Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0041-475120160002&lang=pt vol. 56 num. 2 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Redakteursnota</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512016000200001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>Letters of Hendrik le Sueur, J.A. van Plettenberg and Petrus Camper on the exploration of Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512016000200002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Met name na 1770 trok een reeks ontdekkers Afrika binnen; zij verzamelden allerlei planten en dieren en zonden die naar Europa, waar verscheidene geleerden ze bestudeerden. Nederlandse geleerden hadden daar een grote rol in, dankzij de medewerking van de VOC en haar Kaapse bestuurders, die informatie en naturalia stuurden. De Groningse medicus en bioloog Petrus Camper was de eerste anatoom die bijvoorbeeld een olifant, rinoceros, orang oetang, miereneter en wrattenzwijn ontleedde. Hij was ook erg geïnteresseerd in de menselijke rassen en ontwikkelde de craniometrie. Van Plettenberg was een van zijn leveranciers, maar ook de Kaapse chirurgijn Hendrik le Sueur. Dit artikel publiceert vijf onbekende brieven: één brief van Van Plettenberg, een bedankbrief van Camper, en drie van Le Sueur, die hem naast een beschrijving van een ziektegeval van de secretaris van de Weeskamer J.H. Blankenberg ook het hoofd van een Gonnema Hottentottin zond.<hr/>After 1750, and especially in the 1770's, a boost was given to the exploration of Africa by a series of explorers, collecting specimens of natural products, research material for various scholars in Europe. In that context, the VOC (Dutch East India Company) and its Cape Colony administrators had an important role as facilitators. Explorers got assistance, and rare plants, bulbs and animal were transported to Europe. A. Vosmaer, director of the zoo of Stadholder William V, and the Leiden professor Albinus published a series of studies of recently discovered African animals sent from the Cape, while the Groningen professor of medicine Petrus Camper was a specialist in dissecting animals, such as apes, rhino, ant-eater, hippo, elephant. Camper was very interested in the relationships between the human races and developed craniology. Both the Cape surgeon Hendrik le Sueur, a former student of Camper, and Governor Van Plettenberg, sent Camper information and research-materials. This article edits a letter of Van Plettenberg and a letter of thanks from Camper, and three letters of Le Sueur, one of which gives the case of the illness and cure of the secretary of the orphan's court J.H. Blankenberg. And a research note of Camper, describing the dissection of the head of a Gonnema lady sent by Le Sueur. <![CDATA[<b>Modelling South Africa's fiscal choices: Cliff or plateau?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512016000200003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Die artikel ontleed fiskale ontwikkelings in Suid-Afrika sedert die publikasie van die bevindings van Rossouw, Joubert en Breytenbach (2014) dat Suid-Afrika 'n fiskale afgrond in die gesig staar. Die vorige artikel het bevind dat owerheidsbesteding aan sosiale bystand toenemend tussen 2008 en 2012 as persentasie van totale owerheidsinkome gegroei het. Terselfdertyd het die owerheid se vergoedingsrekening oor daardie tydperk ook skerp toegeneem. Die gevolgtrekking was dat sosialebystandbetalings en owerheidsvergoeding op 'n peil is waar verdere reële toenames onbekostigbaar is, selfs al word belastings verhoog. Die bevinding was dat Suid-Afrika oor die lang termyn 'n fiskale afgrond in die gesig staar en dat alle inkome teen 2026 aan hierdie uitgaweposte sal gaan as die neiging wat tussen 2008 en 2012 voorgekom het, volgehou word. Hierdie artikel gebruik data van die 2014 Mediumtermyn Begroting (2014 MTB) en die 2015- en 2016-begrotings tot die einde van die 2018/19 fiskale jaar om te bepaal wat Suid-Afrika se huidige posisie ten opsigte van die fiskale afgrond is. Hoewel die regering verantwoordelik in begrotingsvoorstelle tot die 2018/19-fiskale jaar opgetree het deur die groei in besteding op sosialebystandbetalings en owerheidsvergoeding te beperk, is daar geen waarborg dat hierdie konserwatisme sal realiseer nie. In die praktyk het die regering reeds verhogings vir die staatsdiens vir die tydperk tot 2018/19 bo die begroting goed-gekeur. Hoewel die regering dus die bestaan van 'n fiskale afgrond erken, is daar verwarring in die reaksie op hierdie bedreiging. In die tweede plek maak politici steeds beloftes van bestedingstoenames. Die Minister van Sosiale Ontwikkeling het die voorneme aangekondig om kindertoelaes tot op ouderdom 21 uit te brei. Voorheen het die Minister van Finansies die voorneme aangekondig dat ouderdomspensioene aan almal bo 60 betaal moet word en dat die middeletoets afgeskaf moet word. Hierdie is onbekostigbare voorstelle. Hierdie navorsing fokus op die vraag of Suid-Afrika se fiskale volhoubaarheid sedert 2012 verbeter het. 'n Ekonometriese model is ontwikkel en twee scenario's is gemodelleer om lig op hierdie vraag te werp. Die bevinding is dat Suid-Afrika van 'n fiskale afgrond na 'n fiskale plato kan beweeg as die groei in sosialebystandbetalings, staatsdiensindiensname en die salarisse van staatsdiensamptenare beteuel kan word.<hr/>This paper assesses fiscal developments in South Africa since earlier research (Rossouw, Joubert & Breytenbach 2014) showed that South Africa is heading for a "fiscal cliff. The earlier research found that government expenditure on social grants and civil service remuneration has become unsustainable. A continuation of trends recorded in these two expenditure items between 2008 and 2012 implied that all government revenue will be accounted for by these two items by 2026, hence the notion that South Africa faces a "fiscal cliff'. No income will be left for other expenditure items. Rossouw, Joubert and Breytenbach (2014) showed that the fiscal cliff could still be averted, but that the South African government should take timely steps to ensure such aversion. This paper reassesses the earlier analysis by expanding the research to cover data from the 2014 Medium Term Budget Policy Statement (2014 MTBPS) and Medium Term Expenditure Framework, the 2015 and 2016 Budgets and also covers subsequent developments. In its response to the research warning of a fiscal cliff facing South Africa based on data up to 2012, the South African government has given mixed signals. On the one hand, the budgeted increases in civil service remuneration and social grant expenditure have been contained over the budget period to 2017/18. On the other hand, Government executives make contrary statements, while actual remuneration adjustments for civil servants from 1 April 2015 exceed budgeted remuneration. However, employment growth has been contained. The Minister of Social Development responded to a question in Parliament by saying, inter alia, that "(t)he Department plans to extend the Child Support Grant (CSG) to the age of 21 and not 23. The main reason for extension is to align the CSG and Foster Child Grant (FCG). ... Should the policy be approved the extension of CSG to 21 will be introduced in phase format, starting with 18 - 19 in the first year, 19 - 20 year old in the second year, and finally 20 - 21 year olds in the final year. The extension will cost about R1,2 billion in the first year, R2,2 billion in the second year and R3,3 billion in the third year. Overall, about 750 thousand children are set to benefit from extending the CSG" (National Assembly, 2015). We disagree with the Minister's assumptions, as our calculations show that the cost will amount to some R8 billion per annum at current values, once fully phased in. In civil society there is a general view that the government uses social grants to ensure support for the ANC government. Although this matter has not been the topic of extensive research, there is some evidence supporting this view. For example, in the run-up to the general election in South Africa in 2014, the ANC Member of the Executive Council for Agriculture in KwaZulu-Natal, Mr Meshack Radebe, stated that recipients of social grants who do not vote for the ruling ANC, steal from the government. It is disconcerting that Mr Radebe clearly confuses the ruling party and governmental activities. On 27 February 2013 the Minister of Finance stated that "... the old age grant means test should be phased out by 2016, accompanied by offsetting revisions to tax structures..." (Republic of South Africa 2013a), implying that all South Africans over 60 would qualify for old age pensions. Such expansion implies that some 1,5 million more people of age 60 and older will qualify for an old age pension, amounting to additional expenditure of some R25 billion per annum at current values. However, the implementation date for this proposal was subsequently postponed. This paper analyses these aspects by means of an econometric model and two scenarios for South Africa's fiscal future. The finding is that the country can move from a fiscal cliff to a fiscal plateau if control is maintained over social grant expenditure and civil service remuneration growth, over and above other government expenditure. To the contrary, if the number of social grant recipients is increased and the historic growth trends in civil service remuneration and employement are maintained, a fiscal cliff is inevitable. <![CDATA[<b>The relationship between work satisfaction and the leadership style of managers: A case study from the banking sector</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512016000200004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Die doel van die studie was om vas te stel op watter wyse die dominante leierskapstyl van opleidingsbestuurders die werksbevrediging van opleidingskonsultante wat volwasseneonderwys binne 'n bepaalde bankgroep in Suid-Afrika verskaf, beïnvloed. Bepaalde leierskapstyle (naamlik die demokratiese, outokratiese en laissez-faire-leierskapstyle) en werksbevredigingskomponente (naamlik ondersteuning, verhoudings en bemagtiging) is vir die doel geïdentifiseer. 