Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0041-475120170003&lang=pt vol. 57 num. 2-2 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>The ethos of the contemporary knowledge worker</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512017000300001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Hierdie artikel besin oor die etos van die hedendaagse kenniswerker en die relevansie daarvan vir die wetenskappe van die gees soos dit ontwikkel is in die boek van Alan Liu The laws of cool: knowledge work and the culture of information. Volgens hom is "die toon of stand van die hedendaagse samelewing" van so ʼn aard dat dit dringende herstel behoef. Die hedendaagse lewe, die hedendaagse samelewing ly, is siek; ons ervaar ʼn sosiopatologie van kennisverlies en word daarom bedreig deur ernstige katastrofes. Dit konfronteer ons met ʼn enorme uitdaging. Om hierdie uitdaging die hoof te bied en aan die herstelproses mee te werk moet daarna gesoek word om "goed in te lig of te informeer" waarvoor ʼn "lewe-informerende houding" die noodsaaklike voorwaarde is. Die aard van die informeringstaak word bepaal deur die begrip "lewe" en nie deur geld, of die Mark, of geïsoleerde probleme, of informasie nie, maar lewe. Dit wil sê omvattend en diepgaande informering is nodig. Dit is die taak van die geletterdes (wat geletterheidvolheid belewe en najaag): poëties, fiksioneel, wetenskaplik en wetevol, hipertekstueel en multi-mediamatig, op voorwaarde dat nie een hiervan verblind mag word deur en verbonde is aan ideologiese vertolkinge en verdraaiinge van die werklikheid nie wat op alle gebiede oorvloedig in omloop is. Hierdie "nuwe literêres" wat in die werk van Liu (2004) voorrang geniet, behoort versterk te word deur die ingesteldheid van diegene wat geestelik toegerus is met die meervoudig-konnektiewe intelleksie, "die troebadoer van kennis" van Michel Serres, wat terselfdertyd ook toegerus is met die etos van die onbekende. Wie ook al sodanig toegerus is, sal ideale kandidate wees vir die verlangde sosioterapeutiese taak, in die belang van die herinvensie van kennis in die volle sin van die woord.<hr/>This article reflects on the ethos of the contemporary knowledge worker and its relevance for the sciences of the spirit today as explored by Alan Liu in his book The laws of cool: knowledge work and the culture of information. According to him the tone of contemporary life needs repair. Why and what does this mean? Something must be wrong, but what? If one reads between the lines it may have to do with "the ethos of 'unknowing'", referring to what has been, in the framework of this ethos, abandoned through "creative destruction" (the established, the customary, the familiar, the comfortable), and to what has vanished in terms of "cool" (when cool is interpreted as the techno-informatic vanishing point of contemporary aesthetic, psychology, morality, politics, spirituality, and everything): the disastrous consequences of "an ethos of unknowing". In brief it can be stated that it is about the absence of or loss of insight and wisdom in favour of calculation. The ethos of unknowing puts obstacles in the way of knowing; it forbids access to certain domains of knowledge; it reflects the culture of "creative destruction". This refers specifically to the currently forbidden domains of the sciences of the spirit, to the deeper senses of knowledge. These deeper senses of knowledge are disturbing factors to the flow of information and therefore it must itself be disturbed, even fatally if possible. These manifestations are all linked: This is the contemporary tone of life that characterises societies in desperate need of repair. To help with this required repair it would be necessary to inform well. In order to inform well in such a way that the tone of contemporary life can be repaired, we have to accept the challenge posed by "the ethos of informationalism" with its focus on "creative destruction" (Castells) and with its solid involvement with operationalisation (Lash) and with the pertinent implication of "an ethos of unknowing". For this purpose a counter-ethos is suggested by Liu when he inverted the question of Castells: The question should not be What is the ethical foundation of the network enterprise or spirit of informationalism, but rather what ethical foundation enables identities to live an un-networked, and counter-informational fantasy within the spirit of informationalism? What room may there be for a counter-ethos within the dominant ethos of informationalism? Although this spirit cannot be escaped the struggle remains within it in order to overcome its absolutised position that can only materialise when a life-informing attitude provides the inspiration towards "destructive creation". What is this life-informing attitude? It should be an attitude that does not primarily focus on needs of whatever nature, or on problems in isolation. The life-informing attitude is comprehensive and all-inclusive in nature and should focus on sense-giving and care-taking that involves the whole person in a whole world. This is where spirituality comes into the picture: wisdom is needed. Hereby emphasis is put on the capacity humans have, and only humans, to be life-informing beings. That is precisely why the position and presence of the sciences of the spirit ought to be non-negotiable. What is the deepseated inspiration and mindset of the life-informing attitude? The answer is: an awareness of and an indulgence in the ethos of the unknown that refers to the imagination of the age of knowledge work, in other words to the capacity humans possess to penetrate right into what lies beyond it, and to what it does remind us of, as well as to what we can only dream about or fantasise about. This is the reason why a counter informational fantasy is necessary here - a fantasy about the currently forbidden domains or activities of the sciences of the spirit. It is almost a matter of the absolutisation of the incalculable. We have to re-introduce what is abandoned and what has vanished away, what is forbidden and what is forgotten: comprehension, meaning, care - the spiritual, in other words - and life in particular, a poetics of life. <![CDATA[<b>Ethical sensitivity of practising audiologists</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512017000300002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt TEORETIESE RAAMWERK: ʼn Begrip van die kliënt, sy/haar behoeftes, emosies en omstandighede vorm die basis van ʼn doeltreffende terapeutiese verhouding. Diensuitnemendheid en etiese sensitiwiteit vorm saam met hierdie holistiese kliënt-terapeut-benadering die boustene vir doeltreffende dienslewering. Die Meetinstrument vir Etiese Sensitiwiteit in die Terapeutiese Wetenskappe (MIEST) is die eerste multidissiplinêre meetinstrument beskikbaar om etiese sensitiwiteit van oudioloë en ander terapeute te evalueer. In ʼn eeu waar terapeute daagliks gekonfronteer word met etiese besluitneming is dit belangrik om die vlak van ontwikkeling van terapeute in verskillende fases van etiese besluitneming te bepaal. Die MIEST kan in die toekoms as rigtingwyser vir werkswinkels en professionele ontwikkelingsprogramme gebruik word. Etiese sensitiwiteit is die eerste stap in die raamwerk van etiese optrede en word daarom as die vertrekpunt vir hierdie navorsing beskou. DOEL: Om die etiese sensitiwiteit van praktiserende oudioloë te ondersoek met verwysing na spesifieke beginsels en vaardighede. METODIEK: ʼn Kwantitatiewe navorsingsontwerp is gevolg met die gebruik van ʼn reeds ontwikkelde meetinstrument, naamlik die MIEST. Vyftig deelnemers het die meetinstrument voltooi. Data-insameling het elektronies plaasgevind. Die data is kwantitatief ontleed deur middel van beskrywende sowel as parametriese en inferensiële statistiek. BEVINDINGS: Die gemiddelde prestasie van praktiserende oudioloë was 65%, wat hul in die "ontwikkelende" fase van etiese sensitiwiteit plaas. Die hoogste vlak van etiese sensitiwiteit was in ooreenstemming met die beginsel van geregtigheid asook die vaardigheid, naamlik emosionele uitdrukking. ʼn Behoefte is geïdentifiseer om oudioloë se etiese sensitiwiteit spesifiek ten opsigte van nie-kwaadwilligheid, beheer oor sosiale vooroordeel en die vertolking van situasies te verhoog.<hr/>THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK: An understanding of the client, his/her needs, emotions and circumstances is fundamental to an effective therapeutic relationship. This holistic focus on the therapeutic relationship and service excellence constitutes, together with ethical sensitivity, the building blocks for effective and competent practice. The Measuring Instrument for Ethical Sensitivity in the Therapeutic Sciences (MIEST) is the first multidisciplinary measuring instrument to describe the ethical sensitivity of audiologists and other therapists. In an era where therapists are daily confronted with ethical decision making, it is important to determine the different levels of skill related to ethical sensitivity. The data obtained by means of the MIEST can provide guidance through workshops and professional development programmes. Ethical sensitivity is the first step in the framework of ethical behaviour and for that reason forms the foundation of this research. AIM: To investigate the ethical sensitivity of practising audiologists in terms of defined principles and skills. METHODOLOGY: A quantitative research design using an existing measuring instrument was applied. Fifty participants completed the MIEST measuring instrument. Data collection was managed electronically and the data was quantitatively analysed using parametric and inferential statistics. RESULTS: The mean score for the practising audiologists was 65%, which places this group of participants in the developing phase of ethical sensitivity. The highest level of ethical sensitivity related to the principle of justice and the skill emotional expression. The study identified a need to further develop the ethical sensitivity of audiologists, especially with regard to non-maleficence, controlling social bias and the interpretation of situations. <![CDATA[<b>Chinese Competitiveness and the crisis in the South African steel industry</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512017000300003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Die krisis in die Suid-Afrikaanse staalvervaardigingsbedryf word in hierdie artikel ondersoek. Na die wêreldwye ekonomiese krisis van 2008 vind die meeste lande dit steeds moeilik om hul ekonomieë te herstel. Sjina het dit egter wel moontlik gevind om volhoubare ekonomiese groei te bereik en gedurende 2010 ʼn groeikoers van byna twaalf persent behaal. Dit het Sjina in staat gestel om hul staalproduksie te verhoog en ʼn surplus van Sjinese staal op wêreldmarkte aan te bied. Sjina kon gevolglik hul staal teen baie lae pryse na Suid-Afrika en ander lande uitvoer. Sedertdien het die Sjinese ekonomie egter tot ʼn laagtepunt van sewe persent in 2015 gedaal en is Sjina geforseer om sy uitvoere na internasionale markte verder uit te brei en markte vir sy staalnywerheid te vind. Dié artikel ondersoek die rol van Sjinese mededinging, markomstandighede en wat gedoen is om die Suid-Afrikaanse staalbedryf te probeer red. Ekonometrieseregressie-analises het aangetoon dat Sjinese mededinging wel ʼn beduidende impak op die Suid-Afrikaanse staalvervaardigingsnywerheid het en dat Suid-Afrikaanse staalproduksie beduidend benadeel word. Die artikel sluit af deur moontlike wyses wat die negatiewe effek op die Suid-Afrikaanse mark en in besonder die staalbedryf die hoof kan bied, te ondersoek en aanbevelings te maak.