Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0041-475120160006&lang=pt vol. 56 num. 4-2 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Toward a Christian-philosophical analysis of evolution and evolutionism: The contribution of a consistent problem-historical method</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512016000600001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Hierdie bydrae soek na helderheid oor die filosofiese grondslae of uitgangspunte van die hedendaagse steeds gewilde evolusieteorieë en evolusionistiese lewensvisies asook die verskil tussen evolusie of wording en evolusionisme. Op dié wyse wil dit ook vir Christene en Christendenkers, onder wie daar nog steeds groot verwarring oor die aangeleentheid heers, van hulp wees. Met die oog daarop word drie nog ongepubliseerde lesings oor die evolusionisme wat die Christelike wysgeer, Dirk H. Th. Vollenhoven (1892-1978), in 1963 by die destydse Potchefstroomse Universiteit vir CHO gelewer het hier bekend gestel en ontleed. Om sy filosofiese analise goed te kan begryp, word ter inleiding eers die hoofkontoere van sy konsekwent probleem-historiese metode uiteengesit. Die eerste hoofafdeling handel daarna oor vyf filosofiese voorvereistes vir die ontstaan van die evolusionisme in die algemeen, naamlik 'n genetiese denkwyse, vooruitgangsgeloof, 'n positivistiese en monistiese filosofie asook die aanvaarding van kontinuïteit tussen ten minste twee van die ryke van stof, plant, dier en mens. Die tweede afdeling toon aan hoe verskillende ontiese en antropologiese uitgangspunte tot 'n verskeidenheid evolusionismes lei. Onder hulle was ook dié van Hitler se rassistiese nasionaal-sosialisme. Die derde hoofafdeling bied Vollenhoven se eie standpunt teenoor die voorafgaande. Hy aanvaar wel evolusie of transformasie binne dieselfde ryk, maar nie evolusionisme of transformisme wat die ryke sou transendeer nie. Vanuit sy eie filosofie bied hy ook nuwe insigte oor die verskil tussen die stryd om bestaan en aanpassing.<hr/>This article intends to gain more clarity about the philosophical presuppositions underlying evolutionary theories and evolutionism as a worldview. In the light of the wide confusion and disagreement among Christians and Christian scholars it may be helpful toward a better understanding of these burning issues. From about the middle of the previous century the evolutionary theory and evolutionistic worldview were hotly debated topics in the Netherlands as well as in South Africa. In 1963 the Christian philosopher, Dirk H. Th. Vollenhoven (1892-1978), delivered three guest lectures on this topic in South Africa, which have not yet been published in either English or Afrikaans. In spite of the fact that these three lectures could not cover the developments during the last fifty years, they are still relevant for the continuing debate today. Vollenhoven's special contribution was that he uncovered the basic ontological and anthropological presuppositions underlying evolution and evolutionism. To enable a better understanding of Vollenhoven's analyses, the first section of this essay provides a brief overview of his approach - which is often complicatedfor non-philosophers - especially how his thetic-critical method is applied in his consistent problem-historical method of historiography. For the present issue the following four distinctions are important: (1) His division of Western intellectual thinking into four main periods, viz. pre-synthetic ancient philosophy, synthetic patristic and medieval thinking, post- or anti-synthetic Christian and anti-synthetic secular philosophy. (2) Vollenhoven's division of the history ofphilosophy according to different successive normative currents. Among these, positivistic rationalism is of special importance to understand the emergence of evolutionism. (3) His distinction according to his doctrine of modalities between the four kingdoms of matter, plants, animals and humans.(4) The difference between mythologising, purely cosmological (or structural) and cosmogono cosmological (or genetic) thinking, of which only the first and the last can accommodate evolution and evolutionism. The second section is devoted to Vollenhoven's first lecture, dealing with the basic philosophical starting points required by evolutionism. Apartfrom acknowledging change or evolving in reality, they are the following four: (1) A belief in progress; (2) positivism (a sub-current of late rationalism); (3) a monistic ontology, and (4) a supposed continuity between at least two of the four kingdoms. In his second lecture Vollenhoven indicates how various types of evolutionism developed from different ontological and anthropological presuppositions, especially in the case of monistic thinkers. These scholars accepted a basic unity as origin of reality which divides into a higher and a lower section. Consequently they had to explain the relationship between the higher and lower divergence, resulting in the following theories, each giving birth to a different kind of evolutionary theory: (1) a priority theory (instrumentalism and vitalism); (2) an interaction theory (with zoological and phytological sub-types); (3) parallelism (with unrestricted and restricted sub-types). Representatives of each of these viewpoints are mentioned. In the case of the zoological interaction theory among mythologising, monistic thinkers, special attention is given to the philosophical background of German national-socialism and racism of e.g. Adolf Hitler. The fourth section deals with Vollenhoven's third lecture in which he sketches his own viewpoint. Since he acknowledged the dynamic, evolving nature of creation, Vollenhoven held a different viewpoint on evolution if compared to his predecessors in the Reformational tradition, like Kuyper, Bavinck andDiemer (cf. Van der Walt 2016a) as well as his contemporary, Dooyeweerd. They emphasised the fixed nature of species. Employing his theory of different modalities or aspects of reality and their subject-object relations, he explains the relations as well as the differences between the four kingdoms. He furthermore provides valuable insight into the difference between struggle for survival (a subject-subject relation) and adaptation (a subject-object relation). Vollenhoven's conclusion was that Christian scholars need not reject evolution (he uses the term "transformation") in any one kingdom. However, evolutionism (called "transform-ism") should be rejected since it does not honour the ontic difference between (at least two of) the four kingdoms of matter, plants, animals and human beings. As mentioned above, Vollenhoven's aim with these three lectures was not to cover every existing form or representative of evolution/evolutionism. (An impossibility to do so in merely 45 minutes per lecture.) Also, his cryptic style is often difficult to follow and needs explanation. Moreover, only short notes on his second and third lecture survived (see Addendum) and had to be reconstructed in the light of his other publications. For his critical eye, and suggestions to accomplish the above "reconstruction" of Vollenhoven's lectures, I would like to thank the Vollenhoven expert, Dr. Kornelis A. Bril of the Netherlands. I do hope that our combined effort had rendered Vollenhoven's analysis accessible to a wider readership. <![CDATA[<b>The Dutch academic boycott against South Africa: An analysis</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512016000600002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Die jare '60 en '70 in Nederland is gekenmerk deur 'n demokratiseringsproses. Dit sou daartoe lei dat die jeug medeseggenskap sou opeis in beleidsake. Dit was veral van belang wat die universiteitswese betref. Die links-radikale studentemassa was dus 'n faktor wat nie verontagsaam kon word nie. Nederlandse universiteite was onder druk om meer maatskaplik betrokke en relevant te word. Anti-apartheid het dus 'n populêre slagspreuk geword. Nederland en Suid-Afrika het toenemend vreemd geword vir mekaar. Nederlandse universiteite in Amsterdam, Utrecht, Groningen en Leiden het almal hul akademiese bande met Suid-Afrikaanse universiteite verbreek. 'n Boikot- en isolasiebeleid is gevolg, aangevuur deur links-radikale studente en anti-apartheidsorganisasies. Nederlandse universiteite het eredoktorsgrade toegeken aan anti-apartheidsaktiviste soos C.F. Beyers Naudé, Govan Mbeki en Winnie Mandela, vanweë hulle uitgesproke teenstand teen apartheid. Die universiteite het ook noue bande met die ANC gesmee. Blanke Suid-Afrikaanse studente en dosente was dus nie meer welkom op die kampusse van Nederlandse universiteite nie. Jonger Afrikaanssprekende akademici het hul rug al hoe meer op Nederland gekeer. Nederlands as akademiese taal het dus veld verloor in Suid-Afrika. Daarenteen het Engels as akademiese taal veld gewen.<hr/>The year 1960 was a watershed in South Africa´s history. The shootings at Sharpeville, 21 March 1960, had a negative impact on South Africa's foreign relations. South Africa and the Netherlands became estranged. The boycott and sanctions movement would set in. In 1962 the UN General Assembly set up the Special Committee against Apartheid. In 1968 the General Assembly asked all member states to suspend cultural, educational and sporting exchanges with South Africa. In 1980 the General Assembly adopted a resolution asking all member states to take steps to prevent all cultural, academic, sports and other exchanges with South Africa. A similar resolution was adopted in 1983. The European Community adopted a series of measures in 1985, inter alia to discourage cultural, sporting and scientific contacts with South Africa. The Soweto uprising in 1976 and the death of Steve Biko in 1977 led to an outcry in the Netherlands. The Dutch government thus froze the Cultural Accord with South Africa in 1977 and it was finally abandoned in 1981. The Anti-Apartheidsbeweging Nederland (AABN) (Anti-aparthed movement of the Netherlands) published in 1980 a Zwartboek over wetenschappelijke kontakten tussen Nederland en Zuid-Afrika (Black book concerning scientific contacts between the Netherlands and South Africa). The AABN strongly condemned scientific and academic contacts between the Netherlands and South Africa. They were also very supportive of the African National Congress (ANC). Dr. Zola Skweyiya of the scientific bureau of the ANC visited the Netherlands in 1980. He was received with open arms at Dutch universities. The Dutch universities were a formidable ally in the anti-apartheid struggle. The Rev. C.F. Beyers Naudé received an honorary doctorate in 1972 from the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (VU). The VU severed its ties with Potchefstroom University in 1974 and 1976. White South African academics were no longer allowed to lecture at the VU. The ANC stalwart, Govan Mbeki, received an honorary doctorate in 1978 from the Universiteit van Amsterdam (UvA). The ceremony was a demonstration of solidarity with the ANC and its leaders. The Govan Mbeki Fund was launched in 1977 to support South African students financially who could not complete their studies because of apartheid. The ANC was very much involved with the fund. The President of the ANC, Oliver Tambo, was invited to give a speech at the opening of the academic year in 1983. The Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (RUU) severed its ties with South African academic institutions in 1979. A bust of Paul Kruger was stolen from the Senate Chamber in 1979. Kruger was seen as a symbol of the apartheid policy. Winnie Mandela received an honorary doctorate from the RUU in 1986. This gesture was widely criticized. An anti-apartheid fund was also launched in 1986. The Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (RUG) severed its ties with South African academic institutions in 1978. A follow up motion to that effect was accepted in 1985. The only contact that was acceptable was contact that was supportive of the anti-apartheid struggle. A Winnie Mandela Fund was launched in 1986 to support students that had to flee South Africa because of apartheid. The Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (RUL) severed its ties with South African academic institutions in 1978. The Dutch universities with the aid of the anti-apartheid organisations did their utmost to isolate and boycott white South Africa. In this process they were very supportive of the ANC. The Dutch academic boycott had a negative effect in many ways. Many white South African students could no longer study at Dutch universities. Dutch as an academic language in South Africa would also lose ground. The same applied to Afrikaans in the Netherlands. The younger Afrikaans-speaking academics would pursue other academic avenues in the broader European and American context. <![CDATA[<b>A perceptual account of Afrikaans in Namibia: Between lingua franca and socially exclusive language</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512016000600003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Die geskiedenis van Afrikaans in Namibië begin in die laat 18de eeu, toe Kaap-Hollands oor die Oranjerivier heen versprei is deur noordwaarts-migrerende Oorlams uit die Kaapkolonie. Kaap-Hollands, en later Afrikaans, het van dié tyd af ontwikkel tot 'n medium vir interetniese kommunikasie, waarvan die oorwig verder versterk is onder die Suid-Afrikaanse bewind (ca. 1920-1990). Vandag moet Afrikaans wedywer met Engels, wat Namibië se enigste amptelike taal geword het ná die land se onafhanklikheid in 1990. Op grond van perseptuele gegewens wat verkry is by 'n steekproef vanjong Windhoekse inwoners, wys hierdie artikel dat Afrikaans in die stedelike konteks aansienlike bedekte prestige besit as 'n medium vir interetniese kommunikasie, terwyl Engels tipies gebruik word binne formele kontekste en vir kommunikasie met onlangse migrante uit die noordelike distrikte, waar Afrikaans histories minder sigbaar is. Die artikel toon ook aan dat die Kleurlingvariant van Afrikaans groter potensiaal het as Standaardafrikaans om as 'n neutrale taalkeuse te fungeer binne die interetniese konteks van kommunikasie tussen "nie-wit" etniese groepe omdat Standaardafrikaans gesien word as 'n kenmerk van lidmaatskap van die wit groep. Die posisie van Afrikaans as 'n lingua franca kan in die toekoms bedreig word deur ononderbroke migrasiestrome uit die noorde. Maar aanduidings dat taalverskuiwing dikwels plaasvind na Afrikaans (en Engels) onder lank reeds verstedelikte lede van noordelike etniese groepe, dui daarop dat daar nog ruimte is vir die status quo.