-sosialisme. Die ondersoek voer aan dat Van Rensburg se politieke oortuigings hoofsaaklik Afrikaner-nasionalisties was, ten spyte van 'n flankering met (Duitse) Nasionaal-sosialisme in die jare 1938-1948, waarvan hy later weer, ca. 1953-1966 van standpunt verander het. Die artikel bevraagteken die gemaklike stereotipering deur verskeie skrywers en van sy tydgenootlike politieke opponente dat Van Rensburg kortweg "'n Nazi en Hitler-bewonderaar was". Daar word ook aangetoon hoedat veranderende sosiale en institusioneel-strukturele omstandighede 'n stempel op Van Rensburg se politieke oortuigings afgedruk het.<hr/>This article investigates and describes the political convictions of dr JFJ (Hans) van Rensburg (1898-1966). It offers an overview of Van Rensburg's political convictions since the 1914 rebellion in South Africa, his career in the civil service, his leadership of the Ossewabrandwag up to his participation in the apartheid administration towards the middle sixties of the last century. The research is based on his own written work and documented public speeches, as well as research based on archival material. The question of Van Rensburg's commitment to National Socialism is treated in some detail. In the analysis an argument is offered that Van Rensburg's political convictions can be depicted as being mainly Afrikaner nationalist, despite an allegiance to National Socialism in the years between 1938-1948. The article shows how Van Rensburg changed his view on Nazism after the horrors of the holocaust and other German atrocities became public knowledge after the War. In the examination of his political convictions, the question of the generally held stereotype in academic as well as partisan literature of Van Rensburg as being a dedicated and unreconstructed Nazi and Hitler admirer, is put to the test. The following examples, drawn from the literature, are representative of the commonly held view of Van Rensburg's faithfulness to the Nazi cause. According to Visser, a police officer who investigated Van Rensburg's alleged treason in 1946, he was "a shrewd and intelligent man, who was campaigning to establish a National Socialist state in South Africa while loyal South Africans were fighting and dying in North Africa to destroy the Nazis" (Visser 1976:45). According to Furlong (1991:79) van Rensburg was "a Hertzogite with unusually Radical Rightist views" and a "committed supporter of the German National Socialist state" (1991:141). O'Meara writes that van Rensburg was a "self confessed Nazi" (1982:127). Moll typecasts van Rensburg as a committed national socialist (Moll 1985:156). His Afrikaans political opponents, like Strijdom, Verwoerd and Malan often accused Van Rensburg of being a Nazi, dictator and "German Sap" (cf. Fourie 1991:357-364). The investigation finds that the Nazi tar brush is a simplistic judgement of a skilled and articulate politician. Van Rensburg did indeed have an admiration for the pre-Second World War Hitler government and its efforts to revive the German economy and reinstate Germany as a world power. He was also an admirer of the principles of its National Socialist policies. Moreover, Van Rensburg was a highly disciplined man and a trained colonel in the Union Defence Force. Therefore the Kaiser-type values of the Second German Reich of respect for authority, discipline, hard work, authoritarian government and a high regard for law and order in public policy were core principles in Van Rensburg' s political convictions. However, after the war he recognised and admitted that the atrocities perpetrated by the Nazis were inexcusable and he wrote and said as much. He never accepted the anti-Christian tenets of the Nazis. After the war he was sceptical of the Allied war crime tribunals - mostly because in his view it represented the justice of the victor. Moreover, he found it unacceptable that little was done by the Allies to prosecute or at least denounce war atrocities by their own forces. For instance, the bombing of German civilians in Dresden or the use of nuclear weapons against Japan. A view vindicated, inter alia in 2006, by the Oxford Historian Niall Ferguson. The article shows that van Rensburg had been a consistent Afrikaner nationalist since his student days at the University of Stellenbosch, a committed supporter of the Hertzog two-stream policy regarding the two white "races" in South Africa, an apologist of the policy of separate development (apartheid) and a stringent opponent of communism as a creed as well as the Soviet communist dictatorship. Lastly, van Rensburg consistently held the view that the state has a social obligation to care for the poor, the weak and the marginalised working classes of an industrialised economy. A view not far removed from typical conservative Christian Democratic parties in post-war Europe. <![CDATA[<b>Transformation of the Just State: Between the Scylla of bygone injustices and the Charybdis of an undemocratic, totalitarian content attached