'n Vraelys is ontwerp wat as kwantitatiewe navorsingsinstrument gedien het om inligting aangaande die biografiese besonderhede van respondente, hul bestuurder se leierskapstyl en respondente se persepsies van hul eie werksbevrediging in te samel. Een-en-negentig uit 137 respondente aan wie 'n e-pos gestuur is, het die vraelys voltooi. Die responskoers was dus 66.42%. Uit die analise van variansieresultate het dit geblyk dat leierskapstyl wél respondente se persepsie van al die gekose werksbevredigingskomponente statisties beduidend beïnvloed. In die geval van die belewing van ondersteuning is ouderdom verder ook as bydraende faktor tot werksbevrediging geïdentifiseer.<hr/>The aim of this research was to investigate the way in which the dominant leadership style of training managers influences the work satisfaction of training consultants who provide adult education within a specific bank group in South Africa. This context is the training department of a specific banking group where one of the authors of this article worked and where a lack of work satisfaction has been identified as a real concern. For this purpose specific leadership styles (namely the democratic, autocratic and laissez-faire-leadership styles) and work satisfaction components (namely support, relationships and empowerment) were identified and a closed-ended questionnaire designed accordingly. Information requested in the questionnaire included the biographical details of respondents, their managers' perceived leadership styles and the respondents' sense of work satisfaction. The questionnaire was e-mailed to 137 training consultants in the training division of the bank and a response rate of 66.42% was reported. Respondents who took part in the study are mainly experienced white females who fall in the 31-40 and 41-50 years age groups. The data was analysed by means of quantitative statistical techniques to establish the statistical significance of the effect of dominant leadership style on experience of work satisfaction. Exploratory analysis shows that the majority of respondents identified the democratic leadership style as their manager's dominant style followed by the autocratic leadership style. The laissez-faire leadersip style was seldom recorded and some managers did not exhibit a dominant leadership style. Findings furthermore indicated that respondents expressed a level of uncertainty with management support in the work place. The same applied to relationships that managers build in the work place and with the empowerment that takes place in their work environment. Analysis of variance results of how these components of job satisfaction, namely support, interpersonal relationships and empowerment are affected by the dominant leadership style of managers and by the biographical attributes of participants, indicate that the democratic leadership style resulted in higher perceptions of work satisfaction with regard to the support provided, relationships built and employee empowerment compared to other leadership styles. In addition to the positive effect of the democratic leadership style, age also influenced perceptions of experienced support. <![CDATA[<b>Political and legal philosophical perspectives on politocratic communitarianism: A discourse with Danie Goosen and Koos Malan</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512016000200005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In hierdie artikel word aangevoer dat kommunitariese politieke en regsteorieë die afgelope twee dekades in Suid-Afrika op die voorgrond getree het. Twee vergestaltings daarvan kan onderskei word: Ubuntu-kommunitarisme en politokratiese kommunitarisme. Terwyl eersgenoemde beduidende ondersteuning in die Suid-Afrikaanse regsliteratuur verwerf het, het laasgenoemde benadering hoofsaaklik tot die Afrikaanse literatuur beperk gebly. Die fokus val op politokratiese kommunitarisme en politieke en regsfilosofiese implikasies daarvan. Politokratiese kommunitarisme berus op die Aristoteliese teleologie, 'n Skolastieke synsontologie en Hegel se dialektiese idealisme. As vertrekpunt neem politokratiese kommunitarisme die Aristoteliese stadstaat (polis). Die stadstaat ontwikkel evolusionêr as "tussen-gemeenskap" tot die Hegeliaanse konkreet-universele staat. Die eindproduk is die totalitêre organismiese staat. Kommunitariese politokrate slaag nie in hul projek om die statisme van die liberale individualisme te oorkom en 'n normatiewe alternatief vir statisme, politieke universalisme en die absolutistiese staat te stel nie. In hierdie artikel word tot die slotsom geraak dat die filosofiese hiate in die staats- en regsdenke van politokratiese kommunitarisme belangrike implikasies het: Die organismiese konsepsie wat spruit uit hierdie denke lei eerstens tot die postulering van 'n trans-individuele utopie gebaseer op 'n abstrakte gemeenskapslewe; tweedens is dié organismiese staat noodwendig 'n totalitäre (en absolutistiese) vorm van politieke gemeenskap; derdens, is die organismiese politieke gemeenskap 'n innerlik-teenstrydige en ongedifferensieerde vorm van politieke assosiasie en die organismiese staat word georden sonder erkenning van fundamentele regte.<hr/>The philosophical roots of political communitarianism emanate from Aristotelian teleology, Scholastic ontology of being and Hegel's dialectic idealism. It represents and culminates evolutionary in the organismic state. A key issue underlying the discourse on state and legal philosophical implications of politocratic communitarianism is whether this philosophical approach can avert state absolutism and abuse of power. It is argued that the implications of this legal and political philosophy testify to the contrary. The implications of politocratic legal and political philosophy point towards statism and that all societal forms serve the interests (and needs) of the organismic state: it is a form of abstract trans-individual community life; it is of necessity a totalitarian (and absolutistic) form of political community; it functions without recognition of fundamental rights, and it is an inner-dialectical and undifferentiated form of political association. <![CDATA[<b>Capacity-building of informal community-based organisations in the South African welfare sector: The contribution of established social service organisations</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512016000200006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Ná twintig jaar van demokrasie is Suid-Afrika steeds 'n verdeelde samelewing met grootskaalse armoede en hoë vlakke van kwesbaarheid. Ontwikkeling van alle sektore van die samelewing word deur die Regering as oplossing gesien. Deur middel van die Departement Maatskaplike Ontwikkeling se finansieringsbeleid (Departement van Maatskaplike Ontwikkeling 2012a) plaas die Staat druk op gevestigde maatskaplike diensorganisasies om tot kapasiteitsbou van informele gemeenskapsgebaseerde organisasies by te dra. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om begrip te ontwikkel vir die bydrae van gevestigde maatskaplike diensorganisasies tot die kapasiteitsbou van informele gemeenskapsgebaseerde organisasies (voortaan in hierdie artikel na verwys as "IGO's") ten einde grondige bevindinge en aanbevelings daarvoor te kan maak. Om hierdie doel te bereik, word die agtergrond van die onderwerp in meer detail belig, word die navorsingsmetodologie wat gevolg is, verduidelik en word die bevindinge aangebied deur middel van 'n geïntegreerde sintese van deelnemers se beskrywings van gevestigde organisasies en IGO's, hulle beskouings van suksesse behaal en hulle reflektering van verdere uitdagings in kapasiteitsboupogings.