<hr/>This article examines the impact of increased steel imports on the South African steel manufacturing industry and possible measures to counteract the negative effects thereof. In the years following the international economic crisis of 2008, China was able to increase steel production levels to high rates causing an increase in product surplus in their steel industry. This placed them in the position to export steel products at a discount rate to South Africa and other countries. Econometric regression analyses showed that Chinese competition has a significant impact on the South African steel manufacturing industry and that steel production is significantly compromised. Data used includes exchange rates and currency values, prices of products, input costs and import versus export data. South Africa has always been successful in the production and export of steel because the country is in the possession of large iron ore deposits and there was a high demand for South African steel on international markets. Following the 2008 global financial crisis, China has become a threat to the South African steel industry. China has been a nett exporter of steel products since 2005 and provides approximately a third of the world's steel. It invested much in its steel production industry and secondary steel production capacity during the boom period in the world steel industry running up to 2008. When the economies of the United States of America and most Western countries experienced a decline at the end of 2008, leading into 2009, the Chinese economy still had an economic growth rate of approximately ten per cent, acting as a buffer to their booming steel market, and wider economy, against other failing economies. Domestic steel demand in South Africa, on the other hand, could not absorb the large capacity availability. China is in a position to sell steel at much lower prices than other steel mills in the world due to their government subsidies, export rebates, a philosophy that emphasises social factors and employment rather than a return on capital investment, and other contributing factors. After the peak GDP growth rate of just under twelve per cent at the beginning of 2010, the Chinese economic growth rate fluctuated into a decade low of seven per cent during 2015. The sharp decline in the Chinese economic growth rate forced China to expand their export efforts to keep their large steelmaking capacity running. Since 2008, China was able to infiltrate and expand into international markets that South African steel manufacturers traditionally relied on to absorb excess steel capacity that cannot be sold locally. Not only were South Africa's traditional export markets negatively influenced by the Chinese export expansion programme, imports of Chinese steel and steel products escalated. In the period 2010 to 2015, Chinese imports of steel for manufacturing purposes to South Africa have increased substantially. Competition from Chinese steel producers forced South African steel manufacturers to cut down on production, and many steel plants have been forced either to close down or downsize on their production capacity. Furthermore, it has become cheaper for many users of steel products and steel merchants to import steel from China, than sourcing locally or from other international mills. The same applies to many other steel-consuming industries, such as the trailer building and the nail industry. The current study focuses on the increased steel production from China and the effect on global markets, as well as on South Africa's economy. Empirical econometric regression analysis estimated the specific effect on South African steel imports. This article investigated the measures already undertaken to rescue the South African steel manufacturing industry and market conditions and concludes with suggestions and recommendations to contain the Chinese competitive threat, which may support the South African economy and the steel industry in particular. The main findings are that increased import volumes of Chinese steel have a negative impact on the South African steel industry. <![CDATA[<b>"The great outdoor living room of the city": A survey essay on the thoughts and aims of urban park development in the late 19th and early 20th century in Europe and the United States of America</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512017000300004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Die stedelike park het 'n toevlugsoord geword vir stedelinge wat met armoede en oorbevolking geworstel het. Geskiedskrywing hieroor is al goed gedek, maar vandag is daar nuwe belangstelling, aangemoedig deur stedelike omgewingshistorici. Die artikel ondersoek die sieninge van veral die middelklas oor die moeilike omstandighede van die armes en werkersklasstedelinge en hoe hulle parke gesien het as een oplossing hiervoor. Voorts lê die artikel klem op hulle idees oor die natuur, gesondheid en moraliteit, sosiale beheer en middelklasfatsoenlikheid en die rol wat die stedelike park hierin gespeel het. Weliswaar het die middelklas die parke gebruik, maar dit moes ook vir die werkersklas as voorbeeld van behoorlike gedrag dien. Aandag word geskenk aan die wyse waarop landskapargitekte in hul ontwerp van die parke konkrete gestalte aan hierdie idees gegee het. Die oprigting in parke van wetenskaplike en kulturele sentrums soos glashuise, museums, kunsgalerye en ornamentele beelde het nie alleen parke verder verfraai nie, maar was ook manifestasies van burgerlike trots. Nietemin, terwyl parke bygedra het om die lewensomstandighede van stedelinge te verbeter, was dit deurgaans in kompetisie met die realiteit dat die stad se lewensaar vervaardiging en handel was en het dit nie noodwendig met die idee van 'n groot openbare ruimte daarbinne geklop nie.<hr/>The city park was a constant in the ever-changing city and an effective antidote to the feverishness of city life. The current emphasis on the benefits of parks is understandable in the light of environmental issues such as, inter alia, earth warming threatening humankind's existence on the planet. By the 1970s, there was already a substantial canon of literature on urban parks. Since then, a new generation of urban environmental historians has emerged with new interests and approaches. It is therefore prudent to revisit the thinking and aims inherent in the early establishment of the urban parks of the late 19th and early 20th centuries in Britain and the United States of America. The aim of this paper is to explore both the views of middle and upper class urbanites in Britain and the USA on the mostly harsh living conditions in their cities, labelling them as "evil"; and the establishment of parks being seen as one solution to alleviate said conditions. The paper also focuses on how ideas on "nature", "progress", "health", "morals", "romanticism", "social control" and "middle class respectability" underpinned views on public parks as pristine rural environments that should be transferred to the city. Lastly, the way landscape designers echoed the ideas and aspirations of the middle class in the design of parks is considered. Rapid industrialisation and urbanisation led to a lack of connection between urban residents and previous rural/natural areas and their benefits. The perception was that this, in turn, contributed to the decline in moral and physical health and the eroding of culture. The rural environment was idealised and seen as inherently good and superior to city living. If transferred to the city, it could create an ideal urban environment. Fredrik Law Olmsted, the doyen of American parks, fully supported these views. By the turn of the 19th century, the permanence of the city was well established and perceived dichotomy between the urban and the rural resolved by a hybrid relationship. As England was the leader in die development of parks, it had a huge influence in the Western world with many countries tapping into English ideas on parks. However, from the 1850s there was thus a lively cross-fertilisation of ideas on the urgency of park development. The City Beautiful movement would have a significant influence on these dominant ideas on parks. The "problems" to which the provision of parks was expected to offer some relief, were easy to describe: ill-health, overcrowding and squalor. The reasons for addressing these problems were various. The breathing space parks could provide was seen as one solution to improve the health of those living in over-crowded conditions. During the middle to late 19th century the British government expressed concern about the lack of exercise amongst its citizens. Initially, the park was seen as the ideal urban space for contemplative recreation and an escape from the harsh city environment. However, by the turn of the 19th century park advocates called for active recreation. They believed that there was a connection between poverty amongst the working classes and a lack of fitness. Fundamental to this was the hope that exercise in the park could contribute to a more productive working class. By the 1930s parks as spaces for exercise were well established in Europe and the USA. This first era of park establishment in the Western world was heavily influenced by the interests of the city elite and middle class reformers. They viewed themselves as the keepers of respectability, "civility" and "civilization" and the driving force behind reform and progress. The target of "improvement" was the working-class and the ideal place the city parks. By "civilizing" the masses, there would be fewer encroachments on middle class sensibilities. Moral reformers claimed that the health-giving character of parks provided an alternative to "urban vices" by bringing the poor into visual contact with respectable bourgeoisie behaviour. In addition, parks offered strategic spaces to provide a safety valve for social upheaval. By controlling how, when and where parks were provided the middle class could supervise the working class in their non-work hours and attempt to control their behaviour. Consequently, urban parks became socially constructed spaces. Park design reflected the ambitions and beliefs of especially middle and upper class city dwellers. The vision was to introduce to the city spacious green spaces where city dwellers could delight in the beauty of nature, fresh air and healthy exercise. Generally, park designers demonstrated their conviction of the historical inevitability of the permanence of the city but also that city living could be pleasant. Tapping into the 18th century English landscape gardening movement landscape architects applied the same basic use of trees, grass and water, suitably modified for mass usage. The aim was to link green spaces to utilise the ecological value thereof and simultaneously create a work of art. The layouts were contrived with great insight into human needs and behaviour, fostering gentle promenading and inducing the park visitors to forget their mundane concerns. Later parks made provision for active recreation. The characteristics of the designs varied. On the one hand the romantic idea of a pristine wilderness prevailed while on the other hand pastoral parks were laid out. Mostly it was a combination of both. Olmsted and Vaux opted to contrast wilderness vistas with more subtle arrangements to express their vision of the "picturesque". Urban parks became the ideal location for the erection of scientific and cultural exhibitionary complexes, becoming the repositories for glasshouses, monuments, art galleries, museums and sculptures mostly commemorating conspicuous political and cultural people. Two further prominent characteristics were the military parade grounds and the elaborate entrance gates. Hence parks fulfilled an educational and ennobling function becoming an essential feature of the urban fabric. They grew into powerful symbols of civic pride, community spirit and expressions of civil identity. However, whilst parks contributed to the improvement of living conditions in the city, the realities of the city's manufacturing and trading character prevailed. Thus, it remained difficult to completely marry the agrarian deference for nature with the fundamental character of the city. <![CDATA[<b>The psycho-social circumstances and needs of street children: A needs assessment</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512017000300005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Die straatkindverskynsel het dwarsoor die wêreld ʼn maatskaplike probleem geword en kan aan heelwat faktore toegeskryf word soos swak ekonomiese toestande, werkloosheid en gesinsprobleme wat in die gemeenskap ervaar word. Hierdie kinders verbeur dikwels die voorregte en bydraes tot ontwikkeling wat deur ʼn gesonde gesinslewe teweeg gebring word, en daar word onvoldoende in hulle basiese behoeftes voorsien. Hierdie situasie strem hul normale ontwikkeling en hulle openbaar dikwels ernstige psigososiale nagevolge, soos wantroue in mense, ʼn gebrek aan selfvertroue en swak interpersoonlike verhoudings. Die studie se teoretiese uitgangspunt is die sterkte- en bemagtigingsperspektiewe wat aanvullend in maatskaplike werk benut kan word. Min literatuur is beskikbaar oor die psigososiale behoeftes en omstandighede van straatkinders in Suid-Afrika. Die doel van die studie behels ʼn behoeftebepaling ten opsigte van die psigososiale omstandighede en behoeftes van straatkinders by die Thakaneng Kinder- en Jeugsorgsentrum (TKJS) in Potchefstroom ten einde inligting te versamel wat benut kan word in ʼn lewensvaardigheidsprogram. Die gemengde navorsingsmetode is benut deurdat kwalitatiewe sowel as kwantitatiewe navorsingstegnieke en -metodes binne die verkennende en beskrywende navorsingsontwerpe benut is. Vir die deel van die studie waaroor in hierdie artikel verslag gedoen word, is data deur middel van ʼn self-gestruktureerde vraelys ingesamel. Vanuit die verkreë data kon die behoefte vir, en moontlike temas van belang vir ʼn lewensvaardigheidsprogram, geïdentifiseer word. Van die belangrikste lewensvaardighede wat die navorser vanuit die behoeftebepaling en die literatuur kon identifiseer, is selfkennis; selfvertroue en selfhandhawing; interpersoonlike verhoudings en vertroue; algemene en emosionele hanteringmeganismes; toekomsbeplanning en besluitneming; gesondheid en ʼn gesonde leefstyl; kommunikasievaardighede; probleemoplossing en konflikhantering; tydsbestuur; finansiële bestuur en sekere ander aangeleenthede, soos die gevare verbonde aan die misbruik van middels, die voorkoming van MIV en ander oordraagbare geslagsiektes, asook kinderregte. Hierdie vaardighede word deur die kwantitatiewe sowel as kwalitatiewe data bevestig.