Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0041-475120140002&lang=es vol. 54 num. 2 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Redakteursprys vir die beste artikel</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512014000200001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[<b>"Should we forget?" A history series and Afrikaner nationalism, 1937-1948</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512014000200002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Met hierdie studie word die rol ondersoek wat 'n geskiedenisreeks van Nasionale Pers, getiteld "Ons Geskiedenis-Serie", tussen 1937 en 1948 ten opsigte van Afrikanernasionalisme gespeel het. Enersyds het die reeks beoog om Afrikanernasionalisme te bevorder, maar andersyds het dit 'n behoefte by Afrikanernasionaliste bevredig en was die publikasies 'n aanduiding van die stand van hierdie nasionalisme. Vooraf word daar ter wille van konteks gekyk na vroeë Afrikanergeskied-skrywing, Nasionale Pers se rol in hierdie geskiedskrywing, en die opbloei van Afrikanernasiona-lisme in die dertigerjare. Daarna kom die ontleding aan die beurt van die 21 werke wat in die reeks verskyn het. Met die oog daarop word die aard van die hooftemas en die aard van die individuele werke onder die loep geneem. Die hooftemas was die volksplanting, die Groot Trek, die Eerste Vryheidsoorlog of Eerste Anglo-Boereoorlog, die Anglo-Boereoorlog van 1899-1902, en die Afrikaner se ekonomiese en geestelike vernedering voor Brittanje ná die oorlog en in die eerste dekades van die twintigste eeu.<hr/>In this study an investigation is undertaken of the contribution made to Afrikaner nationalism by a history series, the "Ons Geskiedenis-Serie", published between 1937 and 1948 by Nasionale Pers. On the one hand the series aimed to promote Afrikaner nationalism, but on the other it also satisfied a need among Afrikaner nationalists, and was an indication of the state of Afrikaner nationalism. In order to provide the appropriate context, early Afrikaner historiography, the role played by Nasionale Pers in this regard, and the rise of Afrikaner nationalism in the 1930s, are discussed. In the last decades of the nineteenth century, a number of Afrikaners produced examples of volksgeskiedenis, the history of their own people. Meanwhile, Afrikaner nationalism flourished under the spectre of foreign oppression; for the republican Afrikaner the threat of British domination and imperialism became increasingly real. At the time of its establishment in 1915, Nasionale Pers had three main objectives. These were to promote Afrikaans literature, language and culture and, closely linked to this, the promotion of Afrikaner nationalism. Secondly, to make a profit to boost its meagre finances as far as possible. A third aim involved publishing educational material for teaching purposes. In 1918 a publishing section was set up by Nasionale Pers. In the same year the first of 24 volumes of a series called "Die Burgerleeskring" appeared to meet the now growing demand for good Afrikaans reading material - literature as well as history - and to stimulate the Afrikaans reader both culturally and intellectually. The first volume, entitled Voortrekkermense 1, was in fact a source publication with documents of the Great Trek with footnotes and essays by Gustav Preller. "Die Burgerleeskring" met with limited success and was discontinued in 1925 for financial reasons. The series was nevertheless of great significance for the emergence of the Afrikaans book because it laid the foundations for later development. Meanwhile, Preller established himself as one of Nasionale Pers' most popular authors, gaining a reputation not only for his source publications but more particularly for his historical works on the Great Trek and the Anglo-Boer War. His emotional involvement in the subject matter struck a chord in Afrikaner hearts because by the 1930s a strong and clearly identifiable Afrikaner nationalism had developed. Under these circumstances, the suffering endured by the volk throughout Afrikaner history, notably in the Great Trek and the Anglo-Boer War, began to gain new significance. All the more so when the contemporary injustices experienced by Afrikaners under British supremacy could be traced back to the Anglo-Boer War when their ancestors had doggedly resisted British domination. The financial success experienced by Nasionale Pers after 1936 gave rise to a period of remarkable entrepreneurial growth for the publishing house from 1937 to 1939. In the flush of this emotional-historical climate, Nasionale Pers produced a ground-breaking historical series - one that can indeed be described as a true renaissance of Afrikaans historiography. This was the "Ons Geskiedenis-Serie", which in 1937 saw its first of 21 publications, which was to last until 1948. The main themes of the series were those that immediately come to mind. The settlement of the volk when Jan van Riebeeck came ashore at the Cape in 1652; the Great Trek; the First War of Independence (the Transvaal War); the Second War of Independence (the Anglo-Boer War); and the fate of the Afrikaner in the twentieth century, were predictably chosen as the main turning points in the history of the Afrikaner. Of the 21 books in the series, there was eventually one on the settlement at the Cape; five dealt with the Great Trek; one was on the First War of Independence; thirteen discussed the Anglo-Boer War; and one examined Afrikaner nationalism in the first four decades of the twentieth century. The number of copies printed varied from 2 000 to 3 000, which was quite considerable for the time. Some of the most popular works merited a second and even a third impression. The year 1938 was undoubtedly the highpoint for the "Ons Geskiedenis-Serie", when no less than nine titles appeared - one on the settlement; four, understandably in its centenary year, on the Great Trek; and four on the Anglo-Boer War. In 1939 two titles saw the light of day, both on the Anglo-Boer War; while in 1940 one on the First War of Independence and two on the Anglo-Boer War reached the bookshelves. In 1941 there were two on the Anglo-Boer War; and in 1942 one on the Anglo-Boer War and one on Afrikaner nationalism in the twentieth century. In 1943 there were again two works on the Anglo-Boer War; while in 1945 one title appeared dealing with the Great Trek period. Significant contributions were made to the series by Gustav Preller, who contributed three works on the Great Trek and three on the Anglo-Boer War. H.J.C. Pieterse compiled two reminiscences by veterans of the First War of Independence and the Anglo-Boer War respectively; while General Jan Kemp submitted two works of note, one on the Anglo-Boer War and another on the first four decades of the twentieth century. The work by Mrs. E. Neethling, Mag ons vergeet? is one of the most heart rending contributions. Dealing with the suffering of the Boer women and children it provides an accurate depiction of the raw emotional baggage which was so characteristic of the series. The analysis of the objectives, content and nature of the 21 works forms an important part of this article. Finally, the reasons why the series was discontinued in 1948 are examined. The author comes to the conclusion that the series undoubtedly mirrored the spirit of the times and the ambient level of Afrikaner nationalism in the late 1930s and early 1940s, but that it possibly, in turn, also contributed to the rising spirit of nationalism. <![CDATA[<b>The reenchantment of a disenchanted world</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512014000200003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In hierdie artikel word besin oor die begrip wêreld, die gebruik daarvan, die sin daarvan, die geldigheid en omvang daarvan. Die moontlike diepgaande aard daarvan word ondersoek, asook die aannames wat daaroor geld. 'n Antwoord op die vraag "in watter wêrelde lewe ons?" word gesoek waartydens veral die verband tussen wêreld- en sinskepping bespreek word. Hierbenewens word die onttowering van die wêreld bespreek, die vanselfsprekendhede wat dit huisves, die faktore wat dit verwesenlik, die onvermydelikheid daarvan en die uitdaginge wat dit bied. Daar word eweneens besin oor die mate waartoe die onttowering ons mense se maaksel is en die mate waartoe dit sinverlies en nihilisme verwesenlik omdat die wêreld onleefbaar gemaak word. Sou die herbetowering (skepping, maakbaarheid) van of die luisterverlening aan hierdie wêreld 'n geldige en haalbare en noodsaaklike opsie wees wat ook die skepping en invensie van sin verwesenlik? Indien wel, wat sou die verwagtinge wees? Waarop sou die klem moes val en sou dit wel, soos sommige aandui, die karakter van 'n stryd moes aanneem ten einde wêreldskep-ping en sinvervulling te verwesenlik?