to the slogan "representative of the demography"</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512008000100005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Teen die agtergrond van tradisionele staatsteorieë fokus hierdie artikel op die probleem van mag en geregtigheid. Dit geskied deur die slaggate van 'n totalitäre en absolutistiese siening uit te wys in die opvatting van "meerderheidsregering". Dit blyk dat tradisionele magstaatsteorieê (soos dié van Hobbes) 'n negatiewe invloed gehad het op diegene (soos Rousseau) wat 'n pleit wou voer vir die bestaan van 'n regstaat. Hierdie gemengde erfenis geld beide ten opsigte van die politieke geskiedenis van Suid-Afrika en die resente konstitusionele geskiedenis daarvan sedert die oorgang van en na 1994. Die begrip "demokrasie" word afgeskaal tot die konstitusioneel-verordende verkiesingsposes, verbind aan die bevoegdheid van die burgery om 'n owerheid in die owerheidsamp te plaas. Hierdie verkiesingsproses veronderstel die amp van owerheid asook die bevoegdhede (magte) wat in daardie amp opgesluit lê. Gevolglik kan dit nie afgelei word uit diegene wat juis aan daardie owerheidsgesag onderworpe is as burgers van die staat nie. Aangesien die meerderheid nie die bron van geregtigheid (of waarheid) kan wees nie, impliseer die aanwending daarvan as maatstaf (in die sin van verteenwoordigend-wees van die demografie van die land) onderweg na 'n uiteindelike regstaat (sonder enige diskriminasie) dat die hele proses kan vasloop in 'n situasie waar die doel ('n regstaat) gekortwiek word deur die middele (totalitêre maatreëls wat onregmatig ingryp in die regmatige, interne bevoegdheidsfeer van nie-staatkundige samelewingsvorme).<hr/>Against the background of traditional theories of the state focused on the issue of power and justice this article sets out to highlight the totalitarian and absolutistic pitfalls present in the notion of "majority rule". Traditional power-state theories (like that of Hobbes) are shown to have infected also the theories of those (like Rousseau) who did want to argue for a just state (a constitutional state under the rule of law/"regstaat"). This mixed legacy pertains both to the political history of South Africa and to its recent constitutional transition in and after 1994. The concept of "democracy" is "down-sized" to the constitutionally arranged election process, connected to the right of citizens to put a government in office. But it is argued that this arrangement presupposes the office of government and that the competencies (power) entailed in this office cannot be deduced from those who are actually subjected to it, namely the citizens as subjects within such a state. Since the majority cannot be the source of justice (or truth) invoking it as a yardstick (in the sense of requiring representativeness according to the demography of the country) the way to an eventual truly just state (without any discrimination), may result in a situation where the aim (a just state) is defeated by the means (totalitarian measures interfering in the legitimate spheres of competence of non-political social entities). <![CDATA[<b>Character strengths rediscovered in psychology</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512008000100006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In hierdie artikel ontleed ons-die konstrukte "karakter" en "karaktersterktes" as belangrike konsepte in sielkunde in die algemeen en in positiewe sielkunde in die besonder. Die karakterkonsep het 'n lang geskiedenis in die sielkunde gehad, gekenmerk deur kom-en-gaan tendense. Die belangrikheid en relevansie van die teoretiese konsep kon nooit suksesvol weerlê word nie, maar die feit dat so 'n abstrakte verskynsel soos karakter nie empiries ondersoek is nie, het gelei tot die uitsluiting daarvan uit hoofstroom sielkunde/psigologie. Die opkomende sub-dissipline van positiewe sielkunde het egter die karakterkonsep weer na vore gebring en dit empiries meetbaar gemaak in karaktersterktes as psigologiese eienskappe. Die karaktersterktemodel van Peterson en Seligman (2004) sluit 24 manifestasies van karakter (karaktersterktes) in, vervat in ses groepe waardes. Hierdie model verteenwoordig 'n kernkonstruk van die positiewe sielkunde en hou baie belofte in vir navorsing en praktiese toepassing wat toegespits is op die begrip en bevordering van psigologiese welstand en lewensvervulling van individue en gemeenskappe. Verdere navorsing oor die betroubaarheid en geldigheid van die model in die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks is noodsaaklik. Sodanige navorsing kan die uitbou van die teoretiese grondslae van die karaktersterktekonstruk en -model bevorder, veral met inagneming van kultuurdiversiteit.