<hr/>The phenomenon of street children has become a world-wide problem, which can be attributed to many causes that are experienced in the community at large, such as economic difficulties, joblessness and family discord. These children lose out on the privileges of a healthy family life and their basic needs are in general not fulfilled. This has a detrimental effect on street children's development and often has serious psychosocial consequences, such as distrust in people, a lack of self-confidence and negative interpersonal relationships. Life on the street is characterised by various psychosocial challenges such as abuse, prostitution, substance abuse, gangsterism, crime and human rights violations. Children are often not capable of controlling these injustices against them and therefore they are dependent on other people to act on their behalf. The strengths- and empowerment perspectives were used as the theoretical foundation of the study. Limited literature is available on the psychosocial needs and circumstances of street children in South Africa. The role of social work can be seen as assisting clients to identify their own strengths and those of their communities, in order to solve their psychosocial problems and to enhance their circumstances. Empowerment can be described as a self-help activity that assists people to take control of their lives and to develop strategies to overcome their adversities. The aim of the study was to do a needs assessment of the psychosocial circumstances and needs of street children at the Thakaneng Child and Youth Care Centre in Potchefstroom in order to obtain information which can be utilised in a life skills program. Mixed-method research was utilised for the purpose of this study, where quantitative and qualitative techniques were used in combination within the exploratory and descriptive research designs. For the part of the study reported on in this article, data was collected by means of a self-structured questionnaire. From the data obtained a number of possible themes relevant to a life skills programme could be identified. The total population of Thakaneng, namely 50 street children, were recruited as participants in this study. The social worker from Thakaneng acted as a gatekeeper for the project. All applicable ethical issues were taken into consideration in this study, such as the principle of no harm, voluntary participation, written-informed consent, steps to avoid misleading participants, anonymity, confidentiality and privacy. The risks and advantages for participants in the study were ethically calculated. Validity and reliability of the quantitative data as well as trustworthiness of the qualitative data were taken into consideration. It was found that time management, self-knowledge, knowledge about mutual trust, self-assertive behaviour, and decision-making skills were the skills of which the participants were most in need. All the participants scored more than 94% on these items. The middle group (all between 86% and 92%) included needs in terms of health and a healthy lifestyle, problem-solving skills, knowledge on career choices, coping with changes, knowledge on children's rights, and future planning. Other needs among this group include belief in the self, knowledge on HIV and Aids, how to apply for a job, how to achieve aims for daily living, how to control emotions, how to develop communication skills, how to apply financial management and to learn more on interpersonal relationships. The group of needs with the lowest score (all between 74% and 80%) involved needs such as skills to handle stress, anxiety, anger, grief and bereavement, and to manage conflict. Although all these constructs measured lower than the rest, their importance is still high and thus they should be dealt with. The most important life skills were identified by means of the needs assessment and verified by both the quantitative and qualitative data as well as the literature study. These needs can be grouped into a number of topics that can eventually be incorporated into an empowerment programme for street children, namely self-knowledge, self-confidence and self-assertive behaviour; interpersonal relationships and trust; coping and dealing with emotions; future planning and decision making; health and a healthy life style; communication skills; problem solving and conflict management; time management; financial management; and specific other issues such as the danger of using drugs, the prevention of HIV and other transferable sexual diseases, and children's rights. <![CDATA[<b>Afrikaans and Music. Notes from the Sideline</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512017000300006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Teen die agtergrond van vrae oor die toekoms van Afrikaans stel hierdie artikel vokale musiek as 'n eie "bestaansdomein" van taal aan die orde. Die spesifiek musikale kenmerke van Afrikaans in vergelyking met ander tale word ondersoek asook die implikasies daarvan vir die komponis van Afrikaanse musiek. 'n Kritiese oorsig word verskaf oor toonsettings van Afrikaanse tekste van die afgelope eeu, veral wat kunsliedere met klavierbegeleiding en verwerkings van Psalms en Gesange betref. Die betekenis van die huidige opbloei van koormusiek in Suid-Afrika word geskets en 'n pleidooi word gelewer dat koormusiek erken word as 'n belangrike domein waarin Afrikaans as kultuurtaal bestaan. Persoonlike woord vooraf Hierdie artikel word geskryf vanuit die perspektief van 'n nie-Afrikaanssprekende buitestander wat van die kantlyn af na ontwikkelinge rondom Afrikaans kyk. As geleentheidskomponis het ek 'n aantal beskeie bydraes tot Afrikaanse koormusiek gelewer en ek het in hierdie verband baie besin oor die musikale potensiaal van die Afrikaanse taal in vergelyking met ander tale waarin ek ook gekomponeer het. Teen my aanvanklike vooroordeel in het Afrikaans my as musiektaal toenemend begin fassineer. Ek het agtergekom dat die potensiaal daarvan as taal vir koormusiek nog nie behoorlik ontdek en ontgin is nie. Dit is hoe die titel van hierdie artikel verstaan moet word.<hr/>Against the backdrop of ever present questions about the role of Afrikaans in the current South African context various apects of the relationship between Afrikaans and music are examined. To begin with, the article argues for the recognition of vocal music as a distinct linguistic domain. As the intersection between musical and linguistic forces, it is a domain that functions according to principles that differ from those present in the domains of spoken language, and which are the subject of general or sociolinguistics. To illustrate this point, a general overview of the genres and compositional techniques of vocal music is provided, from medieval times up to the present. The specifically musical characteristics of the Afrikaans language are then examined and compared to those of other languages. These include aspects such as the sound and pronunciation of phonemes, principles of accentuation and characteristics of pitch distribution. They represent musical potential which can be exploited by composers if they are sensitive to such characteristics in the language they are setting to music. They are also of interest to singers. The various challenges of setting specifically Afrikaans texts to music are highlighted. It is asked whether a century of much celebrated Afrikaans literature, including the Afrikaans translation of the Bible and the Afrikaans hymnal, has resulted in an equivalent repertoire of music. Regrettably, the overall yield is quite low, despite a number of significant contributions to the art song genre by foremost composers like Arnold van Wyk and Hubert du Plessis. Consequently, it is argued that the remarkable flowering of Afrikaans literature over this period did not lead to a concomitant production of vocal music, least of all in the area of choral music. In addition, it is shown that those composers who have produced vocal music prefer the work of poets of the older generations, and it is asked why the work of younger poets generally is not considered to have the same musical potential or to generate the same degree of musical interest. Moreover, it seems that in the minds even of intellectuals who profess to have a love for Afrikaans and have a stake in its continued existence as a language of culture, the natural musical manifestation of their language is to be found in popular music. It is lamented that the presence of Afrikaans in the genres of art song and choral music does not feature more prominently in the consciousness of speakers of the language and that composers do not provide them with sufficient suitable material to change the imbalance. An overview of the relatively small repertoire of published secular and sacred Afrikaans choral music is provided and its stylistic traits are examined. The focus is on collections of choral music published by official cultural and church organisations, because these can be seen to be broadly representative of the membership of their respective organisations. It is found that, on the whole, this repertoire of choral music is quite limited in scope as far as stylistic techniques are concerned. In the majority of examples composers do not go beyond simple arrangements of existing hymns or songs and even less do they venture into tonal territory beyond that of nineteenth-century conventions. This goes to show that composers of choral music have not yet fully realised and exploited the potential of setting Afrikaans words to music, least of all in the musical vocabulary of our time. By contrast, the current vibrant interest in choral singing amongst many young South Africans of all cultures is mentioned. This bodes well for the future of the genre. It also provides opportunities for social and cultural interaction amongst the participants and for experimentation in concert programming. Conductors, composers, organisers and sponsors should seize this opportunity to create a culture of Afrikaans choral music that can add a worthy voice to the cultural diversity of South Africa. <![CDATA[<b>Slavoj Ž</b><b>iž</b><b>ek and film (theory)? Part 2: An interpretation of <i>It Follows</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512017000300007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Waar deel 1 van hierdie studie 'n kort oorsig oor Žižekiaanse, oftewel neo-Lacaniaanse filmteorie gegee het, word in deel 2 die grufilm, It Follows, gebruik om die belangrikste teoretiese motiewe uit hierdie tradisie en dus ook Žižekiaanse filmanalise as sodanig, te demonstreer. Die gebruik van hierdie genre word gemotiveer deur na filmteorie se tradisioneel psigo-analitiese benadering tot grufilms te verwys. Enkele motiewe, herleibaar na Freudiaanse teorie, word aangedui - spesifiek met verwysing na die gebruik daarvan in die teoretisering van grufilms. Daarna word die "slasher"-subgenre beskryf, veral in terme van die historiese trajek wat die psigo-analitiese resepsie van hierdie gewilde genre illustreer. Laastens volg die analise van It Follows met betrekking tot die motiewe en konvensies bespreek in die vorige afdelings én deel 1 van hierdie studie. Die betoog word afgesluit deur die film as 'n demonstrasie van die dinamika van ideologie te interpreteer.