<hr/>We live in challenging but also threatening times. The world is becoming a strange place for humans to live in and to feel at home in. Catastrophic consequences or developments are continuously predicted. Special efforts are required to make the world into a better place, into a comfortable and safe dwelling. For this reason it is justified to reflect on what we call world, how the term is used, the meaning of the term, its validity and scope. The deep-seated nature of world needs to be carefully investigated as well as the assumptions that rule this term. It is quite a sensible question to ask: "in what worlds are we living", especially when world and its relation to meaning and the creation of meaning is at issue, since they are intimately connected. It is quite a comprehensive term including humans and the things they encounter as well as the experiences they are subjected to and the dreams they cherish - the fate of the future of humankind and the quality of things. The disturbance of world, its disenchantment therefore, implies in a very direct sense the disturbance of meaning, even the loss or absence of meaning, and eventually the disturbance of life itself. Intimately related to the question regarding the world is the question of its disenchantment. The disenchantment of the world is self-evident from various perspectives with a series of issues contributing to this. Certain identifiable factors are responsible for this - inevitably unavoidable it seems - that create immense challenges: global warming, exploitation of resources, overpopulation, and even non-physical issues like the degradation of spirituality, etc. may play significant roles in the disenchantment. The disenchantment is in a special but also very sad sense to a great extent a human creation. Humans are the great exploiters and destroyers - of themselves, their environment and the earth. But especially the extent to which these developments lead to the loss of meaning and eventually nihilism as the absolute absence of meaning by which the world becomes unliveable makes the disenchantment a tragic and sad event. Matters may be worse: many cultural and social criticisms suggest even the disappearance of the human race as the final catastrophic fate and outcome of disenchantment. The major question is whether the re-enchantment, as the response to the disenchantment, is a valid, achievable and necessary option which includes the creation and invention of a liveable world in which meaning would be fulfilled. On what should emphasis be put and would it really imply the character of a battle for humans to achieve world creation and meaning fulfilment and in the last analysis world enchantment. A battle indeed, especially in view of the fact that the disenchantment is forcefully introduced by those in powerful positions. That requires a battle. Although it may be hoped for and worked towards, the re-enchantment is not a self-evident matter. Too much self-interest is at stake. Re-enchantment would certainly require sacrifices which not many humans are willing to commit themselves to. Are humans really in a capable position of recreating and reinventing the world with a view to its recreation into a dwelling? Perhaps the abilities that contribute to the disenchantment, when transformed in the true sense of transformation into creative and inventive capabilities, may be more than able to bring about the recreation of the world. The implication would certainly be that they must be able to restrain the disenchanting forces and also to overturn these forces into positive energy. The non-negotiable condition, however, of reenchantment will be the respiritualisation of humans and human communities. This would enable humans to recreate the world into a liveable world through compositional thinking by putting and linking together what belongs together in a harmonious way, namely humans and things. <![CDATA[<b>Economics and multilingualism: reconsidering language policies for South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512014000200004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Daar word geargumenteer dat taal meer as net 'n kommunikasiemiddel is en dat die kulturele aspek of intrinsieke waarde van taal nie geïgnoreer mag word nie. Die koste van meertaligheid word dikwels oorbeklemtoon, terwyl die sosiale voordele onderskat en selfs oor die hoof gesien word. Dit het daarom nodig geword om meertaligheid in Suid-Afrika vanuit 'n ekonomiese perspektief te ontleed. Meertaligheid skep 'n positiewe eksternaliteit en die sosiale welvaart van Suid-Afrika kan verhoog word indien die sosiale voordele van meertaligheid die koste oorskry. Eentaligheid bevoordeel hoofsaaklik die elite en lei tot die verdere uitsluiting van minderbevoorregtes. Verder weerspreek dit ook die Suid-Afrikaanse Grondwet. Sensus 2011 word gebruik om aanbevelings oor 'n werkbare en bekostigbare meertalige beleid vir Suid-Afrika te maak, aangesien dit 'n meer objektiewe norm is. Vier amptelike tale, naamlik Afrikaans, Engels en die Nguni- en Sotho-tale, word vir nasionale regeringsvlak aanbeveel, bepaal deur die aantal eerstetaalsprekers van die onderskeie tale. Die Nguni- en Sotho-tale word saamgegroepeer in ooreenstemming met 'n aanbeveling van Alexander. Drie tot vier tale word as amptelike tale op provinsiale vlak aanbeveel ten einde Engels as lingua franca te akkommodeer. Hierdie voorstelle verteenwoordig 'n meer praktiese, uitvoerbare en bekostigbare taalbeleid en sal boonop verseker dat die huidige amptelike tale steeds as amptelike tale op ten minste een van hierdie twee owerheidsvlakke gebruik word. Belangegroepe sal egter druk op die regering moet uitoefen om te verseker dat meertaligheid verwesenlik word, gegewe die onverskilligheid van die regering in dié verband tot dusver.<hr/>Economics of language is a relatively small branch of economics that has been receiving more attention lately. South Africa is a multilingual and multicultural society, but surprisingly, South African economists have not paid much attention to this topic so far. The main reason for this indifference may be that South Africa, as a developing country, faces the typical challenges characteristic of such countries, for example high levels of poverty and unemployment, a skewed distribution of income and high crime levels, which may cause language issues to appear of secondary importance. It is, however, argued in this paper that multilingualism is an important matter and that the development of a viable and affordable language policy for South Africa is important for a progressive and stable South Africa. Multilingualism is defined as the use of more than two languages. The current language policy of 11 official languages as specified by the South African Constitution is not viable or affordable, with the result that English is the main beneficiary. It is important to have a lingua franca for inclusive communication and nation building, but not at the expense of the other South African languages. Monolingualism mainly benefits the elite and contributes to the social exclusion of the poor. Furthermore, it also contradicts the South African Constitution. Contrary to views held by some economists, language is more than just a medium of communication or technology; it has important cultural elements or intrinsical value that must not be ignored. The cost implications of multilingualism are usually overemphasised, while the benefits are ignored or underestimated. In public economics this is known as a positive externality, an example of a market failure, because if left to the market, the optimal amount of the good (multilingualism) will not be produced. It is therefore inter alia, argued that multilingualism is a positive externality. This creates scope for government to intervene by implementing language policies to improve allocation efficiency. If such market failures are not addressed properly, they will be detrimental to the social welfare. If social benefits exceed the costs, the social welfare of society will be improved. It must, however, be kept in mind that government also fails. The fiscal scope for South Africa to increase government expenditure is limited due to the severe demands it is already experiencing, especially those created by functions such as education, health, social assistance, public law and security, to mention only a few important functions. These demands will not change in the foreseeable future, and it is therefore imperative that language policies enhancing multilingualism must be affordable and viable. It is also indicated that despite general beliefs that English is the language of trade and the internet, this position is changing rapidly. Evidence shows that the ability to use the language of trading partners can be beneficial for trade, other languages, and especially Mandarin, are also making inroads on the internet. Notwithstanding the convictions of individuals such as Van Parijs that the use of a lingua franca will enable poor individuals to mobilise themselves and participate in deliberations at the global level, it is unlikely that this argument will hold for developing countries. In developing countries the use of one language only often benefits the elite mainly and could broaden the economic divide between "haves" and "have-nots", because poor individuals often do not know English, French or Portuguese at all, or sufficiently, due to no, little, or poor educational opportunities. In an effort to level the playingfield and to promote equity, government and other institutions will have to promote multilingualism, but obviously, multilingualism on its own will not necessarily create a more equitable society. In order to recommend a more practical, viable and affordable language policy, language demographic data of Census 2011 have been used in this paper as a more objective norm. The number of first-language speakers of the official languages is used to identify languages which should be used at national level. The Nguni and Sotho languages are grouped together in accordance with a proposal by Alexander, which recommends that the difference between languages and dialects (varieties) should be taken into account. It is therefore recommended that Afrikaans, English, the Nguni and Sotho languages be used as the official languages at national level. The same procedure is followed for the provincial level. In this case, however, some provinces will have to use four official languages to inter alia make provision for English as lingua franca. At provincial level the language with the most first language speakers could be used, as long as the standardisation of the written Nguni and Sotho languages is not jeopardised. <![CDATA[<b>The Sea <i>(2011) </i>by <i>Reza de Wet: A Slave Drama?