Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0041-475120170005&lang=es vol. 57 num. 4 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Redakteursnota</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512017000500001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[<b>In steadfast allegiance: Adam Small and the Cape Flats Players</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512017000500002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Adam Small het dikwels verwys na die amateurtoneelgeselskap die Cape Flats Players wat sedert 1972 gereeld sy dramas en revues opgevoer het, veral in die Wes-Kaapse gemeenskappe. Hierdie artikel lewer verslag van die verhouding tussen Small en die toneelgroep, 'n verbintenis waaroor nog nie uitgebreid navorsing gepubliseer is nie. In die stuk Afrikaanse toneelgeskiedenis word aanvanklik die rol van Dramsoc, die studentetoneelgroep van die Universiteit van Wes-Kaapland, die onmiddellike voorganger van die Cape Flats Players, beskryf met die fokus op die eerste Kaapse opvoering van Kanna hy kô hystoe in Augustus 1972. Daarna word die rigtende invloede van onder meer swartbewustheid belig wat die toneelgeselskap gevorm het, gevolg deur 'n beskrywing van die omstandighede wat aanleiding gegee het tot die bedanking van Small as universiteitsdosent en regstreeks gelei het tot die ontstaan van die Players. Die artikel word afgesluit met 'n kort oorsig van die groep se aktiwiteite en hul verskillende gehore.<hr/>Adam Small often referred to the amateur theatre group, the Cape Flats Players, that regularly performed his dramas and revues since 1972 - especially in Western Cape communities. Although some research has been undertaken previously on black Afrikaans community and amateur theatre very little is known about such cultural activities generally. This descriptive paper reports on the relationship between Small and the Cape Flats Players theatre company, an association that has not yet been researched. As playwright Small invariably revised his plays after the Players' first performances often years before publication. Well-known plays that the group performed include Kanna hy kô hystoe (Kanna, He is Coming Home), Joanie Galant-hulle (Joanie Galant-them) and Die Krismis van Map Jacobs (The Christmas of Map Jacobs). They also devised a number of poetry and music revues which served as supporting acts to these drama performances. The revues were based on Small's published poetry, with titles such as Kitaar my kruis (Guitar my Cross, 1976), What about de lô (What about the law, 1980), Oos wes, tuis bes, Distrik Ses (Home sweet Home, District Six, 1982) and Vyfde Evangelie (Fifth Gospel, 1982). In this contribution to Afrikaans drama history the role of Dramsoc, the student theatre company at the University of the Western Cape, the Cape Flats Players' immediate predecessor, is discussed with a focus on the first Cape performance of Kanna hy kô hystoe in August-September 1972, performed at the University of the Western Cape and the Nico Malan Nursing College Hall in Athlone, Cape Town. Norman Michaels as Kanna and Charlyn Wessels as Makiet, both undergraduate students, performed the main roles of the play to high acclaim. For most local reviewers it was the first time that they had seen a performance of Kanna hy kô hystoe, and they were in the main impressed with this "work of emotion and truth" (W.S. Kaplan in The Cape Times). Bob Molloy wrote an insightful review for The Argus entitled "Confrontation with reality" in which he said inter alia: The odour of truth offends the hypocrite, says the Koran. On that basis this major advance in indigenous theatre is an assault on the senses - a gut-gripping confrontation with reality […] Small […] brings out the feel, the pity, and terror of true catharsis […] put across in the patois of the Cape with an almost poetic economy of word and movement. […] All the tragedy of rural-urban drift, the anomie of the city, and the breakdown of simple beliefs in the face of urban violence is contained in this stark sketch of a family forced off the farm by the death of the bread-winner and into the ghetto of District Six. The University of Western Cape, as other ethnic universities established under the apartheid-era Extension of University Education Act, Act No 45 of 1959, experienced a period of upheaval during the 1970s. The student community became more radicalised and many students were caught up in the Black Consciousness movement, spear-headed by the South African Students Organisation. Members of Dramsoc were influenced by the political philosophy of the day and associated with the aims of Black "revolutionary theatre" as formulated by Strini Moodley, a prominent Black Consciousness proponent: We had to challenge the existing order, the values, the norms. Black Theatre had to speak the language of revolt, of liberation, of revolution. As a Theatre of Revolt [it] was an expression of Black Consciousness… The paper provides some background to an uprising in 1973 at the University of the Western Cape when students staged a walk-off which for many changed the trajectories of their lives forever. Adam Small's life also changed. He, in solidarity with the students, resigned his position as a senior lecturer in the Department of Philosophy. At the prompting of Small, some of the students who walked off, formed the Cape Flats Players, envisaged to be a full-time theatre company. Their first performance was Joanie Galant in December 1973, based on a first draft of Small's second published play (Joanie Galant-hulle published in 1978). The paper reports on the reception of this play and subsequent revues as well as the end of the full-time phase of the Cape Flats Players. Peter Braaf, one of the original members of Dramsoc, revived the Cape Flats Players as a part-time amateur theatre group, that continued with the performance of Small's plays and revues, especially in the Cape Peninsula and the Afrikaans rural communities of the Cape Province. The article concludes with a brief overview of the group's activities and their different audiences. <![CDATA[<b>The educational cultural diversity imperative of the Constitutional Court: Attractive destination on the other side of an uncharted minefield</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512017000500003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Kultuurgebaseerde konflik in die onderwys is endemies in ʼn land wat so kultuurdivers soos Suid-Afrika is. Hoewel kulturele regte deur die reg gereguleer word, ontstaan daar tog konflik tussen kulture wat selfs in hofgedinge uitloop en die funksionering van skole negatief beïnvloed. In die Pillay-hofsaak het Hoofregter Pius Langa gesê dat kultuurdiversiteit in die onderwys verwelkom en gevier moet word en nie gevrees moet word nie. Die viering van diversiteit klink aanloklik maar dit is nie duidelik hoe dit altyd moontlik is nie. In hierdie artikel bespreek ek enkele dimensies van die moeilik-definieerbare begrip kultuur aan die hand van enkele regs- en ander perspektiewe. Ek verwys ook na die Standard for the Principalship (2016) waarin dit gestel word dat goeie hoofde van alle Suid-Afrikaanse skole die beginsels van ubuntu hul eie moet maak en in hul bestuurspraktyk moet verreken. Dit kan tot die marginalisering van ander kulture lei. Die bestaan van ʼn tradisionele Afrika-kultuur (naamlik ubuntu) en ʼn Westers-kapitalistiese kultuur en die implikasies daarvan word bespreek. Onderwysbestuurders is soms eerder aan kulturele norme as die reg gehoorsaam omdat hulle in ʼn spanningsveld tussen die twee stelle aansprake moet funksioneer. Ek sluit af met ʼn voorbeeld van ʼn geval waar die regte van ʼn kwesbare groep naamlik skooldogters aangetas is deur mense wat kulturele norme bo die reg gehoorsaam het. Ek beoog om in ʼn opvolgartikel meer gevalle onder die soeklig te plaas. Voordat die ideaal van regter Langa verwerklik kan word, moet daar eers deur ʼn spreekwoordelike mynveld beweeg word.<hr/>Culture and education are inextricably linked and education is one of the spheres in which an individual person or a collective may practise their closely-related rights to culture and freedom of expression. Different role players in education all have cultural rights and culture can have a beneficial or negative effect on the functioning of an educational institution and, consequently, on the realisation of cultural and educational rights. Because culture is an emotional issue linked to a person's concept of self-worth and may be misused to discriminate against people, members of a school community could easily feel that their cultural rights are threatened and culture-based conflict often ensues. A culturally homogeneous country is not as prone to endemic cultural conflict as a culturally deeply diverse country like South Africa. In South Africa, cultural rights and the expression and practice thereof are regulated by constitutional and other laws designed to ensure harmony in this regard. Nevertheless, cultural conflict often arises in South African schools and is sometimes even escalated to the courts. The functioning of schools is sometimes disrupted by culture-based conflict, of which the recent protests about the regulation of girls' hairstyles in some schools is an apt example. The well-known Pillay case ensued from disciplinary measures a well-known girls' school took against a girl who wore a nose stud contrary to the school's dress code to demonstrate her solidarity with her cultural heritage. In this Constitutional Court case the school's action was set aside. In the judgment, Chief Justice Pius Langa said that the exercise of religion and culture in schools was something to be celebrated and not feared. He said that the more learners feel free to express their religions and cultures in school, the closer we come to the society envisaged in the Constitution. To his mind the display of religion and culture in public was not a "parade of horribles" but a pageant of diversity which will enrich our schools and also our country. The celebration of diversity in all schools sounds like an attractive proposition but it is most likely not as easy to achieve as the Chief Justice might have hoped. I will discuss the problems associated with the achievement of the Chief Justice's idea by firstly discussing some of the dimensions of the elusive concept culture, using legal and other perspectives. I refer to the National Policy on the South African Standard for the Principalship (2016) of the Department of Basic Education which declares that all good South African school principals embrace and practice the principles of ubuntu in their management and leadership practices. This preference could marginalise all other cultures in the leadership and management cultures of South African schools. I surveyed the literature and came to the conclusion that, regarding cultural diversity, one may distinguish a Western and an African culture (in the form of ubuntu) in South African society without discriminating unfairly or encouraging conflict. I discuss the implications of the assumption that one may distinguish two broad cultures in South Africa despite the fact that there are countless variations of each and that one probably needs to speak of forms of ubuntu instead of referring to this notion in the singular. In particular, educational leaders are sometimes confronted by a choice between obeying the norms of a culture or legal principles when they have to handle conflict emanating from culture. Naturally, this causes tension and one can understand why some managers sometimes choose cultural principles over legal ones, especially in light of the fact that there do not seem to be many legal consequences for doing so. In conclusion, I discuss a case study from the literature. The case deals with the sexual abuse of girls by educators and asks why parents and educators remain silent about this phenomenon even though they know it is an infringement of several rights of the girls in question. The case is also an illustration of the fact that the rights of vulnerable minority groups (in this case, school girls in a rural setting) can be violated because people make decisions informed by cultural norms and not by the law. Such decisions inevitably impinge on the girls' rights to education and to have their best interests guide decision making in education and they also indicate that people may sometimes offer or use culture as a defence against allegations of wrongful deeds. From the case study, it is clear that educators and parents sometimes deliberately choose to obey cultural and not legal norms even though their decisions will undoubtedly have deleterious effects on the girls' futures. I hope to discuss more instances of the problematic conundrum of culture, the law and the educational interests of children in a follow-up article. I believe, that much needs to be done before Chief Justice Langa's ideal can be attained. Many people will have to be empowered in many ways before justice can be done to the expression of cultural rights in education. It is clear to me that we will have to traverse a proverbial minefield without a roadmap to reach the ideal. <![CDATA[<b>Prejudice against female school leadership within the context of multiple deprivations: Threats, approaches, survival</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512017000500004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Alhoewel skoolleierskapposisies toenemend deur vroue gevul word, heers daar steeds diepgesetelde vooroordeel teen die vermoëns van vroue om as leiers op te tree. Hierdie artikel fokus op die uitdagings en benaderings van vroulike skoolleiers wat in gedepriveerde gemeenskappe (dit wil sê binne die konteks van meervoudige gebrek) aan vooroordeel teen vroulike leierskapvermoëns uitgelewer is. Aan die hand van 'n kwalitatiewe gevallestudie-ondersoek is individuele onderhoude met agt vroulike skoolhoofde en agt skoolbestuurslede van laerskole in landelike gebiede in KwaZulu-Natal, Noordwes en Mpumalanga gevoer. Al agt laerskole is uitgelewer aan omstandighede van meervoudige gebrek. Die data-ontleding bevestig die aanwesigheid van vooroordeel teen vroulike leierskap en maak die benaderings bekend wat vroulike leiers volg om hierdie vooroordeel te oorkom. Hierdie benaderings hou verband met die hoë waarde wat vroulike skoolleiers aan verhoudingstigting, gesamentlike besluitneming en die versorging van 'n kwesbare leerlinggemeenskap heg.