Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0041-475120140003&lang=en vol. 54 num. 3 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Inleidende opmerkings</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512014000300001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>Oxford-upon-Amstel. The Amsterdam chair of South African Literature eighty years old. The early years and relations with the South African Academy for Science and Arts</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512014000300002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Die Amsterdamse leerstoel Zuid-Afrikaanse letterkunde is in 1933 deur die "Stichting tot bevordering van de studie van taal, letterkunde, cultuur en geschiedenis van Zuid-Afrika" ingestel aan wat toe nog de Gemeentelijke Universiteit van Amsterdam geheet het. Dit was 'n teken van erkenning deur die Nederlandse wetenskap dat Afrikaans uit Nederlands ontwikkel het tot 'n taal in eie reg, tot 'n "selfstandige loot aan die Germaanse taalboom". Op 9 Oktober 1933 het prof. dr. Gerrit Besselaar (1874-1947) sy intreerede as "bijzonder hoogleraar Zuid-Afrikaanse taal-, letterkunde en geschiedenis" gehou. Die leerstoel is ná 'n lang onderbreking tydens en na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog hervat en in die jare '50 en '60 van die vorige eeu beklee deur agtereenvolgens N.P. van Wyk Louw (1950-1958) en H. van der Merwe Scholtz (1959-1962). As gevolg van politieke druk en akademiese boikotaksies is die leerstoel later opgehef, maar ná die demokratiese omwenteling in Suid-Afrika is die tyd ryp geag vir die herinstelling daarvan. In Junie 1999 is 'n konsepvoorstel ingedien by die Fakulteit Geesteswetenskap van die Universiteit van Amsterdam (UvA) en 'njaar later het die "College van Bestuur" toestemming gegee vir die instelling van weer 'n "bijzondere" leerstoel. In September 2001 is Ena Jansen (gebore 1951) benoem, in April 2002 het sy met haar eerste lesingreeks begin en op 11 April 2003 haar intreerede gehou. In die artikel word veral aandag gegee aan die ontstaansjare van die leerstoel en aan kontakte tussen Amsterdam en die Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns.<hr/>Eighty years ago the chair of "Zuid-Afrikaanse taal, letterkunde en geschiedenis" (South African Language, Literature and History) in Amsterdam came into existence under the auspices of the "Stichting ter bevordering van de studie van taal, letterkunde, cultuur en geschiedenis van Zuid-Afrika" (The Foundation for the Advancement of the Study of Language, Literature, Culture and History of South Africa). This Foundation was established on the 14th November 1932 in The Hague and has since then been a subsection of the so-called "Suid-Afrikaanse Instituut" (South African Institute), one of the institutions based in the "Zuid-Afrika Huis" (South Africa House) at 141 Keizersgracht in Amsterdam. The chair has since its inception been managed in close cooperation with a supervisory council of the University of Amsterdam. Due to long periods of inactivity only four people have been professors of Afrikaans literature in Amsterdam since the instalment of the chair. On 9th October 1933 dr. Gerrit Besselaar (1874-1947) gave his inaugural lecture as so-called "bijzonder hoogleraar" (professor by special appointment). The Dutchman Besselaar was born in Rotterdam and became a teacher in England before leaving for South Africa in 1903, shortly after the end of the Anglo-Boer War. He soon became an advocate for Afrikaans and was one of the founding members of the "Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns" (South African Academy for Science and Arts) in 1909. He was professor in the department "Nieuwe Talen" (Modern Languages) at the Natal University College in Pietermaritzburg before returning to Europe in 1932. After teaching Afrikaans to German missionaries in Berlin he became the first holder of the chair of Afrikaans literature in Amsterdam. Afrikaanse taal- en letterkunde universitair studievak te Amsterdam, the title of Besselaar 's inaugural address, emphasised the status and pedagogical value of the Afrikaans language and literature. The establishment of the chair was an important acknowledgement on the side of the Dutch academy that Afrikaans, besides Dutch and Flemish, was an empowered and independent member of the Germanic group of languages. Following Besselaar 's retirement the chair of South African literature has always been occupied by South Africans. Temporary lecturers such as dr. Elizabeth Conradie (1903-1939) were also always South Africans. During the year when she took over from the ailing Besselaar she was praised not only for her enthusiastic lectures and networking skills but also for laying the foundation for the extensive library of the South Africa House. Because of World War Two and its aftermath the chair was vacant for more than a decade. The famous Afrikaans poet N.P. van Wyk Louw (1906-1970) was professor between 1950 and 1958, during which