</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512014000200005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die doel met hierdie artikel is om, met die didaskalia as vertrekpunt, die teenwoordigheid en werking van 'n slawenarratief in Reza de Wet se dramateks Die see (2011) te ondersoek. Alhoewel die dramaturg nêrens spesifiek aandui dat Die see (2011) 'n slawedrama is nie, bevestig die werking van die didaskalia en oorgange in die handelingsverloop dat dit die geval is. Sy koppel die oorgange direk of indirek aan spesifieke jaartalle, naamlik 1795 (die eerste Britse besetting van die Kaap), 1834 (die amptelike vrysetting van slawe in Suid-Afrika) en 1838 (die finale vrylating van slawe). De Wet gee aan dié oorgange 'n menslike gesig deur in haar drama drie vroulike slawe se belewing van die eerste Britse besetting van die Kaap tussen 7 Augustus en 16 September 1795 voor te stel. Literêr-histories beskou het sy daarmee 'n mylpaal in die Afrikaanse dramaliteratuur bereik, naamlik die eerste volledige slawedrama in Afrikaans.<hr/>Although Die see (The Sea, 2011) depicts a single day in 1795 in the lives of three female slaves, the playwright does not use the words "slave drama" or "slave play" to describe her text. These words do not appear in the published play at all. In spite of the absence of the words "slave drama" or "slave play", I consider the three slaves in the play as representing all slaves. My discussion consequently concerns the marginal position of all slaves and their longing for freedom. In the play, the slaves 'anonymous owner and master holds Ou Vrou (Old Woman), Vrou (Woman) and Meisie (Maiden) captive in a dungeon beneath the Castle in Cape Town. Outside, a British naval force approaches the Dutch settlement from the Muizenberg side of the peninsula. The sound of approaching canon can be heard. Oblivious of their impending liberation, the three slaves discuss their experiences of being treated as the property, or sexual objects, of their master. True to her character, each slave expresses in her own way her longing for freedom. For now, all they can do is to escape to an imaginary garden in their dreams or dream of their childhood outside the Castle. Notwithstanding the absence of clear indications that Die see is a slave drama, the didascalies provide hints that this may be the case. Such indications include descriptions of the dramatis personae, references to the time of and the place in which the action occurs, and dedicating the play to Peter Voges for keeping the memories of slaves alive and for showing respect for the role they played in establishing the colony. In the analysis, I address the question whether it is possible to identify Die see as a slave play from the perspective of the didascalies. As a first step, I identify the main features of slave dramas in general, and then I compare Die see from the point of view of the didascalies to these features. If this play could indeed be identified as a slave drama, it is possibly the only play in Afrikaans that deals with classical slavery. The nature of the didascalies in drama in general frames the question. Similar to Genette's notion of the paratext, the didascalies represent the extradiegetic and heterodiegetic voice of the playwright in the text. In Die see, the playwright's voice most clearly relates to De Wet's dedication of the play to Peter Voges. Her dedication shows two sides, in which past (memories of slavery as represented by the three slaves) and present ("liberation" from contemporary, alternative forms of "slavery") supplement each other. Juxtaposing memories of classical slavery (past) and "liberation" from alternative, comtemporary forms of "slavery", enables me to identify narrative and discursive structures, or the playwright's voice, in Die see. One side of the coin relates to information the playwright extracted from historical sources. De Wet does not indicate which source(s) she consulted, and whether they are written or oral. In my discussion, I made use of Robert Shell's Children of bondage, which, for the purpose of this article, proved to be an adequate and reliable source of information on slavery. In this section, I focus on the transposition of the Battle of Muizenberg, the accommodation of slaves in the Slave Lodge, the maltreatment of the three slaves as courtesans, and naming conventions as part of the fictionalised reality presented onstage. As part of the playwright's heterodiegetic voice, the other side of the coin allows for a double interpretation. The first interpretation relates to the playwright's use of metaphors indicating decay. For instance, the cracked dungeon's walls housing rats and lice denote cracks in the existing and soon to be replaced Dutch regime. The second interpretation involves the fashion in which the playwright concludes her play. She provides her play with an open ending during which she suggests that Ou Vrou does not die at that time. De Wet employs sound effects that allow for an interpretation in which the moment of liberation by British forces anticipates the future liberation of all slaves - men, women and children - from all kinds of bondage. The playwright relates the slaves' freedom to important dates in South African slave history, namely 1795 (first British occupation of the colony), 1834 (legal liberation of slaves), and 1838 (last slaves set free). <![CDATA[<b>The waltz of Afrikaans "a" with "l"</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512014000200006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In hierdie artikel word verslag gedoen van 'n reeks ondersoeke na die spraakproduksie van 'n enkele jong, vroulike spreker - 'n bekende radiopersoonlikheid verbonde aan Radio Sonder Grense, van wie dit bekend is dat sy die lang /a/-vokaal tot [u] rond. Die resultate van hierdie akoesties-fonetiese ondersoek word vergelyk met dié van soortgelyke vorige studies maar wat van 'n veel oppervlakkiger aard is. In die ondersoek is veral gefokus op die invloed wat /l/ kan hê op voorafgaande vokale. Dit geld veral kort /a/, soos in byvoorbeeld 'n geslote sillabe in /al/ (in wals), of in 'n oop sillabe, soos in /a-ta/ (alle). Lang /a/ is ook hier ter sprake, byvoorbeeld in /mal/ (maal) en /ma-la/ (male). Die spreker se akoestiese metinge in terme waarvan ronding van lang /a/ tot [u] bepaal is, naamlik veral die tweede vokaalformantfrekwensie (F2), kom in 'n beduidende mate ooreen met dié wat in vorige studies gevind is. Dit word uitgewys dat ook kort /a/ merkbaar tot [u]¹ voor /l/ 'n geronde kwaliteit aanneem, veral in geslote sillabes. Hierdie bevinding ten opsigte van die rondende neiging van kort /Q/ is nog nie tevore waargeneem, geanaliseer en beskryf nie. Die laterale konsonant /l/ na agtervokale blyk 'n donker kwaliteit te hê weens die terugtrek van die tongliggaam, wat soms daaraan 'n retrofleksiewe eienskap verleen (Hamann 2003). Hier is sprake van 'n waarskynllike koartikulasie tussen sodanige donker [1] en voorafgaande /a/, met as resultaat 'n geronde [u]. Dit is ook die geval met die lang /a/, waarvan dit reeds bekend is dat dit in benadrukte posisies gerond word. Voor [1] blyk dit nog meer die geval te wees. /l/-velarisasie is 'n verskynsel wat waarskynlik by hierdie studie betrek behoort te word. In die resultate van 'n post hoc-ondersoek, waarby 'n ultrasoniese aftaster en 'n lip- videokamera gebruik is, word hierdie vermoede bevestig. Ander faktore wat ook moontlik 'n rol kan speel by hierdie verskynsel is nie in hierdie studie in ag geneem nie. Lin, Beddor en Coetzee (2013) noem woordfrekwensie as 'n beïnvloedende faktor by /l/-vokalisasie; dit kan moontlik ook van toepassing wees by velarisasie. Recasens en Espinosa (2005) noem ook nog verskille in artikulasiesluiting, dorsopalatale kontakgrootte, sluitingsduur en formantfrekwensie. Laasgenoemde is van toepassing by die prominente rol van F1 wat in die huidige ondersoek gevind is. Afgesien van die te verwagte verhoging van F2, suggereer die resultate wat in hierdie studie gevind is, 'n meer prominente rol van F1. Dit is hier selfs 'n sterker leidraad vir ronding in die geval van beide vokale. Die resultate bevestig die siening dat die Afrikaanse vokaalsisteem, veral wat betref die lang /a/-ronding, aan die verander is, en dit suggereer ook die moontlikheid dat kort /a/ dieselfde pad mag volg. Die gedrag daarvan voor /l/ ondersteun sodanige waarskynlikheid. Dit hou interessante konsekwensies in vir 'n beter begrip van die proses van, en die teorie oor taalverandering in die algemeen.