<hr/>Although school leadership positions are increasingly occupied by females, deep-rooted prejudice prevails regarding their competencies to act as school leaders. In this article, the focus is on the challenges facing female school leaders and the resolutions they implement in the face of ongoing prejudice within the context of a multitude of deprivations. While many studies have been conducted on the challenges and successes of female school leadership in urban and rural Western and non-Western societies, understanding female school leadership within the simultaneously occurring conditions of prejudice and multiple deprivation remains an under-researched terrain. For this study, data were collected by means of a qualitative case study approach employing individual interviews with eight female school leaders and eight members of the school management teams of eight primary schools, which serve communities where multiple deprivation is rife. The data were interpreted as research findings through the theoretical lenses of feminist theory, relational leadership theory, and multiple deprivation. The findings pertain to the various approaches female school leaders follow as survival measures to counter the threat of deep-seated prejudice against their competence to hold leadership positions. The approaches these female school leaders follow reveal the value they place on positive relationships, joint decision-making and the best possible care for vulnerable learners. Their adoption of these approaches provides a means of persuading and convincing their staff as well as the learner and parent community of their executive leadership capacities as females. Prejudice against female school leadership manifests as a deeply rooted patriarchal stereotyping of female ability. Especially prevalent in rural areas, such preconceived notions are expressed through the attitudes of members of both the internal and external school society. While some female leaders are discouraged by such prejudice, others deal with it proactively by convincing their school communities of their capacity to lead. Closely related to this attempt at winning over others is the high premium female school leaders place on building positive relationships with their staff as well as the learner and parent community. By considering the suggestions of the parent community when it comes to school improvements, a spirit of cohesive agreement develops which contributes to parents becoming more receptive to female leadership. With their conscious focus on spending enough time (quantitatively speaking) with staff during school breaks, and by considering the anonymous suggestions and complaints of learners, qualitative relationships are engendered which are based on good communication and accessibility. The fact that female leaders focus on these aspects promotes creative problem-solving and negates leadership as an exclusively male domain. Female leaders value collaborative decision-making, which they achieve by eliciting autonomous inputs from committee members. This promotes not only the taking of ownership but also a sense of belonging, which enhances stakeholder receptiveness for female leadership. To convince the community and ensure that the goals of the school are accountably realised through the assertive accommodation of joint decision-making, female school leaders invariably focus on gaining a thorough knowledge of the relevant school policies. Females make convincing leaders thanks to their disposition as caretakers. Due to their own experience of multiple deprivation as children, many of the female leaders participating in this study revealed that they understand the conditions of absolute poverty to which their learners are exposed. Since they have insight into the hopelessness of their learners' circumstances, they know the value of education as a potential source of social mobility. Their task as caretakers is closely linked to obtaining sponsorships which will expose their learners to the most holistic education possible within their own context. They realise that in order to persuade the business world to commit sponsorships, their schools must function properly to be marketed as a worthwhile product. The female leaders' empathetic approach to the well-being of their staff and learners inspires good performance which - with the goodwill and cooperation of the parent community - contributes to a well-functioning school. The combination of an empathetic disposition to learner well-being, their own experience of the value of education as a possible platform for social mobility, and their skills in obtaining sponsorships for the holistic schooling of their learners, engenders a positive attitude towards female leadership and serves to eradicate much of the prejudice against their competencies. The threat of prejudice against female leaders is thus countered by approaches involving the establishment of positive relationships, the application of joint decision-making processes and an empathetic focus on the circumstances inhibiting learners' progress. The dogged pursuit of these approaches results in females being viewed as convincing school leaders who provide the most holistic education possible within their context to learners - elements which serve to help female leaders to survive and thrive. <![CDATA[<b>Oliver Tambo and communism</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512017000500005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Alhoewel skoolleierskapposisies toenemend deur vroue gevul word, heers daar steeds diepgesetelde vooroordeel teen die vermoëns van vroue om as leiers op te tree. Hierdie artikel fokus op die uitdagings en benaderings van vroulike skoolleiers wat in gedepriveerde gemeenskappe (dit wil sê binne die konteks van meervoudige gebrek) aan vooroordeel teen vroulike leierskapvermoëns uitgelewer is. Aan die hand van 'n kwalitatiewe gevallestudie-ondersoek is individuele onderhoude met agt vroulike skoolhoofde en agt skoolbestuurslede van laerskole in landelike gebiede in KwaZulu-Natal, Noordwes en Mpumalanga gevoer. Al agt laerskole is uitgelewer aan omstandighede van meervoudige gebrek. Die data-ontleding bevestig die aanwesigheid van vooroordeel teen vroulike leierskap en maak die benaderings bekend wat vroulike leiers volg om hierdie vooroordeel te oorkom. Hierdie benaderings hou verband met die hoë waarde wat vroulike skoolleiers aan verhoudingstigting, gesamentlike besluitneming en die versorging van 'n kwesbare leerlinggemeenskap heg.<hr/>Although school leadership positions are increasingly occupied by females, deep-rooted prejudice prevails regarding their competencies to act as school leaders. In this article, the focus is on the challenges facing female school leaders and the resolutions they implement in the face of ongoing prejudice within the context of a multitude of deprivations. While many studies have been conducted on the challenges and successes of female school leadership in urban and rural Western and non-Western societies, understanding female school leadership within the simultaneously occurring conditions of prejudice and multiple deprivation remains an under-researched terrain. For this study, data were collected by means of a qualitative case study approach employing individual interviews with eight female school leaders and eight members of the school management teams of eight primary schools, which serve communities where multiple deprivation is rife. The data were interpreted as research findings through the theoretical lenses of feminist theory, relational leadership theory, and multiple deprivation. The findings pertain to the various approaches female school leaders follow as survival measures to counter the threat of deep-seated prejudice against their competence to hold leadership positions. The approaches these female school leaders follow reveal the value they place on positive relationships, joint decision-making and the best possible care for vulnerable learners. Their adoption of these approaches provides a means of persuading and convincing their staff as well as the learner and parent community of their executive leadership capacities as females. Prejudice against female school leadership manifests as a deeply rooted patriarchal stereotyping of female ability. Especially prevalent in rural areas, such preconceived notions are expressed through the attitudes of members of both the internal and external school society. While some female leaders are discouraged by such prejudice, others deal with it proactively by convincing their school communities of their capacity to lead. Closely related to this attempt at winning over others is the high premium female school leaders place on building positive relationships with their staff as well as the learner and parent community. By considering the suggestions of the parent community when it comes to school improvements, a spirit of cohesive agreement develops which contributes to parents becoming more receptive to female leadership. With their conscious focus on spending enough time (quantitatively speaking) with staff during school breaks, and by considering the anonymous suggestions and complaints of learners, qualitative relationships are engendered which are based on good communication and accessibility. The fact that female leaders focus on these aspects promotes creative problem-solving and negates leadership as an exclusively male domain. Female leaders value collaborative decision-making, which they achieve by eliciting autonomous inputs from committee members. This promotes not only the taking of ownership but also a sense of belonging, which enhances stakeholder receptiveness for female leadership. To convince the community and ensure that the goals of the school are accountably realised through the assertive accommodation of joint decision-making, female school leaders invariably focus on gaining a thorough knowledge of the relevant school policies. Females make convincing leaders thanks to their disposition as caretakers. Due to their own experience of multiple deprivation as children, many of the female leaders participating in this study revealed that they understand the conditions of absolute poverty to which their learners are exposed. Since they have insight into the hopelessness of their learners' circumstances, they know the value of education as a potential source of social mobility. Their task as caretakers is closely linked to obtaining sponsorships which will expose their learners to the most holistic education possible within their own context. They realise that in order to persuade the business world to commit sponsorships, their schools must function properly to be marketed as a worthwhile product. The female leaders' empathetic approach to the well-being of their staff and learners inspires good performance which - with the goodwill and cooperation of the parent community - contributes to a well-functioning school. The combination of an empathetic disposition to learner well-being, their own experience of the value of education as a possible platform for social mobility, and their skills in obtaining sponsorships for the holistic schooling of their learners, engenders a positive attitude towards female leadership and serves to eradicate much of the prejudice against their competencies. The threat of prejudice against female leaders is thus countered by approaches involving the establishment of positive relationships, the application of joint decision-making processes and an empathetic focus on the circumstances inhibiting learners' progress. The dogged pursuit of these approaches results in females being viewed as convincing school leaders who provide the most holistic education possible within their context to learners - elements which serve to help female leaders to survive and thrive. <![CDATA[<b>The move away from a moderate to a radical land redistribution approach as transformation priority in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512017000500006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es 'n Prioriteitskonsep wat deesdae gereeld gekoppel word aan radikale sosio-ekonomiese transformasie in Suid-Afrika (SA) is die oproep om versnelde grondherverdeling. In hierdie verband is daar konsensus onder akademici en meningsvormers dat grondhervorming in SA, met 'n spesifieke fokus op herverdeling, uiters traag plaasvind, en nie noodwendig die voorheen benadeelde massas bevoordeel nie. Vanuit verskillende oorde word geargumenteer dat die regering tot op hede 'n baie gematigde benadering tot grondherverdeling gevolg het. Dit is juis hierdie gematigde benadering wat bygedra het tot die trae pas van grondherverdeling. Teen die agtergrond van oproepe om radikale sosio-ekonomiese transformasie word daar toenemend gesinspeel dat daar wegbeweeg gaan word van 'n gematigde na 'n meer radikale grondherverdelingsbenadering. Dit is dan ook die doel van hierdie artikel om die regering se gematigde benadering tot grondherverdeling in oënskou te neem en te kontrasteer met die elemente van die ontvouende meer radikale beleids- en implementeringsbenadering. Die vraag word gestel: Wat is/was die rasionaal agter die huidige gematigde regeringsbenadering tot grondherverdeling, en watter faktore en beleidselemente gaan moontlik rigtinggewend wees vir die ontvouende meer radikale benadering?