time many South African literary scholars came to study under his guidance. He wrote his most important literary work whilst living in Amsterdam. After his return to South Africa he was succeeded in 1959 by H. van der Merwe Scholtz (1924-2005) who had just completed his PhD in Amsterdam. After three years he returned to South Africa to take up a teaching post in Pretoria. Louw was a so-called "buitengewoon hoogleraar" (special chair) whilst Scholtz was "gewoon hoogleraar" (regular professor - actually the position with the most clout because of being part of the regular group of faculty professors). Louw's famous inaugural address delivered on 22nd May 1950 carried the title Die digter as intellektueel (The Poet as Intellectual), whilst the title of Scholtz's lecture delivered on 26th October 1959 was In en om die gedig (In and About the Poem). After Scholtz's departure the chair remained vacant for forty years. South African scholars such as Roy H. Pheiffer and Johan Uys, who had been studying in The Netherlands themselves, taught Afrikaans at the University for some years. After them dr. Truida Lijphart-Bezuidenhout held the fort from 1969 until her untimely death in 1987, teaching Afrikaans literature to a handful of students. During the strident years of Dutch opposition to the South African government's racial policy which resulted in an academic boycott of South African scholars and authors, the chair was suspended and only re-installed in 2000. A year later the position was advertised and on 13 September 2001 the "curatorium" (curating body) of the University of Amsterdam proposed dr. Ena Jansen as new "bijzonder hoogleraar". In April 2002 her appointment was finalised and she commenced teaching. Seventyyears after Besselaar, on the 11th April 2003, she gave her inaugural address entitled "Eva, wat sê hulle?" Konstruksies van Krotoa in Suid-Afrikaanse tekste ("Eva, what are they saying?" Constructions of Krotoa in South African texts). In this article the focus is on the founding years of the Amsterdam chair and its ties with the "Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns". <![CDATA[<b>Liplappen and Nonna's: Presentation of a comparative study to be conducted</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512014000300003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This is an abstract of the paper I gave on 13 September 2013, the day on which the Elisabeth Eybers bursary was awarded to me. This award gives me the opportunity to conduct a comparative and transnational study on the representations of interraciality in South African and Dutch-Indies narratives written between 1900 and 1950. The concept of "interracial representation" encompasses images of "mixed race" as well as of meetings and contacts, including intimate and domestic relationships between characters of different racial backgrounds. The aim is to show a part of the similarities and cultural interactions and affiliations between the Netherlands and South Africa. Earlier, I have investigated the representations of "Indo's" and "mixed race" in (post)colonial Dutch films and literature, that is to say, the narratives written about the former Dutch East Indies (nowadays the Republic of Indonesia) both in the colonial and postcolonial era. This research as well as my introductory readings of Afrikaans literature have convinced me, in accordance with V.A. February 's remarks in Mind your Colour (1981), that there is a fascinating relation between Afrikaans and Dutch literature in terms of representations of "coloured" and "Indo" people: ... it would be interesting to see to what extent the image of the Indo, that is, the Dutch Indonesian half-breed, shows any comparison with that of the 'Cape coloured' in South Africa [...] In fact, reading through novels dealing with the Indo, at times one is forcibly reminded of the South African literary scene, and left with just a sneaking suspicion that the inhabitants at the Cape and the Afrikaner in particular, may have unconsciously inherited a Dutch literary tradition via the East Indies. (February 1981:55) In my comparative study I focus on the first half of the twentieth century when ideas on "racial purity " and "racial mixture " changed drastically and became much more harsh than before, both in South Africa and the Dutch East Indies. Authors of fiction in those years modelled their work according to European examples of literature, particularly to styles of naturalism and realism, as well as British class novels in which the complexity of colonial power, desires and intimacies come to the fore. In order to counter the stereotypes in literary accounts which were mostly written by white authors I also plan to analyse family photographs, taken by "coloured" and "Indo" people themselves to take into account the performance of (desired) identities and self images. <![CDATA[<b>The drafting of a Dutch literary history: generic characteristics as positivistic traits?