<hr/>The present study is a follow-up of previous ones on the rounding of the long low /a/ vowel in Afrikaans, a relatively new sound variation. Against the background of existing descriptions I report a similar tendency of rounding of short /α/ vowel, specifically when followed by the lateral consonant /l/. I suggest an explanation of such rounding as being the result of a process of coarticulation, specifically under the influence of a distinct dark, retroflex quality of this lateral. A post hoc investigation with an ultrasound scanner and lip video camera confirmed this to be the case. The vowel productions of a single speaker, known to be a clear rounding of long /a/ was explored in an extensively designed case study. The phenomenon of /a/-rounding implies a qualitative change of the /a/ to [n] as in [jn] (ja; "yes") and in [snnks (snaaks; "funny"). Apart from superficial references to its existence in linguistic handbooks, such as De Villiers and Ponelis (1987:100), the first systematic study was done by Wissing (2006), followed-up by more recent other studies (Wissing 2010; 2013). Rounding is currently seemingly limited to the speech of young adult female speakers of Afrikaans, but it appears as if it has lately been spreading to the broader Afrikaans speaking community at a rather noticeable pace. It is provoking extremely negative reactions in especially the case of older, or more conservative Afrikaans speaking persons. On the other hand, younger users of Afrikaans do not even seem to notice the existence of this phenomenon, especially in their own language use. Such a vowel change is apparently part of a larger vowel shift which has recently been taking place, viz. the lowering of the front-mid vowel /e/ to almost the position of the short low /a/, or the shifting of /u/ from a back to a more centralised position (cf. Wissing 2010). Broadly defined, language change is a topic that integrates the social as well as the cognitive aspects of what it means to be human. A central feature of a language in the process of change is variation. During a period of change, there is variation in the language between forms that represent the current/previous stage and forms that represent the innovative/new stage of the language. Consequently, the rounding of/a/ could be of linguistic significance when considered against this general linguistic backdrop. The present investigation aims in particular at both broadening, developing and understanding of /a/-rounding to [a] in modern Afrikaans. In order to achieve this, firstly the existing knowledge concerning this phenomenon was summarised, whereafter a variety of carefully constructed stimuli were used in an in-depth case study of the pronunciation of a young female radio presenter at Radio Sonder Grense, the leading Afrikaans public broadcaster (hence referred to as C). The testing material was created with a view to obtaining a fuller understanding of /a/-rounding to [α] in Afrikaans in two respects. Firstly, the stimulus series concerning the degree to which long /a/ vowels are subjected to such rounding was expanded considerably. Secondly, stimuli were included with the aim of examining the possible co-articulatory influence of the rounding of /a/ followed by the lateral consonant /l/ (characterised as a dark l in the case of English pronunciation) on especially the short /a/-vowel, as in wals ("waltz"). Dark /l/ has received much attention in literature. Moreover, word frequency also has been shown (Lin, Beddor & Coetzee 2013) to influence the magnitude of the tongue tip gesture in laterals, especially with regard to /l/ vocalization. It might be applicable on the case of /l/-velarisation as well. Degree of darkness, differences in articulatory closure, dorsopalatal contact size, closure duration, relative timing of events and formant frequency (cf. Recasens & Espinosa 2005) are some of the important factors to take into account when studying this consonant and its co-articulatory effects on phonetic environment. Up until now none of these have been mentioned in Afrikaans phonetic literature. In the present article I superficially touch on some of them. Obviously these facets deserve fundamental attention. I utilised three different types of recording tasks, namely firstly the reading of carrier phrases containing a focus form with the structure /sVs/ (eg. among others, saas and sas); secondly, the naming of the letters of the alphabet (with an interest in a, h, k; all pronounced with a long [a]), and thirdly, the reading of a variety of isolated words and phrases, mostly containing words relevant to this study. In some cases C was prompted to orally complete a task, for example, a noun like val was to be read, but its diminutive (valletjie) and plural forms (valle) were to be completed without visual stimulus. Syllable structure was controlled systematically. In the case of val, /a/ appears in a closed syllable, but in valletjie and valle the syllables are open. These tasks had to be carried out twice. Recordings were done with high quality equipment, in use by RSG. Processing and acoustic analyses of the recordings were performed by means of standard procedures. As is conventional in studies of this nature, acoustic characteristics of the production of long /a/ and short /Q/ were investigated via vowel formant frequencies, F1 as well as F2. F1, the first formant, corresponds to vowel openness (vowel height). An open vowel, such as /a/, has high F1 frequencies, while close vowels, like /i/, have low F1 frequencies. The second formant, F2, corresponds to the front positions of a vowel. Back vowels, which are normally at the same time also rounded, have low F2 frequencies, in contrast to front vowels, which have high F2 frequencies. Generally the results clearly confirm the audible perception that C is a strong rounder of the long /a/. There is a very positive correlation between C's acoustic measurements and that previously found for another young female individual (Wissing 2006) as well as that of twenty others of about the same age (Wissing 2013). This finding strongly suggests a restriction on the number of participants as well as the range of required stimuli in instances of experiments of this kind, especially in the case of pilot studies. The role of syllable structure was found to be of limited importance. The short /a / was rounded to a significant degree when followed by /l/ in open as well as closed syllables, but to a small degree as in the case of open syllables. Of special importance is the finding that F1 also plays a significant role in the expression of degree of roundedness of the /a/ vowel, albeit not quite to the same extent as is the case with F2, generally considered to be the sole carrier of roundedness. The fact that the rounded [n] is frequently misinterpreted (as the rounded vowel [o] (in kom "come")), from a perceptual angle supports the current results of the analysis of the rounded [n] in Afrikaans. Of course, [o] is characterised inter alia by a higher F1 than that of the unrounded [a]. In many languages the existence of dark /l/ ([f]) is well-known (cf. Hamann 2003; also Lin, Beddor & Coetzee 2014 and references cited by them). With regard to Afrikaans, a co-articulatory effect of this lateral was found to be clearly manifested in the present study on the rounding to [a] of the short /a/, but also of the long /a/. In a broader linguistic perspective the present findings should be of distinctive importance to those interested in language change in general, and more specifically in sound variation. <![CDATA[<b>An evaluation of the African Union as an international organisation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512014000200007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die halfeeu-viering van die Organisasie vir Afrika-Eenheid (OAE) en die eerste dekade van die Afrika-Unie (AU) is gedurende 2013 gevier. Hierdie studie evalueer die sukses van die AU as internasionale organisasie (IO). Eerstens is die teorie van IO's bestudeer, wat daarna as agtergrond dien deur middel waarvan die Afrika-Unie geassesseer kan word. Die rol en optrede van die AU in besondere gebeure, soos in Zimbabwe, Somaliland, die Arabiese lente, die DRK en Darfoer, is teen hierdie teoretiese agtergrond beoordeel. Daar is bevind dat die AU gedurende sy eerste dekade 'n groot mate van sukses op sekere gebiede bereik het, maar dat dit ook in baie gevalle nog gebrekkig gebly het. Die AU het 'n al groter wordende rol om te speel in die internasionale arena as supranasionale regering, en as bemiddelaar van streeksintegrasie en samewerking. Hulle was suksesvol om 'n kollektiewe internasionale ekonomiese eenheid te vorm, maar het meestal misluk om konflikte te beredder en 'n kultuur van demokrasie te vestig. Die slotsom is dat alhoewel die AU gemengde resultate behaal het, daar 'n groeiende sukseskoers bestaan en dat die AU dus nie sonder meer as 'n algehele mislukking bestempel kan word nie.