Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0041-475120150003&lang=es vol. 55 num. 3 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Creating a standardised version of Afrikaans - the first 50 years</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000300001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Steyn (2014) bespreek in sy publikasie Ons gaan 'n taal maak, die GRA se verskrifteliking van Afrikaans in 1875. Hierdie skryfvorm het daarna verander - 'n proses wat die stimulus verskaf vir hierdie artikel, wat voortbou op Steyn se gegewens oor hoe Afrikaans gemaak is. 'n Groot aantal mense was van die GRA-periode af by die maak van Afrikaans betrokke, almal taalmakers. Steyn toon aan wat baie van hulle gedoen het, hoekom sekere besluite geneem is, en wys op die verwagtings wat hulle vir Afrikaans gekoester het. Hy beklemtoon die mensewerk wat nodig was om Standaardafrikaans te maak in noukeurige besonderhede, en bring daarmee 'n dokument van besondere waarde tot stand. Daar was sprekers van Afrikaans wat hulle nie kon vereenselwig het met die ingeboude beperkings van GRA-Afrikaans nie. Dié boeredialek waarop GRA-Afrikaans gebaseer is, en volgens 'n "skryf-soos-ons-praat-uitgangspunt" geskryf is, is gekritiseer oor die gebrek aan sofistikasie wat daarmee gepaardgegaan het, en oor die Khoi-Afrikaans wat nóú daarmee verweef is. Taalmakers wat op 'n kortpadmanier vir Afrikaans kultuurfunksies wou skep, wou hulle nie verlaat het op 'n skryftaal, wat eers na verloop van 'n lang tyd moontlik 'n kultuurtaal kon word nie. Dit het in die eerste dekades van die twintigste eeu gelei tot die maak van 'n Afrikaans wat meer kultuurfunksies binne die bereik van sprekers geplaas het, wat daartoe toegang gehad het. Die nouer aansluiting by Nederlands het 'n korpusuitbreiding vir Afrikaans meegebring, sy funksieontwikkeling gestimuleer, en die verkryging van sy ampstaalstatus vergemaklik. Die nuwe verbintenisse tussen Afrikaans en Nederlands is gepropageer deur makers van nuwe taalgeskiedenisse, wat meegebring het dat verbintenisse met Afrikaans se dialekbasis verontagsaam is. Politici het ook nie die kans laat verbygaan om hulle ideologieë deur hierdie Afrikaans te versprei nie. Met sy standaardisering is Afrikaans in 'n hoë mate vernederlands, maar dit het nie Nederlands geword nie. Daar het baie van sy wortels steeds behoue gebly.<hr/>With Steyn's 2014 publication We are going to make a language (Ons gaan 'n taal maak) as stimulus, the beginning of organised writing of Standard Afrikaans since 1875 is discussed, as well as its consequences for the continued creation of Afrikaans. In particular, in this paper comments are made on some of the points that Steyn made. Plans for an Afrikaans Bible translation were initially unsuccessful because Afrikaans was not yet serving a written function at the time. The written language subsequently established by the Genootskap van Regte Afrikaners ("GRA") (Association of Real Afrikaners) was able to fill this gap, as illustrated by the many publications that appeared under the banner of the GRA. Steyn points out that many people were enthusiastically involved in the creation of Afrikaans, then indicates what many of them had done, and continues to mention the expectations some of them had of Afrikaans. The way in which this publication shows how people were involved in the creation of Afrikaans makes it an exceptional document on the development of Afrikaans. The fact that people create standard languages, of which Standard Afrikaans is an example, is highlighted. People often start this process by developing written forms of spoken languages. The title of Steyn's work refers to this human endeavour. In the history of Afrikaans as a written language, a start was made as early as the nineteenth century with the development of a written form of some varieties of Afrikaans. A written tradition where Muslim Afrikaans was written in religious scriptures, in Arabic script, has possibly been in existence since 1830. This movement had a large readership and was based on the Cape variety of Afrikaans. At Genadendal Afrikaans was possibly written from 1859, and in Paarl from 1875. All these ways in which Afrikaans was written were close to the spoken variety. Patriot Afrikaans, as the GRA's written Afrikaans in the Paarl was also known, was based on the farmers' dialect of the area. It did not enjoy a high status, and developed speakers did not want to associate themselves with it. This Afrikaans was nevertheless made known by means of a large number of publications, which were read across the country. Up to 1895 no fewer than 81 000 copies were printed under the GRA banner. Afrikaans was also written from time to time by newspapers, but not uniformly, with Afrikaans being written the way it was spoken by the various speech communities whom these newspapers wished to reach. The Afrikaans written in this newspaper tradition made the dialectal Afrikaans of their target group a little more dignified by adding some Dutch to it. The farmers' variety on which GRA Afrikaans was based, was closely interwoven with the Khoi Afrikaans of the Khoi-Khoi people, the learner's Afrikaans that to a large extent had displaced their Khoi-Khoi mother tongue by the end of the seventeenth century. Besides the Afrikaans of the farmers, Khoi Afrikaans was one of the two main languages spoken for approximately a hundred years in the Interior Region, located more or less between the Hottentots Holland mountains and Graaff-Reinet. The two dialects had a mutual influence on one another, as is illustrated by the general use of the word ons (in the subject position) in current Afrikaans, which was earlier stigmatised as Khoi Afrikaans. This area of the interior is currently regarded as the origin of many of today's Afrikaans dialects. At the beginning of the twentieth century, language creators made serious efforts to Dutchify GRA Afrikaans, and the "write as we speak" principle of the GRA was changed in such a way as to link Afrikaans more closely to Dutch; the writing somewhat resembled the way Afrikaans was written in the newspaper tradition. In this way, a shortcut was taken to elevate the status of Afrikaans and expand its corpus. This Dutchification process had a number of implications for later Standard Afrikaans. Dutchified Afrikaans created some distance between this Afrikaans and the Afrikaans of its dialects, with the result that this rich source of Afrikaans became marginalised. The spelling of many words from GRA Afrikaans was adapted to the Dutch model, and earlier well-known rural constructions and dialectal forms were lost (such as agint, speul and worre, for agent, speel and word). Currently there is an increase in literary works written in varietal Afrikaans. The Afrikaans used in these works differs in various respects from Standard Afrikaans because it still contains some remnants of the language spoken in the period before Dutchification took place. But Dutchified Afrikaans remained a separate language. Quite a bit of material from the farmers' language, as written by the GRA, was preserved. The same applies as regards created constructs. The argument put forward here is that the Afrikaans double negative, for which a source cannot be found in the history of the Afrikaans language, was created by the GRA. By linking Afrikaans to Dutch during early legislation, an interesting move was made to support Afrikaans: In this, the argument was that Dutch included Afrikaans, something that is not borne out by the history of Afrikaans. After the Dutchification phase, "Dutch" continued to be linked to the language name "Afrikaans", for example in compounds such as "Afrikaans-Dutch". Steyn's outstanding book does not just deal with the origins of Afrikaans. Ons gaan 'n taal maak shares with its readers, through many of the approximately 200 photographs that have been used, the highlights of the Afrikaans language creation period, and takes them through the later period of its history, sometimes with quite some nostalgia. Reading Steyn's book brings one to a better understanding of the creation of Afrikaans, and it is simultaneously also quite thought-provoking. <![CDATA[<b>Who are the target users of monolingual learners' dictionaries?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000300002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Eentalige aanleerderwoordeboeke is gerig op gebruikers wat 'n vreemde taal aanleer. Die fokus is op hulle behoeftes met betrekking tot die vreemde taal. Die moedertaal van 'n uiteenlopende groep gebruikers word egter nie in aanmerking geneem nie. Hierdie artikel wys daarop dat eentalige aanleerderwoordeboeke aangepas moet word, sodat die verskillende moedertale van verskillende gebruikers 'n invloed op die keuse van aanduiders en die aard van die leksikografiese bewerking sal hê. Daar word daarop gewys dat 'n generiese eentalige aanleerderwoordeboek nie moedertaalsprekers van verskillende tale bevredigend kan help met betrekking tot byvoorbeeld vals vriende, kultuurgebonde leksikale items en met die impak van taalbeïnvloeding en taalversteuring nie. Voorstelle word gemaak vir 'n model waarvolgens sowel gedrukte as aanlyn eentalige aanleerderwoordeboeke 'n sterker gebruikersgerigtheid kan toon. Vir aanlyn woordeboeke word voorgestel dat een databasis geskep moet word waaraan verskillende variante artikels onttrek kan word.