<hr/>Large-scale poverty and increasing needs prevail in South Africa. The National Department of Social Development has the constitutional mandate to provide sector-specific national leadership in social development. Despite the Department of Social Development's intention to restructure the social service delivery system since 1997 and although established social service organisations, as well as informal community-based organisations (CBOs), are regarded as being valuable resources of service delivery to communities at risk, all these organisations are threatened by serious challenges. Established social service organisations that provide and maintain a significant portion of the social welfare services in South Africa, are at present - despite their efficient management - engulfed in a grim battle for survival. CBOs which form an integral part of communities at risk are still excluded from state financing because they do not comply with the basic requirements of management. The Policy on Financial Awards for Social Service Providers (2012a) of the Department of Social Development indicates that the State aims to redirect its financing from established social service organisations to CBOs and to demand that established organisations build the capacity of CBOs in addition to their own direct service delivery to those at risk. An investigation into the capacity-building of CBOs within the South African context is therefore at the same time both relevant and important. The purpose of this study is to develop an understanding of the contribution that established social service organisations in South Africa already make to the capacity-building of CBOs. The investigation not only provides information on the nature of this capacity-building, but also focuses attention on the successes and many challenges experienced by established social service organisations in their capacity-building of CBOs. Qualitative research was chosen as the approach to explore the contributions of established social service organisations to the capacity-building of CBOs in the social welfare sector and to establish the link with the social development approach as it is applied in South Africa. At the same time capacity-building of CBOs by established social service organisations is analysed and described. An instrumental case study was used as the research strategy by using NACOSS (National Coalition of Social Services) as a discussion forum of established social service providers in South Africa. A purposive non-probability sample selection was used to select participants, Nine NACOSS members indicated in a survey that they are already involved in the capacity-building of CBOs and agreed to participate in the study. Data was collected on three levels: (a) Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 9 chief executive officers of 9 established social service organisations, (b) 15 social workers who are already building CBOs' capacities, and (c) 9 representatives of the CBOs whose capacities were being built by the participating service organisations. Based on this study, the following main findings and recommendations are made: • Capacity-building of CBOs, as it is currently operationalised in developmental social work by established service organisations, is an inherent part of social development. Therefore, capacity-building of CBOs is rather more a social work intervention than exclusively one of organisational development and is currently being interpreted and applied in this way by established service organisations. The focus of capacity-building of CBOs as a social work intervention is therefore on informal systems or bodies within communities at risk. • Capacity-building in practice is far more elementary than what is assumed to be the case in theory and policy. • CBOs ' urgent need for continuous practice-oriented support from service organisations is evident, thus confirming the necessity for this kind of support to form an integral part of the capacity-building process. In this respect established social service organisations are excellently positioned to make a valuable contribution to the capacity-building of CBOs. • Due to the challenges of service delivery, the State should rather view the service organisations as resources in the restructuring of the South African social service delivery system than considering the redirection of financing from essential services by established service organisations to the informal sector. Urgent consideration should be given to providing state funding for the capacity-building of CBOs. Constructive discussion between the Department of Social Development and established social service organisations is crucial for the advancement of an effective social service delivery system. <![CDATA[<b>A comparison of police culture attitudes of men and women in the South African Police Service over a ten year period</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512016000200007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Huidige etnograwe (Cockcroft 2013; O'Neill, Marks & Singh 2007; Sklansky 2005) argumenteer dat nuwe ontwikkelinge in polisiëring die polisie verander het, en dat konvensionele kennis van polisiekultuur gevolglik irrelevant is. Meer spesifiek, hierdie navorsers impliseer dat die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisiediens (SAPD) baie van die polisiekultuurkaraktertrekke verander het met betrekking tot sinisme teenoor en isolasie van die publiek. Hierdie navorsingsartikel is 'n poging om by te dra tot die bespreking deur te bepaal of die polisiekultuuraanwysers solidariteit, isolasie en sinisme onder amptenare van die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisiediens (SAPD) geslagsneutraal is, en ook om vas te stel of lede se houdings verander het oor 'n tien (10) jaar periode (Januarie 2005 - Junie 2014). Deur gebruik te maak van 'n 30-item polisiekultuurtema-vraelys het die studie bevind dat kadette in die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisiediens (SAPD), wat hulle basiese opleiding by die ses (6) SAPD basiese opleidingsfasiliteite (Pretoria, Chatsworth, Oudtshoorn, Graaff-Reinet, Phillippi en Bisho) in Januarie 2005 begin het, die organisasie met vooropgestelde idees oor die polisiekultuurtemas solidariteit, isolasie en sinisme betree het. Nóg die periode van kollege-/akademie-opleiding (Januarie 2005 - Junie 2005), nóg die opeenvolgende tydperk van veldopleiding (Julie 2005 - Desember 2005), het enige noemenswaardige veranderinge in die respondente se houdings teweeg gebring. Nege (9) jaar later het hierdie houdings versterk tot 'n algehele gemiddeld van byna sewentig persent (69.85%). Oor die duur van die projek (tien jaar) is bevind dat vroulike rekrute, wat later as volwaardige polisiebeamptes in die Polisiediens opgeneem is, hulle oor die algemeen sterker met die waardes van solidariteit, isolasie en sinisme in die polisiekultuur vereenselwig het as hulle manlike eweknieë.<hr/>A comparison of police culture attitudes of men and women in the South African Police Service over a ten year period Contemporary ethnographers (Cockcroft 2013; O'Neill, Marks & Singh 2007; Sklansky 2005) argue that new developments in policing have changed the police, and that traditional understanding of police culture, as a consequence, is no longer relevant. More specifically, these researchers imply that the South African Police Service (SAPS) has changed many of the traits of police culture with regards to cynicism of and isolation from the public. The research paper attempts to contribute to this narrative by determining whether indicators evincing attitudes of police culture themes of solidarity, isolation and cynicism amongst South African Police Service (SAPS) officials are gender neutral as well as showing a change over a ten (10) year period (January 2005 - June 2014). By making use of the 30-item police culture themes questionnaire, designed by Steyn (2005), the study established that South African Police Service (SAPS) cadets who commenced their basic training at the six (6) basic training institutes in South Africa (Pretoria, Chatsworth, Oudtshoorn, Graaff-Reinet, Phillippi and Bisho) in January 2005, entered the organisation with predispositions in furtherance of police culture themes of solidarity, isolation and cynicism. The period of "college/academy training" (January 2005 - June 2006) did not significantly counteract these tendencies, neither did the subsequent "field training" (July 2005 - December 2005). Nine (9) years on, and these attitudes intensified to an overall average of seventy percent (69.85%). The study further found that for the duration of the project (10 years), female trainees and their ensuing conversion to fully-fledged police officials had mostly stronger values exhibiting police culture solidarity, police culture isolation and police culture cynicism, compared to their male counterparts. <![CDATA[<b>"There can be no freedom without education." Laying the foundations for black education in South Africa, 1952-1968</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512016000200008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Knelpunte met onderwysvoorsiening in die bedeling na 1994 regverdig die herbesinning van die bydrae van Bantoe-onderwys sedert 1952. Verwysings na ouerbetrokkenheid, verantwoordbaarheid van skoolbestuur en toegewyde onderwysers deur kritici van die huidige onderwysbedeling herinner sterk aan die grondslae van Bantoe-onderwys van die vyftigerjare. 'n Historiese herbesinning oor aspekte van die grondslae van Bantoe-onderwys bied 'n herwaardering waarby die huidige debat kan baat. Hierdie bydrae lig twee kernbeginsels van die stelsel van onderwys-voorsiening aan swart kinders uit, naamlik ouer- en gemeenskapsbetrokkenheid en moedertaal-onderrig. Die vordering met die implementering daarvan tot ongeveer 1990 dui op die bestaan van 'n bruikbare vertrekpunt om bestaande knelpunte suksesvol die hoof te bied. Die bydrae word in twee dele aangebied. Deel 1 plaas die onderwys aan swart kinders in die konteks van Afrika en Suid-Afrika in die middel van die twintigste eeu en verduidelik die implementeringsimplikasies binne die eerste vyftien jaar. Deel 2 verduidelik die aanwending van moedertaalonderwys en die vordering met onderwysvoorsiening deur die onstuimige sewentigerjare. Die artikel kontekstualiseer ten slotte die afloop van swart onderwys teen 1990.