<hr/>A key reason for the establishment of the African National Congress (ANC) in 1912 was ensuring and securing access to land for the landless masses. Since then land redistribution remained key concepts in the ANC's policy vocabulary. This importance of redistribution and access to land was also emphasized in the 1955 Freedom Charter of the movement, and again in the 1994 ANC election manifesto. In 2017 the objective of access to land and redistribution has however not yet been realised. A contemporary priority concept that is therefore frequently linked to the notion of radical socio-economic transformation in South Africa (SA) is the call for accelerated land redistribution towards black economic empowerment. In this respect there is consensus amongst most academics and opinion formers, that land reform with a specific emphasis on the pace of redistribution is slow and does not necessarily benefit the previously disadvantaged masses. It is argued from different angles that government has, up to now, followed a moderate approach to land redistribution. This moderate approach contributed to a large extent to the current slow pace of land redistribution. In line with calls for radical economic transformation the SA government is currently under pressure to move away from this moderate school of thought to a more radical land redistribution approach. It is the purpose of this article to analyse the reasons for this moderate approach and contrast it with the elements of the evolving more radical policy and implementation approach. In effect the following question is being addressed: What is die rationale behind the current moderate government approach to land redistribution and which factors and elements will have an influence on the evolving radical approach? In order to answer the above question the article will be divided into three levels. On a macro level, and as contextual background, the focus briefly falls on the origins and nature of the contemporary moderate approach to land redistribution and the meaning of socio-economic transformation as a development objective. On a micro level the article will be narrowed down to the transformation pressure that the SA government is currently experiencing and the now familiar, nature and scope of land expropriation during the apartheid timeframe as well as redistribution progress that has been made since 1994. Against this background emphasis is placed on land redistribution as a contemporary transformation priority in SA. On the application level the article is comparatively narrowed down to the move away from a moderate school of thought to the causal factors that led to the evolving more radical approach to land redistribution. In conclusion possible key elements that will influence the unfolding of the more radical approach are identified, highlighted and analysed. In the final analysis the aim is therefore to provide a predictive scenario analysis that points towards the consequences and unfolding of the mind shift to this more radicalised approach to land redistribution. <![CDATA[<b>The role of NSFAS in facilitating access to higher education for students from poorer communities in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512017000500007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In die vorige politieke bestel was swart studente onderverteenwoordig aan universiteite in Suid-Afrika. In 1990 was byvoorbeeld slegs 37,7% van studente swart. Met die oorgang na die nuwe politieke bestel is alle beperkings tot hoëronderwysinstellings wat op ras gebaseer was, verwyder. 'n Nuwe struikelblok vir toegang van voorheen uitgeslote groepe was die hoë koste van universiteitsopleiding. Finansiële realiteite het verhoed dat armer studente dit kon bekostig om verder by hoëronderwysinstellings te gaan studeer. Die staat se subsidie aan universiteite het sedert 1990 toenemend in reële per capita-terme afgeneem. Gevolglik het universiteite hulle klasgelde verhoog om hul boeke te laat klop. NSFAS is gestig om hoër onderwys meer bekostigbaar vir armer studente te maak. Sedert 1995 is R60,6 miljard aan universiteitstudente en R12,1 miljard aan TVET-studente uitbetaal. NSFAS-studente vaar beter as nie-NSFAS-studente in die sin dat 'n groter persentasie van hulle kwalifikasies verwerf en 'n kleiner persentasie van hulle onsuksesvol uit die stelsel val, vergeleke met die nie-NSFAS-studente. In die proses het die demografie van universiteitstudente ook baie verander. Teen 2014 was 71,1% van universiteitstudente swart. NSFAS het beslis 'n positiewe bydrae daartoe gelewer.<hr/>In the previous political dispensation, the student population at universities did not reflect the demographics of South Africa. In 1990, for example, only 37,7% of the students were black while no less than 50,3% were white. In the new democratic South Africa people were of the opinion that the injustices of the past would be rectified and that more people who had previously been prevented from entering the higher education system as a result of discriminatory racial laws would now be able to enter the system. However, financial constraints became an important factor prohibiting prospective students from poor communities to enter the system. The expenditure of the state on higher education in real per capita terms decreased after 1990. The percentage of GDP devoted to higher education as well as the percentage of total state expenditure and the percentage of educational expenditure devoted to higher education continued to decrease over time. Universities have three income streams: subsidies from the state, tuition fees and the third income stream including items like donations, investment returns and contract research. The result being that universities were forced to increase tuition fees by more than the inflation rate to balance their books, because state subsidies had become a smaller percentage of their income. This made higher education even more unaffordable to the poor. To rectify the situation, the National Student Financial Aid Scheme (NSFAS) was established in the middle 1990s. With NSFAS the student receives a 100% loan, but depending on the success rate a student's loan could proportionally be converted into a bursary. For example, for every 25% of courses passed, 10% of the loan is converted into a bursary. Thus, a maximum of 40% of the loan may eventually be converted into a bursary. If a student registers as a final year student and succeeds in completing his degree, that year's loan is also converted into a bursary. There is thus a built-in incentive in the scheme to be successful in order for students to be able to decrease the size of their loan. NSFAS started on a small scale and 40 002 students received NSFAS awards in 1995 and R154 million was paid to students. The state then contributed R40 million towards NSFAS. Over time that changed quite substantially and in 2016 NSFAS helped 225 950 university students (as well as 225 557 students at TVET colleges) and paid out R10,3 billion to the students (with a further R2,11 billion paid to TVET students). In 2016 the state contributed R14,04 billion towards NSFAS. In total the state has contributed R56,8 billion to NSFAS while over time R72,3 billion was paid out to NSFAS students. On average 121 253 university students were helped annually for the period 1995-2016 and since 2007 on average 138 034 TVET students were supported. According to NSFAS annual reports NSFAS students, pass more than 75% of the courses for which they enrol. When the progress of the cohorts of NSFAS and non-NSFAS students that entered universities for the first time in 2000 to 2004 are compared, the NSFAS students seem to be more successful. A higher percentage of the original group of NSFAS students obtained a qualification by 2009 and a smaller percentage dropped out relative to the non-NSFAS cohort. It does seem as though NSFAS funds make it possible for students to stay in the higher education system even if they are not fully successful. The financial burden on non-NSFAS students is too high if they are not successful and they then tend to leave the system. Over time the demographics of university students changed dramatically and in 2014 71,1% of the students were black. Although it is by no means the only reason, NSFAS definitely had a positive influence on getting more students from previously disadvantaged backgrounds into the higher education system. <![CDATA[<b>Family murder by children: A case study</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512017000500008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die Suid-Afrikaanse samelewing word as gewelddadig beskou, met 'n gemiddelde nasionale moordsyfer wat beduidend hoër is as in die res van die wêreld. Die familie is ʼn kernsisteem binne die breëre gemeenskap en word tradisioneel as 'n veilige sisteem beskou. Die realiteit is egter dat 'n groot persentasie moorde in Suid-Afrika deur 'n kennis, familielid of lid van 'n huishouding gepleeg word. Die doel van die artikel was om die kind as 'n persoon wat familiemoord pleeg, beter te verstaan. 'n Kwalitatiewe navorsingsontwerp is gevolg en kwalitatiewe inhoudsontleding is vir data-analise gebruik. Die geval wat in hierdie artikel bespreek word om die tipiese kenmerke te illustreer van kinders wat familiemoord pleeg, het deel uitgemaak van ʼn PhD-studie in opvoedkundige sielkunde. Alhoewel elke geval van familiemoord tot ʼn mate uniek is, is daar wel kenmerke wat in die meerderheid gevalle voorkom en tot dieper insigte rakende die fenomeen kan bydra. Kenmerke wat dikwels voorkom, dui op ʼn swak (of geen) band met die primêre sorggewer. Geborge huislike omstandighede ontbreek oorwegend en die kind se emosionele behoeftes word grotendeels misken. Die akkumulatiewe stressors lei dikwels tot gevoelens en persepsies van verwerping. Verlies word nie altyd toereikend hanteer nie. Gesinswanfunksionering, wat mishandeling en ekstreme ouerskapstyle insluit, is opvallend. Akkumulatiewe stressors het dikwels gevoelens van angs en onderliggende aggressie tot gevolg. Die akkumulatiewe individuele en sistemiese gebeure vind oor jare plaas en lei daartoe dat die kind uiteindelik moord pleeg.