<hr/>Whereas part 1 of this study gave a short introduction to and overview of Žižekian or neo-Lacanian film theory, part 2 uses the horror film It Follows in order to demonstrate the most important theoretical motifs of this theory, thereby illustrating what a Žižekian analysis would look like. The use of the horror genre as explicating tool is motivated by the traditional psychoanalytical reception of this genre by film theorists. A number of Freudian theoretical motifs, often used in the interpretation of these films, are discussed - with specific reference to the unique context of horror movies. These include the Oedipus complex (including all of its effects); the allegorisation of the Oedipus-family nexus (by transposing it to the socio-political context); the suppression of everything that transgresses the heteronormativity of the social order; Unheimlichkeit or the uncanny (which acknowledges the familiar made strange); the porousness of borders between the familiar and unfamiliar (or the "I" and the "Other", or the protagonist and antagonist); trauma as that which surpasses any attempt to be given meaning through representation; and the abject as that which is to be discarded and held at a safe distance. The argument then shifts to a very specific horror genre, namely the slasher-film, as a genre that in the past has often been used to comment on societal changes. The slasher is again defined in terms of a number of theoretical motifs and conventions - these include: the notion of the Final Girl (as the sometimes androgenous protagonist who conquers the monster at the end of the film); the explicability of the monster (more often than not as victim of a traumatic incident in the past); the stalking of the protagonist by the antagonistic monster figure; death as punishment for transgressive behaviour; the absence of parents and parental control; and the use of focalisation of the camera (often representing a shift from the perspective of the antagonist at the beginning of the film to the perspective of the protagonist at the end). These motifs and conventions are then used with reference to the psychoanalytical motifs mentioned earlier, to describe the historical trajectory of the horror film, specifically the slasher, in terms of its theoretical reception. This theoretical narrative sees the 1970s as a time where patriarchal normativity was in crisis, the 1980s as a reactionary move towards a neo-conservatism, the 1990s as representative of postmodernism and modern examples of horror as representing a mixture of both, although its conservatism might have the upper hand. The interpretation of It Follows concludes the argument. The film is interpreted again with reference to the theoretical motifs and conventions (both of horror film as genre and the slasher as sub-genre) - with a specific focus on the meaning of sex in the film (thereby reading it in terms of the Žižekian drive, desire and jouissance); the meaning of the monster, of "it" (interpreted with reference to a Symbolic absence, an Imaginary visualisation as attempt at creating meaning and the abject Real); and the film's use of the gaze as core motif. The gaze (interpreted as manifestation of the objet petit a) has a defamiliarising function both on a diegetic level and the level of the viewer watching the film. This allows the interpretation of the film as an illustration of the dynamics of ideology. Both the characters on the diegetic level and the viewer are confronted by the gaze, which immediately induces attempts to create a fantasy in order to make sense. In conclusion fantasy and ideology are presented as conjoined activities which are only visible through being made unfamiliar - this being the very thrust of Žižekian film theory. <![CDATA[<b>Reconciliation between learners: Are parallel-medium schools the answer to the problem of racism?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512017000300008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Die Suid-Afrikaanse Grondwet stel dit duidelik dat enige vorm van diskriminasie nie toegelaat mag word nie. In ons skole beteken dit dat elke leerder ʼn reg het op goeie opvoeding en ʼn veilige skoolomgewing. Die fokus van hierdie navorsing is gerig op bestaande parallelmediumskole. Die uiteindelike vraagstuk is dus hoe multikulturele onderwys bevorder word en hoe rassisme aangespreek kan word? As teoretiese raamwerk is Kohlsberg se kognitiewe ontwikkelingsbenadering en Whitehouse se univerele waarderaamwerkbenadering gebruik om die navorsing te anker. As derde raamwerk beskou die skrywers egter Gandhi se moraliteitsfilosofie as ʼn perfekte eksponent van die strewe na versoening aan die hand van moraliteit as'n teenvoeter vir rassisme en ook as 'n voorwaarde vir nasiebou. Het Gandhi se opvattinge enigsins waarde vir die opvoeding en onderrig van leerders in Suid-Afrika en kan dit moontlik gebruik word om rassisme in skole aan te spreek? Hierdie vrae is met behulp van ʼn kwalitatiewe dokumentanalise beantwoord. Die bevindinge toon dat drie beginsels van Gandhi se moraliteitsfilosofie 'n voorvereiste is vir die bekamping van rassisme in parallelmediumskole. Die aanbeveling is dat alle aspekte van die onderwys gerig moet wees op die verowering van moreel-verantwoordbare selfverwesenliking.<hr/>The South African Constitution explicitly prohibits unfair discrimination on the grounds of race or sex. In our schools, this means that every learner in the country has a right to good education, a safe school environment and access to information, irrespective of his or her skin colour or sex. Mother tongue education in 11 official languages has proved to be a challenging matter. A possible solution to this challenge may be the introduction of only English and Afrikaans in parallel-medium schools, a possibility that should perhaps be investigated. One of the topical issues in our society is not so much realising equality by means of legislation (although the manner in which legislation attempts to achieve equality does indeed require further consideration), but rather how to overcome our various prejudices. For some of us, irrespective of race, the true meaning of equality remains something that eludes us (Kruger 2013). Will all schools become culturally and racially integrated? This is a question being raised by worried parents in South African schools since Prof Jonathan Jansen, former principal of the University of the Free State, suggested that English be made the primary medium of instruction in schools (Beeld 2 October 2013). According to Garner (2009) racism or racial discrimination refers to social, economic or political discrimination against a person (or group of persons) on the basis of cultural differences. It does not necessarily refer to hatred on the part of one race for another, but rather to exclusion from - or the refusal of - certain rights and privileges, as applied by the apartheid government for instance. Because of affirmative action, white people are often not appointed to available posts, even though they may be the best candidates. The number of single-medium Afrikaans schools in South Africa has dropped drastically since 1994. While parents previously resisted the idea of parallel-medium schools, they now display a positive attitude towards such schools. Jackson (2014:12) states that education in parallel-medium schools is successful, a point of view confirmed by a school principal in Limpopo. The potential success of parallel-medium school education can be measured by the community's conviction that a long-established Afrikaans-medium school has the right to retain Afrikaans as medium of instruction while making provision for learners from the community who prefer to be taught through the medium of English. This would, however, require excellent leadership (Jackson 2014:12). The aim of this article is to determine how schools can promote multicultural education and how to address racism by inspiring and teaching learners to be moral people. The theoretical framework on which this study was based are Kohlberg's theory of moral development (1963), Whitehouse's theory of universal values (1995) and mainly on Gandhi's theory of social morality (1946). Kohlberg's theory focuses on three levels of moral development namely, pre-conventional morality, conventional morality and post conventional morality (Maduane 1992:115-123). Whitehouse's theory of universal values promotes universal values that are valued by various cultural groups. According to Ghandi, morality is a very complex matter, especially because values linked to morality are not easily distinguished from a multitude of matters that are presented as values and that often contradict one another. He evolved his principles of morality education along the lines of three main themes, namely (1) morality as a decision of will, (2) the pursuit of spiritual cleanliness and (3) morality as a prerequisite for responsible self-actualisation (lyer 1973:65). Document research (also known as document analysis), which was used in this research, involves the systematic analysis and evaluation of documents that need to be interpreted to reveal their meaning with a view to gaining understanding and generating empirical knowledge from them (Corbin & Strauss 2008 in Joubert, Hartell & Lombard 2016). The researchers approached this study from an interpretivist perspective as well. The leadership of school principals and teachers becomes manifest in their attitudes towards all cultural groups and the way in which they realise those attitudes in their personal lives. They ought to be moral-ethical examples for learners in multi-cultural schools. Without implying that Gandhi's points of view are unreservedly acceptable, one can say that he was an exceptionally good example of a moral-ethical leader. His leadership was characterised by submission to absolute, non-negotiable values. His values were based on respect for all cultures and on service. The authors remain convinced that parallel-medium schools can contribute towards solving the problem of racism. <![CDATA[<b>Teaching-learning factors contributing to student dropout in TVET Colleges</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512017000300009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In Suid-Afrika word TBOO-Kolleges deur diverse aspekte beïnvloed. Die toename in studentegetalle as gevolg van sosiale, politieke, demografiese sowel as ekonomiese veranderinge plaas druk op TBOO-Kolleges om ʼn beter deurvloeisyfer van studente te handhaaf om sodoende ʼn groter potensiële werkskorps aan die landsekonomie te lewer. In die loop van die afgelope twee dekades het ʼn geweldige toename in TBOO-studenteinskrywings voorgekom, en het beroepsonderwys ʼn "landskap van keuse" vir laer sosio-ekonomiese groepe geword aangesien dit ook aan hulle ʼn geleentheid bied om verder te studeer. Met hierdie toename in die studentetal, kan die volgende vrae met reg gestel word: a) Hoeveel van hierdie studente voltooi hul studies suksesvol? En b) wat kan moontlik aangedui word as onderrigleerfaktore wat tot studentetal-slytasie bydra? Om die doel van die studie te bereik, is besluit op ʼn kwalitatiewe gevallestudie. As deel van ʼn gevallestudie is die deelnemers nie in eksperimentele situasies waargeneem nie; semi-gestruktureerde onderhoude is binne die natuurlike omgewing van die deelnemers gevoer. Die navorsers het ook die ondersoek vanuit 'n interpretivistiese paradigma aangepak. Die gevolgtrekking kan gemaak word dat onderrigleerfaktore wat moontlik aanleiding kan gee tot ʼn afname in die studentetal nie ʼn enkele, geïsoleerde faktor is nie, maar wel ʼn groep samehangende en logies verbandhoudende faktore.