<hr/>The half centenary of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) and the first decade of the African Union (AU) were celebrated during 2013. The OAU was established on 25 May 1963 in Addis Ababa, with the aim to promote unity among African countries and to improve the fate of their peoples. On 9 July 2002, it was transformed into the African Union in Durban. The main objectives of the latter are the economic and political integration of the African continent. This study aims to evaluate the successes and failures of the African Union as an international organisation (IO). Africa is one of the poorest and least developed regions in the world. This debate is therefore of critical importance to the people of the Southern African region (World Bank 2013). This evaluation provides a broad overview and focus on the major challenges that the AU is facing. In this study, the AU is assessed using the theoretical criteria set by the theory of international organisations. The results revealed that the AU is only partially successful and that internal divisions remain a barrier. The article commences with a historical overview of the establishment of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) and the African Union (AU). It explains the rationale for their formation and the role they seek to play. Their objectives are stated and explained. Then the theory of international organisations and their properties are studied. This served as criteria when evaluating the record of the African Union. In the following section, the role that the African Union plays as an international political organisation is evaluated against the theoretical background, with specific focus on the challenges that the organisation is facing. Finally, a summary of the findings is provided and a final verdict is made on whether the African Union triumphs or fails as an international organisation. Regional international organisations such as the African Union (AU) and European Union (EU) limit their membership to specific regions and are mostly concerned with regional development, regional security, solving regional disputes and fostering regional cooperation. The theoretical study revealed that the AU originated in the Neo-functionalist fashion. According to functionalism, international cooperation starts with limited pragmatic treaties and agreements and builds further from that. That is the natural way the AU also developed historically. The study also concluded that the national and ideological agendas of member states remain the biggest obstacle that the AU faces in achieving its objectives. As it developed through a pragmatic rationale, it is, for example, having a problem recognising old colonial borders, but simultaneously respecting the new sovereignty and territorial integrity of their allies. The theory of international organisations (IOs) states that IOs are created by sovereign states, for sovereign states, and this influences their respective roles. International organisations serve as an international platform for aid, assistance and neutral brokerage in times of conflict. They aim to ensure mutual protection and joint cooperation between heterogeneous peoples. An IO acts as a common voice for the entire region and represents member countries ' wishes collectively. IOs ensure cultural harmony among the various peoples of the region they represent. They aim to uplift their people's welfare. IOs therefore also serve as a collective economic voice and strive towards economic and social cooperation in a world characterised by increasing globalisation. The theory of international organisations identifies four functions of IOs. In the first place, IOs usually protect and facilitate international relations and world politics. They act as an interactive arena for member states. While protecting the interests of individual states, they also enable international integration, promote political credibility in the international arena and provide an alternative for dispute resolution. Secondly, IOs act as a centre for cooperation among states; they have a role as independent international actor on behalf of member states; and finally, they act as a supranational organisation. They influence transnational relations and ensure the improvement of the human condition. In evaluating the AU in accordance with the theory of IOs, special emphasis was placed on the regional problems and conflicts of Zimbabwe, Darfur and Somaliland since 2002. Other regions that received attention were the Arabic Spring, Mali, the Central African Republic, the creation of Southern-Sudan, Kenya, the DRC and the Comoro Islands. Literature emphasises that the secondary role and context of specific member states and their respective agendas should always be taken into consideration when the success of an IO is evaluated. This was also adhered to in this particular assessment of the AU before a conclusion was reached. It was concluded that although the AU has failed in many instances, it has also achieved a great deal of success in certain spheres in its decade of existence. Failures mostly relate to conflict resolution and the fostering of a democratic culture, while the successes are mostly related to the formulation of a collective international economic voice. It was found that the AU has an ever-increasing role to play as it is becoming a significant platform for regional integration and cooperation, being an independent international actor and supranational government with legal recourse against member states. The main challenge of the AU will be the harmonising of members' interests and the promotion of a culture of human rights and democracy. The expectation at the beginning of the study was that the AU has mixed results as an IO, but it is a failure overall. This study proves that although there are mixed results, the AU has a growing success rate and can therefore not be seen as a failure. The way that various conflict situations in Africa are handled will in future determine the extent to which IOs, such as the EU and the AU, will work together and whether the success rate of the AU will increase. <![CDATA[<b>Outcomes of an English literacy intervention on non-mother tongue teaching practices of teachers in rural schools</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512014000200008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In Suid-Afrika word niemoedertaalonderrig op hoërskoolvlak bemoeilik deur leerders se beperkte vaardigheid in Engels as kognitiewe akademiese taal. Taalonderwysers aan hoërskole beskik nie oor die kundigheid om leerders by te staan wat nie op laerskoolvlak voldoende kerngeletterd-heidsvaardighede in Engels verwerf het nie, omdat hulle opgelei is om Engels as skoolvak te onderrig eerder as om Engels as onderrigtaal te gebruik. Hierdie verkennende studie se aanvanklike doel was om hoërskoolonderwysers met dié probleem by te staan. Die versoek van ses taalonderwysers in 'n plattelandse hoërskool om hulle te help om leerders meer effektief te ondersteun het tot hierdie kwalitatiewe gevallestudie aanleiding gegee. Ons het 'n geletterdheids-intervensie gegrond op die teorieë van sosiale leer en sosiale ontwikkeling en gebaseer op fonetiese beginsels ontwikkel en geïmplementeer. Die vloeibaarheid van ons deelnemende aksienavor-singsontwerp binne 'n konstruktivistiese paradigma het ruimte vir uitbreiding gedurende die intervensie gebied. Die groep het deur deelnemergeleide sneeubalseleksie uitgebrei met vyf onderwysers van twee naburige laerskole. Deur die uitgebreide fokus kon ons die aandag vestig op 'n moontlike dieperliggende wortel van die probleem, naamlik dat laerskoolonderwysers eweneens nie toereikend opgelei word vir die uitdagings van niemoedertaal-geletterdheidsonderrig in 'n landelike gebied nie. Tematiese analise voor en na die intervensie van data wat deur fokusgroepe, observasie en deelnemende observasie bekom is, het getoon dat beide hoër- en laerskoolonderwysers hul niemoedertaal-onderrigpraktyke suksesvol kon aanpas, met goeie gevolge vir leerlingdeelname en verbeterde prestasie. Daar bestaan 'n wederkerige interaksie tussen onderwysers se sienings van hulle eie effektiwiteit, motivering en trots enersyds en leerders se entoesiasme en sukses andersyds.<hr/>In South Africa teachers' and learners' mother tongues are often different from the language of learning and teaching, which is mostly English. Non-mother tongue teaching and learning in high schools are impeded by learners' limited proficiency in English as a cognitive academic language. In addition, secondary school English language teachers lack competency to support learners who have failed to acquire core literacy skills in English during their primary school years, because they have been trained to teach English as a school subject rather than to use English as language of teaching and learning. A request to assist six English language teachers regarding this problem in a rural high school initiated this qualitative case study. Data were obtained by way of focus groups, observation and participant observation and were recorded in field notes and photographs. Pre-intervention thematic analysis of the problem of teachers ' experiences and emotional state regarding their language of teaching practices revealed themes of 1) inadequate training; 2) scarce resources; 3) learners' passivity and 4) extremely limited core literacy skills. These limitations were reflected in 1) teachers' feelings of incompetency; 2) powerlessness; 3) confusion and 4) despair regarding learners ' inability to read English. We designed and implemented a literacy intervention framed by theories of social learning and social development and based on phonetic principles. In designing the literacy intervention, we took teachers'and learners 'previous knowledge of phonics as the baseline of their