<hr/>South African society is perceived as violent, with an average murder rate significantly higher than in the rest of the world. The family is a core system within the broader community and is traditionally seen as a safe environment. The reality, however, is that a high percentage of all murders is committed by someone known to the family or a member of a family or household. The aim of the article is to understand the child who commits family murder by determining the contributing individual and systemic factors that lead to family murder. A qualitative research design was followed and qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data. The case presented in this article to illustrate the typical characteristics of children who committed family murder formed part of a PhD study in educational psychology. Although each case of family murder has unique features, similar characteristics are often present in all these cases, and it is hoped that this case study will increase insight into the general characteristics of this phenomenon. Simone (pseudonym), whose case is described in this article, was subjected to severe family dysfunction and physical abuse by her father and grandmother. She had an ambivalent relationship with her grandmother, who was sometimes caring but sometimes abused her verbally. Simone also had to perform adult duties from an early age, having to collect money for her grandmother at nightclubs her grandmother owned. Her mother did not intervene when the grandmother took over the care of Simone. When Simone was 10 years old, her father committed suicide. Two days before the suicide the father discussed his feelings and suicide plans with Simone. Simone's grandmother blamed Simone for her father's suicide. At the age of twelve, Simone slipped sleeping tablets into her grandmother's tea. She approached two unknown men on the street and persuaded them to kill her grandmother, who, she told them, had murdered her parents. In return she promised the men household goods and sexual intercourse. The men agreed to commit the murder and followed Simone to the grandmother's home where she was asleep due to the medication she had been given. Simone was in the next room when the men strangled her grandmother. Not being convinced that her grandmother was dead, she gave the men a kitchen knife and insisted they slit her grandmother's throat as well. The men subsequently each received 25-year prison sentences. For her role in the murder of her grandmother, Simone received 36 months' correctional supervision, suspended for 7 years. She became South Africa's youngest female murder accomplice. The general characteristics of children who commit family murder (including this case study) relate to weak or no attachment to the primary caregiver. This, as well as the accumulated individual and environmental stressors, lead to feelings and perceptions of rejection. A safe and supportive family environment is often absent; the child's emotional needs are not acknowledged. These children are often not supported when they experience loss. Family dysfunction, which includes abuse and extreme parenting styles, is evident. The accumulated stressors often lead to feelings of anxiety and aggression. The individual and systemic stressors accumulate over several years and result in murder at a seemingly "unimportant" moment. <![CDATA[<b>Language, technics and truth</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512017000500009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Hierdie artikel gaan die kwessie van tegniek oorweeg, nie in terme van die huidige aard daarvan of die invloed wat dit op die moderne samelewing uitoefen nie, maar in terme van die mites oor die oorsprong en betekenis van tegniek. Hierdie mites dui enersyds op die toegang wat tegniek tot die sfeer van die goddelike bied, en andersyds op die afsondering en selfstandigheid waartoe tegniek die mens in staat stel. Daar gaan beredeneer word dat die spanning tussen hierdie benaderings verhoog moet word, eerder as om 'n keuse ter bevoordeling van een uit te oefen. Freud se begrip Spur, soos deur Derrida opgeneem in sy filosofie van différance, gaan as platform vir die spanningsveld dien. In die spanningsveld word tegniek verstaan in terme van die kontekstuele leefruimte waarbinne dit gestalte kry, maar ook as dit wat sy konteks oorstyg deur toegang te soek na dit wat buite sy konteks lê, en toegang te bied aan diegene in 'n ander milieu. Laastens gaan die tegnisiteit van die mens beklemtoon word, nie as dit waartoe die mens wys as doel van sy bestaan nie, maar as komponent van die dinamisme waarbinne die mens 'n voortdurende wyser na betekenis word.<hr/>In this article, the question concerning technics will be considered, not in terms of its current nature/state, or the impact that it has on contemporary society, but rather in terms of the myths on its origin and meaning. These myths point to the access gained through the use of technology in two senses: to the sphere of the gods on the one hand, but also to the solitude and independence of mankind from the gods on the other. Plato's account of the myth of the theft of technics by Prometheus will serve as an example of the first approach, and Nietzsche's lingual turn in On Truth and Lying in a non-moral sense will represent the latter. A space for the middle-ground between these approaches will be explored in Aeschylus' Prometheus Bound, in which language and technics are depicted as being simultaneously bound to an overarching principle, as well as being representative of a concrete situation. In the tragedy, the characters representing both positions don't fit comfortably within the spheres they represent: firstly, Hephaestus was a cripple god that created technics to compensate for his shortcoming, and secondly there is Prometheus, the giant who sympathised with humanity by stealing technics from the gods. It will be argued that the use of technics positions humanity in a similar "in-between" position, a position that is constitutive of being human. The position comprises of a necessary tension between the metaphysical and the concrete, a tension that should not be resolved in favour of one side, but rather strengthened. This notion will be supported by Freud's term Spur, as appropriated by Derrida into différance. Spur refers to the trace of what is thought. However, this trace does not serve as an exact replica of what it depicts, because what is thought always remains beyond its representation. Furthermore, the means of and the act of representation bring about deviation in relation to what is represented, hence the description of différance. This does not imply that the act of thinking should be regarded as failing in its very purpose, but rather as a proof of the interplay between the elements constituting the zone of the imprint. Therefore, the zone of the imprint, différance, opens itself to what lies beyond itself without claiming to contain it on the one hand, and recognizes itself as being situated and limited on the other. But bringing these two parts together also implies changing our perceptions about truth and relativity. To this end, the suggestion of Heidegger to regard truth not as static, but as simultaneously/continuous veiling and unveiling, could be considered for bringing together or making the two approaches adaptable to each other. The binding force between the act of seeking what lies beyond, and the expression of what is immanent, is technics. Technics should not therefore be regarded merely as a supplement to or extension of human capabilities, but as something constitutive of being human. Such an explanation may leave the impression that humanity could be defined in terms of its technicity, which would amount to a distortion of the nature of the relationship between humanity and technics. The relationship in its most preferable form, is one in which a tension between that which lies beyond one's immediate situation and the immanent is maintained, a tension through which meaning becomes constituted. The tension is maintained by two aspects of technicity, firstly the always temporally transcendent character of technology, that seeks by means of invention and archiving to reach beyond its particular milieu, and secondly, the always pragmatic use of technology, that seeks to maintain and improve conditions. In conclusion a case will be made that the above-mentioned dichotomy between the universal and particular should instead be interpreted as an ongoing dynamism which seeks a balance between facilitating the preservation and transfer of that which shapes human society, as well as preventing its detrimental stagnation. <![CDATA[<b>The way in which young Afrikaans children connect meaning to their early vocabulary</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512017000500010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Eerstetaalverwerwing kan beskryf word as die aanleer van die fonologie, morfologie, leksikon, sintaksis, semantiek (en pragmatiek) van 'n taal. Daar kan dus afgelei word dat beide taaltipologiese en taalspesifieke faktore betrokke is by hierdie proses en derhalwe is taalspesifieke studies oor eerstetaalverwerwing wat taaltipologiese faktore aanwend, nodig om hierdie navorsingsveld te ontgin. In Afrikaans is nog min navorsing gedoen oor eerstetaalverwerwing en die noodsaak wat Lieven (2010:92,103) aandui vir 'n verskeidenheid taalverwerwingstudies in verskillende tale en spesifiek oor hoe kinders vorm en betekenis aan mekaar verbind (dus vorm-betekenis-passings maak), word nie in die huidige Afrikaanse literatuur gevul nie. Hierdie studie se doel is om (i) 'n bestekopname van beskikbare navorsing oor Afrikaanse eerstetaalverwerwing te verskaf en die navorsingsmoontlikhede te identifiseer en (ii) deur middel van 'n analise van oorspronklike data (iii) afleidings te maak oor hoe jong Afrikaanse kinders wat net begin om taal aan te leer, vorm en betekenis aan mekaar verbind. Data van 21 Afrikaanssprekende kinders tussen die ouderdom van agt en 24 maande is geanaliseer vanuit 'n teoretiese raamwerk van die gebruiksgebaseerde benadering en kognitiewe linguistiek en afleidings oor die wyse waarop die kinders vorm en betekenis aan mekaar verbind, is gemaak op grond van vier tipes passings, naamlik simplekse passing, komplekse passing, metaforiese passing en metonimiese passing.<hr/>The acquisition of a first language can be described as becoming proficient in the phonology, morphology, lexicon, syntax and semantics (and pragmatics) of a language, as well as mastering the underlying abstract rules associated with these grammatical levels. Seeing that each child should master a form of each of these elements, one can assume that language typological factors will be involved in the process. However, some of these aspects will be language specific seeing that languages differ with regard to grammar and context specific factors. Language specific studies on first language acquisition that employ language typological factors are therefore necessary to explore this field of study. Lieven (2010:92,103) specifically indicates a universal need for more language acquisition studies in a variety of languages and especially research on how children connect form and meaning (make form-meaning mappings) from the input in their different communicative settings. However, very little research has been done on Afrikaans first language acquisition in general and a number of research opportunities, such as exploring the form-meaning mappings of Afrikaans children, within this field still exist. A survey on the available literature within this field has also not been conducted as yet. Another gap is that very few of the available Afrikaans studies make use of original data and of data on children just beginning to learn a language. This present study therefore aims to (i) provide a survey on the available literature in Afrikaans first language acquisition and on the research opportunities within this field, (ii) start to fill some of these gaps in the literature by studying the first form-meaning mappings that Afrikaans children just beginning to acquire their language, make, and (iii) do this by presenting an analysis of original data. Therefore, a literature review of the available literature on Afrikaans first language acquisition from an educational, psychological and linguistic perspective that indicates the research opportunities within these fields is provided. Furthermore, data from 21 Afrikaans speaking children between the ages of eight and 24 months using their first lexical items was analysed in order to make conclusions on how the children connect form and meaning, in other words make form-meaning mappings. During the investigation period of five months, the children's parents recorded their children's first lexical items and also indicated the contexts in which the lexical items were used. Studies on first language acquisition are usually carried out from one of two opposite approaches, namely empiricism and rationalism. This study followed an empiricist approach considering that this approach accounts for the process in which children extract meaning from their linguistic environments. Theoretical assumptions from the usage-based theories, and together with that cognitive linguistics, were used in the description of the language data of the particular Afrikaans children. The theoretical framework chosen from the usage-based theories and cognitive linguistics in order to optimally describe the children's form-meaning mappings consists of cognitive models and processes such as the prototype model of categorisation, image schematic structure, metonymy, metaphor and conceptual blending. These models and processes aid a description of the way in which the children structure and categorise concepts (thus make sense of meaning) before linking them to a particular form. Results firstly reveal two main types of form-meaning mappings, namely simplex mappings and complex mappings. With a simplex mapping, the conceptualisation process is more conventionalised, and