<hr/>In this article, we analyze the constructs "character" and "character strengths" as important concepts in psychology in general and positive psychology in particular. The character concept has had a long history in psychology since the 1920's, but lost its theoretical and empirical importance some decades thereafter in favour of the concept of personality. The (moral-philosophical) concept "character" has evaded empirical scrutiny in the early years of psychology as a discipline and this has led to its exclusion from mainstream psychology. The emerging perspective of positive psychology however, has resurrected the character concept and operationalized it in terms of character strengths. The character strengths model of Peterson and Seligman (2004), introduces 24 manifestations of character, clustered into six groups of virtues namely, wisdom, courage, humanity, justice, temperance and transcendence. Peterson and Seligman (2004), developed the Values in Action Classification of Strengths as a system in which distinctions are made between virtues, strengths and enabling themes. Virtues are core characteristics valued by moral philosophers universally and strengths are less abstract psychological characteristics that serve as routes for achieving virtues. Enabling themes are factors that lead people to manifest given character strengths in given situations and hence contribute to virtues. Talents and abilities (e.g. intelligence) and characteristics not valued across cultures, were excluded from the classification system (Carr, 2004). The 24 strengths associated with 6 virtues can be assessed with the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS) or the VIA-IS for youth (VIA-Y), both self report questionnaires. The VIA-IS can be accessed at http://www.positive-psychology.org/viastrengthsinventory.htm. The character strength subscales of the VIA-IS all have good reliability in USA-studies, and the inventory is in further validation. The character strengths idea plays an important role in the new domain of positive psychology, and holds much promise for practice and research aimed at understanding and promoting psychological well-being and fulfilment of individuals and communities. According to Peterson and Seligman (2004), their research found a remarkable similarity in the relative endorsement of the 24 character strengths by adults around the world and from the USA. The most commonly endorsed strengths in 54 countries are kindness, fairness, authenticity, gratitude and open-mindedness, and the lesser strengths consistently include prudence, modesty and self-regulation. The correlations of the rankings from nation to nation, are strong (0.80+), - indicating more cultural, ethnic, religious and economic similarities than differences, and seemingly points to a universality of human nature as manifested by character strengths. In South Africa however, a more emic factor pattern emerged indicating an African collective-cultural system. Further research on this model and validation of measures thereof, is necessary in the South African context that includes cultural diversities not previously taken into account. As far as practical application is concerned the character strengths model could enhance the practice fields of developmental- and child psychology, clinical- and therapeutic psychology, educational psychology, industrial- and organizational psychology, health psychology, geriatric psychology, forensic psychology, pastoral- and community psychology and social psychology. Of the three pillars of positive psychology namely, positive subjective experiences (happiness, pleasure, gratification, fulfilment); positive individual traits (strengths of character, talents, interests, values) and positive institutions (families, schools, businesses, communities, societies) (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000), the second one presents the application context for the development and enhancement of character strengths. Constructs included in the character strengths model, for example gratitude, hope, self-regulation, etc. are being applied in various contexts, phases of life, type of interventions, as well as for remediation of pathology and for promotion of flourishing and research in this regard is ongoing. Further empirical studies in this regard are necessary, specifically in the South African context. <![CDATA[<b>Camões in Afrikaans: A translation of the section in <i>Os Lusíadas</i> relating to the southern tip of Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512008000100007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In sy epiese gedig Os Lusíadas het Camões (ca. 1524-1580) tegelykertyd die glorie en ondergang van die Portugese ryk verwoord. Hy was 'n nasionale digter en sy meesterwerk is van die begin tot die einde aan die verhaal van sy heroïese volk gewy. Die kern van die verhaal is Vasco da Gama se reis na Indië (1497-1498) en is gegrond op die skeepsjoernaal wat Álvaro Velho aan boord van die São Rafael in Da Gama se vloot gehou het. Maar die digter het die voorafgaande geskiedenis van Portugal in sy epos ingewerk deur Da Gama die geskiedenis aan die heerser van Malindi te laat vertel. Die gebeure ná sy reis word gedeeltelik deur Da Gama self verwoord, maar ook deur die sinistere voorspellings van Adamastor, die gees van die Stormkaap. Camões vertel in sy Os Lusíadas die verhaal van Adamastor in kanto V, stansas 37 tot 61. Adamastor verskyn aan die Portugese in 'n vreesaanjaende vorm, vervloek hulle omdat hulle sy oseaan bevaar en voorspel dood en noodlot vir toekomstige togte. Hy vertel ook aan hulle sy verhaal en hoekom hy deur die gode na die suidpunt van Afrika verban is. Os Lusíadas is in vele tale vertaal. Slegs kort gedeeltes is in Afrikaans oorgesit en 'n poging is nog nie aangewend om die Adamastor-gedeelte in versvorm te vertolk nie. Dié gedeelte word in hierdie artikel in verband geplaas en in vertaalde vorm aangebied.