<hr/>In the context of deficiencies in education in South Africa since 1994, voices have become louder in questioning the current education policy and delivery. This is an opportunity to reassess aspects of Bantu Education since 1952, especially the role of two key elements of Bantu education, namely community and parent involvement in the management of schools and vernacular as a medium of instruction. Current critics of education often refer to the dedication of teachers, parent involvement, the accountability of school management and performance of learners. These issues remind one of similar issues under Bantu education since 1952. This paper seeks to consider the role and contribution made under Bantu education to the foundations of community and parent involvement and mother-tongue instruction since 1952 in implementing a strategy for general education to black children. The paper takes as the point of departure the unsatisfactory broad condition of education to black children in South Africa by the early 1950s. The lack of a community driven consciousness towards the education of black children concerned the new National Party government at the end of the 1940s. Verwoerd approached the development of black communities from the perspective of empowerment of ethnic communities as the building blocks of a strategy for peaceful co-existence in southern Africa. By the 1950s African colonies were decolonised and the wave of African nationalism swept across the continent. These developments concerned white people in South Africa, especially the Afrikaner people, who sought to find a solution to seemingly inescapable racial tension and conflict. The National Party policy of separate development was envisioned as the broadframework to develop all black peoples in South Africa towards self-rule and prosperity in their own right. The prerequisite for development was education. The state introduced a system of Bantu education to enhance school attendance and the level of literacy and education of all black children. The paper explains the utilisation of key elements such as community and parent involvement and vernacular tuition to facilitate community buy-in into general education for black children. The paper addresses the development in two parts. Part one explains the context of the need for education to black children as well as the implementation during the first fifteen years. Part two explains the use of vernacular and parent involvement as well as the outcome of the system by 1990. Overall this contribution illustrates the progress with school enrolment, pass rates and performance towards tertiary education of black children from 1952 to 1990. The first part explains the complexity of the political idealism of the political leadership of the National Party wanting to manage black education as part of the macro scheme of separate development in South Africa, and the irreconcilable aspirations of the newly mobilised African majority seeking political power and independence in line with the developments in Africa. In the second part the contribution of vernacular in the provision of education to black children is outlined. The paper shows the agency of the Department of Bantu Education in developing the different vernaculars systematically in order to enhance the teaching and learning of advanced subject matter in schools and beyond. It also shows the support of communities in sending children to school to acquire formal education. The grand scheme of Bantu education was finally derailed because of the irreconcilability of the two political models. Bantu education did in spite of the rejection of the political model of separate development, succeed in enhancing black literacy and education. The paper does not claim to deny shortcomings of the system of Bantu education, nor that it addressed all the aspirations of the growing black elite, but it emphasises the key functionality of community and parent involvement and vernacular tuition (with systematic linguistic development to support such a policy) developed by bantu education, which might be assessed anew. These aspects of Bantu education may be revisited as building blocks to address shortcomings in the current education environment. <![CDATA[<b>Variables which relate to the achievement of black high school learners in Afrikaans as a second language</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512016000200009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Navorsingsgegewens oor prestasie in 'n tweede taal kan nie sonder meer op Afrikaans by swart leerders van toepassing gemaak word nie, gesien in die lig daarvan dat swart leerders nie in hulle moedertaal onderrig word nie, maar in Engels wat alreeds hulle tweede taal is. 'n Verdere probleem is dat vorige ondersoeke nie beide kognitiewe en affektiewe veranderlikes betrek het nie. Die kwaliteit van onderrig of leerstyl van die leerders word ook nie gelyktydig saam met kognitiewe en affektiewe veranderlikes ondersoek nie. Dit is gevolglik moeilik om vas te stel watter van hierdie veranderlikes as die belangrikste beskou kan word ten einde die variansie in die prestasie van Afrikaans as 'n tweede taal te kan verklaar. 'n Empiriese ondersoek is uitgevoer waarby 174 swart hoërskoolleerders betrek is. Kognitiewe en affektiewe veranderlikes, asook leerders se leerstyle, is gemeet. Uit die empiriese ondersoek blyk dit dat selfkonsep, geheue, verbale begrip en motivering as die belangrikste veranderlikes beskou kan word wat met prestasie in Afrikaans as tweede taal verband hou. Leerstyl is nie as 'n belangrike faktor geïdentifiseer nie. Uit die resultate kan twee spesifieke aanbevelings gemaak word: Eerstens moet die belangrikheid van lees opnuut deur onderwysers beklemtoon word. Die aanbeveling word gemaak op grond daarvan dat verbale begrip as 'n belangrike kognitiewe veranderlike na vore gekom het. Verbale begrip hou verband met aspekte soos woordeskat-uitbreiding en sinskonstruksie wat in 'n groot mate deur leesaktiwiteite bevorder word (Echols, West, Stanovich & Zehr 1996:296-304). Tweedens moet onderwysers daarop bedag wees dat affektiewe faktore 'n belangrike rol in die klaskamer speel waar 'n tweede taal onderrig word.<hr/>Since 1994, more and more students from other culture groups and languages have been attending traditionally Afrikaans speaking schools, which necessitated these schools not only to offer Afrikaans as a home language, but also as a second language. Learning a language, like any other learning activity, is influenced by several factors. Bloom (1976:11) distinguishes in his learning model (this is also the model that will be used in this investigation) between three groups of variables which relate to learning and achievement, namely cognitive variables, affective variables and the quality of instruction. It is, however, difficult to investigate quality of instruction, since different teachers instruct a second language. Consequently, it was decided in the current investigation to focus on the manner in which the learners teach themselves, or stated differently, the learning style they follow. With regard to cognitive variables high school learners find themselves, according to Piaget's theory, in a transition phase between the concrete operational and formal operational stage. However, students ' thinking abilities do not develop in the same way and the transition to the formal operational stage does not occur at exactly the same age (Ojose 2008:26-30). This has important implications for achievement in a language. The importance of cognitive factors with regard to the acquisition of a second language has been examined by international researchers (Dekeyser 2000 499-533; Robinson 2005:235-268). Wetzels, Kester, Van Merriënboer and Brothers (2011:274-291) as well as Krekeler (2006:99-130) have shown a relationship between prior knowledge and achievement in a second language. Research done more recently in a South African context deals with aspects such as multiple intelligence (Van den Berg 2004:279-294), the value of reading activities (Van Wyk 2005:113-115), language transfer (Stander 2001:107-122), figurative language (van der Merwe 2008:45-64) and assessment tasks (Van den Berg 2004:279-294). Affective variables such as self-concept, motivation and anxiety are often associated with language performance (Ni 2012:1509). The investigations of Gose, Wooden andMuller (2001:279-287) as well as Kaniuka (2010:184-188) have shown that self-concept correlates positively with language performance while Engin (2009:1035-1042) and Shirbagi (2010:1-14) highlighted the importance of motivation. Awan, Azher, Anwar and Naz (2010:33-40) showed that Pakistan students learning English as a second language experience anxiety. Pappamihiel (2002:327-356) obtained similar results for Mexican students. As far as learning style is concerned Peacock (2001:5-20) investigated Chinese students who learned English as a second language. It was found that all learners had a particular learning style, that teachers 'preferred learning styles do not necessarily correspond with the style that learners prefer, different learning styles can be attained and that performance in a second language (in this case English) improved as a result of a combination of learning styles. Research on international level cannot simply be made applicable to black learners studying Afrikaans. Black learners are not taught in their native language, but in English, which is already their second language. Strictly speaking, Afrikaans for the majority of black learners, is in fact not a second language, but a third language. Another problem is