<hr/>Afrikaans was first introduced in Namibia's current territory by migrant Oorlam and Baster groups who imposed it in its Cape Dutch form as a prestige language and inter-ethnic medium of communication. The status of Afrikaans in Namibia was consolidated during the South African regime which systematically promoted it while preventing indigenous languages from spreading out of their intra-ethnic contexts of use. A linguistic consequence of independence, which Namibia gained in 1990, was that English suddenly became the country's only official language, as well as the dominant language in education. Despite the hegemonic status that English acquired in Namibia, Afrikaans is today still popularly represented as the main lingua franca in Namibia, or at least as an important one. However, the position of Afrikaans in urban areas could nowadays be under threat from the sustained influx of migrants from Namibia's northern districts, including those that constitute the traditional homeland of the Ovambo, the country's numerically dominant group, where English is better known than Afrikaans. An indication of the pressure that Afrikaans might be subject to in Windhoek, Namibia's capital city, is the demographic preponderance that the Ovambo group has locally acquired within the last three decades. Based on a qualitative survey conducted among an ethnoracially representative sample of young Namibians, this article provides a description of the status and use of Afrikaans in contemporary Windhoek, as well as a reflection on its potential for locally maintaining itself as a lingua franca. It generally shows that Afrikaans has to compete with English in that function, while indigenous languages are still largely restricted to intra-ethnic contexts of use. Afrikaans is clearly perceived as the lingua franca with more "covert prestige" in that it is associated with informality and a sense of local identity. By contrast, English is generally associated with overt prestige andformalfunctions, and it is characteristically used as a lingua franca within groups that do not understand Afrikaans, such as among particular Ovambo migrants. It is not enough, however, to give an account of Windhoek's sociolinguistic profile in which English and Afrikaans are presented as the two main lingua francas without specifying which form of Afrikaans is used in which contexts as a lingua franca. Standard varieties of Afrikaans do not seem to possess enough neutrality to function as a medium of inter-ethnic interaction as they are perceptually amalgamated with "White Afrikaans", that is, the linguistic marker of an ethnoracial group, namely, the Afrikaners, that is still largely seen as self-insulating in the context of Windhoek. Those varieties of Afrikaans perceived as more neutral for the purpose of inter-ethnic communication are Coloured varieties of Afrikaans, with which various Non-Coloured ethnic groups seem to identify. However, there are indications that English rather than those varieties tends to be used by Non-Whites in communication with Whites, even when Afrikaans is notionally shared as a native language. Where Standard Afrikaans is used in inter-ethnic communication, it is mostly unilaterally by Afrikaners, as it is apparently not widely used in informal contexts outside of that group. Also relevant to a description of the uses of Afrikaans as a lingua franca in the context of Windhoek is the practice among Non-Whites of combining it with English in the form of Afrikaans-English mixed codes. As regards the long-term prospects of Afrikaans in Windhoek, the data suggest that Afrikaans in its local Coloured varieties has potential for spreading as an attribute of a local urban identity among migrant groups, as it already has done among Ovambo born in the city or in the southern districts in general, to the point that language shift might be taking place among them from Oshiwambo to combinations of Afrikaans and English. <![CDATA[<b>The lived experiences of primary school teachers within a culture of performativity</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512016000600004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Die doel van hierdie studie is om uiteindelik 'n diepgaande begrip te vorm oor die belewenisse van laerskoolonderwysers met betrekking tot die fenomeen van performatiwiteit en die betekenis wat hulle daaraan heg. Die navorsingsvraag is: Wat is die geleefde ervarings van primêre skoolonderwysers binne 'n kuituur van performatiwiteit. In hierdie kwalitatiewe studie word daar op die hermeneuties-fenomenologiese navorsings benadering van Van Manen (1990) gekonsentreer. Die data is ingesamel deur fenomenologiese onderhoude met die deelnemers te voer, asook vanuit die deelnemers se eie geskrewe narratiewe. Die vier fundamentele eksistensiële bestaanswyses van Van Manen (1990) is gebruik om die ontleding van die data te rig. Tydens hierdie studie is die volgende bevind: Die bestaanswyse van "geleefde ruimte" was vir die deelnemers 'n heroproep en herbeleef van werklike, emosionele ervarings wat hulle moes verduur in hul pogings om tot die performatiewe diskoers te konformeer. Die bestaanwyse van die "geleefde liggaam" het kwessies van toerekenbaarheid en fisiologiese newe-effekte na vore gebring. Die bestaanswyse van "geleefde tyd" het die deelnemers se geleefde ervarings uit hul verlede, die hede en ook die toekoms in die onderwyslandskap uitgebeeld. Die bestaanswyse van die "geleefde ander" het die interpersoonlike verhoudings tussen die deelnemers en betrokke groepe onthul.<hr/>The lived experiences of primary school teachers within a culture of performativity, is a study that aims to gain an indepth understanding of how primary school teachers experience the phenomenon of performativity and the meaning that they give to it. Performativity has a particular meaning in this article and refers to what French philosopher Lyotard (1984) referred to as the shortest input/output ratio. It is about the pressure to perform in various spheres of life including in education, where measurable outputs are valued above the processes of education. Ball (2003:216) described performativity as a technology, "a culture and a mode of regulation that employs judgements comparisons and displays as means of incentive, control, attrition and change - based on rewards and sanctions." The article clarifies what performativity is and concepts that are related to this phenomenon. From this exercise it is inferred that performativity in education is used as a political and bureaucratic mechanism wherein teachers are required to demonstrate that they are accountable (in a pejorative sense) for their work. Conducting this study was important because there is a paucity of studies in South Africa that investigate what are the lived experiences of primary school teachers in a context where performativity is the dominant regime. This qualitative study is guided by the hermeneutic-phenomenological research approach of Van Manen (1990). The unit of analysis of the study is teachers of primary schools located in the Groot Drakenstein Valley in the Western Cape Province. Data was gathered through phenomenological interviews and participants'own written narratives. Purposive sampling was used and the sample comprised 7 teachers whose ages varied from 40-59. The four existentials identified by Van Manen is used to guide the analysis of the data. The study produced the following findings: The existential "lived space" (spatiality) brought to the fore the emotional processes that participants had to endure in their attempts to conform to the discourse of performativity; the existential "lived body" (corporeality) highlighted issues related to accountability and the physiological side effects produced by performativity; the existential "lived time" (temporality) depicted teachers 'past, present and future lived experiences within the educational landscape; the existential "lived other" (relationality) layed bare the interpersonal relationships between participants and other role players. The study concludes that performativity discourses have significant implicationsfor teachers. Both the physiological and emotional effects of performativity, changed (mostly negatively) teachers' commitment and how they view their teaching careers. Moreover, performativity changed the nature of relationships, not only the interdependent learner-teacher relationship, but also relationships with other role-players such as colleagues and curriculum advisors. Futhermore, the study gives legitimacy to what Aoki (1999) called the curriculum-as-lived. He argued that the curriculum-as-lived by learners and teachers needs to be recognised along with the curriculum-as-planned and that the tensioned space between the two is a space of both struggle and creativity. He writes: "It is in this space of between that our teachers, sensitive to both curriculum-as-planned and curriculum-as-lived, dwell, likely finding it a tensioned space of ambiguity, ambivalence, and uncertainty but simultaneously a vibrant site ... but nevertheless a site that beckons pedagogic struggle, for such a human site promises generative possibilities and hope. It is, indeed, a site of becoming, where newness can come into being" (1999:81). The lived world of teachers and learners are mostly ignored by policy/curriculum makers - the reason why there remains a policy-practice gap, and why continued reference is made to the failure of curriculum implementation <![CDATA[<b>The humanities background of the natural sciences</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512016000600005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In hierdie artikel word ondersoek ingestel na die funderende rol van die geesteswetenskappe ten opsigte van die natuurwetenskappe. As toeligting hierop word enkele voorbeelde vermeld. Dink byvoorbeeld aan Thomas Hobbes wat die voorstaatlike natuurtoestand as 'n stryd van almal teen almal gesien het en daarmee 'n invloed op Darwin se "struggle for existence" uitgeoefen het. Hierdie invloed is versterk deur die historisme van die vroeg negentiende eeu waarin historiese veranderlikheid voorop gestel word. Plato het egter reeds ingesien dat verandering duursaamheid (konstansie) veronderstel - 'n insig wat Immanuel Kant sou verwoord in sy wet van die kontinuïteit van alle verandering. Plato se transendente ideë en Aristoteles se algemene wesensvorme het sowel die idee van tipes as van universaliteit na vore gebring, wat op hul beurt tot die "universalia"-stryd van die laat-middeleeue sou lei, met die realisme (waaronder platonisme) en nominalisme as teëgestelde pole. Dit is merkwaardig dat die moderne biologiese denke (neo-Darwinisme) nominalisties georiënteerd is terwyl die moderne wiskunde oorwegend platonisties is.<hr/>HE HOLDS: The cradle of our Western intellectual legacy is found in ancient Greece where philosophy witnessed the slow process of differentiation through which the various social sciences started to come into their own. Their interconnectedness precluded a separation between philosophy and the academic disciplines, explaining why throughout the subsequent history all the existing special sciences harboured schools of thought that reflected the influence of philosophical trends. Contemplate for example how the way in which Thomas Hobbes portrayed the "state of nature," namely as a battle of everyone against everyone (bellum omni contra omnes), influenced Charles Darwin in his conception of nature as a "struggle for existence." Stephen Gould even holds that natural selection essentially transposes the economic theory of Adam Smith to nature. Darwin struggled with the Enlightenment idea of progress although his theory as such does not leave any room for a purpose or goal. In all of this Gould discerns a paradox: the absence of a statement about general progress and the fossil record, crying out for "a rationale that will place progress into the center of evolutionary theory". Nineteenth century historicism succeeded the ideal of progress. It opened the way for unlimited change and transformation and at once highlights philosophical problems and insights already found in Greek philosophy. The all-important contribution of Plato was to realize that change always presupposes something persistent or enduring. This insight later on returned in the formulation of the law of inertia by Galileo and in the special theory of relativity by Einstein. Immanuel Kant articulated what he called the "law of the continuity of all change". However, it was the relationship between universality and what is individual that paved the way for the linguistic turn at the beginning of the 20th century. No science is possible ofwhat is individual. Aristotle therefore had to introduce a universal secondary substance adjacent to his purely individual primary substance. While Plato actually stumbled upon a given law as order for things, Aristotle wrestled with the orderliness of things (such as the houseness of this house or the being a circle of this circle). Mediated by the space metaphysics of Parmenides' medieval philosophy eventually wrestled with the so-called ontic status of universals (universalia). Realistic metaphysics accepted a threefold existence of the universalia: ante rem as ideas in God's Mind, in re as their universal essential forms, and post rem as universal concepts in the mind of the human subject. By the beginning of the 13th century William of Ockham questioned the threefold existence of the universalia. Outside the human mind there is only a multiplicity of individual entities. Since nominalism rejected both a universal order for and a universal orderliness of things, it actually stripped reality of its laws and lawfulness, paving the way for Kant to introduce human understanding to fill this vacant position. : "Understanding creates its laws (a priori) not out of nature but prescribes them to nature." Whereas Ray and Linnaeus continued the idea of types in their idealistic morphology (accepting universality outside the human mind in classifying plants and animals), Darwin and his followers adhere to nominalism, more recently articulated in a clear statement of Simpson: "Organisms are not types and do not have types." Not even modern mathematics escaped from the problem of universalia because (according to Fraenkel et al.) sets participate in the "well-known and amply discussed classical problem of the ontological status of the universals". Stegmüller even relates this problem to basic issues in mathematics as such - the three ontological positions, namely nominalism, conceptualism and platonism could be mapped upon "the quantitative categories finite totality (Gesamtheit) - denumerable infinite totality - non-denumerable infinite totality". Paul Bernays holds that the application of platonism in mathematics is so widespread that it is not an exaggeration to say that platonism reigns supreme in the field of mathematics. The remarkable and at once astonishing effect of the influence of the contest about universals in the modern natural sciences is that there is an abyss between nominalistic Darwinism and platonistic mathematics. All-in-all it is clear that the natural sciences were (and still are) thoroughly influenced by the humanities <![CDATA[<b>"A miserable patch upon a great wrong": A statistical analysis of concentration camp residents</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512016000600006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Die konsentrasiekampe van die Anglo-Boereoorlog (1899-1902) wek steeds intense emosies op. Om dié rede is dit ook verstaanbaar dat 'n breë literatuur verskeie aspekte van die konsentrasiekampe en die lewe van die bewoners ondersoek. Vreemd genoeg, is een aspek wat wel agterweë gelaat is 'n kwantitatiewe ondersoek na die lengte van verblyf vir die meer as 100 000 wit mans, vroue en kinders in die kampe. Hoeveel dae is die gemiddelde kampbewoner gehuisves? Het bewoners uit die republieke of dié uit die kolonies langer aangebly? En wat was die kenmerke van bewoners wat voor die einde van die oorlog die kampe verlaat het? Duisende het ook in die kampe gesterf. Ons ontleed ook die kenmerke van hierdie groep, en werp lig op die redes vir hul tragiese einde. Deur gebruik te maak van 'n enorme datastel van kampbewoners en die statistiese hulpmiddel oorlewingsanalise, bied hierdie artikel 'n nuwe blik op n ou onderwerp en vra nuwe vrae vir toekomstige historiese navorsing.