<hr/>Many terms used in the era prior to the emergence of a general theory of lexicography are still in frequent use in the lexicographic practice and in theoretical discussions, albeit that these terms have not all been allocated a definition that accurately reflects their use in lexicography. This paper offers a critical discussion of monolingual learners' dictionaries, and emphasises the fact that the term monolingual learners' dictionary has not been defined in a scientifically sufficient way because the nature of the learner in this learners' dictionary has not been appropriately described. These dictionaries are primarily directed at learners of a foreign language, and the needs of these users with regard to the foreign language are at the centre of theoretical and practical work in this component of lexicography. However, the users of monolingual learners' dictionaries often have different mother languages. Unfortunately little or no attention is given to the mother language of these users and the implications it has for their successful use of monolingual learners' dictionaries. As a result of this failure, the lexicographic practice produces dictionaries that do not take cognizance of some of the real needs of the users of monolingual learners' dictionaries. A brief discussion of the introduction of learners' dictionaries to the typological spectrum is followed by a discussion of some significant features of this dictionary type. The focus is then shifted to the need for better user-directed monolingual learners' dictionaries. It is shown how the mother language of users can demand more guidance in learners' dictionaries with regard to the presentation and treatment of false friends and culture-bound lexical items. More attention should be given to language influence and language interference between the language treated in the dictionary and the mother language of intended target users. Proposals are made for a better model for monolingual learners' dictionaries. In printed dictionaries a well-devised data distribution structure should introduce the use of extended obligatory microstructures in order to complement the generic and default data with data directed at the needs of users with specific mother languages. Utilising a drawer structure, outer texts could be included with data regarding a selected number of languages that are mother languages of the intended target user group. Online dictionaries offer better possibilities to solve the problem of users with different mother languages that consult the same generic monolingual learners' dictionary. The planning of these dictionaries could make provision for the use of a single data bank from which different user-directed variants of the dictionary can be retrieved. Following the user profile specified by each user, the generic data and treatment can be retrieved. If a user has specified a specific mother language in his/her user profile, the generic data will be complemented by data relevant to the specific mother language. For a single guiding element, different partial articles can be retrieved as screen shots, and the user can switch from a default profile to a language-specific profile. In such a case, the default data will be complemented by additional data, with unique items presented in an extended obligatory microstructure. The inclusion of data regarding different mother languages of the users of the monolingual learners' dictionaries leads to a question regarding the monolingual nature of such a dictionary. Following the established notion of monolingual dictionaries with a bilingual dimension, this paper argues in favour of a monolingual learners' dictionary with a multilingual dimension. By making provision not only for the needs of users with regard to the foreign language they have to learn, but also for the problems due to different mother languages within a single user group, a model can be developed that will enhance the quality and user-directedness of monolingual learners' dictionaries. <![CDATA[<b>Monolingualism, integration and assortative mixing in social networks: A literature review</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000300003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Afrikaanse onderrigsinstansies kom toenemend in die spervuur omdat die gebruik van Afrikaans skynbaar tot 'n gebrek aan integrasie tussen verskillende bevolkingsgroepe lei. Hierdie artikel gaan krities om met hierdie siening vanuit die perspektief van die netwerkteorie, en ondersoek groepsvorming met behulp van die konsepte van oorganklikheid en modulariteit. Daar word aangetoon dat groepsvorming nie eie is aan die Suid-Afrikaanse samelewing of selfs sosiale netwerke nie, maar wel 'n kenmerk is van komplekse netwerke, wat sosiale netwerke insluit sowel as tegnologiese, biologiese en inligtingsnetwerke. Groepsvorming ontstaan onder andere op grond van assosiasiegerigtheid of homofilie, wat beteken dat soortgelyke nodusse geneig is om skakels met mekaar te vorm. Hierdie homofilie in sosiale netwerke kan geskied op grond van taal, maar ook op grond van ras, klas, inkomstegroep, geografiese ligging en dergelike. 'n Oorsig word gebied oor 'n aantal studies wat groepsvorming in sosiale netwerke ondersoek het, insluitend ten opsigte van taal en ras, maar ook met inagneming van ander veranderlikes soos ouderdom. Daar word aangetoon dat taal wel tot die vorming van aparte groeperings in sosiale netwerke lei, maar dat ras op sigself ook daartoe aanleiding gee, sowel as ander veranderlikes soos ouderdom, kultuur, geslag, ensovoorts. Die slotsom waartoe die artikel kom, is dat integrasie nie bewerkstellig sal word deur taal uit die prentjie te verwyder nie, aangesien die eentalige omgewing van die VSA steeds gekenmerk word deur aparte groeperings wat op grond van ras gevorm word. 'n Kort bespreking word ook gegee oor probleme wat gepaardgaan met die vorming van sosiale bande op grond van heterofilie.<hr/>Afrikaans education institutions are increasingly coming under fire, because the use of Afrikaans is believed to lead to a lack of integration between different population groups in South Africa. Afrikaans is seen as a white language, while it is argued that black students attend classes in English, which means that the separation of students in terms of language also allegedly leads to a separation in terms of race. The proposal is then that by removing Afrikaans as a medium of instruction, South African education institutions will become integrated. This article critically engages with this view from the perspective of complex network theory by investigating community formation in networks. The concepts of modularity and transitivity or clustering, as developed within the field of complex network theory, are discussed with reference to examples of different types of networks. Modularity provides a way of quantifying whether distinct groups of nodes emerge in a network, while transitivity refers to the formation of triangles in a network. Modularity and transitivity are calculated for a number of real networks, and compared with Erdös and Rényi (1960) type network models where link formation occurs at random. It is shown that community formation is not peculiar to South African society or even social networks in general, but is a characteristic of complex networks, which include social networks as well as technological, biological and information networks. Community formation arises partly as a result of assortativity or homophily, which means that similar nodes tend to form links with each other. Homophily in social networks can be based on language, but also manifests on the grounds of race, class, income group, geographical location and so on. An overview is given of a number of studies that investigated community formation in social networks, including in terms of language, such as Blondel et al.'s (2008) study of language communities in Belgium, or Leskovec and Horvitz's (2007) study of the Microsoft Instant Messaging (IM) network. Although it is shown that quantitative evidence exists that language does lead to the formation of distinct communities, some studies of community formation in the monolingual environment of the United States are also discussed, including Moody's (2001) study of race relations amongst high school students, where it was shown that homogenous communities also emerge without language being a variable. In addition, some quantitative evidence is also provided for community formation based on age and geographical location. The conclusion the article arrives at is that integration will not be brought about by removing Afrikaans from education institutions, since the monolingual environment of the United States is still characterized by separate communities that are formed on the basis of race. The wide-spread occurrence of communities in networks indicates that it is a salient feature of networks, and that when removing one variable, another will still result in the formation of distinct communities. A brief discussion is also given of problems associated with the formation of social ties based on heterophily, i.e. where social ties are formed based on difference rather than similarity. <![CDATA[<b>"Without soul and anonymous": Elisabeth Eybers' poem "Huiskat" [Domestic Cat] in the context of animal studies</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000300004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In hierdie artikel word die bekende gedig van Elisabeth Eybers, "Huiskat" uit haar bundel Die helder halfjaar (1956) geanaliseer in die konteks van dierestudies. Aandag word geskenk aan aspekte soos die verhouding tussen die mensdier (of menslike dier) as spreker teenoor die niemensdier (of niemenslike dier) as ander; en veral die projeksie van antropomorfiese eienskappe op die niemensdier word uitgelig. In aansluiting by Woodward (2003) en Derrida (2008) word die interaksie tussen mensdier en niemensdier beskou om, onder meer, vas te stel of daar sprake is van 'n intersomatiese verwantskap tussen die twee (Woodward 2014). Bestaande voorbeelde van dierestudies word betrek, en die aard, konteks en definisie van 'n geesteswetenskaplike ondersoek soos dierestudies word ook toegelig.