that previous investigations do not simultaneously include cognitive and affective variables, nor quality of instruction or learning style. It is therefore difficult to determine which of these variables may be considered important in order to explain the variance in the performance of Afrikaans as a second language. The aims of the current investigation study were firstly to determine how achievement in Afrikaans relates to achievement in English which is the medium of instruction for most black learners. The second aim was to determine which cognitive factors relate to achievement in Afrikaans and thirdly which affective factors relate to achievement in Afrikaans. The fourth aim was to compare the achievement in Afrikaans of learners with different learning styles, and the fifth aim was to determine which of the variables mentioned above can be considered the most important in explaining the variance in the achievement of Afrikaans as a second language. An empirical investigation was carried out with a sample of 174 learners in grades 8, 9, 10 and 11 (54 boys and 120 girls). A correlation coefficient of r=0.60; p<0.01 was obtained between Afrikaans as a second language and English as the medium of instruction, indicating a significant positive correlation. Significant positive correlations were also obtained between the cognitive variables (development of thought, verbal comprehension and memory) and achievement in Afrikaans. The highest correlation was between verbal comprehension and achievement in Afrikaans (r=0.34; p<0.01). Significant positive correlations were obtained between the self-concept of learners and their achievement in Afrikaans (r=0,52; p<0.01) and between the motivation of learners and their achievement in Afrikaans (r=0,37; p<0.01). A significant negative correlation was obtained between the anxiety of learners and their achievement in Afrikaans (r=-0,37; p<0.01). No significant difference in the average Afrikaans performance of the learners with different learning styles could be shown. Self-concept, memory, verbal comprehension and motivation were identified as the most important variables. These variables explained 39% of the variance in the achievement of Afrikaans. From the results, two specific recommendations are made: Firstly, verbal comprehension emerged as a major cognitive variable which underlines the importance of reading. Secondly, teachers should be aware that affective factors, with particular reference to the self-concept of learners, fulfil an important role in the class where a second language is taught. <![CDATA[<b>The support of the preschool child as emergent reader - a pilot study</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512016000200010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Die doel van die artikel is 'n bespreking van 'n literatuurstudie oor ontluikende lees en die lees-handeling as deel van ontluikende geletterdheid en die rol van ouers en ander rolspelers daarin. Die doel van die navorsing is ingeweef in die vraag: Wat is ontluikende lees en waaraan moet aandag gegee word om baie jong kinders as ontluikende lesers te ondersteun? 'n Tematiese analise van toepaslike akademiese literatuur, artikels en internetstukke is gedoen en aktiwiteite wat tot ontluikende lees as 'n deel van ontluikende geletterdheid kan bydra, is geïdentifiseer. Die literatuurbevindinge oor die belangrike fasette van lees is in 'n skematiese voorstelling saamgevat wat as konseptuele raamwerk kan dien vir die ontwikkeling van 'n ondersteuningsprogram vir onder andere voorskoolse onderwysers om ouers en versorgers te bemagtig. Lees is 'n komplekse handeling met leesbegrip as uiteindelike doel, en daarom moet lesers ook in staat wees om onbekende woorde te ontsyfer (dekodeer). Ontluikende geletterdheid (wat ontluikende lees insluit) behels dat kinders die vaardighede ontwikkel wat nodig is vir leessukses en ouers en ander versorgers speel 'n belangrike rol hierin. Die leeromgewing, wat onder andere kultuur, ekonomiese status, tyd wat met kinders bestee word en stimulerende aktiwiteite insluit, is ook belangrik vir ontluikende geletterdheid. Die ryk bron van aktiwiteite wat deur die literatuur aangebied word vir die bevordering van ontluikende geletterdheid, wat ontluikende lees insluit, is egter weens hulle sosio-ekonomiese omstandighede ontoeganklik vir 'n groot aantal Suid-Afrikaners. Ondersteuning aan hierdie groep vereis spesiale programme wat die behoeftes en konteks van bepaalde gemeenskappe in ag neem en die vermoë en sterkpunte van die ouers as belangrike rolspelers as vertrekpunt neem.<hr/>Reading achievement of South African children is not on par with world standards and is a matter of great concern for parents, teachers and the educational authorities. According to the PIRLS-report (Progress in International Reading Literacy Study) of 2006 South African grade 4- and 5-learners manifested the lowest reading achievement of 45 participating countries. The same tendency was reflected in the Annual National Assessment (ANA) for 2013 and 2014. The development of emergent literacy and pre-reading skills in the preschool years plays an important role in reading achievement in school. Parents and other role players involved with preschoolers thus play an important role in preparing children for reading. The authors ' main argument is that parents and other role players have an important role in the development of children's emergent literacy and emergent reading. Parents and other role players should not only be empowered to support children to achieve success but the specific South African context should be taken into account. This article reflects on a literature study as pilot study to gather important information regarding emergent reading which can be used by facilitators to empower parents and other role players working with preschool children. Therefore, the aim of the article is a discussion of a literature study on emergent reading and the reading process as part of emergent literacy and the role of parents and other role players in the development thereof. The aim of the research is intertwined with the research question: What, according to literature, is emergent reading and what should facilitators attend to in empowering parents and role players to support children as emergent readers? A thematic analysis of applicable academic literature, journal articles and internet information was done and activities contributing to pre-reading skills were identified. The findings of the literature study were used to develop a simple schematic presentation on various aspects of emergent reading which can be used to provide knowledge and empower parents and other role players to support children as emergent readers. Reading is not a one dimensional process, but involves physical, emotional, social and psychological aspects. It is a complex process aiming at reading comprehension, but also includes the ability to decode unknown words. Well-developed functional reading skills (decoding, phonology and phonemic awareness, orthography, morphology, syntax and print knowledge) are important for reading success and depend on the mastering of sensory integration which includes visual and auditory perceptual skills. Reading comprehension goes hand in hand with thought and is improved by vocabulary development and purposeful conversations aimed at the acquisition of vocabulary. Various reading strategies contribute to comprehension: determining relationships, asking of questions, making deductions, distinguishing between important and unimportant information, making summaries, visualising and monitoring of understanding. Emergent reading as part of emergent literacy implies the acquisition of various language skills, including the various skills necessary for reading success. The learning environment, inter alia the culture, economic status, time spent with children, and stimulating activities, plays an important role in the development of these skills. The development of emergent reading starts in the infant phase but speeds up during the early childhood years. Perceptual skills (visual, auditory, kinaesthetic, smell and taste) underlying emergent literacy, are being acquired since birth by means of play. Experience, and specifically language experience, listening skills, concentration, perceptual awareness, vocabulary, conversations, awareness of the phonological units of speech, rhythm, print knowledge, alliteration and knowledge of the alphabet are important indicators of reading success. Parents and other role players need information regarding the physical, social, emotional and psychological needs of the pre-schooler for the development of emergent literacy which forms the foundation of emergent reading. Age appropriate activities, security and play-based activities are important when considering the development of the preschool child. Parents have a task in the development of children's emergent literacy which includes emergent reading regarding listening, speaking and concentration skills as well as perceptual skills and eye movements. Everyday conversations and playing with children are important tools for this development. Concrete experience by visiting places and talking about the experiences enhances the childrens ' language acquisition. Parents should be actively involved with their children, utilising reading together not only for vocabulary acquisition but also to increase the understanding of the