therefore not necessarily difficult to establish. A complex mapping is made when the conceptualisation process needs more description and analysis in order to be fully interpreted. The complex mappings can further be divided into two types of mappings, namely metaphoric mapping (not that common in the data) and metonymic mapping. These four types of mappings reveal information on how the children connect form and meaning by means of a conceptualisation process. A significant finding is that the use of metaphor is not really active at this early stage of language acquisition, but that metonymy is a more productive categorisation mechanism at this stage. This corresponds with studies done by Péréz-Hernández and Duvignau (2016) on French speaking children and Rundblad and Annaz (2010) on English children in which it was found that metonymy is more basic than metaphor. <![CDATA[<b>Professional development of Afrikaans Home Language teachers to enhance reading comprehension of non-mother-tongue speakers</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512017000500011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Hierdie studie ondersoek die professionele ontwikkelingsbehoeftes van onderwysers met betrekking tot die bevordering van die leesbegrip van niemoedertaalsprekers in Afrikaans-huistaalklasse. Gebaseer op die data wat gegenereer is, is 'n professionele ontwikkelingsprogram ontwerp en geomplementeer. Onderwysers het aangedui dat hulle oorweldig en gefrustreerd voel, omdat hulle nie oor die nodige kennis beskik om die niemoedertaalsprekers in hulle klasse in die Intermediêre fase te ondersteun nie en het behoefte gehad aan professionele ontwikkeling sodat hulle pedagogiese inhoudskennis in dié verband uitgebrei kan word. Hierdie studie het 'n gemengde navorsingsbenadering gevolg. Empiriese data is gegenereer op die volgende wyses: kwantitatiewe (vraelyste) en kwalitatiewe data (vraelyste, onderwysersjoernale, klaskamerwaarnemings en onderhoude met onderwysers). Aangesien hierdie studie die professionele ontwikkeling van onderwysers behels, is 'n teoretiese raamwerk, wat hulle voortgesette professionele ontwikkeling en groei in ag neem, oorweeg soos beskryf deur Shulman (1986) se teoretiese raamwerk. Gesprekke voor die aanvang van die studie dui daarop dat die meerderheid respondente geen professionele ontwikkeling ondergaan het aangaande die bevordering van lees- en leesbegripstrategieë van niemoedertaalsprekers in hulle Afrikaans Huistaal-klasse nie en die meerderheid respondente het aangedui dat hulle nie leesbegripstrategieë eksplisiet onderrig nie. Bevindinge van die studie dui daarop dat die professioneleontwikkelingsprogram 'n positiewe invloed op die pedagogiese inhoudskennis van die deelnemende onderwysers rakende leesmodelle en -strategieë sowel as leesbegripstrategieë gehad het. Eweneens het die professioneleontwikkelingsprogram gelei tot die verhoogde implementering van leesbegripstrategieë in hulle klasse. Voorts dui die resultate daarop dat aksienavorsing moontlik 'n bydrae kon lewer tot die effektiewe toepassing van lees- en leesbegripstrategieë in hulle klasse. Die studie, die bevindinge en aanbevelings kan as verwysing dien wanneer professionele ontwikkeling van onderwysers beplan word veral wat betref die bevordering van onderwysers se pedagogiese inhoudskennis aangaande lees- en leesbegripstrategieë van niemoedertaalsprekers.<hr/>This study investigated and addressed the professional development needs of teachers to improve their pedagogies regarding the reading comprehension of non-mother-tongue speakers in Afrikaans-medium Intermediate phase classes. A professional development programme was designed and implemented based on collected data. The investigation was undertaken against the background of the poor overall achievement of pupils in the national systemic evaluations and international assessment studies, which is currently a cause of great concern. Teachers have indicated that they feel frustrated and overwhelmed, because they do not have adequate knowledge to support the non-mother-tongue speakers in their classes. Therefore, they have expressed the need for professional development to assist them to improve their pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in this regard. Action research as part of a mixed method approach was the design of choice for this study. Empirical data were generated by two cycles of this action research study. In this way, research questions could be explored without the constraints of using only one research method. The main approaches to data collection were quantitative (questionnaires) and qualitative (questionnaires, teacher journals, observations and interviews with the participating teachers). The data collection was supported by a literature study that investigated the professional development of teachers, reading models, approaches and strategies as well as comprehension strategies with specific reference to non-mother-tongue speakers. As this study included the professional development of teachers, a theoretical framework that addresses their knowledge base and the degree to which their continued professional development and growth should be supported was adopted. Teacher learning and the development of their PCK as described by Shulman (1986) were therefore included. Shulman investigated the content understanding of teachers as a special kind of technical knowledge required for teaching. He suggested that "high-quality instruction requires certain typologies, namely subject matter, content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and curricular knowledge". The most influential of these three typologies is PCK. PCK can be described as the subject matter required for teaching. It is the ability of teachers to interpret the subject matter, find different ways to represent it and make it accessible to pupils. In addition, Shulman concluded that teachers' teaching skills and pedagogical knowledge require a theoretical framework that addresses their knowledge as well as providing support for their continued professional development with specific reference to PCK. They therefore analysed ways in which teachers learn individually and in communities. They named their new conceptual scheme Fostering Communities of Teachers as Learners (FCTL). This model asserts that an accomplished teacher is a member of a professional community which shares its experiences with colleagues and reflects together on teaching and learning. Study findings prior to commencement of the professional development programme indicated that the majority of the respondents had received no professional development on reading models and reading strategies, nor on comprehension strategies to enhance the reading and comprehension skills of the non-mother-tongue speakers in their Afrikaans-medium classes. Furthermore, 84% of the respondents indicated that they do not explicitly teach comprehension strategies. The study found that the professional development programme may have had a positive influence on the PCK of the participating teachers regarding reading models and strategies as well as comprehension strategies. Similarly, the programme may have resulted in increased implementation of these strategies in their classes, as indicated by the 92% of participants who explicitly taught comprehension strategies after the conclusion of the professional development programme. The results show that the participants' implementation of action research may have contributed to effective application of reading and reading comprehension strategies. The responsibility to ensure that pre- and in-service teachers receive professional development, which includes the appropriate methodologies and strategies to adequately support the literacy skills of non-mother-tongue speakers, lies with universities and the Department of Basic Education. The study, its findings and recommendations can therefore be used as a resource for the development of training programmes to improve teacher PCK regarding the enhancement of the reading comprehension of non-mother-tongue speakers. <![CDATA[<b>Revolution or reformation? The possible relevance of Guillaume Groen van Prinsterer's (1801-1876) reflections for today</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512017000500012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Byna daagliks berig die media oor revolusionêre bewegings en hulle soms bloedige aksies. Ook in Suid-Afrika beoog die regering tans ʼn (sogenaamde demokratiese) revolusie op sosiaal-ekonomiese gebied. In die lig daarvan probeer hierdie ondersoek antwoorde op die volgende twee belangrike vrae vind: (1) Wat is die geestelike dryfveer, die karaktertrekke en die implikasies van ʼn revolusionêre manier van samelewingsverandering? (2) Wat presies behels die alternatief van ʼn Christelike reformatoriese benadering? Die opus magnum van die denker, Groen van Prinsterer (1801-1876), Ongeloof en revolutie, verskyn in 1847, ʼn jaar voor Karel Marx se revolusionêre Kommunistiese Manifes en bevat waardevolle insigte wat vandag nie vergeet mag word nie. 170 Jaar gelede het hierdie leier van die Nederlandse Réveil - ʼn merkwaardige Christelike herlewing - ook voor die keuse gestaan van revolusie of reformasie. Daarom dien sy werk in hierdie bydrae as inspirasie vir verdere besinning. Ongelukkig dra min mense in Suid-Afrika en ook elders (buite Nederland) nog kennis van sy denke. Daarby is daar geen lektuur oor hom in Afrikaans beskikbaar nie en selfs min in Engels wat die leemte sou kon vul. Hierdie ondersoek wil dus ook in hierdie behoefte ʼn bydrae lewer.<hr/>A new global spirit of radical, revolutionary change is characterizing our contemporary world. It is, for instance, evident in revolutionary wars against oppressive dictatorial governments, the attacks the world over by ISIS and other radical Islamic groups. Concerned thinkers are asking two basic questions. Firstly, what are the deepest source, character and implications of a revolutionary view of societal change? Secondly, is there an alternative to revolution? Can a Christian reformational approach perhaps be an option in our multireligious world? In this article Unbelief and revolution, a book which was published in 1847, a year ahead of Karel Marx's revolutionary Communist manifesto (1848), will serve as a guide for reflection. 170 Years ago its writer, Guillaume Groen van Prinsterer (1801-1876), the intellectual leader of the Dutch Reveille in the Netherlands, was confronted with similar questions, albeit in a different context. As few people in South Africa are still acquainted with Guillaume's ideas (nothing about his life and work is available in Afrikaans with only a few overseas sources in English), this essay may therefore also serve as a first introduction to South African readers. It develops as follows. Apart from a motivation for this study, the first part indicates the original and the secondary sources (mostly in Dutch) available. The second main section briefly sketches the cultural-philosophical, religious and political context as background for Guillaume's reflections. Section three explains his own Christian-historical or anti-revolutionary approach to the revolutionary temper of his time. According to his perspective the revolutions of his time were the result of a rejection of the Christian belief in God, his revelation and ordinances. He therefore sees a clear antithesis between secular-revolutionary solutions and the biblically based idea of reform. By way of a review of Unbelief and revolution the fourth main part follows the development of his hypothesis, providing a detailed description of revolution's basic characteristics, its consequences when applied to society (especially politics), as well as five stages during which it usually progresses. The last (fifth) part indicates the possible relevance of his ideas for the present. The question is posed whether the idea of reform does not boil down to repristination, conservatism and a condonation of the status quo. It is indicated that neither he, nor subsequent-likeminded reformational thinkers accepted the dilemma between a reactionary, contra-revolutionary stance (regarded as conservative) and a revolutionary approach (viewed as progressive). Finally, a distinction between structure and direction proves to be a helpful way of distinguishing between revolution and reformation, confirming reformation as perhaps a better choice for social renewal. Since it advocates structural and confessional pluralism, it may also ensure justice in a multireligious world. <![CDATA[<b>Redakteursnota</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512017000500013&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Byna daagliks berig die media oor revolusionêre bewegings en hulle soms bloedige aksies. Ook in Suid-Afrika beoog die regering tans ʼn (sogenaamde demokratiese) revolusie op sosiaal-ekonomiese gebied. In die lig daarvan probeer hierdie ondersoek antwoorde op die volgende twee belangrike vrae vind: (1) Wat is die geestelike dryfveer, die karaktertrekke en die implikasies van ʼn revolusionêre manier van samelewingsverandering? (2) Wat presies behels die alternatief van ʼn Christelike reformatoriese benadering? Die opus magnum van die denker, Groen van Prinsterer (1801-1876), Ongeloof en revolutie, verskyn in 1847, ʼn jaar voor Karel Marx se revolusionêre Kommunistiese Manifes en bevat waardevolle insigte wat vandag nie vergeet mag word nie. 170 Jaar gelede het hierdie leier van die Nederlandse Réveil - ʼn merkwaardige Christelike herlewing - ook voor die keuse gestaan van revolusie of reformasie. Daarom dien sy werk in hierdie bydrae as inspirasie vir verdere besinning. Ongelukkig dra min mense in Suid-Afrika en ook elders (buite Nederland) nog kennis van sy denke. Daarby is daar geen lektuur oor hom in Afrikaans beskikbaar nie en selfs min in Engels wat die leemte sou kon vul. Hierdie ondersoek wil dus ook in hierdie behoefte ʼn bydrae lewer.