<hr/>During its "golden age" Portugal amazed the world with its great voyages of discovery. It was therefore appropriate that an epic poet of the time should record the achievements of his contemporaries for posterity. That poet was Luís Vaz de Camões (c. 1524-1580), the creator of the timeless epic Os Lusíadas (The Lusiads). In this heroic poem Camões, through his brilliant depiction of Adamastor, created an enduring myth. There are different theories about Camões's motivation in creating the Adamastor myth. Vasco da Gama's battle against the howling south-easter off the Cape in November 1497 undoubtedly inspired the poet more than half a century later. The similarity between Camões's fatal love for a lady-in-waiting at the royal court in Lisbon and his consequent exile to the East and that of Adamastor's love for Thetis and his exile to the southern tip of Africa seems to be more than mere coincidence. When the Sao Bento, in which Camões sailed to the East in 1553, rounded the Cape, the sea was particularly stormy and the south-easter caused heavy clouds to hang over Table Mountain. This frightening personal experience had a profound effect on Camões, and thus the giant Adamastor probably took shape in his agitated mind. Camões was eminently suited to being the writer of the epic of Portugal because he not only knew the history of his country but was also well versed in Greek and Roman mythology, which must have inspired the creation of Adamastor. In Os Lusíadas Camões depicts both the glory and the decline of the Portuguese empire. The essence of the narrative is Vasco da Gama's voyage to India, but the poet has ingeniously woven the earlier history of Portugal into the course of the narrative by making Da Gama relate the history of his people to the friendly king of Malindi on the eastern coast of Africa. In Canto V, stanzas 37 to 61, Camões tells the story of Adamastor. When Da Gama's fleet approaches the Cape a terrifying cloud appears overhead, taking the shape of a powerful, monstrous being. The misshapen, bearded figure threatens the mariners who sail the seas over which he has long held solitary sway. He has a grudge against the Portuguese because he envies them their freedom of movement, their boldness and their excellence. He predicts disasters, shipwrecks and loss of life for those who dare to sail round the Cape of Storms. Adamastor tells of his revenge on Dias for being the first to sail these waters, the grave he has prepared for De Almeida, and the fate that will overtake Sousa de Sepúlveda and other castaways on the South African coast. While Adamastor continues his prophecies about the misfortunes awaiting the Portuguese, Da Gama interrupts him brusquely and asks him who in fact he is. Adamastor with a mighty roar and in a voice heavy with bitterness replies that he is the great hidden cape called the Cape of Storms by the Portuguese. He is one of the giants, a child from the marriage of Uranus and Earth, who rebelled against the gods of Olympus. He tells them the pitiful tale of his love for Thetis, the sea nymph whom he wooed but who spurned him because of his repulsive appearance. Because of his rebellion against the gods and his illicit love for Thetis, Adamastor was punished by the gods. They changed him into a rugged mountain at the southern tip of Africa, where he has to guard the southern seas and bring death to the sons of Luso who want to sail past him. In Adamastor Camões created a new mythological figure, the only great figure added to mythology since the classical period. By placing him at the Cape of Storms the poet brought southern Africa into the realm of the classical gods. According to the South African author Stephen Gray the figure of Adamastor is at the root of all subsequent white semiology invented to cope with the African experience. Adamastor is ominous and hostile and is observed across a divide: he belongs to an older but conquered culture and may annihilate the new European enlightenment if he is allowed within its borders. Vasco da Gama and Adamastor, as depicted by Camões, were therefore, in Gray's view, the beginning of the racist mythology on which white supremacy in South Africa is based. The Portuguese author António Figueiredo differs from this