<hr/>The Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902) still evokes intense emotions. The concentration camps that were built to house thousands of destitute men, women and children have especially received much scholarly attention in recent years. Many facets of these camps have been studied: children in the camps, education practices, camp testimonies, black inmates and their involvement, the camps in pictures, and the development of camp historiography, among others. Yet, strangely, statistical analysis of the camps has not yet been attempted. How long did the inmates stay in the camps? Why did they leave? How many died? And what did they die of? These are some of the questions we sought to answer. Our investigation was made possible by the availability of information about each of the inmates, in the form of a data base compiled by Elizabeth van Heyningen. This data base includes dates of arrival and departure, reason for departure or cause of death, and biographical details such as age, gender, race, place of origin and occupation. The data required extensive manipulation and cleaning before we could begin our analysis. Most importantly, we had to merge several observations of the same individual into one observation. In order to do this, we used their first and last name and their place of origin. This method was not always perfect, as some names are misspelled or the place of origin changes. We nevertheless identified 104 688 unique individuals who lived in the camps. These form the basis of our analysis. Our summary statistics showed that most were farmers, although more than 1 000 different occupations are listed.The average stay in the camps was 278 days, and 23% of the inmates died there, with infection being the main cause of death. We used a statistical technique called survival analysis to investigate the length of stay. From Kaplan-Meier survival estimates we found that inmates who came from the Orange Free State, Transvaal and Cape Colony had a more than 50% likelihood of still being in a camp after 200 days, while for those from Britain, Swaziland, Natal and the European continent the likelihood was less than 30%. The standard survival analysis suggests that inmates from the Cape Colony remained in the camps the longest. Our competitive risk analysis, however, which controlled for the fact that some residents died in the camps, suggested that it was those from the Orange Free State who remained longest. We used regression analysis to investigate gender differences and found that of the men and women who died in the camps, one third did so in the first 100 days after arrival. Another third died within the first year, and another third within the first two years. In contrast to conventional wisdom, we found only a small gender difference in the likelihood of death in the camps. Although more women died in the camps, men and women suffered equally. It was children, though, who suffered most. Our findings raise many new questions for future research. <![CDATA[<b>Nature writing as ecosystem: An analysis of <em>Boomkastele: 'n Sprokie vir 'n stadsmens</em> (Schalk Schoombie). Part 1</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512016000600007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In betreklik onlangse navorsing deur David Barnhill word 'n nuwe benadering tot natuurgesentreerde skryfwerk voorgestel. Sy navorsing dui eerstens aan dat daar in die beskrywing van die aard van natuurgesentreerde skryfwerk hoofsaaklik gesteun word op sisteme van klassifikasie. Barnhill wys egter op nadele in die taksonomie-benadering en stel voor dat 'n spesifieke natuurgesentreerde woordwerk beskou word as 'n ekosisteem. Daarmee word bedoel dat die kategorieë waarin natuurgerigte skryfwerk geplaas word wanneer die taksonomie- benadering gevolg word, veelvoudige elemente word in individuele werke en dat hierdie elemente binne elke teks saam- of op mekaar inwerk, soos die organismes in 'n ekosisteem. In hierdie ondersoek word Barnhill se teoretiese gereedskap in Deel 1 uiteengesit en in Deel 2, wat gepubliseer word in die Maart 2017-uitgawe van die tydskrif, getoets. Schalk Schoombie se debuutroman, Boomkastele: 'n sprokie van 'n stadsmens (2015) word bestudeer vanuit die hipotetiese uitgangspunt dat die teks 'n ekosisteem is ten opsigte van die kenmerkende elemente van natuurgesentreerde skryfwerk daarin.<hr/>In the first part of the present study, I explore a new concept of viewing nature writing, introduced by David Barnhill in a relatively recent article titled "Surveying the Landscape: A New Approach to Nature Writing" (2010). In the second part of the study, to be published in the March 2017 edition of this journal, Barnhill's theoretical instrument is put to the test in an analysis of Schalk Schoombie's narrative text Boomkastele. Nature writing is a prominent genre in the tradition of ecocriticism, which is the study of literature and the environment from an interdisciplinary point of view, where literature scholars analyse texts that illustrate environmental concerns and examine the various ways in which literature treats the subject of nature. Henry David Thoreau's system of describing nature writing and its qualities has been used extensively, while Thomas Lyon and Patrick Murphy have extended Thoreau's system by developing taxonomies of nature writing. They distinguish a number of main categories of nature writing situated along a spectrum, on one end of which lie those works mostly concerned with information about the natural world and on the other those engaging in more personal, philosophical reflection (Lyon 1989:3-7; Murphy 2005:5). These taxonomies map the rich diversity in this genre, but Barnhill also considers the taxonomy approach of classifying nature writing a disadvantage in that it does not acknowledge the inner complexity and diversity of individual works of writing. Hence the challenge to improve on these taxonomies. Barnhill calls his scheme an ecosystem, reminding us that such a system involves the interactions between a community and its non-living environment as well as interactions between the elements in it. According to Barnhill (2010:279) each piece of nature writing is an ecosystem in which various elements of nature writing are developed and integrated in a unique way. The abstract categories into which works are placed in a taxonomy become multiple elements within individual works, working in concert with or influencing each other, such as the organisms in an ecosystem. The work of nature rather than the abstract categories takes centre stage. The internal qualities of such works are analysed and described in order to discover the interplay between different elements and how the character of an ecosystem emerges from this. Barnhill (2010:279-282) distinguishes several elements of nature writing: accounts or descriptions of nature, personal experience in nature, social experience of nature, philosophy of nature, spirituality in nature experiences, ecological consciousness, concern with language in representing nature, and ecosocial politics - the latter a term reflecting the interconnectedness of environmental and social issues. In Part 2 of the study an analysis of Boomkastele puts Barnhill's theoretical instrument to the test. The hypothetical point of departure is that the novel resembles an ecosystem comprising the characteristic elements of nature writing found in it. This method ofapproximation focuses on analysing the internal complexity and diversity of Schoombie's novel and arriving at a more complete understanding and a more nuanced description of this work. Ecosocial criticism is found to be a dominant element in Boomkastele, functioning in support ofvarious other elements, such as ecological consciousness and ecosocial critique. Barnhill's approach to nature writing creates a sharpened awareness of the qualities that characterise this genre. Applying his method of describing and evaluating texts to Boomkastele has led to the discovery of the interactive connection between diverse elements in the novel, which lends it the nature of an ecosystem and affirms its multifaceted character. <![CDATA[<b>Landscape endearment as central motive in the poem "tesis in gestapelde sillabeversteuring oor ingebedheid" in <em>Mede-wete</em> (2014) by Antjie Krog</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512016000600008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In hierdie artikel word daar ondersoek ingestel na die wyse waarop die slotgedig van die bundel, "tesis in gestapelde sillabeversteuring oor ingebedheid" in die bundel Mede-wete (2014) van Antjie Krog, sentraal staan tot die ekopoëtiese tematiek en werkwyse van ingeplaast-heid wat deurlopend in die bundel na vore kom. Daar word ook na enkele ander verband houdende gedigte in die bundel verwys. Benewens die ooglopende sentrale tema van mede-menslikheid, mede-deelsaamheid en medemens-wees wat deur die bundeltitel geaktiveer word en waarop resensies (Taljard 2014, Van Vuuren 2014, Hambidge 2014 en Jacobs 2015) van die teks oorwegend gefokus het, tref Visagie (2015:229) in sy resensie-artikel onderskeid tussen die veelvuldige sinapse, oftewel "verbindings" of "samevoegings" wat ten grondslag van die bundel lê, waaronder ook verbindings met die niemenslike omgewing. Die Ander, wat implisiet deur die bundeltitel geaktiveer word, is ook die aarde en dié wat van die aarde is. Daar sal aangetoon word dat Krog ook in hierdie gedig en bundel die grense ophef tussen die menslike en die niemenslike en dat die gedig voorspraak maak vir 'n verinniging in verhoudings tussen alle materialiteite, beide menslik en niemenslik. Die teoretiese raamwerk waarbinne ek hierdie gedig ondersoek, is dié van die ekokritiek en ekopoësie waarin daar na die verhouding en interaksie tussen die mens en sy omgewing gekyk word. Aan die hand van 'n aantal kernbegrippe van die ekokritiek, naamlik vervlegting, transliggaamlikheid, die vreemde vreemdeling en vreemdmaking, ingeplaastheid, deelnemende verbeelding en diffraksie, word daar gefokus op mede-natuur en mede-omgewing en die wyse waarop dit in die slotvers funksioneer.<hr/>This article investigates the way in which the closing poem, "tesis in gestapelde sillabe-versteurings oor ingebedheid" in the volume of poetry, Mede-wete (2014) by Antjie Krog becomes central to both the ecopoetic theme and the methodology of emplacement which permeates the text. The central themes of co-humanity, sharing, co-connectivity and co-existence (mede-menslikheid, mede-deelsaamheid and medemens-wees) which are activated by the title, have been the focus of a number of previous investigations (Taljard 2014, Van Vuuren 2014, Hambidge 2014 and Jacobs 2015). The title allows a multi-referential interpretation which includes the nonhuman environment (as indicated by Visagie 2015:229), an aspect which specifically resonates in the last section of the text and in the closing poem. Visagie comments on the multiplicity of synapses, or connections and junctures which are central to the text, also indicating how the translated title of the text, Synapse (2014) emphasises the ideas of conjunction and bridging between two objects.The Other, who is implicitly activated by the title of the Afrikaans text, also includes nonhuman beings and non-living things. This article explores how in the selected text and poem, Krog suspends boundaries between human and nonhuman bodies through an inter- and intra-active modus operandi through which transcorporeality and exchange and interchangeability of roles occur. The obvious meta-textual nature of this section and the intense involvement with language becomes a modus operandi to create "verinniging" (closeness, endearment), not only in the knowing/knowledge of a fellow human being, but also by means of co-being and co-existence within the landscape and natural environment. The long title of the poem includes the word "ingebedheid" (embeddedness, emplacement), in which aspects of co-corporeality and trans-corporeality are already implicated. It closely relates to the theory of emplacement (Buell 2005:65; Smith 2012b:901), described in the Oxford Dictionary as "a structure on or in which something isfirmly placed" and in ecocritical terms defined as being immersed in the physical materiality of place which requires a sensory, emotive and intellectual consciousness from the poet, a so called in-the-body experience (Smith 2012b:902). It also requires attachment to place and alliance to place with the poet. The theoretical framework for the discussion of the poem is ecocriticism and ecopoetics. By using a number of central ecocritical concepts, entanglement, transcorporeality, the strange stranger and estrangement, emplacement, participating imagination and diffraction, the article focuses on the co-nature and co-environment and the way in which these key concepts function in the final poem. <![CDATA[<b>Learning approaches and academic achievement among EMS-education students</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512016000600009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Een van die groot probleme in die hoëronderwyssisteem is dat die deurvloeisyfers nie na wense is nie. 