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512014000300004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Die skryf van geskiedenis as 'n vorm van historiese representasie het nog altyd baie teoretiese besinning ontlok en die besef het posgevat dat weens die narratiewe aard daarvan 'n sogenaamde "objektiewe" weergawe van die verlede onmoontlik is. In die literatuurwetenskap het die literêre geskiedskrywing benaderings tot die letterkunde op die voet gevolg. Veral die teorieë van Pierre Bourdieu (1993) wat die konsep die "literêre veld" postuleer, gee in die afgelope jare aanleiding tot literatuurgeskiedenisse wat die klem plaas op die institusionele aard van die letterkunde en veel meer die klem plaas op "institusies" soos uitgewers, biblioteke, tydskrifte en die institusionele "inbinding" van tekste en outeurs. Die ontvangs van literatuurgeskiedenisse gaan gewoonlik gepaard met 'n verwoording van die eie (metodologiese) uitgangspunte of (literatuur)opvattings van resensente of kommentators. Daarom is die selfstandige skryf van 'n literatuurgeskiedenis geen geringe taak nie. Nie net noodsaak dit diepgaande teoretiese besinning op grond van, maar ook kennis van, voorafgaande literatuurgeskiedenisse en hul samestellers/skrywers se uitgangspunte.Uit navorsing vir die skryf van 'n tweedelige Nederlandse literatuurgeskiedenis in Afrikaans blyk dit duidelik dat in literêr historiese oorsigte van die Nederlandse letterkunde daar nie net 'n "stabilisering" van feite, indelings (soos periodes) en selfs interpretasies sigbaar is nie; ook waarde-oordele is dikwels 'n eggo van voriges. Evaluerings van 'n bepaalde skrywer of teks in 'n literatuurgeskiedenis verskil weinig van dié in die heel eerste resensies en kensketsings van bepaalde skrywers reflekteer weer dikwels poëtikale uitsprake van die betrokke skrywer self. Hierdie soeke na konsensus binne die literêre veld geskied nie net vanweë die feit dat daar dikwels 'n gedeelde wetenskaplike paradigma en literatuuropvatting bestaan nie, maar ook uit strategiese oorwegings. Wat toenemend gebeur in historiese representasies is dat die fokus in die literêre geskiedskrywing nie meer is op die eie tyd en die heersende literatuuropvattings en -oordele van nou nie, maar van tóé. Die verlede word in hierdie proses noulettend morfologies gerekonstrueer. Uiteraard is dit 'n relativistiese; selfs historisistiese metode wat die begrip letterkunde (maar ook begrippe soos "goed", "sleg" en "groots") afhanklik maak van 'n bepaalde tyd en ruimte. Wat dus opval uit die bestudering van die Nederlandse letterkunde is dat daar bepaalde raakvlakke bestaan met die Afrikaanse letterkunde én dat daar (op bykans neo-positivistiese wyse) bepaalde "wetmatighede" óf generiese kenmerke in enige literêre sisteem of literêre veld aanwesig is: • Die evolusie van die Afrikaanse letterkunde vertoon ooreenkomste wat die fases daarvan betref met die Nederlandse letterkunde; • Die literêre sisteem is 'n oop sisteem; • Dit is weerstandig, onafhanklik en relatief selfgenoegsaam; • Institusies soos uitgewerye en biblioteke is van die grootste belang in die literêre veld; • Letterkunde is 'n verbuikersitem en dus 'n ekonomiese entiteit wat onderhewig is aan ekonomiese wette; • Literêre sisteme (en literêre kanons) beskerm hul kerne op dieselfde wyse as wetenskap-like paradigmas (kyk Lakatos 1970). Dit verg daarom dikwels dieselfde strategieë van skrywers(groeperinge) om deur die beskermende lae binne te dring; • Nuwe skrywersgroepe (soos die Nederlandse tagtigers en die Afrikaanse dertigers) institusionaliseer mettertyd hul eie poëtikale opvattings; • Spilfigure is van die grootste belang in die evolusie van literatuur; • Die evolusie van letterkunde hou verband met die literêre tradisie al is dit as reaksie daarteen; • Literêre evolusie is dikwels 'n pendulum-beweging tussen die pole van maatskaplike betrokkenheid en fiksasie op die eie medium; • Literêre waarde-oordele stem dikwels ooreen binne bepaalde tydperke, maar ook in die Westerse Literêre Kanon. Dit is ook die gevolg van die sinjalering van inherente eienskappe van die objek. Dit wil voorkom asof nie alle literêre produkte dieselfde potensiaal het om (in verskillende tydperke) dieselfde estetiese waardering/reaksie te ontlok nie. Either there were aesthetic values, or there are only the over-determination of race, class, and gender. You must choose, for if you believe that all value ascribed to poems or plays or novels and stories is only a mystification in the service of the ruling class, then why should you read at all rather than go forth to serve the desperate needs of the exploited classes? (Harold Bloom 1994:522).