<hr/>A new global spirit of radical, revolutionary change is characterizing our contemporary world. It is, for instance, evident in revolutionary wars against oppressive dictatorial governments, the attacks the world over by ISIS and other radical Islamic groups. Concerned thinkers are asking two basic questions. Firstly, what are the deepest source, character and implications of a revolutionary view of societal change? Secondly, is there an alternative to revolution? Can a Christian reformational approach perhaps be an option in our multireligious world? In this article Unbelief and revolution, a book which was published in 1847, a year ahead of Karel Marx's revolutionary Communist manifesto (1848), will serve as a guide for reflection. 170 Years ago its writer, Guillaume Groen van Prinsterer (1801-1876), the intellectual leader of the Dutch Reveille in the Netherlands, was confronted with similar questions, albeit in a different context. As few people in South Africa are still acquainted with Guillaume's ideas (nothing about his life and work is available in Afrikaans with only a few overseas sources in English), this essay may therefore also serve as a first introduction to South African readers. It develops as follows. Apart from a motivation for this study, the first part indicates the original and the secondary sources (mostly in Dutch) available. The second main section briefly sketches the cultural-philosophical, religious and political context as background for Guillaume's reflections. Section three explains his own Christian-historical or anti-revolutionary approach to the revolutionary temper of his time. According to his perspective the revolutions of his time were the result of a rejection of the Christian belief in God, his revelation and ordinances. He therefore sees a clear antithesis between secular-revolutionary solutions and the biblically based idea of reform. By way of a review of Unbelief and revolution the fourth main part follows the development of his hypothesis, providing a detailed description of revolution's basic characteristics, its consequences when applied to society (especially politics), as well as five stages during which it usually progresses. The last (fifth) part indicates the possible relevance of his ideas for the present. The question is posed whether the idea of reform does not boil down to repristination, conservatism and a condonation of the status quo. It is indicated that neither he, nor subsequent-likeminded reformational thinkers accepted the dilemma between a reactionary, contra-revolutionary stance (regarded as conservative) and a revolutionary approach (viewed as progressive). Finally, a distinction between structure and direction proves to be a helpful way of distinguishing between revolution and reformation, confirming reformation as perhaps a better choice for social renewal. Since it advocates structural and confessional pluralism, it may also ensure justice in a multireligious world. <![CDATA[<b>The nature and place of the whole-parts relation both from a general philosophical perspective and from that of the philosophy of the special sciences</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512017000500014&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Hierdie artikel is gerig op die onderliggende breëre wysgerige en vakfilosofiese onderbou van 'n sinvolle verstaan van die geheel-dele relasie. Die nodige begripsonderskeidinge staan in kontras tot die onvermoë van diere om logies-analities genormeerd te kan dink en handel. Die regop gestalte, vrye hand en opponerende duim wat vir kultuurvorming gereedstaan onder leiding van die geestelik-gestempelde blik belig die uniekheid van die mens. Die argument wat gevoer word plaas die geheel-dele relasie binne die ruimte-aspek en skenk dan aandag aan die uniekheid en samehang wat tussen die ruimte-aspek en die ander aspekte van die werklikheid bestaan. Die oorspronklike sin van getal (eenheid en veelheid) en die oorspronklike sin van ruimte (kontinue uitgebreidheid wat die geheel-dele relasie impliseer) word in die eensydige ismiese posisies van individualisme en universalisme skeefgetrek. Laasgenoemde dui op 'n oorspanning van die geheel-dele relasie. Die lang geskiedenis waarin hierdie twee opponerende sienings 'n rol sou speel, gryp terug tot by die Griekse denke. Sommige outeurs meen selfs dat hierdie twee stellingnames so diep gewortel is dat dit as opponerende wêreldbeskouings gesien moet word. Die sistematiese onderskeidinge en insigte wat in hierdie artikel ontwikkel word, sal in 'n opvolgartikel nader uitgewerk word en wel deur ondersoek in te stel na die moontlikhede en beperkings van die geheel-dele relasie vir ons verstaan van die menslike samelewing.<hr/>This article focuses on the broader philosophical and special scientific context within which an account is given of the nature and place of the whole-parts relation within scholarly disciplines (the natural sciences and the humanities). This investigation will pave the way for a follow-up article in which attention will be given to the implications of our current analysis for scholarly reflection on human society and for a more comprehensive understanding of communal forms of social life (including "gemeenskappe"). In the initial sections of this article the conceptual element of rationality is related to the nature of (scientific) thinking while contrasting it with the absence of logical-analytical abilities within the higher developed animals. What is striking about the human being is the erect gait, free hand with an opposing thumb geared towards formative cultural activities guided by the spiritual expression of the human face. A few observations about concept and word are made in order to address the question where to position the whole-parts relation. The nature of a numerical unity and multiplicity also underlies our awareness of the individual person (unity) and many individuals (multiplicity). At once it becomes the starting-point for an individualistic understanding of human society. Udehn (2002) distinguishes between methodological individualism and methodological holism - thus introducing the idea of wholeness - an idea serving holism. He supports a remark made by Jellinek (1966) namely that the individualistic-atomistic and opposing collectivistic-universalistic orientations represent contrasting world views. Since scientific thinking is characterized by modal abstraction (lifting out one or another aspect of reality by disregarding others), the special sciences have to proceed from a view of reality which exceeds the confines of a single aspect and therefore inevitably operates on the basis of a philosophical view of reality. This requires an account of the coherence between unique aspects and an acknowledgement of the fact that the whole-parts relation first of all should be appreciated as a function concept and not as a thing concept. Locating the whole-parts relation within the spatial aspect opens up the way to an analysis of backward- and forward-pointing moments of coherence (analogies) between the spatial aspect and the aspect preceding it (i.e. the numerical aspect), and the coherence between those aspects succeeding the spatial aspect evinced in spatial analogies within them. The discovery of the spatial meaning of the whole-parts relation is found in the school of Parmenides, particularly in Zeno's B Fragment 3. His discovery presupposes infinity as an endless succession but this meaning was turned "inwards" by the insight that continuity is infinitely divisible. Parmenides and his school transcended the restricted Pythagorean claim that everything is number by actually exploring space as a new mode of explanation. It will be argued that the spatial whole-parts relation mediate the interconnections between the numerical aspect, spatial aspect, the kinematic aspect and the other post-spatial aspects. The implication is that human society can neither be interpreted in terms of isolated individuals nor in terms of one or another social whole or totality embracing individuals as integral parts. From the perspective of the numerical aspect one should distinguish between the concept of the successive infinite and the idea of the at once infinite - where one may also, in the latter case, contemplate the idea of infinite totalities. A first indication is given of the limitations of the whole-parts relation by using the example of NaCl. In addition, the transition from closed physical systems to opened systems is briefly explained in order to pave the way for our follow-up article. It turned out that since ancient Greece, organicistic modes of thinking constantly gave shelter to both individualistic and universalistic orientations. The systematic distinctions explained in this article will provide the basis for our subsequent analysis of the role (limits and scope) of the whole-parts relation in an understanding of human society. <![CDATA[<b>Oor mense, afstande en Afrikaans</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512017000500015&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Hierdie artikel is gerig op die onderliggende breëre wysgerige en vakfilosofiese onderbou van 'n sinvolle verstaan van die geheel-dele relasie. Die nodige begripsonderskeidinge staan in kontras tot die onvermoë van diere om logies-analities genormeerd te kan dink en handel. Die regop gestalte, vrye hand en opponerende duim wat vir kultuurvorming gereedstaan onder leiding van die geestelik-gestempelde blik belig die uniekheid van die mens. Die argument wat gevoer word plaas die geheel-dele relasie binne die ruimte-aspek en skenk dan aandag aan die uniekheid en samehang wat tussen die ruimte-aspek en die ander aspekte van die werklikheid bestaan. Die oorspronklike sin van getal (eenheid en veelheid) en die oorspronklike sin van ruimte (kontinue uitgebreidheid wat die geheel-dele relasie impliseer) word in die eensydige ismiese posisies van individualisme en universalisme skeefgetrek. Laasgenoemde dui op 'n oorspanning van die geheel-dele relasie. Die lang geskiedenis waarin hierdie twee opponerende sienings 'n rol sou speel, gryp terug tot by die Griekse denke. Sommige outeurs meen selfs dat hierdie twee stellingnames so diep gewortel is dat dit as opponerende wêreldbeskouings gesien moet word. Die sistematiese onderskeidinge en insigte wat in hierdie artikel ontwikkel word, sal in 'n opvolgartikel nader uitgewerk word en wel deur ondersoek in te stel na die moontlikhede en beperkings van die geheel-dele relasie vir ons verstaan van die menslike samelewing.