'n Groot aantal studente skryf in vir 'n graad maar voltooi dit nie binne die voorgeskrewe tydperk nie. Een van die mees prominente faktore waaraan hierdie probleem volgens navorsers toegeskryf kan word, is studente se leerbenadering, wat weer bepaal word deur hulle leermotiewe en leerstrategieë. Die doelstelling vir hierdie studie was om die leerbenaderings van EBW-onderwysstudente te bepaal.Die gevalideerde Hersiene Studie Proses Vraelys soos opgestel deur Biggs et al. (2001:148) is gebruik om die leerbenaderings te bepaal. Daar is bevind dat die diepleer-benadering in al vierjare meer gebruik word as die oppervlakkigeleer-benadering en dat die diepleer-benadering tussen die eerste en die tweede jaar toeneem, maar in die derde en vierde jaar afneem, moontlik omdat studente nader aan die einde van hulle studie poog om op 'n vinnige en effektiewe wyse te studeer. Rakende korrelasies tussen akademiese prestasie en leerbenaderings is bevind dat dit slegs by tweedejaars statisties en prakties betekenisvol was. Hoe hoër hulle akademiese prestasie hoe minder het hulle van die oppervlakkigeleer-benadering gebruik gemaak. Die navorsers is van mening dat studente reeds van hulle eerste jaar af deur die gebruik van verskeie onderrigmetodes aangemoedig moet word om van die diepleer-benadering gebruik te maak.<hr/>Irrespective of the 19 years of democracy in South Africa, which provided equal educational opportunities for school children of all races and genders, the throughput rate of students who are taken in at Higher Education Institutions is not satisfactory, due to certain problems such as lack of preparedness of students and staff, the nature of teaching and learning, the appropriateness of content, assessment methods, and the lack of professionalism of academic staff which students experience before and during their studies. A recent study by the Council on Higher Education (CHE) revealed that approximately 55% of the first-year students who enrol will never graduate (CHE 2013:15). One of the most prominent factors mentioned in the literature that may play a role in their poor academic performance is students' learning approach, determined by their learning motives and learning strategies. The broad aim of this study was to compare the deep and surface learning approaches of first-, second-, third- and fourth-year Economic and Management Sciences (EMS) education students with one another as well as among the various year groups, and also to the students' academic performance in the first to fourth year. The validated Revised Study Process Questionnaire (RSPQ) compiled by Biggs, Kember and Leung (2001:148) was used to determine the learning approaches. The questionnaire was validatedfor this specific study population by investigating validity through content and construct validity, applying a confirmatory factor analysis, while reliability was assessed by computing Cronbach's alpha coefficients. The study population consisted of the total number of students enrolled for Economic and Management Sciences in the Faculty of Education at the North-West University (NWU) Potchefstroom Campus. These includedfirst-year- (n = 62), second-year- (n = 79), third-year- (n = 57) and fourth-year- (n = 62) EMS education students. The following data analyses were performed: Frequency analysis of all the data collected by means of the RSPQ questionnaire; means and standard deviations; validity and reliability of the measuring instrument. Empirical results included statistical differences between deep and surface learning approaches for different year groups, determined by ANOVA's with p < 0.1 as the criterion for statistical significance and Cohen's effect sizes (d-values) to establish practical differences, statistical differences between learning approaches for different year groups, determined by t-tests with p < 0.1 as the criterion for statistical significance and Cohen's effect sizes (d values) to determine the practical significance of the differences. The Spearman Rank Order Test (correlation coefficient r) was computed to determine the statistical correlation between academic achievement and learning approaches. The p-value (p <0.1) was used as the criterion for statistical significance, while Cohen's effect size (r-value) was computed to assess the practical significance of the correlation between the two variables. Regarding the empirical results of this study, the psychometric properties of the RSPQ were addressed first. To investigate construct validity, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed. Upon application of the CFA the two-factor model yielded a Minimum Sample Discrepancy divided by Degrees of Freedom (CMIN/DF) value of 1.80. A relatively low Comparative Fit Index (CFI) of 0.71 was found for the two-factor model while a Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) value of 0.07 with a 90% confidence interval of [0.06; 0.08] was obtained. The two-factor model satisfied the Goodness of Fit Statistics -CMIN/DF and RMSEA - consequently the questionnaire can be deemed construct valid. To pledge content validity, the researchers made sure that all the items in the RSPQ-questionnaire measured the two variables, namely deep and surface learning approach, and that these two variables were represented by a sufficient number of items. Three experts in the field of learning approaches were requested to participate in the evaluation of the content validity of the questionnaire. Other researchers also used this questionnaire with good results, which further indicates that the content is suitable for the purpose. Reliability was investigated by computing Cronbach's alpha coefficients. For the deep and surface learning approaches α = 0.77 and 0.72 respectively were found, which was an indication of a reliable measuring instrument. The results with reference to students'learning approaches indicated that the average for the deep learning approach was slightly higher than for the surface learning approach for the first- to fourth-year EMS education students. The differences between the two approaches for the first, second and third years were statistically and practically significant, but for the fourth years no statistically or practically significant differences were found. The differences between the different year groups indicated that the deep learning approach increased from the first to the second year, but decreased in the third and even more in the fourth year. The difference between second and fourth year students was statistically and practically significant (p <0.001; d = 0.80). The surface learning approach increased from the first to the fourth year, but these differences were not statistically or practically significant. A possible reason for this increase in surface learning approach could be that as the students neared the end of their studies, they were motivated to reach the end-goal in a quick and effective way that could be achieved by using a surface approach to learning. With regard to the correlation between academic performance and learning approach only the second-year students' academic performance correlated statistically and practically significantly in terms of deep learning approach. The surface learning approach correlated statistically and practically significantly but negatively with academic performance in the second year. Consequently, the higher the academic performance of the second-year students the less they used the surface learning approach. This confirms that the more the students understand concerning the modules, the more motivated they are to use the deep learning approach. Recommendations are made regarding academic support that needs to be provided by tertiary academic institutions. <![CDATA[<b>Redakteursnota</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512016000600010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Een van die groot probleme in die hoëronderwyssisteem is dat die deurvloeisyfers nie na wense is nie. 'n Groot aantal studente skryf in vir 'n graad maar voltooi dit nie binne die voorgeskrewe tydperk nie. Een van die mees prominente faktore waaraan hierdie probleem volgens navorsers toegeskryf kan word, is studente se leerbenadering, wat weer bepaal word deur hulle leermotiewe en leerstrategieë. Die doelstelling vir hierdie studie was om die leerbenaderings van EBW-onderwysstudente te bepaal.Die gevalideerde Hersiene Studie Proses Vraelys soos opgestel deur Biggs et al. (2001:148) is gebruik om die leerbenaderings te bepaal. Daar is bevind dat die diepleer-benadering in al vierjare meer gebruik word as die oppervlakkigeleer-benadering en dat die diepleer-benadering tussen die eerste en die tweede jaar toeneem, maar in die derde en vierde jaar afneem, moontlik omdat studente nader aan die einde van hulle studie poog om op 'n vinnige en effektiewe wyse te studeer. Rakende korrelasies tussen akademiese prestasie en leerbenaderings is bevind dat dit slegs by tweedejaars statisties en prakties betekenisvol was. Hoe hoër hulle akademiese prestasie hoe minder het hulle van die oppervlakkigeleer-benadering gebruik gemaak. Die navorsers is van mening dat studente reeds van hulle eerste jaar af deur die gebruik van verskeie onderrigmetodes aangemoedig moet word om van die diepleer-benadering gebruik te maak.<hr/>Irrespective of the 19 years of democracy in South Africa, which provided equal educational opportunities for school children of all races and genders, the throughput rate of students who are taken in at Higher Education Institutions is not satisfactory, due to certain problems such as lack of preparedness of students and staff, the nature of teaching and learning, the appropriateness of content, assessment methods, and the lack of professionalism of academic staff which students experience before and during their studies. A recent study by the Council on Higher Education (CHE) revealed that approximately 55% of the first-year students who enrol will never graduate (CHE 2013:15). One of the most prominent factors mentioned in the literature that may play a role in their poor academic performance is students' learning approach, determined by their learning motives and learning strategies. The broad aim of this study was to compare the deep and surface learning approaches of first-, second-, third- and fourth-year Economic and Management Sciences (EMS) education students with one another as well as among the various year groups, and also to the students' academic performance in the first to fourth year. The validated Revised Study Process Questionnaire (RSPQ) compiled by Biggs, Kember and Leung (2001:148) was used to determine the learning approaches. The questionnaire was validatedfor this specific study population by investigating validity through content and construct validity, applying a confirmatory factor analysis, while reliability was assessed by computing Cronbach's alpha coefficients. The study population consisted of the total number of students enrolled for Economic and Management Sciences in the Faculty of Education at the North-West University (NWU) Potchefstroom Campus. These includedfirst-year- (n = 62), second-year- (n = 79), third-year- (n = 57) and fourth-year- (n = 62) EMS education students. The following data analyses were performed: Frequency analysis of all the data collected by means of the RSPQ questionnaire; means and standard deviations; validity and reliability of the measuring instrument. Empirical results included statistical differences between deep and surface learning approaches for different year groups, determined by ANOVA's with p < 0.1 as the criterion for statistical significance and Cohen's effect sizes (d-values) to establish practical differences, statistical differences between learning approaches for different year groups, determined by t-tests with p < 0.1 as the criterion for statistical significance and Cohen's effect sizes (d values) to determine the practical significance of the differences. The Spearman Rank Order Test (correlation coefficient r) was computed to determine the statistical correlation between academic achievement and learning approaches. The p-value (p <0.1) was used as the criterion for statistical significance, while Cohen's effect size (r-value) was computed to assess the practical significance of the correlation between the two variables. Regarding the empirical results of this study, the psychometric properties of the RSPQ were addressed first. To investigate construct validity, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed. Upon application of the CFA the two-factor model yielded a Minimum Sample Discrepancy divided by Degrees of Freedom (CMIN/DF) value of 1.80. A relatively low Comparative Fit Index (CFI) of 0.71 was found for the two-factor model while a Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) value of 0.07 with a 90% confidence interval of [0.06; 0.08] was obtained. The two-factor model satisfied the Goodness of Fit Statistics -CMIN/DF and RMSEA - consequently the questionnaire can be deemed construct valid. To pledge content validity, the researchers made sure that all the items in the RSPQ-questionnaire measured the two variables, namely deep and surface learning approach, and that these two variables were represented by a sufficient number of items. Three experts in the field of learning approaches were requested to participate in the evaluation of the content validity of the questionnaire. Other researchers also used this questionnaire with good results, which further indicates that the content is suitable for the purpose. Reliability was investigated by computing Cronbach's alpha coefficients. For the deep and surface learning approaches α = 0.77 and 0.72 respectively were found, which was an indication of a reliable measuring instrument. The