<hr/>The writing of history as a form of historical representation has always elicited theoretical discussion. Eventually the realisation dawned that due to the inherent narrative qualities of historical representation an "objective" rendering of the past is impossible. Within the realm of literary criticism approaches to literature profoundly influenced literary history. Especially the theories of Pierre Bourdieu pertaining to the concept of the Literary Field had an enormous impact on literary history in recent years. Subsequently, the emphasis shifted to the institutional aspect of literature and publishers, libraries, journals, literary affiliations seemingly warranted much more attention. The reception of literary histories affords the opportunity for reviewers to voice their own literary and methodological beliefs. The drafting of a literary history is therefore fraught with danger and it also necessitates theoretical contemplation and an intimate knowledge of the work of forerunners. Research with the object of drafting a Dutch literary history led me to certain conclusions. There is often a "stabilisation" of facts, periodisation and even interpretations and evaluations of texts and authors alike. Evaluations of the latter in literary histories often only deviate marginally from those in the very first reviews and rubrications of a specific author often stem from his own initial characterisation of his own work. This striving towards concensus within the Literary Field can not only be contributed to a shared scientific paradigm and conception of literature; it is often a strategic stance. Increasingly current historical representations shift the emphasis to the past and to the then current conceptions of literature; even validation of their evaluations. In the process the past is "morphologically" reconstructed. This approach is not only relativistic in nature but also historistic; even a concept like literature (and epitheta like "good", "bad" and "great") are increasingly seen as dependent on, even confined to a specific time and space. A consequence is that a concept like "intrinsic value" not only becomes suspect, but also superfluous. Researching Dutch literature it became clear that there are quite a few apparent similarities between Dutch and Afrikaans literature and that certain generic traits can be discerned that can almost be seen (in neo-positivistic terms) as inherent and recurring: • The evolution of Afrikaans literature is similar (in the main) to the most important phases in the evolution of Dutch literature; • The literary system is an open one; • It is robust, independent and relatively autonomous; • Institutions like libraries, publishers, etc. are of the utmost importance in the Literary Field; • Literature is also a commodity and subject to the laws governing any economic system; • Literary systems (and literary canons) protect their centres (kernels) in a way comparable to that of scientific paradigms (cf. Lakatos 1970). Penetration of all the protective layers often necessitates the same strategies by authors and groups of authors; • New generations / schools of authors (like the Dutch "tagtigers" and the Afrikaans "dertigers") eventually institutionalise their conceptions of literature; • Pivotal figures are of the utmost importrance within the evolution of literature; • The evolution of literature can not be seen in isolation. It is always linked to the literary tradition even if it is in part only a reaction to it; • Literary evolution is often a pendulum movement between the poles of involvement with society and its problems and a fixation on the medium itself; • Literary evaluations stabilise within certain periods and also in what is known as the Western Literary Canon (Bloom 1994). This is also attributable to the recognition of or attention to qualities inherent to the object. It seems that not all literary objects (texts) have the same potential for evoking aesthetical reaction or appreciation in the same or even in different periods. <![CDATA[<b>Dutch language speakers' contributions to the maintenance and recognition of Afrikaans 1870-1920</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512014000300005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Die bydrae van Nederlandstalige letter- en taalkundiges, joernaliste, uitgewers en onderwysers tot die sukses van die Afrikaanse taalstryd en die taalbeweging tussen ongeveer 1870 en 1920 is 'n belangwekkende aspek van die geskiedenis van Afrikaans. Drie van die vier manne wat 'n mens met die begin van die 19de-eeuse taalbeweging in verband kan bring, was gebore Nederlanders: Arnoldus Pannevis, Casper Petrus Hoogenhout en Johannes Brill. Die vierde was ds. Stephanus Jacobus du Toit. Een van die belangrikste vroeë Nederlands-gebore skrywers was J. Lion Cachet, outeur van Sewe duiwels en wat hulle gedoen het. Taalkundiges wat vir Afrikaans in die bresse getree het, was W.S. Logeman van Kaapstad en D.C. Hesseling. Ná die Anglo-Boereoorlog het Nederlanders bygedra tot die welslae van Christelik Nasionale Onderwys, wat verseker het dat, naas Engels, Hollands as voertaal en vak in hierdie skole bly voortbestaan het. Met die hulp van dr. W.J. Leyds is ZAR-geld wat voor en in die oorlog na Europa gestuur is, na Afrikanerleiers gekanaliseer om te help met die onderwys en die heroprigting van Hollands-Afrikaanse koerante. Daarnaas was daar morele steun. Ten eerste kon taalaktiviste inspirasie vir die taalstryd kry deur berigte oor die volharding van die Vlaminge in húl stryd. Ten tweede het Nederlandse geleerdes die Afrikaans-aktiviste in hul strewe gesterk deur die bruikbaarheid van Afrikaans, die onbruikbaarheid van Hollands en die waarde van die eerste Afrikaanse werke te beklemtoon. Die belangrikste rede vir die sukses van die Afrikaanse taalbeweging en taalstryd was die toewyding en deursettingsvermoë van die verdedigende Afrikanernasionalisme, maar die Nederlandse betrokkenheid by die taalstryd was 'n faktor van wesenlike belang.