<hr/>This article examines the poem "Huiskat" (Domestic cat) within the context of animal studies. Having discussed the different approaches to concepts such as "animal" and "domesticated animal", definitions of animal studies and related concepts are considered. Animal studies is a sub section of the broader field of ecocriticism and forms part of the so-called "greening of the humanities". It is a common fact that animals have always been represented in literature and when analysing such texts we consider not only the interaction between human and nonhuman animals but also the issue of animal rights and the humane and ethical treatment of animals. Several key texts relating to animal studies are considered in this analysis, for example Derrida (2002), Haraway (2003) and Woodward (2008). J.M.Coetzee's path breaking study on animal rights, The Lives of Animals (1999), is also included to analyse the relationship between human and nonhuman animals. Despite the fact that Derrida regards "the animal" as a clear example of essentialist thinking, he is criticised by Woodward for othering nonhuman animals. Since the Enlightenment, and especially in following Descartes, human animals are seen as the centre of the universe and nonhuman animals are regarded as subservient and, among others, to be unemotional and unintelligent. The aim of animal studies is to deconstruct this speciesist way of thinking and in particular to dismantle the binary opposition between human self and nonhuman other. In analysing the poem by Eybers aspects such as the domestication of nonhuman animals, the giving of names to animals and the projection of anthropomorphic qualities onto the animal are considered. Woodward (2014:6) poses that one often finds an "intersomatic connection" between human animal, the human body and the nonhuman animal. The nonhuman animal is no longer "relegated to the margins of representation". Nonhuman animals are seen as an extension of their human counterparts, playing a vital role in the identity formation of the self. This is not the case with Eybers' poem. The speaker remains distant and unattached and even decides not to name the domesticated animal but merely refers to it as "cat". In representing the nonhuman animal as other the speaker in the poem shows the similarities between the cat and its counterpart in the wild, namely the leopard. In doing so the speaker indirectly comments on the domestication of animals, just as the reference to the spaying of the cat in the poem comments on the intrusive practice of spaying and neutering. The human animal exerts his or her power over the nonhuman animal and in the process robs the nonhuman animal of its potency. This issue, however, is another cause for concern because from a global perspective, the uninhibited breeding of stray animals in most contexts not only leads to overpopulation but also is a cause of concern for those involved in animal rights. The abuse of animals is rife under such circumstances. Included in the article are references to existing examples of animal studies in the Afrikaans and South African context, ranging from contributions to special editions of Journal of Literary Studies with several contributions on animal rights to academic analyses by Swart, Woodward, Visagie and Meyer - to mention but a few. Further research on the issue is encouraged, not only on the depiction of nonhuman animals in literary texts but also on the filial bond between "man and beast" or the intricate relation between humans, nonhumans and the soil. <![CDATA[<b>Four viewpoints on Christ's presence at the Lord's Supper: An analysis of their philosophical foundations</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000300005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Gedurende die sestiende eeu - en tot vandag - kon vier verskillende visies op Christus se teenwoordigheid by die mis en die nagmaal, ten spyte daarvan dat almal hulle op die Skrif beroep het, geen eenstemmigheid bereik nie. Hierdie studie stap terug in die geskiedenis om vas te stel watter filosofiese strominge destyds geheers het en hoe die wysgerige grondslae gelyk het wat hierdie teologiese verskille en geskille veroorsaak het. So 'n benadering verklaar die transsubstansialistiese Katolieke visie, Luther se konsubstansialisme, Zwingli se herinnering deur die verstand en Calvyn se gevoelservaring van die hart by hierdie sakrament. Hoe die ontmoeting tussen God en mens daarby plaasvind, is by almal tot 'n mate verduister deur Bybels-vreemde denke oor sowel Christus as die mens. Die rede is dat die vraag hoe Christus by die nagmaal teenwoordig is nie werklik beantwoord kan word sonder om 'n denker se beskouinge oor Wie God is en wat die mens is ter sprake te bring nie. In al vier gevalle was daar ook een of ander vorm van semi-mistiek ter sprake, wat nie die Bybelse radikale onderskeid tussen Skepper en skepping gehonoreer het nie.<hr/>Various Christian groups during the sixteenth century could not reach agreement on how Christ's presence at the Eucharist and the Lord's Supper should be understood - a controversy that persists even to the present. This was the case in spite of the fact that all of them claimed that their convictions about this sacrament were founded on Scripture. What really occurred was that they read various current philosophical presuppositions into the Scriptures (eisegesis) and - divinely sanctioned - read the same ideas out of the Bible again (exegesis). This historical investigation therefore traces and analyses some of the philosophical foundations underlying four theological viewpoints regarding this sacrament during the sixteenth century: the Catholic, Lutheran, Zwinglian and Calvinistic perspectives. The first main section provides an overview of the basic solutions offered by the four viewpoints on Christ's presence at the sacrament and also indicates their most prominent differences. According to the Catholic viewpoint (earlier represented by Thomas Aquinas and during the sixteenth century by e.g. John Eck), Christ becomes bodily present at the Eucharist since, after consecration, the bread and wine is changed (transubstantiated) into Christ's mystical body. In Luther's theory of consubstantiation Christ, in his divine omnipresence, accompanies the elements of the sacrament. Zwingli regarded "this is My body… this is My blood" as merely signifying Christ's flesh. Although he also acknowledged the presence of the Holy Spirit, he emphasised from the human side the believer's remembrance of Christ's sacrificial death, made possible by means of the rational faculty of the human soul. The Calvinist perspective reveals some similarity to Zwingli's viewpoint. From God's side Calvin also stressed the presence of the Holy Spirit in the human, believing soul or spirit, but he disagreed with Zwingli about the human response. In the case of Calvin, it is not the rational or intellectual faculty of the soul (the head) but the emotional (or heart) which is regarded as the responding factor. From all four cases it therefore becomes clear that it is not possible to answer the how (Christ could be present) without saying who He is and what it means to be human - both requiring philosophical answers. The second main section of the contribution, therefore, traces the major philosophical currents which revived during the Renaissance and the Reformation and their possible impact on how the divine and human sides of this sacrament were conceived. Catholicism mainly continued along the lines of classical Medieval Scholasticism (the via antiqua). Luther, on the other hand, was strongly influenced by followers of Ockham's via moderna or nominalism, as well as the Neo-Platonism of the Augustinian Order. Zwingli's philosophical background reveals a blend of revived Christianised Stoicism and Neo-Platonism. Also, Calvin was initially interested in the Stoic philosophy of Seneca for example, but added to it was a heavy dosage of (Neo-)Platonism and therefore semi-mysticism. It is finally concluded that different forms of semi-mysticism can be detected in all four viewpoints which are discussed. Mysticism is based on the philosophical idea of the supposed possibility of partial human participation in the divine and even the partial deification of the human being. Since the human soul is regarded as semi-divine, the biblical, radical difference between Creator and creation is not fully acknowledged and honoured - with serious implications for how the Eucharist or the Lord's Supper is to be understood. <![CDATA[<b>Church commitment amongst the younger generations: Is relationship marketing the key?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000300006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Tradisioneel fokus nie-winssoekende organisasies op die ouer generasies wanneer fondswerwing en ondersteuning verlang word, eerder as jonger generasies (soos Generasie Y). Hierdie benadering blyk egter kortsigtig te wees, aangesien Generasie Y-verbruikers daarvoor bekend is dat hulle graag by aktiwiteite wat 'n sosiale doel nastreef, betrokke raak. Kerke (as spesiale verskyningsvorm van nie-winssoekende organisasies) is geen uitsondering op hierdie reël nie. Hierdie studie fokus gevolglik op die bestuur van kerktoewyding onder Generasie Y-verbruikers. 'n Aantal aanduiders van kerktoewyding is geïdentifiseer vanuit die verhoudingsbemarking-literatuur. Data is aan die hand van 'n web-gebaseerde opname ingesamel onder 912 studente van die Universiteit van Stellenbosch, terwyl die statistiese ontledings gedoen is aan die hand van meervoudige regressie-ontledings. Die resultate van die studie toon dat Generasie Y-verbruikers hul besluit tot kerktoewyding aan oorwegend drie faktore toeskryf: afhanklikheid, klein-groep ondersteuning en opvolg. Die studie bevind voorts dat Generasie Y-verbruikers ten opsigte van kerktoewyding groter gemeenskaplikheid ervaar, en dat lidmate van tradisionele en nie-tradisionele kerke groter ooreenstemming ervaar as wat voorheen aanvaar is. Dit is veral insiggewend dat geslag 'n beduidende invloed op Generasie Y-verbruikers se besluit tot kerktoewyding het.<hr/>One of the key concerns that the nonprofit industry has to face is that of increased competition. Because this industry has grown almost exponentially in recent years, the industry is now more fragmented than ever before. It is therefore of critical importance that nonprofit organisations (NPOs) rethink the way in which they market their organisations to the public. A possible solution is for NPOs to practise relationship marketing in an effort to attract, retain and build relationships with their stakeholders. Traditionally, nonprofit organisations focused on the older generations when it came to fundraising, and not necessarily on the younger generations (such as Generation Y). This is interesting, especially since previous research has found that Generation Y is particularly prone to become involved in social causes. Churches are no exception to the rule, and especially traditional churches have the particular concern of countering decreased church membership. The relationship marketing approach is sometimes received with scepticism by churches; however, the modern viewpoint is that churches could gain significantly by applying relationship marketing practices. The question is therefore what churches (both traditional and non-traditional) can do in order to manage relationships with younger members. This article reports on an investigation of the management of commitment towards churches from the perspective of Generation Y. Although numerous antecedents of commitment in general were found in the literature, the same cannot be said about literature on church commitment. This area of commitment appears to be somewhat under-research. In this article 11 antecedents of church commitment are identified: trust, effective communication, relationship benefits, customisation, follow-up, seeker sensitiveness, beliefs, secularisation, compassion, small-group support and friendships. These antecedents were identified from a relationship marketing perspective, as opposed to the spiritual reasons for religious commitment. Since the primary objective of this study was to assess the perceptions of Generation Y consumers, it was decided to make use of a student sample. Data were therefore collected from 912 students at the University of Stellenbosch, and a web-based approach was used to collect the data. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the hypothesised relationships. The findings of the study indicate that Generation Y individuals base their decision to commit themselves to a church on three dimensions: dependence, small groups and follow-up. Furthermore, traditional and non-traditional members are more similar in their perceptions on church commitment than was previously thought, while gender was found to be a strong indicator of church commitment amongst Generation Y members. The findings of the study are somewhat unexpected especially since many of the generally assumed antecedents of church commitment could not be confirmed. Instead, Generation Y consumers appear to follow a different set of rules when they make decisions on church commitment. Church authorities, and by implication NPOs, therefore need to reconsider their current strategies and tactics if they want to approach this largely untapped market. <![CDATA[<b>The new Threat to Societal Freedoms: A return to the persecution of Christians?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000300007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Ten spyte van die ruimte wat deur verskillende Aktes van Menseregte vir persoonlike (en kollektiewe) vryhede geskep is, insluitende persoonlike akademiese vryheid en geloofsvryheid, het daar gedurende die afgelope paar dekades ontwikkelinge ingetree wat sterk aan totalitêre tendense herinner wat ook tydens die vroeë geskiedenis van die Christendom na vore getree het. Hierdie verwikkelinge is besig om opnuut die sinvolle onderskeiding tussen strukturele pluralisme en 'n pluralisme van oortuigings te ondergrawe. Die wyse waarop die openbare skole in die VSA immers tans, op die basis van die positivistiese postulaat van "objektief-neutrale" wetenskap, die Darwinistiese Ortodoksie in biologie-onderrig tot 'n dogma proklameer wat bo enige kritiek verhewe is, getuig inderdaad van 'n sonderlinge terugkeer tot die lank-agterhaalde vroeg-Middeleeuse era van Christen-vervolging, beliggaam in 'n vorm van wetenskaplike fascisme waarin akademiese vryheid, vryheid van spraak, vrye openbare meningsuiting en persoonlike geloofsvryheid op die altaar geplaas word. Na 'n vlugtige verwysing na die situasie in Nederland sluit die artikel af met vermelding van positiewe elemente in die nuwe Suid-Afrika van vandag. Tog belig 'n onlangse ervaring van die outeur van hierdie artikel die deurskemering van iets wat 'n kommerwekkende ooreenkoms toon met dit wat tans in Amerika in swang is (sien die Aanhangsel).<hr/>Societal freedoms need to be understood both in terms of structural pluralism and directional pluralism. The former concerns personal freedom as well as the plurality of societal entities present in a differentiated society while the latter accounts for the freedom allowing diverging life- and worldviews to live to the full their deepest convictions in all walks of life, liberated from any form of unlawful interference. Acknowledging this distinction exceeds the limitations of the underlying atomistic (individual-centric) underpinnings of modern social contract theories (such as is found in Locke's view: "for all being kings as much as he, every man his equal"). This spirit is breathed by the so-called "conscience clause" almost hundred years ago introduced in the Private Law of South African universities (it started with the University of South Africa and the University of Stellenbosch, respectively in 1916 and 1917). The University of Potchefstroom as well as the Homeland universities did not inherit this clause. It is striking that universities, as academic institutions, were confronted with a religious clause, as if a university is a faith community. The conscience clause is still at home within the positivist idea of an un-prejudiced, objective and neutral science mediated by factual sense data. This positivist view was thoroughly criticised by the philosophy of science of the previous century (Kuhn, Popper, Lakatos, Toulmin, Stegmüller and many others). The idea of an autonomous individual gave way to the collective identity of supra-individual institutions, which had to account for their directional orientation by formulating mission and vision statements. It falls outside the sphere of competence of the government to interfere with the directional choice of a citizen in non-political contexts - and the same applies to the domain of the public opinion. In the Netherlands it is still possible, for example, to promote the ideals of a specific trend of thought in scholarly pursuits by establishing special chairs at public universities. During the third decade of the 20th century this was done by the Bolland Foundation which established in Leiden a special chair in Hegelian Philosophy. At the moment there are still special chairs in Reformational Philosophy at six public universities in the Netherlands. Academic freedom, individually and collectively, entails directional freedom. Currently the Darwinian orthodoxy in the USA controls the teaching of biology to such an extent that no biology teacher is even allowed to raise scientific criticism against Darwinism. It contains a threat to various freedoms, amongst which are freedom of speech, freedom of thought, academic freedom, and religious freedom. This is amply demonstrated by Jerry Bergman in his work, Slaughter of the Dissidents (2008). Similar to what was required in the Soviet Union of the 20th century, biology teachers in the USA now have to be atheists. The "in-between-position" of theistic evolutionists, which holds that God directed evolution (a process which is actually, according to Darwinism, undirected) is even worse in the eyes of Darwinian orthodoxy, because it violates the church-state division by smuggling God back into the classroom. In his Review of Bergman's book, Brian Thomas remarks that all "Darwin Doubters" are seen as "creationists." Althouh highly qualified, these scientists were threatened, while losing opportunities, jobs and even whole careers because of their doubts about the standard evolutionary story. Bergman remarks that this situation already "claimed many thousands of victims." This completes the circle, reminding us of what happened in early Christendom during the persecution of Christians. Fortunately, there is positive legislation in South Africa which avoids this extreme position. However, a recent experience of the author of this article apparently highlights the emergence of something similar to what is happening in the USA (see the brief Appendix). <![CDATA[<b>Principals' educational practices in the field of rural villages</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000300008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Hierdie artikel fokus op die inwerking van die veld van plattelandse dorpe op skoolhoofde se onderwyspraktyke. Die fokus is op aspekte van skoolhoofde se onderwyspraktyke in 'n spesifieke landelike dorpkonteks. Die navorsingsmateriaal vir die artikel is afkomstig uit 'n omvattende navorsingsprojek oor die skoolhoofde van plattelandse skole op 'n dorp met die skuilnaam Cogmans in die Wes-Kaap. Gefokusde semi-gestruktureerde een-tot-een onderhoude is gebruik om inligting te versamel deur na skoolhoofde se eie stories te luister oor hul eie leefwêreld, ten einde dit moontlik te maak om die storie van elkeen se sosiale leefwêreld te kan konstrueer. Op hierdie wyse is "professionele" verhale oor skoolhoof-wees op 'n plattelandse dorp verbind aan die kritiese ontleding van die skoolhoofde se onderwyspraktyke. Die artikel is geskoei op die toepassing van die teorie van Pierre Bourdieu. Bourdieu se konsepte van veld, kapitaal, praktyke en habitus word aangewend as teoretiese lense om die ontledende fokus van hierdie artikel uit te lig, naamlik die onderwyspraktyke van skoolhoofde binne die veld van plattelandse dorpe. Die belangrikste argument wat ons in hierdie artikel aanbied, is dat die veld van skoolhoofde op die platteland inwerk op die skoolpraktyke van die betrokke skoolhoofde. Elk van die skoolhoofde se praktyke reageer op 'n unieke wyse op die eiesoortigheid van hulle plaaslike en selfs nasionale veld.