results with reference to students'learning approaches indicated that the average for the deep learning approach was slightly higher than for the surface learning approach for the first- to fourth-year EMS education students. The differences between the two approaches for the first, second and third years were statistically and practically significant, but for the fourth years no statistically or practically significant differences were found. The differences between the different year groups indicated that the deep learning approach increased from the first to the second year, but decreased in the third and even more in the fourth year. The difference between second and fourth year students was statistically and practically significant (p <0.001; d = 0.80). The surface learning approach increased from the first to the fourth year, but these differences were not statistically or practically significant. A possible reason for this increase in surface learning approach could be that as the students neared the end of their studies, they were motivated to reach the end-goal in a quick and effective way that could be achieved by using a surface approach to learning. With regard to the correlation between academic performance and learning approach only the second-year students' academic performance correlated statistically and practically significantly in terms of deep learning approach. The surface learning approach correlated statistically and practically significantly but negatively with academic performance in the second year. Consequently, the higher the academic performance of the second-year students the less they used the surface learning approach. This confirms that the more the students understand concerning the modules, the more motivated they are to use the deep learning approach. Recommendations are made regarding academic support that needs to be provided by tertiary academic institutions. <![CDATA[<b>Hermeneutics, systems, and states</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512016000600011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Een van die groot probleme in die hoëronderwyssisteem is dat die deurvloeisyfers nie na wense is nie. 'n Groot aantal studente skryf in vir 'n graad maar voltooi dit nie binne die voorgeskrewe tydperk nie. Een van die mees prominente faktore waaraan hierdie probleem volgens navorsers toegeskryf kan word, is studente se leerbenadering, wat weer bepaal word deur hulle leermotiewe en leerstrategieë. Die doelstelling vir hierdie studie was om die leerbenaderings van EBW-onderwysstudente te bepaal.Die gevalideerde Hersiene Studie Proses Vraelys soos opgestel deur Biggs et al. (2001:148) is gebruik om die leerbenaderings te bepaal. Daar is bevind dat die diepleer-benadering in al vierjare meer gebruik word as die oppervlakkigeleer-benadering en dat die diepleer-benadering tussen die eerste en die tweede jaar toeneem, maar in die derde en vierde jaar afneem, moontlik omdat studente nader aan die einde van hulle studie poog om op 'n vinnige en effektiewe wyse te studeer. Rakende korrelasies tussen akademiese prestasie en leerbenaderings is bevind dat dit slegs by tweedejaars statisties en prakties betekenisvol was. Hoe hoër hulle akademiese prestasie hoe minder het hulle van die oppervlakkigeleer-benadering gebruik gemaak. Die navorsers is van mening dat studente reeds van hulle eerste jaar af deur die gebruik van verskeie onderrigmetodes aangemoedig moet word om van die diepleer-benadering gebruik te maak.<hr/>Irrespective of the 19 years of democracy in South Africa, which provided equal educational opportunities for school children of all races and genders, the throughput rate of students who are taken in at Higher Education Institutions is not satisfactory, due to certain problems such as lack of preparedness of students and staff, the nature of teaching and learning, the appropriateness of content, assessment methods, and the lack of professionalism of academic staff which students experience before and during their studies. A recent study by the Council on Higher Education (CHE) revealed that approximately 55% of the first-year students who enrol will never graduate (CHE 2013:15). One of the most prominent factors mentioned in the literature that may play a role in their poor academic performance is students' learning approach, determined by their learning motives and learning strategies. The broad aim of this study was to compare the deep and surface learning approaches of first-, second-, third- and fourth-year Economic and Management Sciences (EMS) education students with one another as well as among the various year groups, and also to the students' academic performance in the first to fourth year. The validated Revised Study Process Questionnaire (RSPQ) compiled by Biggs, Kember and Leung (2001:148) was used to determine the learning approaches. The questionnaire was validatedfor this specific study population by investigating validity through content and construct validity, applying a confirmatory factor analysis, while reliability was assessed by computing Cronbach's alpha coefficients. The study population consisted of the total number of students enrolled for Economic and Management Sciences in the Faculty of Education at the North-West University (NWU) Potchefstroom Campus. These includedfirst-year- (n = 62), second-year- (n = 79), third-year- (n = 57) and fourth-year- (n = 62) EMS education students. The following data analyses were performed: Frequency analysis of all the data collected by means of the RSPQ questionnaire; means and standard deviations; validity and reliability of the measuring instrument. Empirical results included statistical differences between deep and surface learning approaches for different year groups, determined by ANOVA's with p < 0.1 as the criterion for statistical significance and Cohen's effect sizes (d-values) to establish practical differences, statistical differences between learning approaches for different year groups, determined by t-tests with p < 0.1 as the criterion for statistical significance and Cohen's effect sizes (d values) to determine the practical significance of the differences. The Spearman Rank Order Test (correlation coefficient r) was computed to determine the statistical correlation between academic achievement and learning approaches. The p-value (p <0.1) was used as the criterion for statistical significance, while Cohen's effect size (r-value) was computed to assess the practical significance of the correlation between the two variables. Regarding the empirical results of this study, the psychometric properties of the RSPQ were addressed first. To investigate construct validity, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed. Upon application of the CFA the two-factor model yielded a Minimum Sample Discrepancy divided by Degrees of Freedom (CMIN/DF) value of 1.80. A relatively low Comparative Fit Index (CFI) of 0.71 was found for the two-factor model while a Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) value of 0.07 with a 90% confidence interval of [0.06; 0.08] was obtained. The two-factor model satisfied the Goodness of Fit Statistics -CMIN/DF and RMSEA - consequently the questionnaire can be deemed construct valid. To pledge content validity, the researchers made sure that all the items in the RSPQ-questionnaire measured the two variables, namely deep and surface learning approach, and that these two variables were represented by a sufficient number of items. Three experts in the field of learning approaches were requested to participate in the evaluation of the content validity of the questionnaire. Other researchers also used this questionnaire with good results, which further indicates that the content is suitable for the purpose. Reliability was investigated by computing Cronbach's alpha coefficients. For the deep and surface learning approaches α = 0.77 and 0.72 respectively were found, which was an indication of a reliable measuring instrument. The results with reference to students'learning approaches indicated that the average for the deep learning approach was slightly higher than for the surface learning approach for the first- to fourth-year EMS education students. The differences between the two approaches for the first, second and third years were statistically and practically significant, but for the fourth years no statistically or practically significant differences were found. The differences between the different year groups indicated that the deep learning approach increased from the first to the second year, but decreased in the third and even more in the fourth year. The difference between second and fourth year students was statistically and practically significant (p <0.001; d = 0.80). The surface learning approach increased from the first to the fourth year, but these differences were not statistically or practically significant. A possible reason for this increase in surface learning approach could be that as the students neared the end of their studies, they were motivated to reach the end-goal in a quick and effective way that could be achieved by using a surface approach to learning. With regard to the correlation between academic performance and learning approach only the second-year students' academic performance correlated statistically and practically significantly in terms of deep learning approach. The surface learning approach correlated statistically and practically significantly but negatively with academic performance in the second year. Consequently, the higher the academic performance of the second-year students the less they used the surface learning approach. This confirms that the more the students understand concerning the modules, the more motivated they are to use the deep learning approach. Recommendations are made regarding academic support that needs to be provided by tertiary academic institutions. <![CDATA[<b>Anderkant verstaatlikte konstitusionalisme</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512016000600012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Een van die groot probleme in die hoëronderwyssisteem is dat die deurvloeisyfers nie na wense is nie. 'n Groot aantal studente skryf in vir 'n graad maar voltooi dit nie binne die voorgeskrewe tydperk nie. Een van die mees prominente faktore waaraan hierdie probleem volgens navorsers toegeskryf kan word, is studente se leerbenadering, wat weer bepaal word deur hulle leermotiewe en leerstrategieë. Die doelstelling vir hierdie studie was om die leerbenaderings van EBW-onderwysstudente te bepaal.Die gevalideerde Hersiene Studie Proses Vraelys soos opgestel deur Biggs et al. (2001:148) is gebruik om die leerbenaderings te bepaal. Daar is bevind dat die diepleer-benadering in al vierjare meer gebruik word as die oppervlakkigeleer-benadering en dat die diepleer-benadering tussen die eerste en die tweede jaar toeneem, maar in die derde en vierde jaar afneem, moontlik omdat studente nader aan die einde van hulle studie poog om op 'n vinnige en effektiewe wyse te studeer. Rakende korrelasies tussen akademiese prestasie en leerbenaderings is bevind dat dit slegs by tweedejaars statisties en prakties betekenisvol was. Hoe hoër hulle akademiese prestasie hoe minder het hulle van die oppervlakkigeleer-benadering gebruik gemaak. Die navorsers is van mening dat studente reeds van hulle eerste jaar af deur die gebruik van verskeie onderrigmetodes aangemoedig moet word om van die diepleer-benadering gebruik te maak.<hr/>Irrespective of the 19 years of democracy in South Africa, which provided equal educational opportunities for school children of all races and genders, the throughput rate of students who are taken in at Higher Education Institutions is not satisfactory, due to certain problems such as lack of preparedness of students and staff, the nature of teaching and learning, the appropriateness of content, assessment methods, and the lack of professionalism of academic staff which students experience before and during their studies. A recent study by the Council on Higher Education (CHE) revealed that approximately 55% of the first-year students who enrol will never graduate (CHE 2013:15). One of the most prominent factors mentioned in the literature that may play a role in their poor academic performance is students' learning approach, determined by their learning motives and learning strategies. The broad aim of this study was to compare the deep and surface learning approaches of first-, second-, third- and fourth-year Economic and Management Sciences (EMS) education students with one another as well as among the various year groups, and also to the students' academic performance in the first to fourth year. The validated Revised Study Process Questionnaire (RSPQ) compiled by Biggs, Kember and Leung (2001:148) was used to determine the learning approaches. The questionnaire was validatedfor this specific study population by investigating validity through content and construct validity, applying a confirmatory factor analysis, while reliability was assessed by computing Cronbach's alpha coefficients. The study population consisted of the total number of students enrolled for Economic and Management Sciences in the Faculty of Education at the North-West University (NWU) Potchefstroom Campus. These includedfirst-year- (n = 62), second-year- (n = 79), third-year- (n = 57) and fourth-year- (n = 62) EMS education students. The following data analyses were performed: Frequency analysis of all the data collected by means of the RSPQ questionnaire; means and standard deviations; validity and reliability of the measuring instrument. Empirical results included statistical differences between deep and surface learning approaches for different year groups, determined by ANOVA's with p < 0.1 as the criterion for statistical significance and Cohen's effect sizes (d-values) to establish practical differences, statistical differences between learning approaches for different year groups, determined by t-tests with p < 0.1 as the criterion for statistical significance and Cohen's effect sizes (d values) to determine the practical significance of the differences. The Spearman Rank Order Test (correlation coefficient r) was computed to determine the statistical correlation between academic achievement and learning approaches. The p-value (p <0.1) was used as the criterion for statistical significance, while Cohen's effect size (r-value) was computed to assess the practical significance