language. Ensure that reading to the child is a joyful activity and show enthusiasm and a positive attitude towards reading. Carefully selected books to suit the age of the child can be used for picture reading, reading together, dialogue reading and interactive reading. Provide books to the child and select these books to suit the child's age and developmental level; keep a balance between the text and the illustration, ensure understandable vocabulary and opportunities to discuss the content of the stories. The wealth of knowledge presented in the literature is unfortunately not accessible to the majority of South African children due to poverty and in some cases also illiteracy of those bringing up the children. An asset based approach may be valuable to support these parents and role players. Special programmes aiming at the unique needs of the specific societies and taking their specific abilities and strengths in consideration will benefit parents. The literature study pictures an ideal role for parents supporting their children as emergent readers and is valuable in the possible development of a support programme to empower parents and practitioners for their task. Parents need to understand the importance of language development and emergent literacy for reading success. Applicable knowledge should be provided and workshops presented to assist them to create simple resources, like puppets which can be used for story telling and language development. Picture books and pictures in advertisements and magazines are useful for vocabulary and language development. Support should always be handled with empathy and sensitivity, keeping in mind that illiterate parents cannot read, may not have any books and may also be intimidated by books and literacy. <![CDATA[<b>The relation between selected biographical variables and the attitude of Grade R teachers towards the development of perceptual motor skills of Grade R learners</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512016000200011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Die ontwikkeling van Graad R-leerders se perseptueel-motoriese vaardighede kan moontlik beïnvloed word deur die Graad R-onderwyser se houding. 'n Positiewe houding sal die ontwikkeling van perseptueel-motoriese vaardighede bevorder, terwyl 'n negatiewe houding kan veroorsaak dat nie aandag gegee word aan dié vaardighede nie. 'n Kwantitatiewe metode is gevolg om te bepaal of die ontwikkeling van perseptueel-motoriese vaardighede by Graad R-leerders deur die onderwyser se houding beïnvloed kan word. Die respondente (n=25) wat volgens 'n gerieflikheidsteekproef geselekteer is, het 'n self-opgestelde vraelys voltooi. Resultate is statisties geanaliseer deur middel van beskrywende statistiek asook as Spearman se rangorde-korrelasie, om verbande te ontleed tussen die onderwysers se ouderdom en ondervinding, die sosio-ekonomiese omstandighede en die aantal leerders in die klas aan die een kant, met die tyd wat aan vakke in Graad R bestee word aan die ander kant. Daar is verder gebruik gemaak van tweerigting-frekwensie-tabelle met Chi-kwadraattoetse en Cramer's V om die sterkte van die verband tussen ras, taal van onderrig en die vrae wat verband hou met houding, te bepaal. 'n Beduidende verband is gevind tussen die onderwysers se ouderdom, die ondervinding van die onderwysers, die aantal leerders in die klas, die sosio-ekonomiese omgewing, en die tyd wat aan vakke bestee word. Ouer onderwysers met min ervaring en oorvol klasse bestee minder tyd aan onderrig van verskillende vakke. Indien dié aspekte aangepak word deur indiensopleiding, kan dit moontlik 'n positiewe effek uitoefen op die onderwyser se houding teenoor die onderrig van Lewensvaardighede, waarby die ontwikkeling van leerders se perseptueel-motoriese vaardighede sal baat om uiteindelik neer-slag te vind in beter skoolgereedheid van Graad 1-leerders.<hr/>The development of perceptual motor skills of Grade R learners can possibly be influenced by the attitude of the Grade R teacher, and this can contribute to the fact that Grade R learners are found to be not school ready in Grade 1. A positive attitude with Grade R teachers will promote the development of perceptual motor skills, while a negative attitude may prevent perceptual motor skills from being addressed effectively. During this research, a quantitative method was followed to establish whether the development of perceptual motor skills can be influenced by the attitude of the Grade R teacher, and the research was undertaken from apost-positivistic perspective. The respondents (n = 25) were selected according to availability, and they completed self-compiled questionnaires which were available in Afrikaans and/or English. The questionnaires were completed by Grade R teachers teaching in quintile 1 (n=5) (informal settlements); quintile 2 (n=4); quintile 3 (n=7); quintile 4 (n=4) and quintile 5 (n=5) (formal residential area) schools. The Department of Basic Education grades schools in quintiles according to the availability of learning and teaching support material (LTSM) as well as the area in which the school is situated. Results from this research were statistically analysed by means of descriptive statistics as well as Spearman's rank correlation, in order to analyse relationships between the amount of time devoted to teaching subjects in Grade R, the age and experience of Grade R teachers, as well as the socio-economic environment and the number of learners in the class on the one hand with the time spent on subjects in Grade R on the other hand. Two-way frequency tables with Chi square tests and Cramer's V were utilised to establish the strength of the relationships between race, language of teaching and learning and questions relating to attitude. A significant relationship was found between the age of Grade R teachers, their experience, the number of learners in the class, the socio economic environment and the time allocated to specific subjects. From the results it can be deduced that older teachers with little experience, with inadequate qualifications to teach Grade R, and teaching in overcrowded classes, devote less time to teaching various subjects. Results also show that sufficient LTSM is essential in order to effectively present the subject Life Skills, which includes teaching of perceptual motor skills. If these aspects are addressed by in-service training, the attitude of the teachers towards Life Skills will be affected positively, which in turn will benefit the development of learners 'perceptual motor skills and reflect in the school readiness of Grade 1 learners. If these aspects were addressed by in-service training, the attitude of the teachers towards Life Skills would be affected positively, which would in turn benefit the development of learners' perceptual motor skills, eventually to be reflected in the school readiness of Grade 1 learners. <![CDATA[<b>Hysteria <i>and </i>Perversion (Part 1): Some theoretical observations on victimhood in trauma discourses</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512016000200012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In deel I van hierdie tweeledige studie word op slagofferskap as identiteitsmerker binne die konteks van traumadiskoerse gefokus. Die subjek se identiteitsvorming word vanuit 'n Lacaniaanse en Žižekiaanse perspektief omskryf en die "interpellasie" van die subjek as grondliggend tot laasgenoemde se oriëntasie binne die diskoers van die Simboliese Orde beoordeel. Histerie en perversie verteenwoordig twee reaksies van die subjek op enige toegeskrewe identiteit en indien identiteit aan slagofferskap gekoppel word, dus ook twee reaksies hierop. Waar die subjek met 'n histeriese reaksie die slagoffersidentiteit problematiseer, behels 'n perverse reaksie juis die totale verinnerliking daarvan. Deur na LaCapra se onderskeid tussen strukturele en historiese trauma te verwys, kan die verhouding tussen hierdie traumaregisters gebruik word om histerie en perversie in terme van slagofferskap toe te lig. Vervloei die twee met mekaar word 'n perverse reaksie ontlok; word die onderskeid gehandhaaf, is die reaksie eerder histeries. Die hipotese wat volg is dat die universalisering van trauma en slagofferskap in 'n hedendaagse tydsgewrig 'n klemverskuiwing vanaf histerie na perversie fasiliteer.