<hr/>This article focuses on the broader philosophical and special scientific context within which an account is given of the nature and place of the whole-parts relation within scholarly disciplines (the natural sciences and the humanities). This investigation will pave the way for a follow-up article in which attention will be given to the implications of our current analysis for scholarly reflection on human society and for a more comprehensive understanding of communal forms of social life (including "gemeenskappe"). In the initial sections of this article the conceptual element of rationality is related to the nature of (scientific) thinking while contrasting it with the absence of logical-analytical abilities within the higher developed animals. What is striking about the human being is the erect gait, free hand with an opposing thumb geared towards formative cultural activities guided by the spiritual expression of the human face. A few observations about concept and word are made in order to address the question where to position the whole-parts relation. The nature of a numerical unity and multiplicity also underlies our awareness of the individual person (unity) and many individuals (multiplicity). At once it becomes the starting-point for an individualistic understanding of human society. Udehn (2002) distinguishes between methodological individualism and methodological holism - thus introducing the idea of wholeness - an idea serving holism. He supports a remark made by Jellinek (1966) namely that the individualistic-atomistic and opposing collectivistic-universalistic orientations represent contrasting world views. Since scientific thinking is characterized by modal abstraction (lifting out one or another aspect of reality by disregarding others), the special sciences have to proceed from a view of reality which exceeds the confines of a single aspect and therefore inevitably operates on the basis of a philosophical view of reality. This requires an account of the coherence between unique aspects and an acknowledgement of the fact that the whole-parts relation first of all should be appreciated as a function concept and not as a thing concept. Locating the whole-parts relation within the spatial aspect opens up the way to an analysis of backward- and forward-pointing moments of coherence (analogies) between the spatial aspect and the aspect preceding it (i.e. the numerical aspect), and the coherence between those aspects succeeding the spatial aspect evinced in spatial analogies within them. The discovery of the spatial meaning of the whole-parts relation is found in the school of Parmenides, particularly in Zeno's B Fragment 3. His discovery presupposes infinity as an endless succession but this meaning was turned "inwards" by the insight that continuity is infinitely divisible. Parmenides and his school transcended the restricted Pythagorean claim that everything is number by actually exploring space as a new mode of explanation. It will be argued that the spatial whole-parts relation mediate the interconnections between the numerical aspect, spatial aspect, the kinematic aspect and the other post-spatial aspects. The implication is that human society can neither be interpreted in terms of isolated individuals nor in terms of one or another social whole or totality embracing individuals as integral parts. From the perspective of the numerical aspect one should distinguish between the concept of the successive infinite and the idea of the at once infinite - where one may also, in the latter case, contemplate the idea of infinite totalities. A first indication is given of the limitations of the whole-parts relation by using the example of NaCl. In addition, the transition from closed physical systems to opened systems is briefly explained in order to pave the way for our follow-up article. It turned out that since ancient Greece, organicistic modes of thinking constantly gave shelter to both individualistic and universalistic orientations. The systematic distinctions explained in this article will provide the basis for our subsequent analysis of the role (limits and scope) of the whole-parts relation in an understanding of human society. <![CDATA[Die dood en die sin van die lewe]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512017000500016&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Hierdie artikel is gerig op die onderliggende breëre wysgerige en vakfilosofiese onderbou van 'n sinvolle verstaan van die geheel-dele relasie. Die nodige begripsonderskeidinge staan in kontras tot die onvermoë van diere om logies-analities genormeerd te kan dink en handel. Die regop gestalte, vrye hand en opponerende duim wat vir kultuurvorming gereedstaan onder leiding van die geestelik-gestempelde blik belig die uniekheid van die mens. Die argument wat gevoer word plaas die geheel-dele relasie binne die ruimte-aspek en skenk dan aandag aan die uniekheid en samehang wat tussen die ruimte-aspek en die ander aspekte van die werklikheid bestaan. Die oorspronklike sin van getal (eenheid en veelheid) en die oorspronklike sin van ruimte (kontinue uitgebreidheid wat die geheel-dele relasie impliseer) word in die eensydige ismiese posisies van individualisme en universalisme skeefgetrek. Laasgenoemde dui op 'n oorspanning van die geheel-dele relasie. Die lang geskiedenis waarin hierdie twee opponerende sienings 'n rol sou speel, gryp terug tot by die Griekse denke. Sommige outeurs meen selfs dat hierdie twee stellingnames so diep gewortel is dat dit as opponerende wêreldbeskouings gesien moet word. Die sistematiese onderskeidinge en insigte wat in hierdie artikel ontwikkel word, sal in 'n opvolgartikel nader uitgewerk word en wel deur ondersoek in te stel na die moontlikhede en beperkings van die geheel-dele relasie vir ons verstaan van die menslike samelewing.<hr/>This article focuses on the broader philosophical and special scientific context within which an account is given of the nature and place of the whole-parts relation within scholarly disciplines (the natural sciences and the humanities). This investigation will pave the way for a follow-up article in which attention will be given to the implications of our current analysis for scholarly reflection on human society and for a more comprehensive understanding of communal forms of social life (including "gemeenskappe"). In the initial sections of this article the conceptual element of rationality is related to the nature of (scientific) thinking while contrasting it with the absence of logical-analytical abilities within the higher developed animals. What is striking about the human being is the erect gait, free hand with an opposing thumb geared towards formative cultural activities guided by the spiritual expression of the human face. A few observations about concept and word are made in order to address the question where to position the whole-parts relation. The nature of a numerical unity and multiplicity also underlies our awareness of the individual person (unity) and many individuals (multiplicity). At once it becomes the starting-point for an individualistic understanding of human society. Udehn (2002) distinguishes between methodological individualism and methodological holism - thus introducing the idea of wholeness - an idea serving holism. He supports a remark made by Jellinek (1966) namely that the individualistic-atomistic and opposing collectivistic-universalistic orientations represent contrasting world views. Since scientific thinking is characterized by modal abstraction (lifting out one or another aspect of reality by disregarding others), the special sciences have to proceed from a view of reality which exceeds the confines of a single aspect and therefore inevitably operates on the basis of a philosophical view of reality. This requires an account of the coherence between unique aspects and an acknowledgement of the fact that the whole-parts relation first of all should be appreciated as a function concept and not as a thing concept. Locating the whole-parts relation within the spatial aspect opens up the way to an analysis of backward- and forward-pointing moments of coherence (analogies) between the spatial aspect and the aspect preceding it (i.e. the numerical aspect), and the coherence between those aspects succeeding the spatial aspect evinced in spatial analogies within them. The discovery of the spatial meaning of the whole-parts relation is found in the school of Parmenides, particularly in Zeno's B Fragment 3. His discovery presupposes infinity as an endless succession but this meaning was turned "inwards" by the insight that continuity is infinitely divisible. Parmenides and his school transcended the restricted Pythagorean claim that everything is number by actually exploring space as a new mode of explanation. It will be argued that the spatial whole-parts relation mediate the interconnections between the numerical aspect, spatial aspect, the kinematic aspect and the other post-spatial aspects. The implication is that human society can neither be interpreted in terms of isolated individuals nor in terms of one or another social whole or totality embracing individuals as integral parts. From the perspective of the numerical aspect one should distinguish between the concept of the successive infinite and the idea of the at once infinite - where one may also, in the latter case, contemplate the idea of infinite totalities. A first indication is given of the limitations of the whole-parts relation by using the example of NaCl. In addition, the transition from closed physical systems to opened systems is briefly explained in order to pave the way for our follow-up article. It turned out that since ancient Greece, organicistic modes of thinking constantly gave shelter to both individualistic and universalistic orientations. The systematic distinctions explained in this article will provide the basis for our subsequent analysis of the role (limits and scope) of the whole-parts relation in an understanding of human society. <![CDATA[<b>Om weer te begeester</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512017000500017&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Hierdie artikel is gerig op die onderliggende breëre wysgerige en vakfilosofiese onderbou van 'n sinvolle verstaan van die geheel-dele relasie. Die nodige begripsonderskeidinge staan in kontras tot die onvermoë van diere om logies-analities genormeerd te kan dink en handel. Die regop gestalte, vrye hand en opponerende duim wat vir kultuurvorming gereedstaan onder leiding van die geestelik-gestempelde blik belig die uniekheid van die mens. Die argument wat gevoer word plaas die geheel-dele relasie binne die ruimte-aspek en skenk dan aandag aan die uniekheid en samehang wat tussen die ruimte-aspek en die ander aspekte van die werklikheid bestaan. Die oorspronklike sin van getal (eenheid en veelheid) en die oorspronklike sin van ruimte (kontinue uitgebreidheid wat die geheel-dele relasie impliseer) word in die eensydige ismiese posisies van individualisme en universalisme skeefgetrek. Laasgenoemde dui op 'n oorspanning van die geheel-dele relasie. Die lang geskiedenis waarin hierdie twee opponerende sienings 'n rol sou speel, gryp terug tot by die Griekse denke. Sommige outeurs meen selfs dat hierdie twee stellingnames so diep gewortel is dat dit as opponerende wêreldbeskouings gesien moet word. Die sistematiese onderskeidinge en insigte wat in hierdie artikel ontwikkel word, sal in 'n opvolgartikel nader uitgewerk word en wel deur ondersoek in te stel na die moontlikhede en beperkings van die geheel-dele relasie vir ons verstaan van die menslike samelewing.<hr/>This article focuses on the broader philosophical and special scientific context within which an account is given of the nature and place of the whole-parts relation within scholarly disciplines (the natural sciences and the humanities). This investigation will pave the way for a follow-up article in which attention will be given to the implications of our current analysis for scholarly reflection on human society and for a more comprehensive understanding of communal forms of social life (including "gemeenskappe"). In the initial sections of this article the conceptual element of rationality is related to the nature of (scientific) thinking while contrasting it with the absence of logical-analytical abilities within the higher developed animals. What is striking about the human being is the erect gait, free hand with an opposing thumb geared towards formative cultural activities guided by the spiritual expression of the human face. A few observations about concept and word are made in order to address the question where to position the whole-parts relation. The nature of a numerical unity and multiplicity also underlies our awareness of the individual person (unity) and many individuals (multiplicity). At once it becomes the starting-point for an individualistic understanding of human society. Udehn (2002) distinguishes between methodological individualism and methodological holism - thus introducing the idea of wholeness - an idea serving holism. He supports a remark made by Jellinek (1966) namely that the individualistic-atomistic and opposing collectivistic-universalistic orientations represent contrasting world views. Since scientific thinking is characterized by modal abstraction (lifting out one or another aspect of reality by disregarding others), the special sciences have to proceed from a view of reality which exceeds the confines of a single aspect and therefore inevitably operates on the basis of a philosophical view of reality. This requires an account of the coherence between unique aspects and an acknowledgement of the fact that the whole-parts relation first of all should be appreciated as a function concept and not as a thing concept. Locating the whole-parts relation within the spatial aspect opens up the way to an analysis of backward- and forward-pointing moments of coherence (analogies) between the spatial aspect and the aspect preceding it (i.e. the numerical aspect), and the coherence between those aspects succeeding the spatial aspect evinced in spatial analogies within them. The discovery of the spatial meaning of the whole-parts relation is found in the school of Parmenides, particularly in Zeno's B Fragment 3. His discovery presupposes infinity as an endless succession but this meaning was turned "inwards" by the insight that continuity is infinitely divisible. Parmenides and his school transcended the restricted