<hr/>The contribution of Dutch literary scholars and linguists, journalists, publishers and teachers to the success of the Afrikaans language struggle and the language movement between about 1870 and 1920 is a significant aspect of the history of Afrikaans. Under language struggle or language activism is meant the actions to oppose the displacement of Afrikaans and Dutch by English. In Afrikaans history, language movement refers to the activities undertaken to develop and recognise Afrikaans as a replacement for Dutch as the written language. The 19th-century language movement began at a time when Afrikaners became dissatisfied with the dominance of English in the Cape Colony. This was especially the case with a small group that initiated a struggle for the recognition of Afrikaans as a written language in 1875 - the members of the Genootskap van Regte Afrikaanders (GRA) [Society for Real Afrikaners], which was established on 14 August in Paarl. Three of the four men that one could associate with the beginning of the language movement were Dutch-born: Arnoldus Pannevis, Casper Petrus Hoogenhout and Johannes Brill. The fourth was ds. Stephanus Jacobus du Toit. The GRA was not anti-Dutch, and they published numerous books in Dutch and distributed petitions calling for the recognition of Dutch as a language of the Cape Parliament. In 1877, Du Toit and Hoogenhout strongly considered publishing the GRA 's mouthpiece, Die Afrikaanse Patriot, in simplified Dutch, and to cooperate with those who wanted to maintain Dutch in South Africa. Du Toit's brother, DF du Toit, "Oom Lokomotief", wrecked this plan. Even after the establishment of the GRA, the Dutch remained involved in the construction and defence of Afrikaans. One of the most important 19th-century writers was Jan Lion Cachet, author of the "Devil books" that were published in one volume: Sewe duiwels en wat hulle gedoen het. Sketse uit die Afrikaanse buitelewe (Seven devils and their deeds. Sketches of the Afrikaans country living). Among the scholars were W. S. Logeman, Dutch professor at the South African College in Cape Town and one of the few early linguists that took Afrikaans seriously. At least one linguist in the Netherlands thought that all efforts to promote Dutch in South Africa were doomed to failure. D.C. Hesseling argued in 1897 in De Gids that Afrikaans had developed as a separate language. After the Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902), the Dutch and Flemish in Europe, but also Dutch in South Africa, played an important part in the language struggle in which they tried to prevent English from supplanting Afrikaans as spoken and especially Dutch as teaching language. After 1902, English was the official language and the language of education. This English-nationalist policy and its implementation created an Afrikaans nationalism that had the objective of sustaining the Afrikaners as a people with their own language. The Dutch support helped the language activists on two main areas: education and the press. In the Transvaal, Dutch teachers from the days of the Republic took the lead in establishing schools that used Dutch alongside English as a language and subject. Since the end of 1902, and through the efforts of the churches, the Boer leaders, Dutch and Afrikaner teachers and newspapers such as De Volksstem and Het Westen, a network of schools arose in the towns and districts of the Transvaal. A happenstance that struck the Afrikaners after the war was that they could get financing to revive the Dutch-Afrikaans press. This came in the form of funds of the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek. Money that had been transferred to Europe before and during the war was smuggled back to South Africa in secret by dr. W.J. Leyds. Before and during the war, he was the Transvaal envoy in Europe and the money was sent there to promote ZAR interests. After the war, the remaining money was sent to the Boer leaders for national purposes - CNE schools and the reestablishment of newspapers. From England, Joseph Chamberlain did everything in his power to obtain this money. Two of the papers that benefited from ZAR money was De Volksstem and the new independent half-weekly, De Vriend des Volks. They were the two most important newspapers that promoted Afrikaans from 1905. De Volksstem's editor was Dr. F. V Engelenburg, a born