<hr/>This article focuses on the influence of the field of rural villages on principals' educational practices. The focus is on aspects of principals' educational practices in a specific rural village context. It is a Bourdieuian study of educational practices in the rural context in relation to the influence of the field of rural villages. The focus of this study is the manner in which the field of rural villages manifests itself in the educational practices of headmasters functioning within a specific geographical context, namely a rural village. The conceptual question therefore focuses on the endeavour made by the headmasters with the manifestation of the field of rural villages in the educational practises of the headmasters in question. The macro (global) field determines that principals in public schools in South Africa function according to managerialism, where they are expected to meet the education department's objectives and requirements. The result is that principals' educational practices are increasingly limited by policy and control measures of the authorities, such as the establishment of performance goals, with little space for leadership and more emphasis on management and the administrative system. The macro educational field positions schools to function in a distinct way as the logic of the market, privatisation, deregulation and the individual's freedom of choice of school are manifested in the school as field. A further outcome is that a particular leadership practice namely managerialism, use of data, efficiency, performativity and a focus on outcomes and achievements in the school is established in the field and proffered as norm. The school as field has a direct impact on the educational practices of headmasters as it effects a distinct logic of practice which endeavours to influence the headmasters' leadership habitus in a certain way. Furthermore, it tends to influence the headmasters' reason to act directly in the form of policy changes and indirectly when proposed as the norm or standard of practice. On the other hand, the local micro field also has a direct influence. Each community requires a lot from their headmasters, although the expectation is realised in different educational practices. Priorities such as fundraisings for better and higher quality teaching and providing basic needs like nutrition for learners are local priorities. In this regard, we emphasised that principals' identity is partly given, but also partly acquired by their position in a given social field and how principals adjust to the discursive influences of the local micro field on their work environment. The research material for this article comes from a comprehensive research project on the principals of rural schools in a town with the pseudonym Cogmans in the Western Cape. Focused semi-structured one-on-one interviews were used to gather information through to principals' own stories to hear about their own life, in order to allow a construction of the story of each one's social world. In this way "professional" stories about a school principal in a rural village are linked to the critical analysis of the principal's teaching practices. The article is based on the application of the theory of Pierre Bourdieu. Bourdieu's concepts of field, capital, habitus and practices are used as theoretical lenses to highlight the analytical focus of this article, namely the educational practices of principals in the field of rural villages. The data of the twelve transcribed interviews (with the use of Atlas.ti computer programme) were coded by selecting segments of the primary documents to which codes were accordingly linked. By applying Bourdieu's conceptual framework of habitus, field, capital and practice as "super codes", the data were dealt with thematically and organised accordingly. The main argument we present in this article, is that the field of principals in rural schools affect the educational practices of the principals involved. Each of the principal's educational practices responds in a unique way to the distinctiveness of their local and even national field. An analysis of the data revealed that a headmaster increasingly has to play a dual role namely that of manager plus that of professional educationist. The educational skills or practises associated with those two roles are not always compatible. The latter places principals in a very difficult position where, on the one hand they are expected to act as Representatives of the Department of Education, while on the other hand, they have to function as professional educationists, the logic behind these practices and their educational accountability may be questioned. Headmasters however, despite the fact that the macro field seeks to enforce a uniform system upon them, respond in unique, diverse ways in their educational practices. This can especially be attributed to the fact that the creditworthiness of a principal in a rural town among the members of the community, depends rather on whether the principal succeeds to fulfil the acts that Fataar (2009:324) described as daily actions of the principals, acts that are not necessarily prescribed by legislation, but rather determined by the principals' successful implementation of the activities set out in legislation. <![CDATA[<b><i>Volksblad's</i></b><b> portrayal of school violence in the Free State</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000300009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die doel van die studie was om te bepaal hoe Volksblad skoolgeweld in die Vrystaat uitbeeld. Kwalitatiewe inhoudsontleding is gebruik om 44 koerantberigte, briewe aan die pers en redaksionele kommentare wat oor 'n tydperk van vyf jaar in Volksblad verskyn het, te ontleed. Die belangrikste bevindinge van die studie is: (1) Skoolgeweld is 'n ernstige probleem in die Vrystaat; (2) sommige skoolhoofde en rolspelers bevraagteken die wyse waarop Volksblad skoolgeweld uitbeeld; en (3) sensasionele beriggewing oor skoolgeweld in die Vrystaat illustreer die dubbele rol van die privaatnuusmedia in 'n demokrasie, naamlik om die publiek in te lig oor skoolgeweld én om om te sien na die belange van eienaars en aandeelhouers. Die volgende aanbevelings is gemaak: (1) Skoolhoofde moet die nuusmedia eerder as 'n vennoot in hul stryd teen skoolgeweld sien as die vyand wat daarop uit is om die beeld van die skool af te kraak. (2) Hoewel die sensasionele aard van sommige berigte 'n groter bewustheid van skoolgeweld tot gevolg kan hê, behoort beriggewing oor skoolgeweld in ooreenstemming met die bepalings van die Suid-Afrikaanse Mediakode plaas te vind. (3) Kampvegters vir skoolveiligheid, onder andere opvoeders, ouers, gemeenskapsleiers, provinsiale en nasionale onderwysdepartemente, die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisiediens, sielkundiges en akademici, moet in samewerking met die nuusmedia hulle beywer vir die aanvaarding en implementering van skoolveiligheidbeleide op nasionale, provinsiale en skoolvlak.<hr/>INTRODUCTION: Researchers, policy makers and the South African community's increasing interest in school violence since the beginning of the 21st century can amongst others be ascribed to the news media's coverage of high-profile, extremely violent incidents of violence at schools. The news media's role in democracies is, amongst other things, to inform the public about social problems such as school violence. The news media may not exert a direct and instant influence on public opinion. Nonetheless, research has shown that news coverage of social and political issues may have a wide range of subtle, but powerful effects on what the public think about these issues. Well informed citizens, with knowledge of social and political issues may be able to take part in public debates and make informed decisions. The news media may have an influence on individuals' choices and decisions, as well as their willingness to become involved in social problems. In democratic countries the news media are expected to play a responsible role of watchdog for the public interest. However, researchers found that privately owned news media have a dual role, namely to act as watchdog for the public interest and as guardian of their own financial interests. The way in which the news media report about school violence is consequently often determined by striving towards higher circulation figures. The aim of this article is to report on an investigation about Volksblad's coverage of school violence in the Free State. This daily paper has the highest circulation figure of all papers in the Free State. The study is directed at the following problem question: How does Volksblad portray school violence in the Free State? The study is grounded in social constructivism insofar as it has bearing on the role of the news media in the declaration of school violence as a social problem METHODOLOGY: Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the newspaper reports, letters to the press and editorial commentaries. The corpus of texts selected for an analysis of this study has appeared in Volksblad over a period of five years (1 January 2009 to 31 December 2013). The texts were identified by means of the SA Media data basis (http://www.samedia.uovs.ac.za/) on 14 April 2014. With the help of key words, the computer search produced 44 items FINDINGS: The main findings of the study are: (1) Volksblad portrays school violence as a serious problem in the Free State: Free State educators and learners are victims of emotional, sexual and physical violence, which is on the increase, and may even be out of control. The latter means learners' and/or educators' behaviour that can affect learners and/or educators is unrestrained, unmanaged, without limits or monitoring, not subject to influence or manipulation within the control of the school, resulting in an unpredictable and chaotic school enviornment. (2) According to Volksblad, some school principals and role-players question the newspaper's portrayal of violence at their schools: By giving voice to learners, parents and principals the impression is created that some role-players regard school violence neither as a problem nor out of control. These views are aligned with detailed information published in the Volksblad about specific incidents of violence. Furthermore, the normalisation of school violence is juxtaposed with statements by parents and principals who are concerned about the levels of violence at the Free State schools referred to in the analysed newspaper articles. The suggestion is therefore left amongst readers that some principals live in denial about what is happening at their respective schools and/or do not want to assume responsibility for violence at their schools. (3) Sensational reporting of some incidents of school violence illustrates the dual role of privately owned news media in a democracy, namely to inform the public and to look after the interests of their owners and shareholders. Despite criticism by principals and other role-players about the way in which the paper reported on school violence and accusations by some that incidents were blown up out of all proportion, Volksblad informs readers about the seriousness of school violence. This finding particularly comes to the fore in the ombudsman of the newspaper's reaction to letters to the press to the effect that the paper sensationalises fighting amongst learners CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Volksblad's portrayal of school violence as a serious problem in the Free State, corresponds with research findings about the scope of school violence in the province. By creating an awareness of the nature and extent of school violence Volksblad may inadvertently motivate organisations with an interest in education, such as government, family and the broader community, as well as commerce and industry, to take a stand against school violence. By making society aware of school