of the correlation between the two variables. Regarding the empirical results of this study, the psychometric properties of the RSPQ were addressed first. To investigate construct validity, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed. Upon application of the CFA the two-factor model yielded a Minimum Sample Discrepancy divided by Degrees of Freedom (CMIN/DF) value of 1.80. A relatively low Comparative Fit Index (CFI) of 0.71 was found for the two-factor model while a Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) value of 0.07 with a 90% confidence interval of [0.06; 0.08] was obtained. The two-factor model satisfied the Goodness of Fit Statistics -CMIN/DF and RMSEA - consequently the questionnaire can be deemed construct valid. To pledge content validity, the researchers made sure that all the items in the RSPQ-questionnaire measured the two variables, namely deep and surface learning approach, and that these two variables were represented by a sufficient number of items. Three experts in the field of learning approaches were requested to participate in the evaluation of the content validity of the questionnaire. Other researchers also used this questionnaire with good results, which further indicates that the content is suitable for the purpose. Reliability was investigated by computing Cronbach's alpha coefficients. For the deep and surface learning approaches α = 0.77 and 0.72 respectively were found, which was an indication of a reliable measuring instrument. The results with reference to students'learning approaches indicated that the average for the deep learning approach was slightly higher than for the surface learning approach for the first- to fourth-year EMS education students. The differences between the two approaches for the first, second and third years were statistically and practically significant, but for the fourth years no statistically or practically significant differences were found. The differences between the different year groups indicated that the deep learning approach increased from the first to the second year, but decreased in the third and even more in the fourth year. The difference between second and fourth year students was statistically and practically significant (p <0.001; d = 0.80). The surface learning approach increased from the first to the fourth year, but these differences were not statistically or practically significant. A possible reason for this increase in surface learning approach could be that as the students neared the end of their studies, they were motivated to reach the end-goal in a quick and effective way that could be achieved by using a surface approach to learning. With regard to the correlation between academic performance and learning approach only the second-year students' academic performance correlated statistically and practically significantly in terms of deep learning approach. The surface learning approach correlated statistically and practically significantly but negatively with academic performance in the second year. Consequently, the higher the academic performance of the second-year students the less they used the surface learning approach. This confirms that the more the students understand concerning the modules, the more motivated they are to use the deep learning approach. Recommendations are made regarding academic support that needs to be provided by tertiary academic institutions. <![CDATA[<i>Amsterdam tot Zeeland: Slawestand tot Middestand? 'n Stellenbosse slawegeskiedenis, 1679-1834</i>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512016000600013&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Een van die groot probleme in die hoëronderwyssisteem is dat die deurvloeisyfers nie na wense is nie. 'n Groot aantal studente skryf in vir 'n graad maar voltooi dit nie binne die voorgeskrewe tydperk nie. Een van die mees prominente faktore waaraan hierdie probleem volgens navorsers toegeskryf kan word, is studente se leerbenadering, wat weer bepaal word deur hulle leermotiewe en leerstrategieë. Die doelstelling vir hierdie studie was om die leerbenaderings van EBW-onderwysstudente te bepaal.Die gevalideerde Hersiene Studie Proses Vraelys soos opgestel deur Biggs et al. (2001:148) is gebruik om die leerbenaderings te bepaal. Daar is bevind dat die diepleer-benadering in al vierjare meer gebruik word as die oppervlakkigeleer-benadering en dat die diepleer-benadering tussen die eerste en die tweede jaar toeneem, maar in die derde en vierde jaar afneem, moontlik omdat studente nader aan die einde van hulle studie poog om op 'n vinnige en effektiewe wyse te studeer. Rakende korrelasies tussen akademiese prestasie en leerbenaderings is bevind dat dit slegs by tweedejaars statisties en prakties betekenisvol was. Hoe hoër hulle akademiese prestasie hoe minder het hulle van die oppervlakkigeleer-benadering gebruik gemaak. Die navorsers is van mening dat studente reeds van hulle eerste jaar af deur die gebruik van verskeie onderrigmetodes aangemoedig moet word om van die diepleer-benadering gebruik te maak.<hr/>Irrespective of the 19 years of democracy in South Africa, which provided equal educational opportunities for school children of all races and genders, the throughput rate of students who are taken in at Higher Education Institutions is not satisfactory, due to certain problems such as lack of preparedness of students and staff, the nature of teaching and learning, the appropriateness of content, assessment methods, and the lack of professionalism of academic staff which students experience before and during their studies. A recent study by the Council on Higher Education (CHE) revealed that approximately 55% of the first-year students who enrol will never graduate (CHE 2013:15). One of the most prominent factors mentioned in the literature that may play a role in their poor academic performance is students' learning approach, determined by their learning motives and learning strategies. The broad aim of this study was to compare the deep and surface learning approaches of first-, second-, third- and fourth-year Economic and Management Sciences (EMS) education students with one another as well as among the various year groups, and also to the students' academic performance in the first to fourth year. The validated Revised Study Process Questionnaire (RSPQ) compiled by Biggs, Kember and Leung (2001:148) was used to determine the learning approaches. The questionnaire was validatedfor this specific study population by investigating validity through content and construct validity, applying a confirmatory factor analysis, while reliability was assessed by computing Cronbach's alpha coefficients. The study population consisted of the total number of students enrolled for Economic and Management Sciences in the Faculty of Education at the North-West University (NWU) Potchefstroom Campus. These includedfirst-year- (n = 62), second-year- (n = 79), third-year- (n = 57) and fourth-year- (n = 62) EMS education students. The following data analyses were performed: Frequency analysis of all the data collected by means of the RSPQ questionnaire; means and standard deviations; validity and reliability of the measuring instrument. Empirical results included statistical differences between deep and surface learning approaches for different year groups, determined by ANOVA's with p < 0.1 as the criterion for statistical significance and Cohen's effect sizes (d-values) to establish practical differences, statistical differences between learning approaches for different year groups, determined by t-tests with p < 0.1 as the criterion for statistical significance and Cohen's effect sizes (d values) to determine the practical significance of the differences. The Spearman Rank Order Test (correlation coefficient r) was computed to determine the statistical correlation between academic achievement and learning approaches. The p-value (p <0.1) was used as the criterion for statistical significance, while Cohen's effect size (r-value) was computed to assess the practical significance of the correlation between the two variables. Regarding the empirical results of this study, the psychometric properties of the RSPQ were addressed first. To investigate construct validity, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed. Upon application of the CFA the two-factor model yielded a Minimum Sample Discrepancy divided by Degrees of Freedom (CMIN/DF) value of 1.80. A relatively low Comparative Fit Index (CFI) of 0.71 was found for the two-factor model while a Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) value of 0.07 with a 90% confidence interval of [0.06; 0.08] was obtained. The two-factor model satisfied the Goodness of Fit Statistics -CMIN/DF and RMSEA - consequently the questionnaire can be deemed construct valid. To pledge content validity, the researchers made sure that all the items in the RSPQ-questionnaire measured the two variables, namely deep and surface learning approach, and that these two variables were represented by a sufficient number of items. Three experts in the field of learning approaches were requested to participate in the evaluation of the content validity of the questionnaire. Other researchers also used this questionnaire with good results, which further indicates that the content is suitable for the purpose. Reliability was investigated by computing Cronbach's alpha coefficients. For the deep and surface learning approaches α = 0.77 and 0.72 respectively were found, which was an indication of a reliable measuring instrument. The results with reference to students'learning approaches indicated that the average for the deep learning approach was slightly higher than for the surface learning approach for the first- to fourth-year EMS education students. The differences between the two approaches for the first, second and third years were statistically and practically significant, but for the fourth years no statistically or practically significant differences were found. The differences between the different year groups indicated that the deep learning approach increased from the first to the second year, but decreased in the third and even more in the fourth year. The difference between second and fourth year students was statistically and practically significant (p <0.001; d = 0.80). The surface learning approach increased from the first to the fourth year, but these differences were not statistically or practically significant. A possible reason for this increase in surface learning approach could be that as the students neared the end of their studies, they were motivated to reach the end-goal in a quick and effective way that could be achieved by using a surface approach to learning. With regard to the correlation between academic performance and learning approach only the second-year students' academic performance correlated statistically and practically significantly in terms of deep learning approach. The surface learning approach correlated statistically and practically significantly but negatively with academic performance in the second year. Consequently, the higher the academic performance of the second-year students the less they used the surface learning approach. This confirms that the more the students understand concerning the modules, the more motivated they are to use the deep learning approach. Recommendations are made regarding academic support that needs to be provided by tertiary academic institutions. <![CDATA[<b><i>Slaafs - 'n verhaal van menslike handel</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512016000600014&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Een van die groot probleme in die hoëronderwyssisteem is dat die deurvloeisyfers nie na wense is nie. 'n Groot aantal studente skryf in vir 'n graad maar voltooi dit nie binne die voorgeskrewe tydperk nie. Een van die mees prominente faktore waaraan hierdie probleem volgens navorsers toegeskryf kan word, is studente se leerbenadering, wat weer bepaal word deur hulle leermotiewe en leerstrategieë. Die doelstelling vir hierdie studie was om die leerbenaderings van EBW-onderwysstudente te bepaal.Die gevalideerde Hersiene Studie Proses Vraelys soos opgestel deur Biggs et al. (2001:148) is gebruik om die leerbenaderings te bepaal. Daar is bevind dat die diepleer-benadering in al vierjare meer gebruik word as die oppervlakkigeleer-benadering en dat die diepleer-benadering tussen die eerste en die tweede jaar toeneem, maar in die derde en vierde jaar afneem, moontlik omdat studente nader aan die einde van hulle studie poog om op 'n vinnige en effektiewe wyse te studeer. Rakende korrelasies tussen akademiese prestasie en leerbenaderings is bevind dat dit slegs by tweedejaars statisties en prakties betekenisvol was. Hoe hoër hulle akademiese prestasie hoe minder het hulle van die oppervlakkigeleer-benadering gebruik gemaak. Die navorsers is van mening dat studente reeds van hulle eerste jaar af deur die gebruik van verskeie onderrigmetodes aangemoedig moet word om van die diepleer-benadering gebruik te maak.