Pythagorean claim that everything is number by actually exploring space as a new mode of explanation. It will be argued that the spatial whole-parts relation mediate the interconnections between the numerical aspect, spatial aspect, the kinematic aspect and the other post-spatial aspects. The implication is that human society can neither be interpreted in terms of isolated individuals nor in terms of one or another social whole or totality embracing individuals as integral parts. From the perspective of the numerical aspect one should distinguish between the concept of the successive infinite and the idea of the at once infinite - where one may also, in the latter case, contemplate the idea of infinite totalities. A first indication is given of the limitations of the whole-parts relation by using the example of NaCl. In addition, the transition from closed physical systems to opened systems is briefly explained in order to pave the way for our follow-up article. It turned out that since ancient Greece, organicistic modes of thinking constantly gave shelter to both individualistic and universalistic orientations. The systematic distinctions explained in this article will provide the basis for our subsequent analysis of the role (limits and scope) of the whole-parts relation in an understanding of human society. <![CDATA[<b>Oor die skryfwyse van Afrikaans IV</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512017000500018&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Hierdie artikel is gerig op die onderliggende breëre wysgerige en vakfilosofiese onderbou van 'n sinvolle verstaan van die geheel-dele relasie. Die nodige begripsonderskeidinge staan in kontras tot die onvermoë van diere om logies-analities genormeerd te kan dink en handel. Die regop gestalte, vrye hand en opponerende duim wat vir kultuurvorming gereedstaan onder leiding van die geestelik-gestempelde blik belig die uniekheid van die mens. Die argument wat gevoer word plaas die geheel-dele relasie binne die ruimte-aspek en skenk dan aandag aan die uniekheid en samehang wat tussen die ruimte-aspek en die ander aspekte van die werklikheid bestaan. Die oorspronklike sin van getal (eenheid en veelheid) en die oorspronklike sin van ruimte (kontinue uitgebreidheid wat die geheel-dele relasie impliseer) word in die eensydige ismiese posisies van individualisme en universalisme skeefgetrek. Laasgenoemde dui op 'n oorspanning van die geheel-dele relasie. Die lang geskiedenis waarin hierdie twee opponerende sienings 'n rol sou speel, gryp terug tot by die Griekse denke. Sommige outeurs meen selfs dat hierdie twee stellingnames so diep gewortel is dat dit as opponerende wêreldbeskouings gesien moet word. Die sistematiese onderskeidinge en insigte wat in hierdie artikel ontwikkel word, sal in 'n opvolgartikel nader uitgewerk word en wel deur ondersoek in te stel na die moontlikhede en beperkings van die geheel-dele relasie vir ons verstaan van die menslike samelewing.<hr/>This article focuses on the broader philosophical and special scientific context within which an account is given of the nature and place of the whole-parts relation within scholarly disciplines (the natural sciences and the humanities). This investigation will pave the way for a follow-up article in which attention will be given to the implications of our current analysis for scholarly reflection on human society and for a more comprehensive understanding of communal forms of social life (including "gemeenskappe"). In the initial sections of this article the conceptual element of rationality is related to the nature of (scientific) thinking while contrasting it with the absence of logical-analytical abilities within the higher developed animals. What is striking about the human being is the erect gait, free hand with an opposing thumb geared towards formative cultural activities guided by the spiritual expression of the human face. A few observations about concept and word are made in order to address the question where to position the whole-parts relation. The nature of a numerical unity and multiplicity also underlies our awareness of the individual person (unity) and many individuals (multiplicity). At once it becomes the starting-point for an individualistic understanding of human society. Udehn (2002) distinguishes between methodological individualism and methodological holism - thus introducing the idea of wholeness - an idea serving holism. He supports a remark made by Jellinek (1966) namely that the individualistic-atomistic and opposing collectivistic-universalistic orientations represent contrasting world views. Since scientific thinking is characterized by modal abstraction (lifting out one or another aspect of reality by disregarding others), the special sciences have to proceed from a view of reality which exceeds the confines of a single aspect and therefore inevitably operates on the basis of a philosophical view of reality. This requires an account of the coherence between unique aspects and an acknowledgement of the fact that the whole-parts relation first of all should be appreciated as a function concept and not as a thing concept. Locating the whole-parts relation within the spatial aspect opens up the way to an analysis of backward- and forward-pointing moments of coherence (analogies) between the spatial aspect and the aspect preceding it (i.e. the numerical aspect), and the coherence between those aspects succeeding the spatial aspect evinced in spatial analogies within them. The discovery of the spatial meaning of the whole-parts relation is found in the school of Parmenides, particularly in Zeno's B Fragment 3. His discovery presupposes infinity as an endless succession but this meaning was turned "inwards" by the insight that continuity is infinitely divisible. Parmenides and his school transcended the restricted Pythagorean claim that everything is number by actually exploring space as a new mode of explanation. It will be argued that the spatial whole-parts relation mediate the interconnections between the numerical aspect, spatial aspect, the kinematic aspect and the other post-spatial aspects. The implication is that human society can neither be interpreted in terms of isolated individuals nor in terms of one or another social whole or totality embracing individuals as integral parts. From the perspective of the numerical aspect one should distinguish between the concept of the successive infinite and the idea of the at once infinite - where one may also, in the latter case, contemplate the idea of infinite totalities. A first indication is given of the limitations of the whole-parts relation by using the example of NaCl. In addition, the transition from closed physical systems to opened systems is briefly explained in order to pave the way for our follow-up article. It turned out that since ancient Greece, organicistic modes of thinking constantly gave shelter to both individualistic and universalistic orientations. The systematic distinctions explained in this article will provide the basis for our subsequent analysis of the role (limits and scope) of the whole-parts relation in an understanding of human society. <![CDATA[<b>Huldigingsbundels: Afrikaanse skrywers/digters/dramaturge</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512017000500019&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Hierdie artikel is gerig op die onderliggende breëre wysgerige en vakfilosofiese onderbou van 'n sinvolle verstaan van die geheel-dele relasie. Die nodige begripsonderskeidinge staan in kontras tot die onvermoë van diere om logies-analities genormeerd te kan dink en handel. Die regop gestalte, vrye hand en opponerende duim wat vir kultuurvorming gereedstaan onder leiding van die geestelik-gestempelde blik belig die uniekheid van die mens. Die argument wat gevoer word plaas die geheel-dele relasie binne die ruimte-aspek en skenk dan aandag aan die uniekheid en samehang wat tussen die ruimte-aspek en die ander aspekte van die werklikheid bestaan. Die oorspronklike sin van getal (eenheid en veelheid) en die oorspronklike sin van ruimte (kontinue uitgebreidheid wat die geheel-dele relasie impliseer) word in die eensydige ismiese posisies van individualisme en universalisme skeefgetrek. Laasgenoemde dui op 'n oorspanning van die geheel-dele relasie. Die lang geskiedenis waarin hierdie twee opponerende sienings 'n rol sou speel, gryp terug tot by die Griekse denke. Sommige outeurs meen selfs dat hierdie twee stellingnames so diep gewortel is dat dit as opponerende wêreldbeskouings gesien moet word. Die sistematiese onderskeidinge en insigte wat in hierdie artikel ontwikkel word, sal in 'n opvolgartikel nader uitgewerk word en wel deur ondersoek in te stel na die moontlikhede en beperkings van die geheel-dele relasie vir ons verstaan van die menslike samelewing.<hr/>This article focuses on the broader philosophical and special scientific context within which an account is given of the nature and place of the whole-parts relation within scholarly disciplines (the natural sciences and the humanities). This investigation will pave the way for a follow-up article in which attention will be given to the implications of our current analysis for scholarly reflection on human society and for a more comprehensive understanding of communal forms of social life (including "gemeenskappe"). In the initial sections of this article the conceptual element of rationality is related to the nature of (scientific) thinking while contrasting it with the absence of logical-analytical abilities within the higher developed animals. What is striking about the human being is the erect gait, free hand with an opposing thumb geared towards formative cultural activities guided by the spiritual expression of the human face. A few observations about concept and word are made in order to address the question where to position the whole-parts relation. The nature of a numerical unity and multiplicity also underlies our awareness of the individual person (unity) and many individuals (multiplicity). At once it becomes the starting-point for an individualistic understanding of human society. Udehn (2002) distinguishes between methodological individualism and methodological holism - thus introducing the idea of wholeness - an idea serving holism. He supports a remark made by Jellinek (1966) namely that the individualistic-atomistic and opposing collectivistic-universalistic orientations represent contrasting world views. Since scientific thinking is characterized by modal abstraction (lifting out one or another aspect of reality by disregarding others), the special sciences have to proceed from a view of reality which exceeds the confines of a single aspect and therefore inevitably operates on the basis of a philosophical view of reality. This requires an account of the coherence between unique aspects and an acknowledgement of the fact that the whole-parts relation first of all should be appreciated as a function concept and not as a thing concept. Locating the whole-parts relation within the spatial aspect opens up the way to an analysis of backward- and forward-pointing moments of coherence (analogies) between the spatial aspect and the aspect preceding it (i.e. the numerical aspect), and the coherence between those aspects succeeding the spatial aspect evinced in spatial analogies within them. The discovery of the spatial meaning of the whole-parts relation is found in the school of Parmenides, particularly in Zeno's B Fragment 3. His discovery presupposes infinity as an endless succession but this meaning was turned "inwards" by the insight that continuity is infinitely divisible. Parmenides and his school transcended the restricted Pythagorean claim that everything is number by actually exploring space as a new mode of explanation. It will be argued that the spatial whole-parts relation mediate the interconnections between the numerical aspect, spatial aspect, the kinematic aspect and the other post-spatial aspects. The implication is that human society can neither be interpreted in terms of isolated individuals nor in terms of one or another social whole or totality embracing individuals as integral parts. From the perspective of the numerical aspect one should distinguish between the concept of the successive infinite and the idea of the at once infinite - where one may also, in the latter case, contemplate the idea of infinite totalities. A first indication is given of the limitations of the whole-parts relation by using the example of NaCl. In addition, the transition from closed physical systems to opened systems is briefly explained in order to pave the way for our follow-up article. It turned out that since ancient Greece, organicistic modes of thinking constantly gave shelter to both individualistic and universalistic orientations. The systematic distinctions explained in this article will provide the basis for our subsequent analysis of the role (limits and scope) of the whole-parts relation in an understanding of human society.