violence, newspapers such as Volksblad often play a more important role than research publications. This privately owned newspaper virtually has a monopoly in the province. It is therefore important that Volksblad maintains a balance between generating income and informing the public about a social wrong such as school violence. Well informed citizens, with knowledge of school violence may be able to take part in public debates and make informed decisions. Even though sensationalism may heighten public interest in school violence, responsible reporting should remain the norm. Journalists should be guided by the South African Press Code. However, it is also important that school principals in particular would regard the news media as a partner in their struggle against school violence, rather than the enemy that is bent on slating the image of the school. Champions for school safety, such as educators, parents, community leaders, provincial and national departments of education, South African Police Services, psychologists and academics, must work towards the acceptance and implementation of school safety policies at national, provincial and school level. <![CDATA[<b>Challenges experienced in implementing Information and Communication Technology for Setswana speaking Advanced Certificate in Education (ACE) off-campus students at the North West University</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000300010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die Suid-Afrikaanse samelewing het in die laaste dekade ingrypende veranderinge en ontwikkelings ondergaan sover dit kontemporêre tegnologiese ontwikkelings, die eise van die inligtingsera waarin ons leef en die behoeftes van 'n geglobaliseerde en steeds globaliserende arbeidsmark betref. Dit is ook algemeen bekend dat Sub-Sahara-Afrika worstel om tred te hou met die eksponensiële toename in opvoedkundige en tegnologiese ontwikkelings. Daar bestaan verskeie uitdagings met betrekking tot die implementering van rekenaartegnologie in afstandsonderwysprogramme aan die Noordwes-Universiteit (NWU). Ten spyte van die toename in tegnologiese ontwikkelings in die twintigste en vroeë 21ste eeu is inligtings- en kommunikasietegnologie (IKT) nog nie toeganklik vir alle NWU- onderwysstudente binne die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks nie. Dit is tewens ook nie uit die beskikbare literatuur duidelik in welke mate IKT wel deur afstandsonderwysstudente benut word nie. Die doel van die empiriese gedeelte van hierdie artikel was om moontlike uitdagings/elemente waarop gelet behoort te word by die keuse en implementering van rekenaartegnologie in afstandsonderwys aan die NWU vir die Setswanasprekende GOS-studente te bepaal, asook om te probeer vasstel in welke mate IKT wel deur Setswanasprekende afstandstudente wat vir die GOS aan die NWU geregistreer is, benut word.<hr/>This article is based on research undertaken by Du Toit (2011) and Du Toit-Brits (2012) during 2011 - 2012 to determine possible challenges which must be kept in mind when choosing and implementing Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in off campus education for Setswana speaking students at the North West University (NWU). The original research question was: to what extent do Setswana speaking off campus students, registered for the ACE programme, utilise ICT; and how do African off campus students at the NWU perceive and experience ICT in off campus education/Distance Education? Many believe ICT is unconstructively broadening the gap between the student and educator, consequently many studies emphasise the importance of face-to-face education and social interaction (with other students and the lecturer) as essential components of effective teaching and learning.1 In order to address this paradox, there is an urgent need for empirical data on how African students perceive and experience ICT in education. Distance education should create a link, whereby the necessary integration with technology could be achieved.2 In this regard, it is crucial that all roleplayers keep in mind the needs of the Setswana-speaking ACE student - especially pertaining to the compilation and implementing of programme specific study guides and teaching materials, such as readers, CDs, DVDs, etc. Setswana-speaking ACE students enrolled at the NWU currently feel increasingly isolated by the implementation of computer technology in off-campus education. The Setswana-speaking ACE student experiences off-campus education as a social learning community, and regards it as a type of social coherence/bonding with lecturers and fellow-students. The focus should thus be much stronger on a type of communal Education for Us, in which computer technology should not be seen as replacement for the lecturer in any way. When implementing computer technology in off-campus education, teaching management and programme developers should keep a number of aspects in mind: • experiences of off-campus education students pertaining to technology (readiness niveau); • accessibilty and availalbility of technological resources and adequate infrastructure; • sufficient ICT training of lecturers for off-campus students; • poor and inadequate network availability in local, especially rural, African communities and schools, and • use of ICT in the local schools, communities and households of off-campus education students. This requires NWU, during implementation of computer technology in off-campus education, to compile concept guidelines on how computer and Internet technology should be implemented in curriculum design and the compilation of programme specific study guides and teaching-learning support material, such as readers, CDs and DVDs, in order to maximally enhance quality education in the delivery of distance education programmes. Management and lecturers should be acutely aware of the fear and anxiety off-campus students experience pertaining to the use of computers. They should also realise that computer and Internet technology currently is not considered part of the cultural property or possessions of these students, and keep this in mind when deciding on the extent to which computer technology should be implemented in the curriculum and presentation thereof. Off-campus management should be aware of the fact that these students generally possess poor technological skills pertaining to computers and the Internet, and this should be kept in mind during curriculum design and delivery as well. The physical environment of these students is not conducive to effective utilisation of computer and Internet technology, and curriculum designers of off-campus education should continuously take cognisance of this. Regular discourse should occur with off-campus education students in order to effectively determine and keep track of their experiences regarding the implementation of computer technology. This discourse should be initiated and executed by the off-campus development team so that the opinion of students regarding enhancement of quality education by means of, inter alia, effective implementation of computer and Internet technology in off-campus programmes is regularly monitored. This regular monitoring and discourse should take place to prevent that increased utilisation of ICT in the delivery of off-campus education programmes create a widening gap between the students and the lecturers. <![CDATA[<b>An explorative study of adolescents' internet usage and the identification of possible risk factors regarding their psychosocial wellbeing</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000300011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Nuwe digitale media, soos die internet en selfone, het 'n integrerende deel van adolessente se lewens geword. Die doel van die ondersoek waarop hierdie artikel gebaseer is, is om te bepaal watter uitwerking adolessente se gebruik van hierdie media op hulle sielkundige welstand en vlak van sosiale aanpassing het. Die betrokke hoofargument is dat kommunikasie deur middel van hierdie media ten koste van belangrike sosiale interaksie in die ware lewe plaasvind - interaksie wat noodsaaklik is om gesonde verhoudings op te bou. Die navorsing dek die mate waartoe Suid-Afrikaanse adolessente besig is met aanlyn bedrywighede wat gevare inhou, in watter mate hulle ouers bewus is daarvan en die gevare kan uitskakel, en die noodsaaklikheid van onderrig in digitalemedia-geletterdheid wat spesifiek klem lê op emosionele intelligensie, 'n voorvereiste vir goeie sosiale aanpassing. Vyf-en-tagtig (85) leerders (13-15 jaar oud) van drie skole in Gauteng Provinsie en hulle ouers het onderskeidelik 'n leerder- en ouervraelys oor die gebruik van nuwe digitale media en tegnologie ingevul. Om 'n verband tussen adolessente se emosionele vaardighede en hulle gedrag in die virtuele wêreld te kan identifiseer, behels 'n groot mate van inligtingvertolking, wat daartoe gelei het dat die studie binne 'n narratiewe kwalitatiewe metodologiese raamwerk uitgevoer is. Die navorsing het aan die lig gebring dat adolessente tans 'n vorm van onderrig nodig het wat hulle emosionele intelligensie bevorder, sodat hulle digitale media kan gebruik om gesonde verhoudings op te bou en te versterk - in sowel die aanlyn wêreld as die werklikheid.