Dutchman. One of the newspapers that came into being with the ZAR money still exists in 2014. It is Volksblad, which was founded in 1904 in Potchefstroom by Hendrik de Graaf as Het Westen The founders, De Graaf and B. P. Landa, and the first editors, were St. Helena exiles during the Anglo-Boer War that came to know each other in the Deadwood camp. The editors were Paul G. Das, Adam J. Boshoff and BG Versélewel de Witt Hamer. Apart from Boshoff (from the Free Sate), all were Dutch. In 1907, De Graaf began publishing books. The first anthology of the 20th-century movement, Bij die monument (At the monument) by Totius, was printed in 1908 b ye Graaf of "Het Westen"-Drukkerij. "Het Westen"-Drukkerij published 17 of the 33 poetry a ndprose works that appeared in Afrikaans between 1907 and 1915. The rest were published at seven other publishers. The assistance to the CNE schools and the channeling of ZAR money to Afrikaner leaders was the practical, material, part of the Dutch involvement with Afrikaners after the Anglo-Boer War. In addition, there was moral support. The Afrikaners knew they did not stand alone. Firstly, they could find inspiration for the language struggle through reports of the persistence of the Flemish in their struggle. Secondly, the Dutch scholars strengthened Afrikaner activists in their pursuit by emphasising the usefulness of Afrikaans, the impracticality of Dutch and of the value of the first Afrikaans works. Each time, Afrikaans scholars and publications referred to foreign opinions that supported their views. Among those mentioned were Hesseling, Dr. Kiewiet de Jonge, dr. J. B. Scheepers, dr. R. A. Kollewijn, O. Kamerlingh-Onnes and several others. People like C.G.N. de Vooys and G. Kalff praised C. Louis Leipoldt's Oom Gert vertel en ander gedigte (Uncle Gert relates and other poems). After the recognition of Afrikaans as a teaching language, it was once again mainly a Dutch publisher, J.L. van Schaik, who used Dutch business acumen to become one of the leading publishers of Afrikaans school books. The success of the Afrikaans language movement and language struggle is due to various factors. The most important of these was the dedication and perseverance of the leaders of Afrikaner nationalism. It was a defensive move against aggressive English nationalism. But another factor of major importance was the Dutch involvement in the language struggle. <![CDATA[<b>Rhetorical figures as intellectual play in advertising communication</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512014000300006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Advertensiekommunikasie het 'n unieke aard en verskillende talige en visuele meganismes word gebruik ten einde die teikenmark se aandag te trek. Retoriese stylfigure, as vorm van figuurlike taalgebruik, is een van die instrumente wat kopieskrywers gebruik om die teikenmark se aandag in gedrukte advertensies te trek. Retoriese stylfigure kan egter op verskillende wyses aangewend word. In hierdie ondersoek word daar vanuit 'n semantiese perspektief gekyk na retoriese stylfigure (talig en visueel) wat tot beskikking van die kopieskrywer is, om kreatief die teikenmark se aandag te trek. Die fokus in hierdie empiriese ondersoek val verder ook op die wyse waarop visuele tekens in advertensies die talige tekens eggo, oftewel ondersteun, in die konstruering van die bemarkingsboodskap.<hr/>Advertising communication has a unique character and different techniques are used to draw the consumer 's attention. The way in which the message is communicated in the advertisement often contributes to the impact of the advertising message. This research article forms part of a bigger research project that focuses specifically on the ways in which advertising language communicates creatively. Furthermore, the way in which visual signs echo the linguistic signs and contribute to the construction of the marketing message is observed. Figurative language and semiotic signs are some of the mechanisms copywriters use to draw the consumer 's attention. Literature that focuses on the linguistic and visual analysis of advertising communication is limited. A variety of definitions for figurative language exist in the literature, since different authors have different perspectives given a particular data set and time frame. ln this study creative signs used in advertising in order to increase the impact of the advertisement (e.g. language play, rhetorical figures and semiotic signs), are studied from a Cognitive Semantic and linguistic perspective. A qualitative investigation was launched in order to describe the character of the manifestation of these rhetorical figures in advertising communication. Based on the primary objective of the study, to give an overview of the manifestation of creative concepts in South African print advertising communication, the secondary objectives were identified. These objectives were to explain the definition and nature of terms such as language play (idiomatic