<hr/>Irrespective of the 19 years of democracy in South Africa, which provided equal educational opportunities for school children of all races and genders, the throughput rate of students who are taken in at Higher Education Institutions is not satisfactory, due to certain problems such as lack of preparedness of students and staff, the nature of teaching and learning, the appropriateness of content, assessment methods, and the lack of professionalism of academic staff which students experience before and during their studies. A recent study by the Council on Higher Education (CHE) revealed that approximately 55% of the first-year students who enrol will never graduate (CHE 2013:15). One of the most prominent factors mentioned in the literature that may play a role in their poor academic performance is students' learning approach, determined by their learning motives and learning strategies. The broad aim of this study was to compare the deep and surface learning approaches of first-, second-, third- and fourth-year Economic and Management Sciences (EMS) education students with one another as well as among the various year groups, and also to the students' academic performance in the first to fourth year. The validated Revised Study Process Questionnaire (RSPQ) compiled by Biggs, Kember and Leung (2001:148) was used to determine the learning approaches. The questionnaire was validatedfor this specific study population by investigating validity through content and construct validity, applying a confirmatory factor analysis, while reliability was assessed by computing Cronbach's alpha coefficients. The study population consisted of the total number of students enrolled for Economic and Management Sciences in the Faculty of Education at the North-West University (NWU) Potchefstroom Campus. These includedfirst-year- (n = 62), second-year- (n = 79), third-year- (n = 57) and fourth-year- (n = 62) EMS education students. The following data analyses were performed: Frequency analysis of all the data collected by means of the RSPQ questionnaire; means and standard deviations; validity and reliability of the measuring instrument. Empirical results included statistical differences between deep and surface learning approaches for different year groups, determined by ANOVA's with p < 0.1 as the criterion for statistical significance and Cohen's effect sizes (d-values) to establish practical differences, statistical differences between learning approaches for different year groups, determined by t-tests with p < 0.1 as the criterion for statistical significance and Cohen's effect sizes (d values) to determine the practical significance of the differences. The Spearman Rank Order Test (correlation coefficient r) was computed to determine the statistical correlation between academic achievement and learning approaches. The p-value (p <0.1) was used as the criterion for statistical significance, while Cohen's effect size (r-value) was computed to assess the practical significance of the correlation between the two variables. Regarding the empirical results of this study, the psychometric properties of the RSPQ were addressed first. To investigate construct validity, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed. Upon application of the CFA the two-factor model yielded a Minimum Sample Discrepancy divided by Degrees of Freedom (CMIN/DF) value of 1.80. A relatively low Comparative Fit Index (CFI) of 0.71 was found for the two-factor model while a Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) value of 0.07 with a 90% confidence interval of [0.06; 0.08] was obtained. The two-factor model satisfied the Goodness of Fit Statistics -CMIN/DF and RMSEA - consequently the questionnaire can be deemed construct valid. To pledge content validity, the researchers made sure that all the items in the RSPQ-questionnaire measured the two variables, namely deep and surface learning approach, and that these two variables were represented by a sufficient number of items. Three experts in the field of learning approaches were requested to participate in the evaluation of the content validity of the questionnaire. Other researchers also used this questionnaire with good results, which further indicates that the content is suitable for the purpose. Reliability was investigated by computing Cronbach's alpha coefficients. For the deep and surface learning approaches α = 0.77 and 0.72 respectively were found, which was an indication of a reliable measuring instrument. The results with reference to students'learning approaches indicated that the average for the deep learning approach was slightly higher than for the surface learning approach for the first- to fourth-year EMS education students. The differences between the two approaches for the first, second and third years were statistically and practically significant, but for the fourth years no statistically or practically significant differences were found. The differences between the different year groups indicated that the deep learning approach increased from the first to the second year, but decreased in the third and even more in the fourth year. The difference between second and fourth year students was statistically and practically significant (p <0.001; d = 0.80). The surface learning approach increased from the first to the fourth year, but these differences were not statistically or practically significant. A possible reason for this increase in surface learning approach could be that as the students neared the end of their studies, they were motivated to reach the end-goal in a quick and effective way that could be achieved by using a surface approach to learning. With regard to the correlation between academic performance and learning approach only the second-year students' academic performance correlated statistically and practically significantly in terms of deep learning approach. The surface learning approach correlated statistically and practically significantly but negatively with academic performance in the second year. Consequently, the higher the academic performance of the second-year students the less they used the surface learning approach. This confirms that the more the students understand concerning the modules, the more motivated they are to use the deep learning approach. Recommendations are made regarding academic support that needs to be provided by tertiary academic institutions. <![CDATA[<i>Swanesang. Die einde van die Kompanjiestyd aan die Kaap, 1771-1795</i>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512016000600015&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Een van die groot probleme in die hoëronderwyssisteem is dat die deurvloeisyfers nie na wense is nie. 'n Groot aantal studente skryf in vir 'n graad maar voltooi dit nie binne die voorgeskrewe tydperk nie. Een van die mees prominente faktore waaraan hierdie probleem volgens navorsers toegeskryf kan word, is studente se leerbenadering, wat weer bepaal word deur hulle leermotiewe en leerstrategieë. Die doelstelling vir hierdie studie was om die leerbenaderings van EBW-onderwysstudente te bepaal.Die gevalideerde Hersiene Studie Proses Vraelys soos opgestel deur Biggs et al. (2001:148) is gebruik om die leerbenaderings te bepaal. Daar is bevind dat die diepleer-benadering in al vierjare meer gebruik word as die oppervlakkigeleer-benadering en dat die diepleer-benadering tussen die eerste en die tweede jaar toeneem, maar in die derde en vierde jaar afneem, moontlik omdat studente nader aan die einde van hulle studie poog om op 'n vinnige en effektiewe wyse te studeer. Rakende korrelasies tussen akademiese prestasie en leerbenaderings is bevind dat dit slegs by tweedejaars statisties en prakties betekenisvol was. Hoe hoër hulle akademiese prestasie hoe minder het hulle van die oppervlakkigeleer-benadering gebruik gemaak. Die navorsers is van mening dat studente reeds van hulle eerste jaar af deur die gebruik van verskeie onderrigmetodes aangemoedig moet word om van die diepleer-benadering gebruik te maak.<hr/>Irrespective of the 19 years of democracy in South Africa, which provided equal educational opportunities for school children of all races and genders, the throughput rate of students who are taken in at Higher Education Institutions is not satisfactory, due to certain problems such as lack of preparedness of students and staff, the nature of teaching and learning, the appropriateness of content, assessment methods, and the lack of professionalism of academic staff which students experience before and during their studies. A recent study by the Council on Higher Education (CHE) revealed that approximately 55% of the first-year students who enrol will never graduate (CHE 2013:15). One of the most prominent factors mentioned in the literature that may play a role in their poor academic performance is students' learning approach, determined by their learning motives and learning strategies. The broad aim of this study was to compare the deep and surface learning approaches of first-, second-, third- and fourth-year Economic and Management Sciences (EMS) education students with one another as well as among the various year groups, and also to the students' academic performance in the first to fourth year. The validated Revised Study Process Questionnaire (RSPQ) compiled by Biggs, Kember and Leung (2001:148) was used to determine the learning approaches. The questionnaire was validatedfor this specific study population by investigating validity through content and construct validity, applying a confirmatory factor analysis, while reliability was assessed by computing Cronbach's alpha coefficients. The study population consisted of the total number of students enrolled for Economic and Management Sciences in the Faculty of Education at the North-West University (NWU) Potchefstroom Campus. These includedfirst-year- (n = 62), second-year- (n = 79), third-year- (n = 57) and fourth-year- (n = 62) EMS education students. The following data analyses were performed: Frequency analysis of all the data collected by means of the RSPQ questionnaire; means and standard deviations; validity and reliability of the measuring instrument. Empirical results included statistical differences between deep and surface learning approaches for different year groups, determined by ANOVA's with p < 0.1 as the criterion for statistical significance and Cohen's effect sizes (d-values) to establish practical differences, statistical differences between learning approaches for different year groups, determined by t-tests with p < 0.1 as the criterion for statistical significance and Cohen's effect sizes (d values) to determine the practical significance of the differences. The Spearman Rank Order Test (correlation coefficient r) was computed to determine the statistical correlation between academic achievement and learning approaches. The p-value (p <0.1) was used as the criterion for statistical significance, while Cohen's effect size (r-value) was computed to assess the practical significance of the correlation between the two variables. Regarding the empirical results of this study, the psychometric properties of the RSPQ were addressed first. To investigate construct validity, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed. Upon application of the CFA the two-factor model yielded a Minimum Sample Discrepancy divided by Degrees of Freedom (CMIN/DF) value of 1.80. A relatively low Comparative Fit Index (CFI) of 0.71 was found for the two-factor model while a Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) value of 0.07 with a 90% confidence interval of [0.06; 0.08] was obtained. The two-factor model satisfied the Goodness of Fit Statistics -CMIN/DF and RMSEA - consequently the questionnaire can be deemed construct valid. To pledge content validity, the researchers made sure that all the items in the RSPQ-questionnaire measured the two variables, namely deep and surface learning approach, and that these two variables were represented by a sufficient number of items. Three experts in the field of learning approaches were requested to participate in the evaluation of the content validity of the questionnaire. Other researchers also used this questionnaire with good results, which further indicates that the content is suitable for the purpose. Reliability was investigated by computing Cronbach's alpha coefficients. For the deep and surface learning approaches α = 0.77 and 0.72 respectively were found, which was an indication of a reliable measuring instrument. The results with reference to students'learning approaches indicated that the average for the deep learning approach was slightly higher than for the surface learning approach for the first- to fourth-year EMS education students. The differences between the two approaches for the first, second and third years were statistically and practically significant, but for the fourth years no statistically or practically significant differences were found. The differences between the different year groups indicated that the deep learning approach increased from the first to the second year, but decreased in the third and even more in the fourth year. The difference between second and fourth year students was statistically and practically significant (p <0.001; d = 0.80). The surface learning approach increased from the first to the fourth year, but these differences were not statistically or practically significant. A possible reason for this increase in surface learning approach could be that as the students neared the end of their studies, they were motivated to reach the end-goal in a quick and effective way that could be achieved by using a surface approach to learning. With regard to the correlation between academic performance and learning approach only the second-year students' academic performance correlated statistically and practically significantly in terms of deep learning approach. The surface learning approach correlated statistically and practically significantly but negatively with academic performance in the second year. Consequently, the higher the academic performance of the second-year students the less they used the surface learning approach. This confirms that the more the students understand concerning the modules, the more motivated they are to use the deep learning approach. Recommendations are made regarding academic support that needs to be provided by tertiary academic institutions. <![CDATA[<i>Verwoerd: Só onthou ons hom </i>(Hersiene uitgawe)]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512016000600016&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Een van die groot probleme in die hoëronderwyssisteem is dat die deurvloeisyfers nie na wense is nie. 'n Groot aantal studente skryf in vir 'n graad maar voltooi dit nie binne die voorgeskrewe tydperk nie. Een van die mees prominente faktore waaraan hierdie probleem volgens navorsers toegeskryf kan word, is studente se leerbenadering, wat weer bepaal word deur hulle leermotiewe en leerstrategieë. Die doelstelling vir hierdie studie was om die leerbenaderings van EBW-onderwysstudente te bepaal.Die gevalideerde Hersiene Studie Proses Vraelys soos opgestel deur Biggs et al. (2001:148) is gebruik om die leerbenaderings te bepaal. Daar is bevind dat die diepleer-benadering in al vierjare meer gebruik word as die oppervlakkigeleer-benadering en dat die diepleer-benadering tussen die eerste en die tweede jaar toeneem, maar in die derde en vierde jaar afneem, moontlik omdat studente nader aan die einde van hulle studie poog om op 'n vinnige en effektiewe wyse te studeer. Rakende korrelasies tussen akademiese prestasie en leerbenaderings is bevind dat dit slegs by tweedejaars statisties en prakties betekenisvol was. Hoe hoër hulle akademiese prestasie hoe minder het hulle van die oppervlakkigeleer-benadering gebruik gemaak. Die navorsers is van mening dat studente reeds van hulle eerste jaar af deur die gebruik van verskeie onderrigmetodes aangemoedig moet word om van die diepleer-benadering gebruik te maak.