zone of proximal development. Vygotsky's emancipatory concepts of a more knowledgeable other, as well as teaching by way of instruction and modelling conceptualised as scaffolding, were guiding principles. In addition, we incorporated Bandura's ideas about the value of motivation and self-efficacy expectations into our facilitation of the programme.The fluidity of our participatory action research design, framed by a constructivist paradigm, allowed our sample to snowball by way of participant-driven selection and thus to include five additional teachers from two neighbouring primary schools. Our expanded focus revealed a deeper root of the problem we were attempting to address, namely that the primary school teachers were not adequately trained for the challenges of non-mother tongue literacy education in a rural area either. Post-intervention thematic analysis of the data revealed that both secondary and primary school teachers were able to successfully adjust their non-mother tongue teaching practices, with positive outcomes in terms of learners' participation and achievement. Teachers' new experiences were manifested in 1) their utilisation of new techniques; 2) new resources, 3) learners' more confident participation and 4) academic improvement. Learners' changed interaction with teachers in turn seemed to have a positive effect on teachers' attitudes towards them. Teachers' new emotional state was expressed in 1) feelings of excitement; 2) empowerment; 3) inspiration and 4) pride. There exists a reciprocal interaction between teachers' perceptions of self-efficacy, motivation and pride on the one hand and learners enthusiasm and success on the other. Pursuant to the results of this study, we recommend that all teachers should be better trained to implement the best strategies for teaching non-mother tongue literacy. In-service training could be provided by way of distance learning. Because cognitive academic language proficiency is inseparable from successful learning in school, all teachers are in fact language teachers. The challenge to provide the circumstances and practices for acquiring core literacy skills in English is particularly daunting in rural schools. Support of teachers and learners should be ecologically sensitive and should build on existing competencies; such as knowledge of the phonetic foundations of English, as a useful basis for a literacy intervention. Adequate resources, empowerment of teachers, strategies that enhance learners 'participation and guaranteed success for both teachers and learners by way of simple incremental objectives are important considerations. Our purpose with this study was exploratory. In action research, a new cycle would be initiated at this point. However, we hope that this report serves as a point of departure for further discussion and research. The far-reaching implications of the disadvantage faced by rural learners whose language of learning and teaching is not their mother tongue should be urgently addressed. <![CDATA[<b>Irrational beliefs of adolescents who experience group pressure</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512014000200009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Vir adolessente word die verhouding met maats die primêre omgewing waar sosiale interaksie en ontwikkeling plaasvind. Die sterk behoefte om gedurende hierdie periode sosiaal aanvaar te word, kan tot groepdruk aanleiding gee. Faktore wat met groepdruk verband hou soos verhouding met ouers, verhouding met maats en selfbeeld is sosiaal-affektief van aard en verklaar nie sonder meer hoe adolessente kognitief oor sosiale aangeleenthede in hulle lewe dink en redeneer nie. Die vraag ontstaan in hoe 'n mate die denke en redenasies van adolessente verband hou met hulle kwesbaarheid vir groepdruk. In die ondersoek is daar spesifiek op irrasionele denke en oortuigings van adolessente gefokus. 'n Empiriese ondersoek is uitgevoer waarby 316 hoërskooladolessente betrek is. Uit die resultate blyk dit dat veral drie tipes irrasionele oortuigings met groepdruk verband hou. Twee van hierdie irrasionele oortuigings tesame met selfbeeld verklaar soveel as 44% van die variansie in groepdruk by adolessente. Seuns en dogters het nie beduidend ten opsigte van groepdruk verskil nie en slegs beduidend verskil met betrekking tot een van die drie geïdentifiseerde irrasionele oortuigings. Die drie prominente irrasionele oortuigings het ook nie tussen adolessente in verskillende ouderdomsgroepe beduidend verskil nie.<hr/>During adolescence, relationships with friends become the primary environment where social interaction and development occurs. This has both positive and negative consequences. On the positive side, the peer group provides companionship, social and emotional support, as well as opportunities for self-reflection which parents are, at times, unable to offer (Oppenheimer & Hankin 2011:486-493; Chen, Cohen, Johnson & Kasen 2009:223). However, interaction with peers may also have negative effects. Interaction with peers may be associated with undesirable behaviour such as alcohol or drug abuse (Henry, Slater & Oetting 2005:275-283; Allen, Donohue, Griffin, Ryan & Turner 2003:163-186). Also, peers may socially isolate a particular individual and this can have negative consequences for the person's social development, emotional functioning and self-image resulting in depression (Oppenheimer & Hankin 2011:487). Furthermore, adolescents who are socially victimised find it difficult to establish normal social relationships with friends and these adolescents are likely to succumb to group pressure simply to be accepted. Relationship with parents, relationship with friends and self-image are some of the most prominent factors relating to group pressure (Bámaca & Umaha-Taylor 2006:633-634; La Greca & Harrison 2005:58; Fourie 2001:210-213; Kung & Farrell 2000:509). These factors are all psychosocial in nature and do not precisely explain how adolescents cognitively think and reason about social issues in their lives and how this might affect their vulnerability to group pressure. Adolescents should be able to think abstractly and reason in a logical way (Woolfolk 2010:38-39) but, even if they can, this is no guarantee that they will be capable of rational reasoning. Adolescents, like many adults, often reason in an irrational way and come to conclusions without supporting evidence. Adolescents who think irrationally tend to make incorrect assumptions about themselves, other people and about situations in general. These faulty and often illogical deductions result in beliefs which in turn, lead to destructive emotions and deviant behaviour. Ellis (in Maltby, Day & Macaskill 2007:458-459) identified a number of irrational beliefs which he considers to be the root of many emotional and behavioural problems. The aims of the current research revolve around the relationship between these irrational beliefs and group pressure. A sample of 316 high school learners (120 boys and 196 girls) from various provinces in South Africa was used in the investigation. The average age of the respondents was 16.03 years with a standard deviation of 1.29. Irrational beliefs were measured using a questionnaire developed by Jones (1968). The questionnaire measures the ten most common irrational beliefs identified by Ellis (Maltby, Day & Macaskill 2007:458-459). Other variables namely group pressure, relationship with peers, parent-child relationship and self-image were measured using a questionnaire developed by Fourie (2001). Seven of the ten irrational beliefs correlated positively with group pressure which indicates that the phenomenon of strongly held irrational beliefs is related to intense group pressure among adolescents. From the results of a regression analysis, three irrational beliefs were identified as the most prominent beliefs as far as group pressure is concerned. These irrational beliefs are: that other people should always like and accept you, that problems should be avoided rather than solved and that you cannot manage in life without somebody else's help. Significant negative correlations were obtained between group pressure and self-image (-0.63), relationship with friends (-0.34) and parent-child relationship (-0.46). The results also showed that self-image, the irrational belief that other people should always like and accept you, and the irrational belief that problems should be avoided rather than solved, explain 44% of the variance in group pressure. The three prominent irrational beliefs related to group pressure did not differ between adolescents in different age groups. Boys and girls did not differ as far as group pressure was concerned and only with regard to one of the three prominent irrational beliefs: girls are more inclined to believe that you cannot manage in life without somebody else's help. The identification of irrational beliefs which relates to group pressure, has two practical implications. Firstly, the presence of certain irrational beliefs can help parents and teachers to identify group pressure without the need for some form of formal assessment. Secondly, irrational beliefs provide a framework for therapeutic intervention using Ellis's well-known A-B-C-D-E model. Adolescents who find it difficult to deal with group pressure could be helped by parents and teachers to formulate acceptable alternatives for the prominent irrational beliefs identified in this study. <![CDATA[<b>Parents' experience of participation in an equine-assisted parental guidance programme</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512014000200010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es 'n Verskeidenheid terapeutiese programme waarin perde benut word, word deur geestesgesond-heidsterapeute gebruik om die psigososiale funksionering van kliënte te verbeter. Dit blyk egter dat nie al hierdie terapeutiese programme oor 'n navorsingsbasis beskik nie. Navorsing aangaande genoemde programme is dus noodsaaklik, sodat die kliënt op die beste moontlike wyse terapeuties gehelp kan word. Die doel van hierdie studie is derhalwe 'n ondersoek na die subjektiewe belewenisse van kliënte wat aan 'n perd-ondersteunde ouerleidingsprogram deelgeneem het ten einde aanpassings aan die program vir toekomstige gebruik te maak. Die studie kan ook as basis dien vir verdere kwantitatiewe, bewysgebaseerde navorsing. Die kwalitatiewe navorsingsparadigma, met 'n fenomenologiese ontwerp, is in hierdie studie gevolg. 