viewpoint and points out that Os Lusíadas and the Adamastor legend are above purely human and racial antagonisms and that they serve rather as a symbol of man's defiance of the elements. The Adamastor myth represents the triumph of the Portuguese over the untamed forces of nature as well as their reward which lay in their becoming the rulers of the oceans. Os Lusíadas has been translated into many languages. Although parts of it were translated into Afrikaans by André P. Brink, D.P.M Botes and René Immelman, it has never been done in verse form. The section relating to Adamastor (Canto V, 37-61) was translated for this article. <![CDATA[<b>"Our struggle, our heroic death...": A creative reworking of patriotic material from Celliers' war diary in Ingrid Winterbach's <i>Niggie</i>"</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512008000100008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article focuses on the Oorlogsdagboek van Jan F.E. Celliers, 1899-1902 [War Diary of Jan F.E. Celliers, 1899-1902] (1978) and how it is creatively reworked and adapted in Ingrid Winterbach 's (Lettie Viljoen) Niggie [Cousin] (2002). The Anglo-Boer War has been a recurring theme in Winterbach 's (Viljoen 's) oeuvre as can be seen in novels such as Belemmering [Impediment], Karolina Ferreira and Buller se plan [Buller 's Plan]. She is one of many writers who made extensive use of this material in her oeuvre,. There was an overwhelming increase in the publication and re-publication of such novels and war diaries during the centenary anniversary of this historic war. Winterbach's Niggie was awarded the Hertzog prize in 2004. It will be shown that this novel is in fact not a superficial reworking of an age old theme, but that it is cleverly layered with commentary on the past, its people and government as well as commentary on these facets in the present, and to a certain extent a possible future for this country and its people. She uses the technique of intertextuality (Bakhtin and Kristeva, 1969) with great literary effect. This theory rests on the principle that all texts are to some extent interconnected. Nothing stands completely alone. There are references between texts created either consciously or unconsciously by authors. In a broader sense it can be said that all aspects of life, society, politics, economics, art and so forth, impact on each other and the world we live in. Winterbach uses the poet Celliers' war diary to draw parallels between the past and the present. She adapts actual historic views, problems, social and political circumstances in her novel and even succeeds in creating a character, Japie Stilgemoed, based on Celliers as seen through his eyes in his diary during almost the full length of the war. Topics to be discussed include patriotism, the role of religion, discipline, passivity and boredom during the Anglo-Boer War. Patriotism was fuelled not only by the prospect of defending one's country, but to a great extent also by the effects of the scorched earth policy on the nature of warfare and the innocent people involved. The scorched earth policy was also the direct cause for the increase in concentration camps which led to thousands of deaths, especially of women and children. It will be shown how religion played an important role in sustaining the commando's during the three years of the war, by carefully chosen texts from the Old Testament. Discipline was difficult to maintain during the war as the commando's were in fact free men and not trained soldiers. The lack of discipline was also a result of the boredom and passivity of the commando's during the war. Interestingly enough, the Anglo-Boer War (through the eyes of Celliers) was not a glorious experience with great battlefields, but rather for the most part the unnecessary loss of human life. There were, however, a few people who were seen as heroes after the war and these heroes went on to build a republic with nationalist views through the shared grief and pain of those who lived and died in this tragic war. The anomaly of such a novel in 2002 seemingly dwelling on the past is clearly shown to be a metaphor for the present and its dilemmas, reflecting the social conflicts existing at present in the crumbling Afrikaans community. <![CDATA[<b>Woorde wat lewe: 'n Huldeblyk aan Elize Botha (19 November 1930 - 16 November 2007)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512008000100009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article focuses on the Oorlogsdagboek van Jan F.E. Celliers, 1899-1902 [War Diary of Jan F.E. Celliers, 1899-1902] (1978) and how it is creatively reworked and adapted in Ingrid Winterbach 's (Lettie Viljoen) Niggie [Cousin] (2002). The Anglo-Boer War has been a recurring theme in Winterbach 's (Viljoen 's) oeuvre as can be seen in novels such as Belemmering [Impediment], Karolina Ferreira and Buller se plan [Buller 's Plan]. She is one of many writers who made extensive use of this material in her