<hr/>The first of this two-part study sets out to analyse victimhood as an identity marker within the context of trauma discourse. The human subject is described from a Lacanian and Žižekian perspective in order to demonstrate the dynamics of identity formation in terms of victimhood. According to this psychoanalytical approach the subject does not represent an essentialised and coherent unity but rather constitutes a "state of subjectivation" in relation to its signifier (as part of the Symbolic Order). Subject formation is the result of the subject's alienation and separation from his or her sensate self, through entry into the discourse of the Symbolic Order. The latter represents the attribution of meaning, i.e. a signifier, to the subject, which then becomes its means of orientation. The void opened up in the process of alienation and separation is displaced by the subject's performative affirmation of the meaning its signifier prescribes. The question then is to what extent the subject can choose its own signifier, i.e. meaning, within the Symbolic Order. Louis Althusser uses the term "interpellation" in order to describe the way in which the meaning of any subject is ("ideologically") configured in advance within the Symbolic Order. The only real "choice" the subject has, is to react to his or her pre-fixed meaning: this would either be the performative acceptance and confirmation of the interpellation, or the challenge of its validity. Hysteria and perversion represent two ways to react to interpellation. Neither hysteria nor perversion should here be seen as pathological states, but rather as ways to describe the structural relation of the subject to its interpellation. A hysterical reaction manifests when the subject challenges its symbolic investiture or place within the Symbolic Order. Subject formation always constitutes a process of hysterisation, but the conscious coming to terms with this knowledge represents the hysteric approach. The hysteric challenges and questions, but the irony is that the hysteric subject, for all its efforts to find the truth of its own meaning, does not really want to find and conform to its symbolic status. This is because of an innate realisation that the lack brought about by alienation and separation, can never be healed. The hysterical challenge to its own symbolic investiture also manifests in the general challenge to the grand narrative of the Symbolic Order. The hysterical subject does not settle down and merely accept the meaning generated within the ideology or knowledge paradigm of any given discourse, but in questioning it on the contrary enables new knowledge. This is the reason Lacan conflated the hysteric with the scientific discourse, in relation to the "discourse of the master". The hysterical challenge can be further facilitated when the discourse of the master itself loses its power. When the validity of the master signifier, as foundational to its ideology, is lost, hysterical reactions in the search for meaning are the result. Contrary to hysteria the perverse reaction to symbolic investiture does not challenge, but rather identifies fully with its pre-fixed meaning. This happens because the subject displaces its ontological lack (as a result of alienation and separation) and projects it onto something outside its own self. The subject's desire therefore does not focus on healing its own lack, but rather uses a fetish as stopgap to ignore it. The result is that the perverse subject becomes the mouthpiece of the Symbolic Order - the hysterical subject is "desubjectivised" in order to become the perverse and instrumental object of the Other. In order to demonstrate the hysterical challenge and perverse confirmation of interpellation, the identity marker of victimhood represents an interesting case in point. Victimhood is the core aspect of any trauma and as the trauma discourse has become one of the most prevalent in modern culture, so has victimhood become more and more universalised. One of the reasons for this is that the concept of trauma has taken on more of an ontological, rather than specific historical quality. Alienation and separation, as key moments in the establishment of subjective identity, are accordingly interpreted as original trauma. Dominick LaCapra has written extensively on the resulting two registers of trauma: trauma as a structural, ontological status and trauma as a historical status. If victimhood is seen as identity marker or interpellation, so too can the response of the subject to this be seen as hysterical or perverse: the hysterical subject would challenge the interpellation of victim whereas the perverse subject would own it as its core meaning. As everyone is subject to ontological or structural trauma, but only some are subject to any given historical trauma, hysteria and perversion with regards to victimhood can be demonstrated in terms of the relation between the two registers: a hysterical reaction to victimhood would suggest that the subject does not conflate its ontological with any historical trauma, but would rather remain conscious of the fact that there is a difference between the two that cannot be bridged. A perverse reaction on the other hand would precisely be the conflation of the two, so that any discernible lack in the own subject can be displaced and projected onto a historical trauma. The Holocaust narrative is the most universal trauma discourse of the past few decades. If the issue of victimhood is judged within this narrative, it seems as if it has become easier to view more and diversified subjects as victims of this historic incident than in the past. It seems as if the universalisation of victimhood has also facilitated a tendential movement from hysteria to perversion. The original hysterical challenge and problematisation of the subject as victim has developed into a perverse acceptance of the symbolic investiture it entails. This might be indicative of the effects time has on the evolution of trauma narratives in general. <![CDATA[<b>Deictical patterns in the film version of J.M. Coetzee's <i>Disgrace </i>(2008). Part 1</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512016000200013&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In hierdie artikel word J.M. Coetzee se bekende roman Disgrace (1999) eerstens ontleed en daarna word ook die verfilming daarvan in 2008, onder die loep geneem. Coetzee self het in sy werk uit 1988, White Writing, gesaghebbend geskryf oor die Afrikaanse plaasroman en ook oor die romans van C.M. van den Heever, 'n seminale skrywer binne hierdie sub-genre. Sentrale begrippe binne die Afrikaanse plaasroman is erfopvolging, wat daarvan uitgaan dat die plaas 'n onvervreembare ruimte is wat deur erfopvolging oorgaan van vader na seun (Coetzee praat van lineal consciousness), die oorheersing van patriargale waardes en die plaas as idilliese ruimte, maar ook as hiërargies gestruktureerd met die eienaar as Middeleeuse lyfheer en al die lyfeienes op feodale wyse as onderhoriges: bywoners én arbeiders. Daar word in hierdie studie uitgegaan van verskeie hipotetiese aannames: dat Coetzee in sy roman voorkennis verwag van sy leser (ook van die aard van die Afrikaanse plaasroman) en dat sy roman inderwaarheid 'n parodie van hierdie sub-genre is. Dit word teoreties verduidelik aan die hand van teorieë van onder meer Hall, Bourdieu en Even-Zohar. Voorts word die kinematografiese narratief teoreties belig en aangevoer dat kommunikasie deikties van aard is deurdat semiotiese tekens nie gedekodeer kan word sonder bepaalde voorkennis asook kontekstuele kennis nie. Vervolgens word die film Disgrace (2008) ontleed, maar veral dan as persiflage/parodie van die plaasnarratief. Hierdie film werk met vaste topoi van die plaasroman-genre: die patriargie, erfopvolging, sosiale stratifikasie (van spesifiek eienaar en bywoners), die opposisie: plaas/stad, en die belang van die ruimtelike, maar op duidelik parodiërende wyse.<hr/>In this two part article J.M. Coetzee's eponymous novel, Disgrace (1999) and the 2008-film version thereof will be briefly discussed with a focus on its use of and reference to the Afrikaans farm novel. In White Writing (1988) Coetzee wrote authoritatively on the Afrikaans farm novel and in particular on the novels of C.M. van den Heever, one of the seminal figures in this sub-genre. Core aspects of this sub-genre are lineal consciousness (the farm as an inalienable space and the importance of hereditary succession), the farm as space imbued with patriarchal values and the biblical primogeniture and the preponderance of patriarchy (as can be seen in graves, portraits and heirlooms). Further central concepts are the hierarchical structure of the farm (the owner being the landlord surrounded by vassals: "bywoners" and labourers alike) and the farm as idyllic space in contrast to the town and especially the city which is usually depicted as a latter-day Sodom and Gomorrah and the epitomy of all the seven cardinal sins in different forms of debauchery. Whilst the farm is usually represented as a form of a bastion, in Disgrace in particular this aspect is meticulously dismantled. One of our central hypotheses in this study is that Coetzee's novel is in fact a parody of the traditional Afrikaans farm novel (like so many important Afrikaans novels by Etienne Leroux, Marlene van Niekerk, Etienne van Heerden, etc.). This film works with many of these fixed topoi of the farm novel genre, but then clearly in a parodical fashion: patriarchy, succession, social stratification (of specific owner and foreigners), the opposition, place/city, and the importance of the spatial. Another important hypothesis underlying this study is that the South African reader of the novel (and the spectator of the film) responds differently than the international reader and spectator. International critics initially did not even mention the (Afrikaans) farm novel as a field of allusion and as an important intertextual "reference". To explain this theoretically, we use Stuart Hall's definition of culture as a shared body of knowledge and also allude to several theoretical constructs (inter alia habitus, Bourdieu; repertoire, Even-Zohar and discursive formations, Foucault) which are all deterministic in nature and imply that certain knowledge, attitudes and perspectives are internalized on an unconscious level and determine one's decoding of signs or messages. The term we use is deictical patterns because deixis presupposes a shared context and even contextual precognition. In this first part of the study we briefly outline core aspects of film narratology (especially the importance of semiosis) because the interpretation of a film also requires a familiarity with the language of film. <![CDATA[<b>Die dierbare Engels</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512016000200014&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In hierdie artikel word J.M. Coetzee se bekende roman Disgrace (1999) eerstens ontleed en daarna word ook die verfilming daarvan in 2008, onder die loep geneem. Coetzee self het in sy werk uit 1988, White Writing, gesaghebbend geskryf oor die Afrikaanse plaasroman en ook oor die romans van C.M. van den Heever, 'n seminale skrywer binne hierdie sub-genre. Sentrale begrippe binne die Afrikaanse plaasroman is erfopvolging, wat daarvan uitgaan dat die plaas 'n onvervreembare ruimte is wat deur erfopvolging oorgaan van vader na seun (Coetzee praat van lineal consciousness), die oorheersing van patriargale waardes en die plaas as idilliese ruimte, maar ook as hiërargies gestruktureerd met die eienaar as Middeleeuse lyfheer en al die lyfeienes op feodale wyse as onderhoriges: bywoners én arbeiders. Daar word in hierdie studie uitgegaan van verskeie hipotetiese aannames: dat Coetzee in sy roman voorkennis verwag van sy leser (ook van die aard van die Afrikaanse plaasroman) en dat sy roman inderwaarheid 'n parodie van hierdie sub-genre is. Dit word teoreties verduidelik aan die hand van teorieë van onder meer Hall, Bourdieu en Even-Zohar. Voorts word die kinematografiese narratief teoreties belig en aangevoer dat kommunikasie deikties van aard is deurdat semiotiese tekens nie gedekodeer kan word sonder bepaalde voorkennis asook kontekstuele kennis nie. Vervolgens word die film Disgrace (2008) ontleed, maar veral dan as persiflage/parodie van die plaasnarratief. Hierdie film werk met vaste topoi van die plaasroman-genre: die patriargie, erfopvolging, sosiale stratifikasie (van spesifiek eienaar en bywoners), die opposisie: plaas/stad, en die belang van die ruimtelike, maar op duidelik parodiërende wyse.<hr/>In this two part article J.M. Coetzee's eponymous novel, Disgrace (1999) and the 2008-film version thereof will be briefly discussed with a focus on its use of and reference to the Afrikaans farm novel. In White Writing (1988) Coetzee wrote authoritatively on the Afrikaans farm novel and in particular on the novels of C.M. van den Heever, one of the seminal figures in this sub-genre. Core aspects of this sub-genre are lineal consciousness (the farm as an inalienable space and the importance of hereditary succession), the farm as space imbued with patriarchal values and the biblical primogeniture and the preponderance of patriarchy (as can be seen in graves, portraits and heirlooms). Further central concepts are the hierarchical structure of the farm (the owner being the landlord surrounded by vassals: "bywoners" and labourers alike) and the farm as idyllic space in contrast to the town and especially the city which is usually depicted as a latter-day Sodom and Gomorrah and the epitomy of all the seven cardinal sins in different forms of debauchery. Whilst the farm is usually represented as a form of a bastion, in Disgrace in particular this aspect is meticulously dismantled. One of our central hypotheses in this study is that Coetzee's novel is in fact a parody of the traditional Afrikaans farm novel (like so many important Afrikaans novels by Etienne Leroux, Marlene van Niekerk, Etienne van Heerden, etc.). This film works with many of these fixed topoi of the farm novel genre, but then clearly in a parodical fashion: patriarchy, succession, social stratification (of specific owner and foreigners), the opposition, place/city, and the importance of the spatial. Another important hypothesis underlying this study is that the South African reader of the novel (and the spectator of the film) responds differently than the international reader and spectator. International critics initially did not even mention the (Afrikaans) farm novel as a field of allusion and as an important intertextual "reference". To explain this theoretically, we use Stuart Hall's definition of culture as a shared body of knowledge and also allude to several theoretical constructs (inter alia habitus, Bourdieu; repertoire, Even-Zohar and discursive formations, Foucault) which are all deterministic in nature and imply that certain knowledge, attitudes and perspectives are internalized on an unconscious level and determine one's decoding of signs or messages. The term we use is deictical patterns because deixis presupposes a shared context and even contextual precognition. In this first part of the study we briefly outline core aspects of film narratology (especially the importance of semiosis) because the interpretation of a film also requires a familiarity with the language of film. <![CDATA[<b>Die Sideboard - 'n altaar en 'n teken van 'n regverdige God</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512016000200015&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In hierdie artikel word J.M. Coetzee se bekende roman Disgrace (1999) eerstens ontleed en daarna word ook die verfilming daarvan in 2008, onder die loep geneem. Coetzee self het in sy werk uit 1988, White Writing, gesaghebbend geskryf oor die Afrikaanse plaasroman en ook oor die romans van C.M. van den Heever, 'n seminale skrywer binne hierdie sub-genre. Sentrale begrippe binne die Afrikaanse plaasroman is erfopvolging, wat daarvan uitgaan dat die plaas 'n onvervreembare ruimte is wat deur erfopvolging oorgaan van vader na seun (Coetzee praat van lineal consciousness), die oorheersing van patriargale waardes en die plaas as idilliese ruimte, maar ook as hiërargies gestruktureerd met die eienaar as Middeleeuse lyfheer en al die lyfeienes op feodale wyse as onderhoriges: bywoners én arbeiders. Daar word in hierdie studie uitgegaan van verskeie hipotetiese aannames: dat Coetzee in sy roman voorkennis verwag van sy leser (ook van die aard van die Afrikaanse plaasroman) en dat sy roman inderwaarheid 'n parodie van hierdie sub-genre is. Dit word teoreties verduidelik aan die hand van teorieë van onder meer Hall, Bourdieu en Even-Zohar. Voorts word die kinematografiese narratief teoreties belig en aangevoer dat kommunikasie deikties van aard is deurdat semiotiese tekens nie gedekodeer kan word sonder bepaalde voorkennis asook kontekstuele kennis nie. Vervolgens word die film Disgrace (2008) ontleed, maar veral dan as persiflage/parodie van die plaasnarratief. Hierdie film werk met vaste topoi van die plaasroman-genre: die patriargie, erfopvolging, sosiale stratifikasie (van spesifiek eienaar en bywoners), die opposisie: plaas/stad, en die belang van die ruimtelike, maar op duidelik parodiërende wyse.<hr/>In this two part article J.M. Coetzee's eponymous novel, Disgrace (1999) and the 2008-film version thereof will be briefly discussed with a focus on its use of and reference to the Afrikaans farm novel. In White Writing (1988) Coetzee wrote authoritatively on the Afrikaans farm novel and in particular on the novels of C.M. van den Heever, one of the seminal figures in this sub-genre. Core aspects of this sub-genre are lineal consciousness (the farm as an inalienable space and the importance of hereditary succession), the farm as space imbued with patriarchal values and the biblical primogeniture and the preponderance of patriarchy (as can be seen in graves, portraits and heirlooms). Further central concepts are the hierarchical structure of the farm (the owner being the landlord surrounded by vassals: "bywoners" and labourers alike) and the farm as idyllic space in contrast to the town and especially the city which is usually depicted as a latter-day Sodom and Gomorrah and the epitomy of all the seven cardinal sins in different forms of debauchery. Whilst the farm is usually represented as a form of a bastion, in Disgrace in particular this aspect is meticulously dismantled. One of our central hypotheses in this study is that Coetzee's novel is in fact a parody of the traditional Afrikaans farm novel (like so many important Afrikaans novels by Etienne Leroux, Marlene van Niekerk, Etienne van Heerden, etc.). This film works with many of these fixed topoi of the farm novel genre, but then clearly in a parodical fashion: patriarchy, succession, social stratification (of specific owner and foreigners), the opposition, place/city, and the importance of the spatial. Another important hypothesis underlying this study is that the South African reader of the novel (and the spectator of the film) responds differently than the international reader and spectator. International critics initially did not even mention the (Afrikaans) farm novel as a field of allusion and as an important intertextual "reference". To explain this theoretically, we use Stuart Hall's definition of culture as a shared body of knowledge and also allude to several theoretical constructs (inter alia habitus, Bourdieu; repertoire, Even-Zohar and discursive formations, Foucault) which are all deterministic in nature and imply that certain knowledge, attitudes and perspectives are internalized on an unconscious level and determine one's decoding of signs or messages. The term we use is deictical patterns because deixis presupposes a shared context and even contextual precognition. In this first part of the study we briefly outline core aspects of film narratology (especially the importance of semiosis) because the interpretation of a film also requires a familiarity with the language of film.