<hr/>Irrespective of the 19 years of democracy in South Africa, which provided equal educational opportunities for school children of all races and genders, the throughput rate of students who are taken in at Higher Education Institutions is not satisfactory, due to certain problems such as lack of preparedness of students and staff, the nature of teaching and learning, the appropriateness of content, assessment methods, and the lack of professionalism of academic staff which students experience before and during their studies. A recent study by the Council on Higher Education (CHE) revealed that approximately 55% of the first-year students who enrol will never graduate (CHE 2013:15). One of the most prominent factors mentioned in the literature that may play a role in their poor academic performance is students' learning approach, determined by their learning motives and learning strategies. The broad aim of this study was to compare the deep and surface learning approaches of first-, second-, third- and fourth-year Economic and Management Sciences (EMS) education students with one another as well as among the various year groups, and also to the students' academic performance in the first to fourth year. The validated Revised Study Process Questionnaire (RSPQ) compiled by Biggs, Kember and Leung (2001:148) was used to determine the learning approaches. The questionnaire was validatedfor this specific study population by investigating validity through content and construct validity, applying a confirmatory factor analysis, while reliability was assessed by computing Cronbach's alpha coefficients. The study population consisted of the total number of students enrolled for Economic and Management Sciences in the Faculty of Education at the North-West University (NWU) Potchefstroom Campus. These includedfirst-year- (n = 62), second-year- (n = 79), third-year- (n = 57) and fourth-year- (n = 62) EMS education students. The following data analyses were performed: Frequency analysis of all the data collected by means of the RSPQ questionnaire; means and standard deviations; validity and reliability of the measuring instrument. Empirical results included statistical differences between deep and surface learning approaches for different year groups, determined by ANOVA's with p < 0.1 as the criterion for statistical significance and Cohen's effect sizes (d-values) to establish practical differences, statistical differences between learning approaches for different year groups, determined by t-tests with p < 0.1 as the criterion for statistical significance and Cohen's effect sizes (d values) to determine the practical significance of the differences. The Spearman Rank Order Test (correlation coefficient r) was computed to determine the statistical correlation between academic achievement and learning approaches. The p-value (p <0.1) was used as the criterion for statistical significance, while Cohen's effect size (r-value) was computed to assess the practical significance of the correlation between the two variables. Regarding the empirical results of this study, the psychometric properties of the RSPQ were addressed first. To investigate construct validity, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed. Upon application of the CFA the two-factor model yielded a Minimum Sample Discrepancy divided by Degrees of Freedom (CMIN/DF) value of 1.80. A relatively low Comparative Fit Index (CFI) of 0.71 was found for the two-factor model while a Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) value of 0.07 with a 90% confidence interval of [0.06; 0.08] was obtained. The two-factor model satisfied the Goodness of Fit Statistics -CMIN/DF and RMSEA - consequently the questionnaire can be deemed construct valid. To pledge content validity, the researchers made sure that all the items in the RSPQ-questionnaire measured the two variables, namely deep and surface learning approach, and that these two variables were represented by a sufficient number of items. Three experts in the field of learning approaches were requested to participate in the evaluation of the content validity of the questionnaire. Other researchers also used this questionnaire with good results, which further indicates that the content is suitable for the purpose. Reliability was investigated by computing Cronbach's alpha coefficients. For the deep and surface learning approaches α = 0.77 and 0.72 respectively were found, which was an indication of a reliable measuring instrument. The results with reference to students'learning approaches indicated that the average for the deep learning approach was slightly higher than for the surface learning approach for the first- to fourth-year EMS education students. The differences between the two approaches for the first, second and third years were statistically and practically significant, but for the fourth years no statistically or practically significant differences were found. The differences between the different year groups indicated that the deep learning approach increased from the first to the second year, but decreased in the third and even more in the fourth year. The difference between second and fourth year students was statistically and practically significant (p <0.001; d = 0.80). The surface learning approach increased from the first to the fourth year, but these differences were not statistically or practically significant. A possible reason for this increase in surface learning approach could be that as the students neared the end of their studies, they were motivated to reach the end-goal in a quick and effective way that could be achieved by using a surface approach to learning. With regard to the correlation between academic performance and learning approach only the second-year students' academic performance correlated statistically and practically significantly in terms of deep learning approach. The surface learning approach correlated statistically and practically significantly but negatively with academic performance in the second year. Consequently, the higher the academic performance of the second-year students the less they used the surface learning approach. This confirms that the more the students understand concerning the modules, the more motivated they are to use the deep learning approach. Recommendations are made regarding academic support that needs to be provided by tertiary academic institutions. <![CDATA[<b>Oor die skryfwyse van Afrikaans I</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512016000600017&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Een van die groot probleme in die hoëronderwyssisteem is dat die deurvloeisyfers nie na wense is nie. 'n Groot aantal studente skryf in vir 'n graad maar voltooi dit nie binne die voorgeskrewe tydperk nie. Een van die mees prominente faktore waaraan hierdie probleem volgens navorsers toegeskryf kan word, is studente se leerbenadering, wat weer bepaal word deur hulle leermotiewe en leerstrategieë. Die doelstelling vir hierdie studie was om die leerbenaderings van EBW-onderwysstudente te bepaal.Die gevalideerde Hersiene Studie Proses Vraelys soos opgestel deur Biggs et al. (2001:148) is gebruik om die leerbenaderings te bepaal. Daar is bevind dat die diepleer-benadering in al vierjare meer gebruik word as die oppervlakkigeleer-benadering en dat die diepleer-benadering tussen die eerste en die tweede jaar toeneem, maar in die derde en vierde jaar afneem, moontlik omdat studente nader aan die einde van hulle studie poog om op 'n vinnige en effektiewe wyse te studeer. Rakende korrelasies tussen akademiese prestasie en leerbenaderings is bevind dat dit slegs by tweedejaars statisties en prakties betekenisvol was. Hoe hoër hulle akademiese prestasie hoe minder het hulle van die oppervlakkigeleer-benadering gebruik gemaak. Die navorsers is van mening dat studente reeds van hulle eerste jaar af deur die gebruik van verskeie onderrigmetodes aangemoedig moet word om van die diepleer-benadering gebruik te maak.<hr/>Irrespective of the 19 years of democracy in South Africa, which provided equal educational opportunities for school children of all races and genders, the throughput rate of students who are taken in at Higher Education Institutions is not satisfactory, due to certain problems such as lack of preparedness of students and staff, the nature of teaching and learning, the appropriateness of content, assessment methods, and the lack of professionalism of academic staff which students experience before and during their studies. A recent study by the Council on Higher Education (CHE) revealed that approximately 55% of the first-year students who enrol will never graduate (CHE 2013:15). One of the most prominent factors mentioned in the literature that may play a role in their poor academic performance is students' learning approach, determined by their learning motives and learning strategies. The broad aim of this study was to compare the deep and surface learning approaches of first-, second-, third- and fourth-year Economic and Management Sciences (EMS) education students with one another as well as among the various year groups, and also to the students' academic performance in the first to fourth year. The validated Revised Study Process Questionnaire (RSPQ) compiled by Biggs, Kember and Leung (2001:148) was used to determine the learning approaches. The questionnaire was validatedfor this specific study population by investigating validity through content and construct validity, applying a confirmatory factor analysis, while reliability was assessed by computing Cronbach's alpha coefficients. The study population consisted of the total number of students enrolled for Economic and Management Sciences in the Faculty of Education at the North-West University (NWU) Potchefstroom Campus. These includedfirst-year- (n = 62), second-year- (n = 79), third-year- (n = 57) and fourth-year- (n = 62) EMS education students. The following data analyses were performed: Frequency analysis of all the data collected by means of the RSPQ questionnaire; means and standard deviations; validity and reliability of the measuring instrument. Empirical results included statistical differences between deep and surface learning approaches for different year groups, determined by ANOVA's with p < 0.1 as the criterion for statistical significance and Cohen's effect sizes (d-values) to establish practical differences, statistical differences between learning approaches for different year groups, determined by t-tests with p < 0.1 as the criterion for statistical significance and Cohen's effect sizes (d values) to determine the practical significance of the differences. The Spearman Rank Order Test (correlation coefficient r) was computed to determine the statistical correlation between academic achievement and learning approaches. The p-value (p <0.1) was used as the criterion for statistical significance, while Cohen's effect size (r-value) was computed to assess the practical significance of the correlation between the two variables. Regarding the empirical results of this study, the psychometric properties of the RSPQ were addressed first. To investigate construct validity, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed. Upon application of the CFA the two-factor model yielded a Minimum Sample Discrepancy divided by Degrees of Freedom (CMIN/DF) value of 1.80. A relatively low Comparative Fit Index (CFI) of 0.71 was found for the two-factor model while a Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) value of 0.07 with a 90% confidence interval of [0.06; 0.08] was obtained. The two-factor model satisfied the Goodness of Fit Statistics -CMIN/DF and RMSEA - consequently the questionnaire can be deemed construct valid. To pledge content validity, the researchers made sure that all the items in the RSPQ-questionnaire measured the two variables, namely deep and surface learning approach, and that these two variables were represented by a sufficient number of items. Three experts in the field of learning approaches were requested to participate in the evaluation of the content validity of the questionnaire. Other researchers also used this questionnaire with good results, which further indicates that the content is suitable for the purpose. Reliability was investigated by computing Cronbach's alpha coefficients. For the deep and surface learning approaches α = 0.77 and 0.72 respectively were found, which was an indication of a reliable measuring instrument. The results with reference to students'learning approaches indicated that the average for the deep learning approach was slightly higher than for the surface learning approach for the first- to fourth-year EMS education students. The differences between the two approaches for the first, second and third years were statistically and practically significant, but for the fourth years no statistically or practically significant differences were found. The differences between the different year groups indicated that the deep learning approach increased from the first to the second year, but decreased in the third and even more in the fourth year. The difference between second and fourth year students was statistically and practically significant (p <0.001; d = 0.80). The surface learning approach increased from the first to the fourth year, but these differences were not statistically or practically significant. A possible reason for this increase in surface learning approach could be that as the students neared the end of their studies, they were motivated to reach the end-goal in a quick and effective way that could be achieved by using a surface approach to learning. With regard to the correlation between academic performance and learning approach only the second-year students' academic performance correlated statistically and practically significantly in terms of deep learning approach. The surface learning approach correlated statistically and practically significantly but negatively with academic performance in the second year. Consequently, the higher the academic performance of the second-year students the less they used the surface learning approach. This confirms that the more the students understand concerning the modules, the more motivated they are to use the deep learning approach. Recommendations are made regarding academic support that needs to be provided by tertiary academic institutions.