'n Doelbewuste niewaarskyn-likheidsteekproef van ses deelnemers is getrek en data is deur middel van vraelyste met geslote sowel as oopeinde-vrae en semigestruktureerde persoonlike onderhoude ingesamel. Hierna is dit volgens die stappe van beskrywende fenomenologie geanaliseer. Daar is onder andere bevind dat die deelnemers die beginsels van die perd-ondersteunde ouerleidingsprogram begryp het, dat selfinsig en insig in hulle kinders se gedrag en ontwikkelingsfase verhoog het en dat hulle alternatiewe wyses om hulle kinders te hanteer, begin benut het. Die feit dat die program nie op individuele vlak aangebied is nie, is as 'n leemte aangedui. Daar is verder bevind dat die deelnemers die benutting van die perde as waardevol ervaar het en dat hulle perde verkies bo ander lewende of sagte speelgoeddiere.<hr/>Equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP) is primarily a solution orientated therapeutic modality where horses are used to address different psychosocial needs of clients. Several EAP therapeutic programmes exist but it appears that they have not been subjected to scientific research. Therefore, an existing parental guidance programme was integrated with EAP principles and a descriptive phenomenological analysis of the personal experiences of parents in this regard was undertaken as a way to gain deeper insight in the participants' experience of the programme to inform future practice.This study can serve as the basis for further quantitative, evidence-based research. The parental guidance programme under investigation consists of several contact sessions. The contents of the different contact sessions are communication, the drafting of house rules, discipline and having house meetings. The programme was offered in a practical manner within the context of a group, in that the above aspects were discussed by means of a workbook. The theoretical discussion of the content was extended by means of equine-assisted psychotherapeutic activities. The purpose of the utilisation of the equine-assisted psychotherapeutic activities was to address parents 'handling of problems in the here and now. The parental guidance programme is therefore combined with equine-assisted psychotherapy. The qualitative research paradigm was utilised, because the personal experience of participants in an equine-assisted parental guidance programme was the focus. A phenomenological research design was followed as guideline for the research procedures. Non-probability sampling was used to select six participants for participation in the study. Trustworthiness was ensured through triangulation by collecting data by means of different methods at different times. The data collection methods included questionnaires with both closed and open-ended questions and semi-structured interviews. The data were analysed and interpreted according to the process of descriptive phenomenology. It was found, inter alia, that the participants understood the principles of the equine-assisted parental guidance programme and that their insight into themselves as well as the developmental phase of their children had increased. Alternative ways of handling their children were acquired and applied. The fact that the equine-assisted parental training programme was not offered individually for parents, was indicated as a limitation. It was determined that anthropomorphism had occurred. This can be applied therapeutically because the projection of human traits and relationship patterns unto the horses can be processed with the clients in the here-and-now. The results indicated, for example, that participants preferred the application of horses in the parental guidance programme to the utilisation of other animals or stuffed animals. Recommendations for further research include the following: Qualitative as well as quantitative research investigations should be launched after the utilisation of horses, to determine the effectiveness of their use as part of a parental guidance programme. The launching of quantitative research could bring the equine-assisted parental guidance programme into the cadre of evidence-based research and evidence-based practice. Recommendations for practice are that clients who engage in the equine-assisted parental training programme can also engage in individual therapeutic sessions in order to address specific, individual psychosocial challenges. Individual feedback on specific observations pertaining to their interactional patterns could also be provided to clients upon completion of the equine-assisted parental training programme. <![CDATA[<b>Effectiveness of the school-based support team within an inclusive South African educational system</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512014000200011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Alhoewel die begrip inklusiewe onderwys en opleiding verwys na 'n relatief nuwe sisteem in Suid-Afrika, vorm dit 'n integrale deel van die breër onderwysondersteuningstelsel. Die skool-ondersteuningspan verskaf ondersteuning aan sowel leerders met leer- en ontwikkelingshindernisse as aan onderwysers en ouers/versorgers, binne die skoolverband en spesifieke leeromgewings. Hierdie studie het die doeltreffendheid van die skoolondersteuningspan in vyf primêre hoofstroomskole in die Wes-Kaap, op grond van bepaalde kriteria, ondersoek. Data is ingesamel deur middel van gestruktureerde vraelyste, individuele en fokusgroeponderhoude, veldnotas en die ontleding van toepaslike dokumentasie. Elf kriteria is ontwerp om gesamentlik as 'n evalu-eringsinstrument te dien. Die doeltreffendheid van die vyf skoolondersteuningspanne is vervolgens geëvalueer en volgens 'n konseptuele raamwerk in bepaalde kategorieë geplaas. Daar is bevind dat die vyf skoolondersteuningspanne op die meeste terreine redelik doeltreffend funksioneer. Ten opsigte van hul samestelling is al vyf spanne doeltreffend. Op die terreine wat betref oriëntering en opleiding van spanlede, onderwysers en ouers/versorgers van die leerders met leer- en ontwikkelingshindernisse, funksioneer al vyf spanne egter ondoeltreffend. Verdere navorsing wat betref ondersteuningsisteme in inklusiewe skole word aanbeveel.<hr/>Inclusive education and training is a relatively new system in South Africa, but forms an integral part of a more encompassing education support system. The school support system provides support for learners with learning and development barriers as well as for educators and parents/ caretakers, within the school context and in specific learning environments. This study examines the effectiveness of the school-based support team in five primary mainstream schools in the Western Cape, South Africa, according to certain criteria. Information was gathered by means of structured questionnaires, individual and focus group interviews, field notes and the study of appropriate documents. Eleven criteria were designed to serve collectively as an evaluation instrument. The effectiveness of the five school-based support teams was subsequently assessed and placed in various categories according to a conceptual framework. It was found that the five teams function relatively effectively in most areas. The five teams are effective with regard to their composition. However, the teams function ineffectively concerning the orientation and training of the members, as well as of teachers and parents/caregivers of learners with learning and development barriers. Further research is recommended on support systems in inclusive schools. <![CDATA[<b>The survival of magician's magic: the dilemma of the influence of technology on the art of magician's magic</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512014000200012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Kulkuns is eeue lank beoefen via die medium van interpersoonlike kommunikasie. Nabye aangesig-tot-aangesig-kulkuns het noodgedwonge plek gemaak vir televisievertonings. Kulkuns het oorspronklik staatgemaak op die vaardighede van hoogs professionele kulkunstenaars, maar ongelukkig is dit nie meer die geval nie. Met die aanvang van grootskaalse illusieskepping en televisietegnologie het die verwerking of adaptasie van die kunsvorm vir die oudiovisuele media die goëlkuns verander na bloot dokumentêre drama (doku-drama). Televisie het dit vir kulkunstenaars maklik gemaak om illusies deur middel van oudiovisuele effekte te skep. Daarenteen het televisie ook 'n probleem geskep vir die kulkuns, aangesien gehore nou oortuig moet word van die egtheid van 'n toertjie en van die afwesigheid van spesiale oudiovisuele effekte. Tot op hede is 'n mate van sukses behaal met die verskuiwing ("migration") tussen die mediums, veral as in ag geneem word dat kulkunstenaars soos David Copperfield, Criss Angel, David Blane en Suid-Afrika se Martino en Wolfgang Riebe bekendheid deur hul televisie-optredes verwerf het. Hierdie kulkunstenaars het hul kunsvorm suksesvol aangepas van die verhoog na die oudio-visuele medium. Hierdie artikel bied 'n krities-beskrywende oorsig van die probleme wat kulkunstenaars ondervind in die verwerking van kulkuns van die een medium na 'n ander, asook van die moontlike stappe wat kulkunstenaars kan neem om die gehoor te oorreed om hul ongeloof op te skort. 