oeuvre,. There was an overwhelming increase in the publication and re-publication of such novels and war diaries during the centenary anniversary of this historic war. Winterbach's Niggie was awarded the Hertzog prize in 2004. It will be shown that this novel is in fact not a superficial reworking of an age old theme, but that it is cleverly layered with commentary on the past, its people and government as well as commentary on these facets in the present, and to a certain extent a possible future for this country and its people. She uses the technique of intertextuality (Bakhtin and Kristeva, 1969) with great literary effect. This theory rests on the principle that all texts are to some extent interconnected. Nothing stands completely alone. There are references between texts created either consciously or unconsciously by authors. In a broader sense it can be said that all aspects of life, society, politics, economics, art and so forth, impact on each other and the world we live in. Winterbach uses the poet Celliers' war diary to draw parallels between the past and the present. She adapts actual historic views, problems, social and political circumstances in her novel and even succeeds in creating a character, Japie Stilgemoed, based on Celliers as seen through his eyes in his diary during almost the full length of the war. Topics to be discussed include patriotism, the role of religion, discipline, passivity and boredom during the Anglo-Boer War. Patriotism was fuelled not only by the prospect of defending one's country, but to a great extent also by the effects of the scorched earth policy on the nature of warfare and the innocent people involved. The scorched earth policy was also the direct cause for the increase in concentration camps which led to thousands of deaths, especially of women and children. It will be shown how religion played an important role in sustaining the commando's during the three years of the war, by carefully chosen texts from the Old Testament. Discipline was difficult to maintain during the war as the commando's were in fact free men and not trained soldiers. The lack of discipline was also a result of the boredom and passivity of the commando's during the war. Interestingly enough, the Anglo-Boer War (through the eyes of Celliers) was not a glorious experience with great battlefields, but rather for the most part the unnecessary loss of human life. There were, however, a few people who were seen as heroes after the war and these heroes went on to build a republic with nationalist views through the shared grief and pain of those who lived and died in this tragic war. The anomaly of such a novel in 2002 seemingly dwelling on the past is clearly shown to be a metaphor for the present and its dilemmas, reflecting the social conflicts existing at present in the crumbling Afrikaans community. <![CDATA[<b>Pieter Wagener, <i>Mantrakolie</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512008000100010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article focuses on the Oorlogsdagboek van Jan F.E. Celliers, 1899-1902 [War Diary of Jan F.E. Celliers, 1899-1902] (1978) and how it is creatively reworked and adapted in Ingrid Winterbach 's (Lettie Viljoen) Niggie [Cousin] (2002). The Anglo-Boer War has been a recurring theme in Winterbach 's (Viljoen 's) oeuvre as can be seen in novels such as Belemmering [Impediment], Karolina Ferreira and Buller se plan [Buller 's Plan]. She is one of many writers who made extensive use of this material in her oeuvre,. There was an overwhelming increase in the publication and re-publication of such novels and war diaries during the centenary anniversary of this historic war. Winterbach's Niggie was awarded the Hertzog prize in 2004. It will be shown that this novel is in fact not a superficial reworking of an age old theme, but that it is cleverly layered with commentary on the past, its people and government as well as commentary on these facets in the present, and to a certain extent a possible future for this country and its people. She uses the technique of intertextuality (Bakhtin and Kristeva, 1969) with great literary effect. This theory rests on the principle that all texts are to some extent interconnected. Nothing stands completely alone. There are references between texts created either consciously or unconsciously by authors. In a broader sense it can be said that all aspects of life, society, politics, economics, art and so forth, impact on each other and the world we live in. Winterbach uses the poet Celliers' war diary to draw parallels between the past and the present. She adapts actual historic views, problems, social and political circumstances in her novel and even succeeds in creating a character, Japie Stilgemoed, based on Celliers as seen through his eyes in his diary during almost the full length of the war. Topics to be discussed include patriotism, the role of religion, discipline, passivity and boredom during the Anglo-Boer