<hr/>The world in which children grow up today is increasingly multimodal due to ever new technologies. These technologies shape what it means to be literate in the 21st century as it continues to impact on how information is communicated and exchanged. This naturally determines the skills adolescent learners need - and raises the question whether the current media literacy curriculum for secondary schools recognises these all-important skills. Teachers cannot afford to ignore or trivialise the complex social, intellectual and emotional functions of digital technologies in the lives of young people. In order to reach today's learners, teachers need to be responsive to learners' experience with their culture - which is what they experience through television, movies, YouTube, the internet, Facebook, music and gaming. When teachers learn more about learners' choices, the first thing they will notice is the vast difference between their own as opposed to their learners' frames of reference. When it comes to media and technology, every two years brings a new set of changes in the landscape of their daily life. Even if a teacher is only a few years older than his or her learners, there may be important differences because technology tools are changing at such a rapid pace. That is why it is imperative that teachers keep abreast of the latest information about the different media and technology choices learners make at home (and at school) on a daily basis. The effective development of digital media literacy in secondary schools should be seen as a process of professional, interprofessional and curricular development as much as learner development. This study reminds us that digital media literacy is multidimensional. The nature and extent of the digital media literacy an individual needs and develops largely depend on the purposes for which they use new media. Different social groups may also require different forms of digital media literacy, depending on their motivations for new media use. Teachers therefore need to guard against a reductive or mechanistic approach when assessing the levels of digital media literacy in adolescent learners. The digital media generation is no better and no worse than any other generation, but, like every other preceding generation, it is unique. Consequently, this generation requires a unique brand of education that will enable them to realise their personal dreams and serve the society of which they are a part. The media literacy education secondary schools offered in previous generations, whether successful or not, will not suiffice for this generation of adolescents. They are different, as their times are different. Although the internet has infinite advantages, it also poses many dangers, including victimisation of adolescents and the development of psychosocial problems. This research shows to what extent South African adolescents are engaged in online activities that pose risks, to what extent their parents are aware of it and are able to eliminate those threats, as well as the necessity of digital media literacy education that focuses specifically on emotional intelligence, a prerequisite for adequate social adjustment. Because very little information about South African adolescents' digital media lives, and parents' knowledge of their adolescents' activities in cyberspace is avaialable, the researchers compiled parent and learner questionnaires in order to obtain such information. Adolescents are young. They are at an age where they are grappling with who they are, experimenting with all sorts of identities, while dealing with intensified libidinal and aggressive drives. And cyberspace is the perfect place to give their whirlwind of emotions free rein. They do not fully understand the ramifications of some of their actions. The misperception of invisibility and lack of tangible feedback on the consequences of these actions negatively impact on their behaviour. The research showed that adolescents today need a type of education that promotes their emotional intelligence. This will enable them to establish and strengthen healthy relationships - in the online as well as the real world. <![CDATA[<b>Bruinmense se stryd teen apartheid gedokumenteer</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000300012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Nuwe digitale media, soos die internet en selfone, het 'n integrerende deel van adolessente se lewens geword. Die doel van die ondersoek waarop hierdie artikel gebaseer is, is om te bepaal watter uitwerking adolessente se gebruik van hierdie media op hulle sielkundige welstand en vlak van sosiale aanpassing het. Die betrokke hoofargument is dat kommunikasie deur middel van hierdie media ten koste van belangrike sosiale interaksie in die ware lewe plaasvind - interaksie wat noodsaaklik is om gesonde verhoudings op te bou. Die navorsing dek die mate waartoe Suid-Afrikaanse adolessente besig is met aanlyn bedrywighede wat gevare inhou, in watter mate hulle ouers bewus is daarvan en die gevare kan uitskakel, en die noodsaaklikheid van onderrig in digitalemedia-geletterdheid wat spesifiek klem lê op emosionele intelligensie, 'n voorvereiste vir goeie sosiale aanpassing. Vyf-en-tagtig (85) leerders (13-15 jaar oud) van drie skole in Gauteng Provinsie en hulle ouers het onderskeidelik 'n leerder- en ouervraelys oor die gebruik van nuwe digitale media en tegnologie ingevul. Om 'n verband tussen adolessente se emosionele vaardighede en hulle gedrag in die virtuele wêreld te kan identifiseer, behels 'n groot mate van inligtingvertolking, wat daartoe gelei het dat die studie binne 'n narratiewe kwalitatiewe metodologiese raamwerk uitgevoer is. Die navorsing het aan die lig gebring dat adolessente tans 'n vorm van onderrig nodig het wat hulle emosionele intelligensie bevorder, sodat hulle digitale media kan gebruik om gesonde verhoudings op te bou en te versterk - in sowel die aanlyn wêreld as die werklikheid.<hr/>The world in which children grow up today is increasingly multimodal due to ever new technologies. These technologies shape what it means to be literate in the 21st century as it continues to impact on how information is communicated and exchanged. This naturally determines the skills adolescent learners need - and raises the question whether the current media literacy curriculum for secondary schools recognises these all-important skills. Teachers cannot afford to ignore or trivialise the complex social, intellectual and emotional functions of digital technologies in the lives of young people. In order to reach today's learners, teachers need to be responsive to learners' experience with their culture - which is what they experience through television, movies, YouTube, the internet, Facebook, music and gaming. When teachers learn more about learners' choices, the first thing they will notice is the vast difference between their own as opposed to their learners' frames of reference. When it comes to media and technology, every two years brings a new set of changes in the landscape of their daily life. Even if a teacher is only a few years older than his or her learners, there may be important differences because technology tools are changing at such a rapid pace. That is why it is imperative that teachers keep abreast of the latest information about the different media and technology choices learners make at home (and at school) on a daily basis. The effective development of digital media literacy in secondary schools should be seen as a process of professional, interprofessional and curricular development as much as learner development. This study reminds us that digital media literacy is multidimensional. The nature and extent of the digital media literacy an individual needs and develops largely depend on the purposes for which they use new media. Different social groups may also require different forms of digital media literacy, depending on their motivations for new media use. Teachers therefore need to guard against a reductive or mechanistic approach when assessing the levels of digital media literacy in adolescent learners. The digital media generation is no better and no worse than any other generation, but, like every other preceding generation, it is unique. Consequently, this generation requires a unique brand of education that will enable them to realise their personal dreams and serve the society of which they are a part. The media literacy education secondary schools offered in previous generations, whether successful or not, will not suiffice for this generation of adolescents. They are different, as their times are different. Although the internet has infinite advantages, it also poses many dangers, including victimisation of adolescents and the development of psychosocial problems. This research shows to what extent South African adolescents are engaged in online activities that pose risks, to what extent their parents are aware of it and are able to eliminate those threats, as well as the necessity of digital media literacy education that focuses specifically on emotional intelligence, a prerequisite for adequate social adjustment. Because very little information about South African adolescents' digital media lives, and parents' knowledge of their adolescents' activities in cyberspace is avaialable, the researchers compiled parent and learner questionnaires in order to obtain such information. Adolescents are young. They are at an age where they are grappling with who they are, experimenting with all sorts of identities, while dealing with intensified libidinal and aggressive drives. And cyberspace is the perfect place to give their whirlwind of emotions free rein. They do not fully understand the ramifications of some of their actions. The misperception of invisibility and lack of tangible feedback on the consequences of these actions negatively impact on their behaviour. The research showed that adolescents today need a type of education that promotes their emotional intelligence. This will enable them to establish and strengthen healthy relationships - in the online as well as the real world. <![CDATA[<b>Redakteursnota</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000300013&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Nuwe digitale media, soos die internet en selfone, het 'n integrerende deel van adolessente se lewens geword. Die doel van die ondersoek waarop hierdie artikel gebaseer is, is om te bepaal watter uitwerking adolessente se gebruik van hierdie media op hulle sielkundige welstand en vlak van sosiale aanpassing het. Die betrokke hoofargument is dat kommunikasie deur middel van hierdie media ten koste van belangrike sosiale interaksie in die ware lewe plaasvind - interaksie wat noodsaaklik is om gesonde verhoudings op te bou. Die navorsing dek die mate waartoe Suid-Afrikaanse adolessente besig is met aanlyn bedrywighede wat gevare inhou, in watter mate hulle ouers bewus is daarvan en die gevare kan uitskakel, en die noodsaaklikheid van onderrig in digitalemedia-geletterdheid wat spesifiek klem lê op emosionele intelligensie, 'n voorvereiste vir goeie sosiale aanpassing. Vyf-en-tagtig (85) leerders (13-15 jaar oud) van drie skole in Gauteng Provinsie en hulle ouers het onderskeidelik 'n leerder- en ouervraelys oor die gebruik van nuwe digitale media en tegnologie ingevul. Om 'n verband tussen adolessente se emosionele vaardighede en hulle gedrag in die virtuele wêreld te kan identifiseer, behels 'n groot mate van inligtingvertolking, wat daartoe gelei het dat die studie binne 'n narratiewe kwalitatiewe metodologiese raamwerk uitgevoer is. Die navorsing het aan die lig gebring dat adolessente tans 'n vorm van onderrig nodig het wat hulle emosionele intelligensie bevorder, sodat hulle digitale media kan gebruik om gesonde verhoudings op te bou en te versterk - in sowel die aanlyn wêreld as die werklikheid.