'n Oorsig oor die geskiedenis van kulkuns as 'n interpersoonlike, aangesig-tot-aangesig-uitvoeringsvorm word gebied, waardeur die tegnieke van kulkuns in die teatermilieu uitgelig word. Verder word 'n analise gebied van die persepsies van die gehoor/toeskouer met betrekking tot die effek wat televisie op die tegniese toepassing van kulkuns het. Laastens word die oorredingstegnieke bespreek wat deur kulkunstenaars gebruik word om die kunsvorm se voortbestaan in nuwe media te verseker.<hr/>Magic as a performing art has been an interpersonal medium for centuries. In the early 1930s close-up, face-to-face magic had to make way for large-scale illusions on television. As a result of the immediacy of face-to-face magic, magician's magic used to rely on split-second timing and tremendous expertise and skills on the part of the magician. The interpersonal presentation of the art of magic has a persuasive effect that is instantaneous and guaranteed to be authentic. The fact that the illusion is created right in front of one's eyes and in one's presence makes it a highly authentic product created mainly through the skill of the conjurer. This is no longer true today. With its large-scale illusions and television effects, the migration of the art of magic to television has made the art of prestidigitation a mere documentary-drama (docu-drama). With the advent of television, approaches to acting, directing, and prestidigitation have changed tremendously. The use of establishing medium and close-up camera shots creates a sectional analytical montage with an integration to a higher level of meaning (Barthes 1988:101) than that of a stage show. Although television as a medium has made it easier for magicians to produce a magic show using the advanced technology of audiovisual media, it also reinforces the perception that illusions are created by using special cinematographic effects. Therefore, television presents magicians with a fundamental problem in persuading the audience of the authenticity of the art of magic within this new medium. To date there has been a certain level of success with magic on television and via the internet when one considers that it has made famous magicians out of David Copperfield, Pen and Teller, Criss Angel, David Blane as well as South Africa's Martino and Wolfgang Riebe. These magicians have successfully adapted stage magic to television. This article presents a critical descriptive overview of the measures taken by magicians to adapt magic shows from theatres to audiovisual media in a way that encourages people to suspend their disbelief It also analyses the implications of the invasion of television into the technical art of magician's magic for the survival of magic as an art form through a listing of fundamental problems in this adaptation process. An overview is provided of the history of magician's magic on an interpersonal face-to-face level in theatres and this highlights the techniques used by magicians in this environment. The article further explores the problems that practitioners of the art of magic encounter in its adaptation from stage to screen by reviewing some of the most prevalent dilemmas regarding the use of special effects in television and film. Lastly, insight is provided into the measures that magicians take to curb the audience's perception that special effects are responsible for creating the magic within audiovisual media. <![CDATA[<b>Uitnodiging - Bydraes oor TT Cloete</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512014000200013&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Kulkuns is eeue lank beoefen via die medium van interpersoonlike kommunikasie. Nabye aangesig-tot-aangesig-kulkuns het noodgedwonge plek gemaak vir televisievertonings. Kulkuns het oorspronklik staatgemaak op die vaardighede van hoogs professionele kulkunstenaars, maar ongelukkig is dit nie meer die geval nie. Met die aanvang van grootskaalse illusieskepping en televisietegnologie het die verwerking of adaptasie van die kunsvorm vir die oudiovisuele media die goëlkuns verander na bloot dokumentêre drama (doku-drama). Televisie het dit vir kulkunstenaars maklik gemaak om illusies deur middel van oudiovisuele effekte te skep. Daarenteen het televisie ook 'n probleem geskep vir die kulkuns, aangesien gehore nou oortuig moet word van die egtheid van 'n toertjie en van die afwesigheid van spesiale oudiovisuele effekte. Tot op hede is 'n mate van sukses behaal met die verskuiwing ("migration") tussen die mediums, veral as in ag geneem word dat kulkunstenaars soos David Copperfield, Criss Angel, David Blane en Suid-Afrika se Martino en Wolfgang Riebe bekendheid deur hul televisie-optredes verwerf het. Hierdie kulkunstenaars het hul kunsvorm suksesvol aangepas van die verhoog na die oudio-visuele medium. Hierdie artikel bied 'n krities-beskrywende oorsig van die probleme wat kulkunstenaars ondervind in die verwerking van kulkuns van die een medium na 'n ander, asook van die moontlike stappe wat kulkunstenaars kan neem om die gehoor te oorreed om hul ongeloof op te skort. 'n Oorsig oor die geskiedenis van kulkuns as 'n interpersoonlike, aangesig-tot-aangesig-uitvoeringsvorm word gebied, waardeur die tegnieke van kulkuns in die teatermilieu uitgelig word. Verder word 'n analise gebied van die persepsies van die gehoor/toeskouer met betrekking tot die effek wat televisie op die tegniese toepassing van kulkuns het. Laastens word die oorredingstegnieke bespreek wat deur kulkunstenaars gebruik word om die kunsvorm se voortbestaan in nuwe media te verseker.<hr/>Magic as a performing art has been an interpersonal medium for centuries. In the early 1930s close-up, face-to-face magic had to make way for large-scale illusions on television. As a result of the immediacy of face-to-face magic, magician's magic used to rely on split-second timing and tremendous expertise and skills on the part of the magician. The interpersonal presentation of the art of magic has a persuasive effect that is instantaneous and guaranteed to be authentic. The fact that the illusion is created right in front of one's eyes and in one's presence makes it a highly authentic product created mainly through the skill of the conjurer. This is no longer true today. With its large-scale illusions and television effects, the migration of the art of magic to television has made the art of prestidigitation a mere documentary-drama (docu-drama). With the advent of television, approaches to acting, directing, and prestidigitation have changed tremendously. The use of establishing medium and close-up camera shots creates a sectional analytical montage with an integration to a higher level of meaning (Barthes 1988:101) than that of a stage show. Although television as a medium has made it easier for magicians to produce a magic show using the advanced technology of audiovisual media, it also reinforces the perception that illusions are created by using special cinematographic effects. Therefore, television presents magicians with a fundamental problem in persuading the audience of the authenticity of the art of magic within this new medium. To date there has been a certain level of success with magic on television and via the internet when one considers that it has made famous magicians out of David Copperfield, Pen and Teller, Criss Angel, David Blane as well as South Africa's Martino and Wolfgang Riebe. These magicians have successfully adapted stage magic to television. This article presents a critical descriptive overview of the measures taken by magicians to adapt magic shows from theatres to audiovisual media in a way that encourages people to suspend their disbelief It also analyses the implications of the invasion of television into the technical art of magician's magic for the survival of magic as an art form through a listing of fundamental problems in this adaptation process. An overview is provided of the history of magician's magic on an interpersonal face-to-face level in theatres and this highlights the techniques used by magicians in this environment. The article further explores the problems that practitioners of the art of magic encounter in its adaptation from stage to screen by reviewing some of the most prevalent dilemmas regarding the use of special effects in television and film. Lastly, insight is provided into the measures that magicians take to curb the audience's perception that special effects are responsible for creating the magic within audiovisual media.