War. Patriotism was fuelled not only by the prospect of defending one's country, but to a great extent also by the effects of the scorched earth policy on the nature of warfare and the innocent people involved. The scorched earth policy was also the direct cause for the increase in concentration camps which led to thousands of deaths, especially of women and children. It will be shown how religion played an important role in sustaining the commando's during the three years of the war, by carefully chosen texts from the Old Testament. Discipline was difficult to maintain during the war as the commando's were in fact free men and not trained soldiers. The lack of discipline was also a result of the boredom and passivity of the commando's during the war. Interestingly enough, the Anglo-Boer War (through the eyes of Celliers) was not a glorious experience with great battlefields, but rather for the most part the unnecessary loss of human life. There were, however, a few people who were seen as heroes after the war and these heroes went on to build a republic with nationalist views through the shared grief and pain of those who lived and died in this tragic war. The anomaly of such a novel in 2002 seemingly dwelling on the past is clearly shown to be a metaphor for the present and its dilemmas, reflecting the social conflicts existing at present in the crumbling Afrikaans community. <![CDATA[<b>J.C. Kannemeyer: <i>Uit puur verstrooiing</i> - Lesings, praatjies, artikels, onderhoude en besprekings</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512008000100011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article focuses on the Oorlogsdagboek van Jan F.E. Celliers, 1899-1902 [War Diary of Jan F.E. Celliers, 1899-1902] (1978) and how it is creatively reworked and adapted in Ingrid Winterbach 's (Lettie Viljoen) Niggie [Cousin] (2002). The Anglo-Boer War has been a recurring theme in Winterbach 's (Viljoen 's) oeuvre as can be seen in novels such as Belemmering [Impediment], Karolina Ferreira and Buller se plan [Buller 's Plan]. She is one of many writers who made extensive use of this material in her oeuvre,. There was an overwhelming increase in the publication and re-publication of such novels and war diaries during the centenary anniversary of this historic war. Winterbach's Niggie was awarded the Hertzog prize in 2004. It will be shown that this novel is in fact not a superficial reworking of an age old theme, but that it is cleverly layered with commentary on the past, its people and government as well as commentary on these facets in the present, and to a certain extent a possible future for this country and its people. She uses the technique of intertextuality (Bakhtin and Kristeva, 1969) with great literary effect. This theory rests on the principle that all texts are to some extent interconnected. Nothing stands completely alone. There are references between texts created either consciously or unconsciously by authors. In a broader sense it can be said that all aspects of life, society, politics, economics, art and so forth, impact on each other and the world we live in. Winterbach uses the poet Celliers' war diary to draw parallels between the past and the present. She adapts actual historic views, problems, social and political circumstances in her novel and even succeeds in creating a character, Japie Stilgemoed, based on Celliers as seen through his eyes in his diary during almost the full length of the war. Topics to be discussed include patriotism, the role of religion, discipline, passivity and boredom during the Anglo-Boer War. Patriotism was fuelled not only by the prospect of defending one's country, but to a great extent also by the effects of the scorched earth policy on the nature of warfare and the innocent people involved. The scorched earth policy was also the direct cause for the increase in concentration camps which led to thousands of deaths, especially of women and children. It will be shown how religion played an important role in sustaining the commando's during the three years of the war, by carefully chosen texts from the Old Testament. Discipline was difficult to maintain during the war as the commando's were in fact free men and not trained soldiers. The lack of discipline was also a result of the boredom and passivity of the commando's during the war. Interestingly enough, the Anglo-Boer War (through the eyes of Celliers) was not a glorious experience with great battlefields, but rather for the most part the unnecessary loss of human life. There were, however, a few people who were seen as heroes after the war and these heroes went on to build a republic with nationalist views through the shared grief and pain of those who lived and died in this tragic war. The anomaly of such a novel in 2002 seemingly dwelling on the past is clearly shown to be a metaphor for the present and its dilemmas, reflecting the social conflicts existing at present in the crumbling Afrikaans community.