<hr/>Technical and Vocational education and training in South Africa is influenced by a variety of factors. The increase in student numbers as a result of social, political, demographic as well as economic tendencies puts pressure on TVET Colleges to maintain a better throughput rate in order to deliver a larger potential workforce to the economy. Over the past two decades, enrolment at TVET Colleges has exploded, as vocational education has become a "sector of choice" for lower socio-economic ("under-represented" student) groups, since this will afford them an opportunity of furthering their studies. Taking into account this increase in student numbers, the following question may well be posed: How many of these students complete their studies successfully, and what can be regarded as teaching-learning factors possibly contributing to student dropout? Student dropout and the effects thereof are crucial in Higher Education, but more specifically in TVET Colleges. No single factor can guarantee academic success and/or throughput, since academic achievement depends on a combination of factors. Consequently, in the researchers' opinion, in order to limit student dropout it is essential to identify specific factors which may contribute to student dropout from TVET Colleges. Based on information available in the body of literature, and the lack of information directly related to the perceptions of students pertaining to potential factors contributing to student dropout, the problem statement and aims of this study are to investigate possible factors contributing to student dropout in a TVET College. In an attempt to solve this intellectual riddle while bearing in mind naturalistic generalisation, the researchers decided to perform a qualitative study. Participants were not observed in experimental situations, but semi-structured individual interviews were conducted within the natural environment of the participants, as part of a case study. The researchers approached the research from an interpretivistic paradigm, utilising non-probability as well as probability samples. The researchers presented an integrated interpretation of key findings, and concluded that factors possibly contributing to student dropout cannot be attributed to a single, isolated aspect only, but to a group of connected and logical factors. Considering teaching-learning factors which may influence student dropout with Level 2 Primary Agriculture students, college management, programme developers and lecturers should bear the following in mind: • the personality identity of students and lecturers; • the type of academic support which could be made available to students within and outside the classroom; • knowledge and skills of lecturers pertaining to subject content; • motivation for students to complete their studies, driven by a specific community, from within the family, and also from lecturers involved. <![CDATA[<b>The influence of gender, race and socio-economic status on visual-motor integration of nine- to 10-year old learners: The NW-CHILD study</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512017000300010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Visueel-motoriese integrasie, visuele persepsie en motoriese koördinasievaardighede toon ʼn sterk verwantskap met akademiese prestasie en sukses. Dié verwantskap lyk of dit leerders met ʼn lae sosio-ekonomiese status (SES), negatief beïnvloed. Die doel van dié studie was om die invloed van geslag, ras en sosio-ekonomiese status op visueel-motoriese integrasie van nege- tot 10-jarige leerders, woonagtig in die Noordwes Provinsie van Suid-Afrika, te bepaal. Leerders in Graad 3 en 4 (n=865; 457 seuns en 408 meisies, 9.9 jaar, sa=0.42), is as deel van die NW-CHILD longitudinale studie met die "The Developmental Tests of Visual-Motor Integration, Fourth Edition (VMI-4)" geëvalueer. Resultate is geanaliseer met "Statistica for Windows" (2014). Onafhanklike t-toetsing het die visueel-motoriese integrasie status vir die groep bepaal, asook per geslags-, ras en SES afsonderlik. Tweerigting frekwensietabelle het leerders in verskillende vaardigheidskategorieë vir visueel-motoriese integrasie, visuele persepsie en motoriese koördinasie geplaas. Resultate van dié studie toon dat leerders (onafhanklik van geslag, ras of SES) hoofsaaklik in die gemiddelde prestasie kategorie vir al drie vaardighede presteer het. Seuns het betekenisvol beter gevaar tydens visueel-motoriese integrasie (p≤0.001; d=0.22) met geen verdere betekenisvolle geslagsverskille nie. Ras het ʼn invloed gehad op visuele persepsie en motoriese koördinasie prestasie (p≤0.001; d=0.29 en p≤0.001; d=0.39), waar die wit leerders betekenisvol beter gevaar het. Lae SES het verder ook ʼn statistiese (p≤0.001) en klein prakties (d≥0.3) betekenisvol negatiewe invloed op al die vaardighede gehad. Die studie het bevind dat ras en lae SES die grootste negatiewe invloed op leerders se visueel-motoriese integrasie status uitgeoefen het.<hr/>Visual-motor integration, visual perception and motor coordination skills have strong relationships with academic development and are considered to be some of the basic building blocks for optimal academic success. Pienaar et al. (2013:7) also confirmed a strong relationship between visual-motor integration, visual perception and motor coordination skills and academic success in critical school performance areas, such as mathematics, reading and writing with regard to Grade 1-learners in South Africa. Results from this study also indicated a strong inverse relationship between low socio-economic status (SES), academic performance and visual-motor integration, visual perception and motor coordination skills. Various other studies also confirmed that low SES negatively influences the general and academic development of learners.¹ Worldwide an increase is reported in the number of learners growing up in low socio-economic circumstances.² With regard to the influence of gender on the relationship between visual-motor integration skills and academic performance, results in the literature are contradictory and range between very small to non-existing.³According to the literature few studies furthermore investigated the role of gender on visual perception and motor coordination skills independently. In this regard, the study of Coetzee and Du Plessis (2013:40) involving 816 Grade 1-learners (419 boys and 397 girls in the North West Province, South-Africa), reported no significant gender differences for visual-motor integration, visual perception or motor coordination skills. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence gender, race and socio-economic status has on visual-motor integration of nine- to 10-year old learners residing in the North West Province of South Africa. This study formed part of the longitudinal NW-CHILD (Child-Health-Integrated with Learning and Development) study, which included baseline and 2 follow-up measurement points over a period of 6 years. The data from only the first follow-up of learners (all Grades 3 and 4 (n=865; 457 boys and 408 girls, with a mean age of 9.9 years, SD=0.42), was used and evaluated with the The Developmental Tests of Visual-Motor Integration, Fourth Edition (VMI-4). Results were analysed by making use of Statistica for Windows (2014). Independent t-testing was used to determine the scope of the visual-motor integration deficiencies for the group, and also by gender, race and SES. Two-way frequency tables were used to place learners in various proficiency categories for visual-motor integration, visual perception and motor coordination. Strength of relationships was calculated using the phi-coefficient, with effect sizes set at w≥0.1 small, w≥0.5 medium and w≥0.3 large (Steyn 2002). Results of the current study indicated that learners (regardless of gender, race or SES) were mainly categorized in the average category for the visual-motor integration, visual perception and motor coordination skills. Gender differences were mainly precarious and insignificantly small. Boys only outperformed girls in visual-motor integration skills (p≤0.001 & d=0.22), with no further significant gender differences. Race impacted learners' visual perceptual skills, where white learners meaningfully outperform black learners. Uniform proficiency between white and black learners was found in the visual-motor integration and motor coordination subtests. The majority of learners tested in the average category (70% and more) for both the visual-motor integration and motor coordination subtests. Low SES clearly had a negative effect on particularly the visual perceptual performance of learners. The negative influence of low SES was also observed in the visual-motor integration and motor coordination subtests, but to a lesser extent. A possible explanation for this relationship is the fact that learners from high SES usually have more resources at their disposal, thereby contributing to better performance when compared to learners from low SES (Portela 2007:65; Uys & Pienaar 2010:131). Perception is an acquired skill and relies upon learning experiences and opportunities to further develop this skill. Insufficient stimulation at school and at home and insufficient learning opportunities are reported to contribute to perceptual deficiencies observed in learners from low SES. Haywood and Getchell (2009:276) and Venetsanou and Kambas (2010:319) also agree that learners from low SES are not optimally encouraged to develop the fine motor skills that are essential to academic performance and to successfully apply visual-motor integration, visual perception and motor coordination skills. The overall findings indicating average visual-motor integration proficiency are somewhat ambiguous, due to the meaningful influences of race and SES and to a lesser extent, gender, in the results. It is recommended that future studies include a bigger representation of significant other race groups living in South Africa such as Coloured and Indian learners and involve more of the provinces of South Africa, as this study only included learners from one of the nine provinces of this country, to produce more conclusive results for generalising. Language barriers might have influenced the results although translators were trained to translate during data collection. <![CDATA[<b>Redakteursnota</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512017000300011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Visueel-motoriese integrasie, visuele persepsie en motoriese koördinasievaardighede toon ʼn sterk verwantskap met akademiese prestasie en sukses. Dié verwantskap lyk of dit leerders met ʼn lae sosio-ekonomiese status (SES), negatief beïnvloed. Die doel van dié studie was om die invloed van geslag, ras en sosio-ekonomiese status op visueel-motoriese integrasie van nege- tot 10-jarige leerders, woonagtig in die Noordwes Provinsie van Suid-Afrika, te bepaal. Leerders in Graad 3 en 4 (n=865; 457 seuns en 408 meisies, 9.9 jaar, sa=0.42), is as deel van die NW-CHILD longitudinale studie met die "The Developmental Tests of Visual-Motor Integration, Fourth Edition (VMI-4)" geëvalueer. Resultate is geanaliseer met "Statistica for Windows" (2014). Onafhanklike t-toetsing het die visueel-motoriese integrasie status vir die groep bepaal, asook per geslags-, ras en SES afsonderlik. Tweerigting frekwensietabelle het leerders in verskillende vaardigheidskategorieë vir visueel-motoriese integrasie, visuele persepsie en motoriese koördinasie geplaas. Resultate van dié studie toon dat leerders (onafhanklik van geslag, ras of SES) hoofsaaklik in die gemiddelde prestasie kategorie vir al drie vaardighede presteer het. Seuns het betekenisvol beter gevaar tydens visueel-motoriese integrasie (p≤0.001; d=0.22) met geen verdere betekenisvolle geslagsverskille nie. Ras het ʼn invloed gehad op visuele persepsie en motoriese koördinasie prestasie (p≤0.001; d=0.29 en p≤0.001; d=0.39), waar die wit leerders betekenisvol beter gevaar het. Lae SES het verder ook ʼn statistiese (p≤0.001) en klein prakties (d≥0.3) betekenisvol negatiewe invloed op al die vaardighede gehad. Die studie het bevind dat ras en lae SES die grootste negatiewe invloed op leerders se visueel-motoriese integrasie status uitgeoefen het.<hr/>Visual-motor integration, visual perception and motor coordination skills have strong relationships with academic development and are considered to be some of the basic building blocks for optimal academic success. Pienaar et al. (2013:7) also confirmed a strong relationship between visual-motor integration, visual perception and motor coordination skills and academic success in critical school performance areas, such as mathematics, reading and writing with regard to Grade 1-learners in South Africa. Results from this study also indicated a strong inverse relationship between low socio-economic status (SES), academic performance and visual-motor integration, visual perception and motor coordination skills. Various other studies also confirmed that low SES negatively influences the general and academic development of learners.¹ Worldwide an increase is reported in the number of learners growing up in low socio-economic circumstances.² With regard to the influence of gender on the relationship between visual-motor integration skills and academic performance, results in the literature are contradictory and range between very small to non-existing.³According to the literature few studies furthermore investigated the role of gender on visual perception and motor coordination skills independently. In this regard, the study of Coetzee and Du Plessis (2013:40) involving 816 Grade 1-learners (419 boys and 397 girls in the North West Province, South-Africa), reported no significant gender differences for visual-motor integration, visual perception or motor coordination skills. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence gender, race and socio-economic status has on visual-motor integration of nine- to 10-year old learners residing in the North West Province of South Africa. This study formed part of the longitudinal NW-CHILD (Child-Health-Integrated with Learning and Development) study, which included baseline and 2 follow-up measurement points over a period of 6 years. The data from only the first follow-up of learners (all Grades 3 and 4 (n=865; 457 boys and 408 girls, with a mean age of 9.9 years, SD=0.42), was used and evaluated with the The Developmental Tests of Visual-Motor Integration, Fourth Edition (VMI-4). Results were analysed by making use of Statistica for Windows (2014). Independent t-testing was used to determine the scope of the visual-motor integration deficiencies for the group, and also by gender, race and SES. Two-way frequency tables were used to place learners in various proficiency categories for visual-motor integration, visual perception and motor coordination. Strength of relationships was calculated using the phi-coefficient, with effect sizes set at w≥0.1 small, w≥0.5 medium and w≥0.3 large (Steyn 2002). Results of the current study indicated that learners (regardless of gender, race or SES) were mainly categorized in the average category for the visual-motor integration, visual perception and motor coordination skills. Gender differences were mainly precarious and insignificantly small. Boys only outperformed girls in visual-motor integration skills (p≤0.001 & d=0.22), with no further significant gender differences. Race impacted learners' visual perceptual skills, where white learners meaningfully outperform black learners. Uniform proficiency between white and black learners was found in the visual-motor integration and motor coordination subtests. The majority of learners tested in the average category (70% and more) for both the visual-motor integration and motor coordination subtests. Low SES clearly had a negative effect on particularly the visual perceptual performance of learners. The negative influence of low SES was also observed in the visual-motor integration and motor coordination subtests, but to a lesser extent. A possible explanation for this relationship is the fact that learners from high SES usually have more resources at their disposal, thereby contributing to better performance when compared to learners from low SES (Portela 2007:65; Uys & Pienaar 2010:131). Perception is an acquired skill and relies upon learning experiences and opportunities to further develop this skill. Insufficient stimulation at school and at home and insufficient learning opportunities are reported to contribute to perceptual deficiencies observed in learners from low SES. Haywood and Getchell (2009:276) and Venetsanou and Kambas (2010:319) also agree that learners from low SES are not optimally encouraged to develop the fine motor skills that are essential to academic performance and to successfully apply visual-motor integration, visual perception and motor coordination skills. The overall findings indicating average visual-motor integration proficiency are somewhat ambiguous, due to the meaningful influences of race and SES and to a lesser extent, gender, in the results. It is recommended that future studies include a bigger representation of significant other race groups living in South Africa such as Coloured and Indian learners and involve more of the provinces of South Africa, as this study only included learners from one of the nine provinces of this country, to produce more conclusive results for generalising. Language barriers might have influenced the results although translators were trained to translate during data collection. <![CDATA[<b>Reflecting on state and society</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512017000300012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In die klassieke oudheid en gedurende die middeleeuse era was die politieke lewe in koninkryke en ryke georganiseer waar die heerser (koning of keiser) nog nie gesien is as iemand wat 'n publiekregtelike amp beklee nie. Nogtans is nadenke oor staat en samelewing deurlopend deur twee teoretiese sienings gedomineer, naamlik 'n atomistiese (individualistiese) en 'n holistiese (universalistiese) benadering. Hierdie oriënterings het in die weg gestaan van 'n behoorlike begrip van die verhouding tussen staat en samelewing. In sy bydrae tot die diskussie oor staat en samelewing wat in die Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe gepubliseer is, verduidelik Goosen (2016a) dat ons nie kan terugkeer tot die Griekse polis (stadstaat) nie maar dat dit ons kan herinner aan die grense van die staat. Die diepste motivering van die Griekse filosofie, gegee in die dialektiese grondmotief van materie en vorm, is kortliks verduidelik met verwysing na die wyse waarop die polis gerig is op die vorming van sy burgers in alle samelewingsfere. Wat vreemd is aan die Griekse kultuur is die erkenning van die soewereiniteit-in-eie-kring van uiteenlopende samelewingsvorme. Eers veel later sou die Calvinistiese regsgeleerde, Johannes Althusius, al was dit nie heeltemal konsewent nie, besef dat samelewingsvorme soos kerke en huwelike nie egte dele van die staat vorm nie, aangesien slegs provinsies en munisipaliteite ware dele van die staat is. Hierdie kwessies word lewendig gehou in die denke van Goosen en Malan. Aandag word aan die bydrae van Goosen tot die diskussie gegee, maar ongelukkig blyk dit dat die besware wat hy geopper het nie steekhoudend is nie. Dit word saaklilk toegelig deur te let op Goosen se opmerkings rakende die invloed van ander denkers op Dooyeweerd, waar dit in werklikheid Dooyeweerd self was wat dit in die kensketsing van die ontwikkelingsgang van sy denke vermeld het, naamlik dat hy "was strongly under the influence first of the Neo- Kantian philosophy, later on of Husserl's phenomenology." Goosen toon geen besef van die feit dat ek waarskynlik die persoon is wat die ernstigste kritiek op sleutel-aspekte van Dooyeweerd se transendentale kritiek, sy epistemologie en sy teorie van die Gegenstand-relasie uitgeoefen het nie. Hy besef ook nie dat Dooyeweerd se kritiese ontleding van die moderne filosofie in die eerste plek as self-kritiek bedoel is nie. Die tekortkominge in Goosen se beroep op die hermeneutiek word vervolgens verduidelik alvorens aandag gegee word aan die relasie tussen Goosen, Dooyeweerd en Thomas Aquinas. Daar word aangetoon dat Goosen nie sy aanspraak kon substansieer dat Dooyeweerd sy (sogenaamde neo-Thomistiese) interpretasie van Thomas se denke tot dié standaardsiening verhef het nie. 'n Resente proefskrif wat by die Radboud (Katolieke) Universiteit in Nijmegen voltooi is, bevestig die waarde van Dooyeweerd se kritiek op die Thomistiese substansiebegrip. Goosen maak hom ook skuldig aan 'n totale misverstaan van insigte wat deur Münch, Rawls en Habermas ontwikkel is en positief deur my waardeer is omdat dit na aan die beginsel van soewereiniteit-in-eie-kring is. Wat Goosen nie in my benadering opgemerk het nie, is dat ek die gelyktydige aanwesigheid van beide atomistiese en holistiese elemente in the denke van Rawls uitgewys het. Hierdie kwessies sal verder ontleed word in onafhanklike navorsingsartikels toegespits op die wysgerige voorveronderstellinge wat in nadenke oor staat en samelewing teenwoordig is.<hr/>In classical antiquity and during the medieval era political life was organized in kingdoms or empires in which the ruler (monarch or emperor) was not yet appreciated as occupying a public-legal office. But throughout the history of reflection on state and society two theoretical orientations dominated the scene, namely atomism (individualism) and holism (universalism). These approaches hampered a proper understanding of the relationship between state and society. In his contribution to the discussion of state and society published by the Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe, Goosen (2016a) explains that we cannot return to the Greek polis (city state) but that it can remind us of the limits of the state. The ultimate motivation of Greek philosophy, given in the dialectical basic motive of matter and form, is briefly explained with reference to the way in which the polis intended the cultural formation of a person in all areas of life. What is foreign to Greek culture is the acknowledgment of the sphere-sovereignty of diverse societal entities. It was only much later that the Calvinist legal scholar, Johannes Althusius, though inconsistently, realized that societal institutions such as churches and marriages are not integral parts of the state for only provinces and municipalities are true parts of the state. These issues are kept alive in the thought of Goosen and Malan. The contribution of Goosen to the discussion receives attention, unfortunately showing that the crucial objections raised by him are misdirected. This is illustrated by briefly looking at Goosen's remark regarding the alleged influence of other philosophers on the thought of Dooyeweerd, while in fact it was Dooyeweerd himself who explained his own intellectual development by stating that he "was strongly under the influence first of the Neo- Kantian philosophy, later on of Husserl's phenomenology." Goosen does not show an awareness of the fact that I am perhaps the one who has exercised the most severe criticism on crucial aspects of Dooyeweerd's transcendental critique, epistemology and theory of the Gegenstand-relation. He also does not realize that Dooyeweerd's critical analysis of modern philosophy is in the first place meant as self-criticism. The shortcomings in Goosen's appeal to hermeunetics are then articulated before attention is given to the relation between Goosen, Dooyeweerd and Thomas Aquinas. It is shown that Goosen did not substantiate his claim that Dooyeweerd elevated his (alleged neo-Thomistic) understanding of Thomas Aquinas to be the standard interpretation contributed by him. A recent dissertation completed at the Radboud (Catholic) University in Nijmegen still affirms the value of Dooyeweerd's critique of the Thomistic substance concept. Goosen also totally misunderstood insights advanced by Münch, Rawls and Habermas which I appreciated positively because they approximate the idea of sphere-sovereignty. What is not noticed by Goosen is my statement about the simultaneous presence of both atomistic and holistic elements present in the thought of Rawls. These issues will be further explored in independent research articles, dedicated to the philosophical presuppositions present in reflecting on state and society. <![CDATA[<b>Die Herero-opstand 1904-1907</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512017000300013&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In die klassieke oudheid en gedurende die middeleeuse era was die politieke lewe in koninkryke en ryke georganiseer waar die heerser (koning of keiser) nog nie gesien is as iemand wat 'n publiekregtelike amp beklee nie. Nogtans is nadenke oor staat en samelewing deurlopend deur twee teoretiese sienings gedomineer, naamlik 'n atomistiese (individualistiese) en 'n holistiese (universalistiese) benadering. Hierdie oriënterings het in die weg gestaan van 'n behoorlike begrip van die verhouding tussen staat en samelewing. In sy bydrae tot die diskussie oor staat en samelewing wat in die Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe gepubliseer is, verduidelik Goosen (2016a) dat ons nie kan terugkeer tot die Griekse polis (stadstaat) nie maar dat dit ons kan herinner aan die grense van die staat. Die diepste motivering van die Griekse filosofie, gegee in die dialektiese grondmotief van materie en vorm, is kortliks verduidelik met verwysing na die wyse waarop die polis gerig is op die vorming van sy burgers in alle samelewingsfere. Wat vreemd is aan die Griekse kultuur is die erkenning van die soewereiniteit-in-eie-kring van uiteenlopende samelewingsvorme. Eers veel later sou die Calvinistiese regsgeleerde, Johannes Althusius, al was dit nie heeltemal konsewent nie, besef dat samelewingsvorme soos kerke en huwelike nie egte dele van die staat vorm nie, aangesien slegs provinsies en munisipaliteite ware dele van die staat is. Hierdie kwessies word lewendig gehou in die denke van Goosen en Malan. Aandag word aan die bydrae van Goosen tot die diskussie gegee, maar ongelukkig blyk dit dat die besware wat hy geopper het nie steekhoudend is nie. Dit word saaklilk toegelig deur te let op Goosen se opmerkings rakende die invloed van ander denkers op Dooyeweerd, waar dit in werklikheid Dooyeweerd self was wat dit in die kensketsing van die ontwikkelingsgang van sy denke vermeld het, naamlik dat hy "was strongly under the influence first of the Neo- Kantian philosophy, later on of Husserl's phenomenology." Goosen toon geen besef van die feit dat ek waarskynlik die persoon is wat die ernstigste kritiek op sleutel-aspekte van Dooyeweerd se transendentale kritiek, sy epistemologie en sy teorie van die Gegenstand-relasie uitgeoefen het nie. Hy besef ook nie dat Dooyeweerd se kritiese ontleding van die moderne filosofie in die eerste plek as self-kritiek bedoel is nie. Die tekortkominge in Goosen se beroep op die hermeneutiek word vervolgens verduidelik alvorens aandag gegee word aan die relasie tussen Goosen, Dooyeweerd en Thomas Aquinas. Daar word aangetoon dat Goosen nie sy aanspraak kon substansieer dat Dooyeweerd sy (sogenaamde neo-Thomistiese) interpretasie van Thomas se denke tot dié standaardsiening verhef het nie. 