<hr/>The world in which children grow up today is increasingly multimodal due to ever new technologies. These technologies shape what it means to be literate in the 21st century as it continues to impact on how information is communicated and exchanged. This naturally determines the skills adolescent learners need - and raises the question whether the current media literacy curriculum for secondary schools recognises these all-important skills. Teachers cannot afford to ignore or trivialise the complex social, intellectual and emotional functions of digital technologies in the lives of young people. In order to reach today's learners, teachers need to be responsive to learners' experience with their culture - which is what they experience through television, movies, YouTube, the internet, Facebook, music and gaming. When teachers learn more about learners' choices, the first thing they will notice is the vast difference between their own as opposed to their learners' frames of reference. When it comes to media and technology, every two years brings a new set of changes in the landscape of their daily life. Even if a teacher is only a few years older than his or her learners, there may be important differences because technology tools are changing at such a rapid pace. That is why it is imperative that teachers keep abreast of the latest information about the different media and technology choices learners make at home (and at school) on a daily basis. The effective development of digital media literacy in secondary schools should be seen as a process of professional, interprofessional and curricular development as much as learner development. This study reminds us that digital media literacy is multidimensional. The nature and extent of the digital media literacy an individual needs and develops largely depend on the purposes for which they use new media. Different social groups may also require different forms of digital media literacy, depending on their motivations for new media use. Teachers therefore need to guard against a reductive or mechanistic approach when assessing the levels of digital media literacy in adolescent learners. The digital media generation is no better and no worse than any other generation, but, like every other preceding generation, it is unique. Consequently, this generation requires a unique brand of education that will enable them to realise their personal dreams and serve the society of which they are a part. The media literacy education secondary schools offered in previous generations, whether successful or not, will not suiffice for this generation of adolescents. They are different, as their times are different. Although the internet has infinite advantages, it also poses many dangers, including victimisation of adolescents and the development of psychosocial problems. This research shows to what extent South African adolescents are engaged in online activities that pose risks, to what extent their parents are aware of it and are able to eliminate those threats, as well as the necessity of digital media literacy education that focuses specifically on emotional intelligence, a prerequisite for adequate social adjustment. Because very little information about South African adolescents' digital media lives, and parents' knowledge of their adolescents' activities in cyberspace is avaialable, the researchers compiled parent and learner questionnaires in order to obtain such information. Adolescents are young. They are at an age where they are grappling with who they are, experimenting with all sorts of identities, while dealing with intensified libidinal and aggressive drives. And cyberspace is the perfect place to give their whirlwind of emotions free rein. They do not fully understand the ramifications of some of their actions. The misperception of invisibility and lack of tangible feedback on the consequences of these actions negatively impact on their behaviour. The research showed that adolescents today need a type of education that promotes their emotional intelligence. This will enable them to establish and strengthen healthy relationships - in the online as well as the real world. <![CDATA[<b>Die Afrikaanse idioom onder druk: Oor die gebruik van Afrikaans in die openbare domein</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000300014&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Nuwe digitale media, soos die internet en selfone, het 'n integrerende deel van adolessente se lewens geword. Die doel van die ondersoek waarop hierdie artikel gebaseer is, is om te bepaal watter uitwerking adolessente se gebruik van hierdie media op hulle sielkundige welstand en vlak van sosiale aanpassing het. Die betrokke hoofargument is dat kommunikasie deur middel van hierdie media ten koste van belangrike sosiale interaksie in die ware lewe plaasvind - interaksie wat noodsaaklik is om gesonde verhoudings op te bou. Die navorsing dek die mate waartoe Suid-Afrikaanse adolessente besig is met aanlyn bedrywighede wat gevare inhou, in watter mate hulle ouers bewus is daarvan en die gevare kan uitskakel, en die noodsaaklikheid van onderrig in digitalemedia-geletterdheid wat spesifiek klem lê op emosionele intelligensie, 'n voorvereiste vir goeie sosiale aanpassing. Vyf-en-tagtig (85) leerders (13-15 jaar oud) van drie skole in Gauteng Provinsie en hulle ouers het onderskeidelik 'n leerder- en ouervraelys oor die gebruik van nuwe digitale media en tegnologie ingevul. Om 'n verband tussen adolessente se emosionele vaardighede en hulle gedrag in die virtuele wêreld te kan identifiseer, behels 'n groot mate van inligtingvertolking, wat daartoe gelei het dat die studie binne 'n narratiewe kwalitatiewe metodologiese raamwerk uitgevoer is. Die navorsing het aan die lig gebring dat adolessente tans 'n vorm van onderrig nodig het wat hulle emosionele intelligensie bevorder, sodat hulle digitale media kan gebruik om gesonde verhoudings op te bou en te versterk - in sowel die aanlyn wêreld as die werklikheid.<hr/>The world in which children grow up today is increasingly multimodal due to ever new technologies. These technologies shape what it means to be literate in the 21st century as it continues to impact on how information is communicated and exchanged. This naturally determines the skills adolescent learners need - and raises the question whether the current media literacy curriculum for secondary schools recognises these all-important skills. Teachers cannot afford to ignore or trivialise the complex social, intellectual and emotional functions of digital technologies in the lives of young people. In order to reach today's learners, teachers need to be responsive to learners' experience with their culture - which is what they experience through television, movies, YouTube, the internet, Facebook, music and gaming. When teachers learn more about learners' choices, the first thing they will notice is the vast difference between their own as opposed to their learners' frames of reference. When it comes to media and technology, every two years brings a new set of changes in the landscape of their daily life. Even if a teacher is only a few years older than his or her learners, there may be important differences because technology tools are changing at such a rapid pace. That is why it is imperative that teachers keep abreast of the latest information about the different media and technology choices learners make at home (and at school) on a daily basis. The effective development of digital media literacy in secondary schools should be seen as a process of professional, interprofessional and curricular development as much as learner development. This study reminds us that digital media literacy is multidimensional. The nature and extent of the digital media literacy an individual needs and develops largely depend on the purposes for which they use new media. Different social groups may also require different forms of digital media literacy, depending on their motivations for new media use. Teachers therefore need to guard against a reductive or mechanistic approach when assessing the levels of digital media literacy in adolescent learners. The digital media generation is no better and no worse than any other generation, but, like every other preceding generation, it is unique. Consequently, this generation requires a unique brand of education that will enable them to realise their personal dreams and serve the society of which they are a part. The media literacy education secondary schools offered in previous generations, whether successful or not, will not suiffice for this generation of adolescents. They are different, as their times are different. Although the internet has infinite advantages, it also poses many dangers, including victimisation of adolescents and the development of psychosocial problems. This research shows to what extent South African adolescents are engaged in online activities that pose risks, to what extent their parents are aware of it and are able to eliminate those threats, as well as the necessity of digital media literacy education that focuses specifically on emotional intelligence, a prerequisite for adequate social adjustment. Because very little information about South African adolescents' digital media lives, and parents' knowledge of their adolescents' activities in cyberspace is avaialable, the researchers compiled parent and learner questionnaires in order to obtain such information. Adolescents are young. They are at an age where they are grappling with who they are, experimenting with all sorts of identities, while dealing with intensified libidinal and aggressive drives. And cyberspace is the perfect place to give their whirlwind of emotions free rein. They do not fully understand the ramifications of some of their actions. The misperception of invisibility and lack of tangible feedback on the consequences of these actions negatively impact on their behaviour. The research showed that adolescents today need a type of education that promotes their emotional intelligence. This will enable them to establish and strengthen healthy relationships - in the online as well as the real world.