'n Resente proefskrif wat by die Radboud (Katolieke) Universiteit in Nijmegen voltooi is, bevestig die waarde van Dooyeweerd se kritiek op die Thomistiese substansiebegrip. Goosen maak hom ook skuldig aan 'n totale misverstaan van insigte wat deur Münch, Rawls en Habermas ontwikkel is en positief deur my waardeer is omdat dit na aan die beginsel van soewereiniteit-in-eie-kring is. Wat Goosen nie in my benadering opgemerk het nie, is dat ek die gelyktydige aanwesigheid van beide atomistiese en holistiese elemente in the denke van Rawls uitgewys het. Hierdie kwessies sal verder ontleed word in onafhanklike navorsingsartikels toegespits op die wysgerige voorveronderstellinge wat in nadenke oor staat en samelewing teenwoordig is.<hr/>In classical antiquity and during the medieval era political life was organized in kingdoms or empires in which the ruler (monarch or emperor) was not yet appreciated as occupying a public-legal office. But throughout the history of reflection on state and society two theoretical orientations dominated the scene, namely atomism (individualism) and holism (universalism). These approaches hampered a proper understanding of the relationship between state and society. In his contribution to the discussion of state and society published by the Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe, Goosen (2016a) explains that we cannot return to the Greek polis (city state) but that it can remind us of the limits of the state. The ultimate motivation of Greek philosophy, given in the dialectical basic motive of matter and form, is briefly explained with reference to the way in which the polis intended the cultural formation of a person in all areas of life. What is foreign to Greek culture is the acknowledgment of the sphere-sovereignty of diverse societal entities. It was only much later that the Calvinist legal scholar, Johannes Althusius, though inconsistently, realized that societal institutions such as churches and marriages are not integral parts of the state for only provinces and municipalities are true parts of the state. These issues are kept alive in the thought of Goosen and Malan. The contribution of Goosen to the discussion receives attention, unfortunately showing that the crucial objections raised by him are misdirected. This is illustrated by briefly looking at Goosen's remark regarding the alleged influence of other philosophers on the thought of Dooyeweerd, while in fact it was Dooyeweerd himself who explained his own intellectual development by stating that he "was strongly under the influence first of the Neo- Kantian philosophy, later on of Husserl's phenomenology." Goosen does not show an awareness of the fact that I am perhaps the one who has exercised the most severe criticism on crucial aspects of Dooyeweerd's transcendental critique, epistemology and theory of the Gegenstand-relation. He also does not realize that Dooyeweerd's critical analysis of modern philosophy is in the first place meant as self-criticism. The shortcomings in Goosen's appeal to hermeunetics are then articulated before attention is given to the relation between Goosen, Dooyeweerd and Thomas Aquinas. It is shown that Goosen did not substantiate his claim that Dooyeweerd elevated his (alleged neo-Thomistic) understanding of Thomas Aquinas to be the standard interpretation contributed by him. A recent dissertation completed at the Radboud (Catholic) University in Nijmegen still affirms the value of Dooyeweerd's critique of the Thomistic substance concept. Goosen also totally misunderstood insights advanced by Münch, Rawls and Habermas which I appreciated positively because they approximate the idea of sphere-sovereignty. What is not noticed by Goosen is my statement about the simultaneous presence of both atomistic and holistic elements present in the thought of Rawls. These issues will be further explored in independent research articles, dedicated to the philosophical presuppositions present in reflecting on state and society. <![CDATA[<b>Die spook wat boomgeklim en die lig gevind het: 'n Memoire met herinneringe uit die binnekring van Suid-Afrika se vreedsame revolusie na demokrasie</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512017000300014&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In die klassieke oudheid en gedurende die middeleeuse era was die politieke lewe in koninkryke en ryke georganiseer waar die heerser (koning of keiser) nog nie gesien is as iemand wat 'n publiekregtelike amp beklee nie. Nogtans is nadenke oor staat en samelewing deurlopend deur twee teoretiese sienings gedomineer, naamlik 'n atomistiese (individualistiese) en 'n holistiese (universalistiese) benadering. Hierdie oriënterings het in die weg gestaan van 'n behoorlike begrip van die verhouding tussen staat en samelewing. In sy bydrae tot die diskussie oor staat en samelewing wat in die Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe gepubliseer is, verduidelik Goosen (2016a) dat ons nie kan terugkeer tot die Griekse polis (stadstaat) nie maar dat dit ons kan herinner aan die grense van die staat. Die diepste motivering van die Griekse filosofie, gegee in die dialektiese grondmotief van materie en vorm, is kortliks verduidelik met verwysing na die wyse waarop die polis gerig is op die vorming van sy burgers in alle samelewingsfere. Wat vreemd is aan die Griekse kultuur is die erkenning van die soewereiniteit-in-eie-kring van uiteenlopende samelewingsvorme. Eers veel later sou die Calvinistiese regsgeleerde, Johannes Althusius, al was dit nie heeltemal konsewent nie, besef dat samelewingsvorme soos kerke en huwelike nie egte dele van die staat vorm nie, aangesien slegs provinsies en munisipaliteite ware dele van die staat is. Hierdie kwessies word lewendig gehou in die denke van Goosen en Malan. Aandag word aan die bydrae van Goosen tot die diskussie gegee, maar ongelukkig blyk dit dat die besware wat hy geopper het nie steekhoudend is nie. Dit word saaklilk toegelig deur te let op Goosen se opmerkings rakende die invloed van ander denkers op Dooyeweerd, waar dit in werklikheid Dooyeweerd self was wat dit in die kensketsing van die ontwikkelingsgang van sy denke vermeld het, naamlik dat hy "was strongly under the influence first of the Neo- Kantian philosophy, later on of Husserl's phenomenology." Goosen toon geen besef van die feit dat ek waarskynlik die persoon is wat die ernstigste kritiek op sleutel-aspekte van Dooyeweerd se transendentale kritiek, sy epistemologie en sy teorie van die Gegenstand-relasie uitgeoefen het nie. Hy besef ook nie dat Dooyeweerd se kritiese ontleding van die moderne filosofie in die eerste plek as self-kritiek bedoel is nie. Die tekortkominge in Goosen se beroep op die hermeneutiek word vervolgens verduidelik alvorens aandag gegee word aan die relasie tussen Goosen, Dooyeweerd en Thomas Aquinas. Daar word aangetoon dat Goosen nie sy aanspraak kon substansieer dat Dooyeweerd sy (sogenaamde neo-Thomistiese) interpretasie van Thomas se denke tot dié standaardsiening verhef het nie. 'n Resente proefskrif wat by die Radboud (Katolieke) Universiteit in Nijmegen voltooi is, bevestig die waarde van Dooyeweerd se kritiek op die Thomistiese substansiebegrip. Goosen maak hom ook skuldig aan 'n totale misverstaan van insigte wat deur Münch, Rawls en Habermas ontwikkel is en positief deur my waardeer is omdat dit na aan die beginsel van soewereiniteit-in-eie-kring is. Wat Goosen nie in my benadering opgemerk het nie, is dat ek die gelyktydige aanwesigheid van beide atomistiese en holistiese elemente in the denke van Rawls uitgewys het. Hierdie kwessies sal verder ontleed word in onafhanklike navorsingsartikels toegespits op die wysgerige voorveronderstellinge wat in nadenke oor staat en samelewing teenwoordig is.<hr/>In classical antiquity and during the medieval era political life was organized in kingdoms or empires in which the ruler (monarch or emperor) was not yet appreciated as occupying a public-legal office. But throughout the history of reflection on state and society two theoretical orientations dominated the scene, namely atomism (individualism) and holism (universalism). These approaches hampered a proper understanding of the relationship between state and society. In his contribution to the discussion of state and society published by the Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe, Goosen (2016a) explains that we cannot return to the Greek polis (city state) but that it can remind us of the limits of the state. The ultimate motivation of Greek philosophy, given in the dialectical basic motive of matter and form, is briefly explained with reference to the way in which the polis intended the cultural formation of a person in all areas of life. What is foreign to Greek culture is the acknowledgment of the sphere-sovereignty of diverse societal entities. It was only much later that the Calvinist legal scholar, Johannes Althusius, though inconsistently, realized that societal institutions such as churches and marriages are not integral parts of the state for only provinces and municipalities are true parts of the state. These issues are kept alive in the thought of Goosen and Malan. The contribution of Goosen to the discussion receives attention, unfortunately showing that the crucial objections raised by him are misdirected. This is illustrated by briefly looking at Goosen's remark regarding the alleged influence of other philosophers on the thought of Dooyeweerd, while in fact it was Dooyeweerd himself who explained his own intellectual development by stating that he "was strongly under the influence first of the Neo- Kantian philosophy, later on of Husserl's phenomenology." Goosen does not show an awareness of the fact that I am perhaps the one who has exercised the most severe criticism on crucial aspects of Dooyeweerd's transcendental critique, epistemology and theory of the Gegenstand-relation. He also does not realize that Dooyeweerd's critical analysis of modern philosophy is in the first place meant as self-criticism. The shortcomings in Goosen's appeal to hermeunetics are then articulated before attention is given to the relation between Goosen, Dooyeweerd and Thomas Aquinas. It is shown that Goosen did not substantiate his claim that Dooyeweerd elevated his (alleged neo-Thomistic) understanding of Thomas Aquinas to be the standard interpretation contributed by him. A recent dissertation completed at the Radboud (Catholic) University in Nijmegen still affirms the value of Dooyeweerd's critique of the Thomistic substance concept. Goosen also totally misunderstood insights advanced by Münch, Rawls and Habermas which I appreciated positively because they approximate the idea of sphere-sovereignty. What is not noticed by Goosen is my statement about the simultaneous presence of both atomistic and holistic elements present in the thought of Rawls. These issues will be further explored in independent research articles, dedicated to the philosophical presuppositions present in reflecting on state and society. <![CDATA[<b>Oor die skryfwyse van Afrikaans III</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512017000300015&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In die klassieke oudheid en gedurende die middeleeuse era was die politieke lewe in koninkryke en ryke georganiseer waar die heerser (koning of keiser) nog nie gesien is as iemand wat 'n publiekregtelike amp beklee nie. Nogtans is nadenke oor staat en samelewing deurlopend deur twee teoretiese sienings gedomineer, naamlik 'n atomistiese (individualistiese) en 'n holistiese (universalistiese) benadering. Hierdie oriënterings het in die weg gestaan van 'n behoorlike begrip van die verhouding tussen staat en samelewing. In sy bydrae tot die diskussie oor staat en samelewing wat in die Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe gepubliseer is, verduidelik Goosen (2016a) dat ons nie kan terugkeer tot die Griekse polis (stadstaat) nie maar dat dit ons kan herinner aan die grense van die staat. Die diepste motivering van die Griekse filosofie, gegee in die dialektiese grondmotief van materie en vorm, is kortliks verduidelik met verwysing na die wyse waarop die polis gerig is op die vorming van sy burgers in alle samelewingsfere. Wat vreemd is aan die Griekse kultuur is die erkenning van die soewereiniteit-in-eie-kring van uiteenlopende samelewingsvorme. Eers veel later sou die Calvinistiese regsgeleerde, Johannes Althusius, al was dit nie heeltemal konsewent nie, besef dat samelewingsvorme soos kerke en huwelike nie egte dele van die staat vorm nie, aangesien slegs provinsies en munisipaliteite ware dele van die staat is. Hierdie kwessies word lewendig gehou in die denke van Goosen en Malan. Aandag word aan die bydrae van Goosen tot die diskussie gegee, maar ongelukkig blyk dit dat die besware wat hy geopper het nie steekhoudend is nie. Dit word saaklilk toegelig deur te let op Goosen se opmerkings rakende die invloed van ander denkers op Dooyeweerd, waar dit in werklikheid Dooyeweerd self was wat dit in die kensketsing van die ontwikkelingsgang van sy denke vermeld het, naamlik dat hy "was strongly under the influence first of the Neo- Kantian philosophy, later on of Husserl's phenomenology." Goosen toon geen besef van die feit dat ek waarskynlik die persoon is wat die ernstigste kritiek op sleutel-aspekte van Dooyeweerd se transendentale kritiek, sy epistemologie en sy teorie van die Gegenstand-relasie uitgeoefen het nie. Hy besef ook nie dat Dooyeweerd se kritiese ontleding van die moderne filosofie in die eerste plek as self-kritiek bedoel is nie. Die tekortkominge in Goosen se beroep op die hermeneutiek word vervolgens verduidelik alvorens aandag gegee word aan die relasie tussen Goosen, Dooyeweerd en Thomas Aquinas. Daar word aangetoon dat Goosen nie sy aanspraak kon substansieer dat Dooyeweerd sy (sogenaamde neo-Thomistiese) interpretasie van Thomas se denke tot dié standaardsiening verhef het nie. 'n Resente proefskrif wat by die Radboud (Katolieke) Universiteit in Nijmegen voltooi is, bevestig die waarde van Dooyeweerd se kritiek op die Thomistiese substansiebegrip. Goosen maak hom ook skuldig aan 'n totale misverstaan van insigte wat deur Münch, Rawls en Habermas ontwikkel is en positief deur my waardeer is omdat dit na aan die beginsel van soewereiniteit-in-eie-kring is. Wat Goosen nie in my benadering opgemerk het nie, is dat ek die gelyktydige aanwesigheid van beide atomistiese en holistiese elemente in the denke van Rawls uitgewys het. Hierdie kwessies sal verder ontleed word in onafhanklike navorsingsartikels toegespits op die wysgerige voorveronderstellinge wat in nadenke oor staat en samelewing teenwoordig is.<hr/>In classical antiquity and during the medieval era political life was organized in kingdoms or empires in which the ruler (monarch or emperor) was not yet appreciated as occupying a public-legal office. But throughout the history of reflection on state and society two theoretical orientations dominated the scene, namely atomism (individualism) and holism (universalism). These approaches hampered a proper understanding of the relationship between state and society. In his contribution to the discussion of state and society published by the Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe, Goosen (2016a) explains that we cannot return to the Greek polis (city state) but that it can remind us of the limits of the state. The ultimate motivation of Greek philosophy, given in the dialectical basic motive of matter and form, is briefly explained with reference to the way in which the polis intended the cultural formation of a person in all areas of life. What is foreign to Greek culture is the acknowledgment of the sphere-sovereignty of diverse societal entities. It was only much later that the Calvinist legal scholar, Johannes Althusius, though inconsistently, realized that societal institutions such as churches and marriages are not integral parts of the state for only provinces and municipalities are true parts of the state. These issues are kept alive in the thought of Goosen and Malan. The contribution of Goosen to the discussion receives attention, unfortunately showing that the crucial objections raised by him are misdirected. This is illustrated by briefly looking at Goosen's remark regarding the alleged influence of other philosophers on the thought of Dooyeweerd, while in fact it was Dooyeweerd himself who explained his own intellectual development by stating that he "was strongly under the influence first of the Neo- Kantian philosophy, later on of Husserl's phenomenology." Goosen does not show an awareness of the fact that I am perhaps the one who has exercised the most severe criticism on crucial aspects of Dooyeweerd's transcendental critique, epistemology and theory of the Gegenstand-relation. He also does not realize that Dooyeweerd's critical analysis of modern philosophy is in the first place meant as self-criticism. The shortcomings in Goosen's appeal to hermeunetics are then articulated before attention is given to the relation between Goosen, Dooyeweerd and Thomas Aquinas. It is shown that Goosen did not substantiate his claim that Dooyeweerd elevated his (alleged neo-Thomistic) understanding of Thomas Aquinas to be the standard interpretation contributed by him. A recent dissertation completed at the Radboud (Catholic) University in Nijmegen still affirms the value of Dooyeweerd's critique of the Thomistic substance concept. Goosen also totally misunderstood insights advanced by Münch, Rawls and Habermas which I appreciated positively because they approximate the idea of sphere-sovereignty. What is not noticed by Goosen is my statement about the simultaneous presence of both atomistic and holistic elements present in the thought of Rawls. These issues will be further explored in independent research articles, dedicated to the philosophical presuppositions present in reflecting on state and society. <![CDATA[<b>Huldigingsbundels</b><b>: </b><b>Afrikaanse skrywers/digters/dramaturge</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512017000300016&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In die klassieke oudheid en gedurende die middeleeuse era was die politieke lewe in koninkryke en ryke georganiseer waar die heerser (koning of keiser) nog nie gesien is as iemand wat 'n publiekregtelike amp beklee nie. Nogtans is nadenke oor staat en samelewing deurlopend deur twee teoretiese sienings gedomineer, naamlik 'n atomistiese (individualistiese) en 'n holistiese (universalistiese) benadering. Hierdie oriënterings het in die weg gestaan van 'n behoorlike begrip van die verhouding tussen staat en samelewing. In sy bydrae tot die diskussie oor staat en samelewing wat in die Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe gepubliseer is, verduidelik Goosen (2016a) dat ons nie kan terugkeer tot die Griekse polis (stadstaat) nie maar dat dit ons kan herinner aan die grense van die staat. Die diepste motivering van die Griekse filosofie, gegee in die dialektiese grondmotief van materie en vorm, is kortliks verduidelik met verwysing na die wyse waarop die polis gerig is op die vorming van sy burgers in alle samelewingsfere. Wat vreemd is aan die Griekse kultuur is die erkenning van die soewereiniteit-in-eie-kring van uiteenlopende samelewingsvorme. Eers veel later sou die Calvinistiese regsgeleerde, Johannes Althusius, al was dit nie heeltemal konsewent nie, besef dat samelewingsvorme soos kerke en huwelike nie egte dele van die staat vorm nie, aangesien slegs provinsies en munisipaliteite ware dele van die staat is. Hierdie kwessies word lewendig gehou in die denke van Goosen en Malan. Aandag word aan die bydrae van Goosen tot die diskussie gegee, maar ongelukkig blyk dit dat die besware wat hy geopper het nie steekhoudend is nie. Dit word saaklilk toegelig deur te let op Goosen se opmerkings rakende die invloed van ander denkers op Dooyeweerd, waar dit in werklikheid Dooyeweerd self was wat dit in die kensketsing van die ontwikkelingsgang van sy denke vermeld het, naamlik dat hy "was strongly under the influence first of the Neo- Kantian philosophy, later on of Husserl's phenomenology." Goosen toon geen besef van die feit dat ek waarskynlik die persoon is wat die ernstigste kritiek op sleutel-aspekte van Dooyeweerd se transendentale kritiek, sy epistemologie en sy teorie van die Gegenstand-relasie uitgeoefen het nie. Hy besef ook nie dat Dooyeweerd se kritiese ontleding van die moderne filosofie in die eerste plek as self-kritiek bedoel is nie. Die tekortkominge in Goosen se beroep op die hermeneutiek word vervolgens verduidelik alvorens aandag gegee word aan die relasie tussen Goosen, Dooyeweerd en Thomas Aquinas. Daar word aangetoon dat Goosen nie sy aanspraak kon substansieer dat Dooyeweerd sy (sogenaamde neo-Thomistiese) interpretasie van Thomas se denke tot dié standaardsiening verhef het nie. 'n Resente proefskrif wat by die Radboud (Katolieke) Universiteit in Nijmegen voltooi is, bevestig die waarde van Dooyeweerd se kritiek op die Thomistiese substansiebegrip. Goosen maak hom ook skuldig aan 'n totale misverstaan van insigte wat deur Münch, Rawls en Habermas ontwikkel is en positief deur my waardeer is omdat dit na aan die beginsel van soewereiniteit-in-eie-kring is. Wat Goosen nie in my benadering opgemerk het nie, is dat ek die gelyktydige aanwesigheid van beide atomistiese en holistiese elemente in the denke van Rawls uitgewys het. Hierdie kwessies sal verder ontleed word in onafhanklike navorsingsartikels toegespits op die wysgerige voorveronderstellinge wat in nadenke oor staat en samelewing teenwoordig is.<hr/>In classical antiquity and during the medieval era political life was organized in kingdoms or empires in which the ruler (monarch or emperor) was not yet appreciated as occupying a public-legal office. But throughout the history of reflection on state and society two theoretical orientations dominated the scene, namely atomism (individualism) and holism (universalism). These approaches hampered a proper understanding of the relationship between state and society. In his contribution to the discussion of state and society published by the Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe, Goosen (2016a) explains that we cannot return to the Greek polis (city state) but that it can remind us of the limits of the state. The ultimate motivation of Greek philosophy, given in the dialectical basic motive of matter and form, is briefly explained with reference to the way in which the polis intended the cultural formation of a person in all areas of life. What is foreign to Greek culture is the acknowledgment of the sphere-sovereignty of diverse societal entities. It was only much later that the Calvinist legal scholar, Johannes Althusius, though inconsistently, realized that societal institutions such as churches and marriages are not integral parts of the state for only provinces and municipalities are true parts of the state. These issues are kept alive in the thought of Goosen and Malan. The contribution of Goosen to the discussion receives attention, unfortunately showing that the crucial objections raised by him are misdirected. This is illustrated by briefly looking at Goosen's remark regarding the alleged influence of other philosophers on the thought of Dooyeweerd, while in fact it was Dooyeweerd himself who explained his own intellectual development by stating that he "was strongly under the influence first of the Neo- Kantian philosophy, later on of Husserl's phenomenology." Goosen does not show an awareness of the fact that I am perhaps the one who has exercised the most severe criticism on crucial aspects of Dooyeweerd's transcendental critique, epistemology and theory of the Gegenstand-relation. He also does not realize that Dooyeweerd's critical analysis of modern philosophy is in the first place meant as self-criticism. The shortcomings in Goosen's appeal to hermeunetics are then articulated before attention is given to the relation between Goosen, Dooyeweerd and Thomas Aquinas. It is shown that Goosen did not substantiate his claim that Dooyeweerd elevated his (alleged neo-Thomistic) understanding of Thomas Aquinas to be the standard interpretation contributed by him. A recent dissertation completed at the Radboud (Catholic) University in Nijmegen still affirms the value of Dooyeweerd's critique of the Thomistic substance concept. Goosen also totally misunderstood insights advanced by Münch, Rawls and Habermas which I appreciated positively because they approximate the idea of sphere-sovereignty. What is not noticed by Goosen is my statement about the simultaneous presence of both atomistic and holistic elements present in the thought of Rawls. These issues will be further explored in independent research articles, dedicated to the philosophical presuppositions present in reflecting on state and society.