expressions, personification and wordplay), rhetorical figures of speech (comparisons, analogies and metaphor) and semiotic signs (indexes, icons and symbols). South African print advertisements were used as data set. A further objective was to obtain an overview of the gains and risks in the use of these attention drawing mechanisms in the interest of training linguists and copywriting students. In this study two main categories are identified, namely figurative language and semiotic signs. Figurative language is divided into two categories, namely language play and rhetorical figures; the latter is the focus of this research article. The category, language play, focuses specifically on the artistic nature or rather "creative decoration " of advertisements. Idiomatic expressions (when the cat's away, the mice will play), personification (Your pepper will be so jealous) and wordplay (the Afrikaans word "leer" can refer to the ladder you climb, as well as the leather a shoe is made of) are identified as three forms in language play. Rhetorical figures are identified as a second category within figurative language. Rhetorical figures of speech include: similes (he is as slow as a tortoise), analogies (an analogy between the organ, a kidney, and a coffee filter) and metaphors (metaphor between coffee and perfume's durability and aroma). The second main category distinguished in this study is semiotic signs. Semiotic signs are divided into indexes (smoke indicating a fire), icons (apasspor tfull of stamps, indicating a rea lpassport) and symbols (an apple as a symbol of seduction). Based on the literature study and the data set, it is clear that creative signs used in advertising communication contribute in prolonging the reader 's attention. Creative signs are often an intellectual game to be unravelled by the reader, in order to identify the intended marketing message. Furthermore, more than one message is often communicated through the use of creative language and visual signs, thus giving the copywriter the ability to say more with less (words and images). From this study, it is clear that the use of figurative language like rhetorical figures and semiotic signs should ideally focus on the brand name, marketing message or characteristic of the product to actually be relevant to the marketing message; otherwise it remains just a useless decoration in the advertisement. <![CDATA[<b>Language deterioration with specific reference to the ideologies and practices of statism</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512014000300007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In hierdie artikel word aangevoer dat verstaatliking in die moderne tydperk die belangrikste oorsaak vir die verdwyning van tale is. Verstaatliking verwys eerstens na die omvangryke territoriale staat, waarin 'n bepaalde dominante elite neig om sy eie karakter en identiteit aan die staat as sodanig toe te dig en van alle ander gemeenskappe (in 'n nie-oorheersende posisie) vereis om hulself in hierdie staatlike identiteit op te los. Tweedens verwys dit na die moderne industriële ekonomie, wat 'n sterk homogeniserende krag is wat eentaligheid in die hand werk. Derdens verwys dit na die ideologie van verstaatliking wat regverdiging vir die homogeniserende staat verskaf. Opvallend van die ideologie van verstaatliking is dat dit omvattend is en in verskeie verskyningsvorme oral oor die spektrum van die ideologiese skaal manifesteer. Dit sluit regse nasionalisme, Jakobinisme, tendense van die liberale politiek asook die linkse sosialisme in. In weerwil van die oënskynlik beduidende verskille tussen hierdie ideologieë en bypassende praktyke, wat oor die afgelope eeue van die belangrikste kragte in die politiek was, is hulle veranker in 'n enkele gemeenskaplike ideologiese matriks, naamlik dié van verstaatliking. Ofskoon daar 'n groeiende tendens in sowel die politieke denke as staatsregtelike praktyk is om minderheidsgemeenskappe met hulle eiesoortige kulturele bates (soos hulle tale) op 'n demokratiese wyse te akkommodeer, het die ideologie van verstaatliking nog lank nie sy houvas verloor nie en hou dit steeds 'n enorme bedreiging vir die voortbestaan van minderheidstale tale en minderheidsgemeenskappe in.<hr/>It is argued in this article that the ideology ofstatism has been playing a major part in the accelerated rate of the deterioration and extinction of languages. Beginning with some general observations on the reason for language deterioration and extinction the emphasis subsequently shifts to the ideology of statism as a major factor determining the fate of minority languages. Statism refers to the territorial state with its single largely industrialised economy spanning the territory of the whole state and organised in terms of its own distinctive statist ideology, that reinforces and justifies a state-wide homogeneous nation and the monolingualism of a single dominant (state) language to the detriment of all other (minority) languages. The statist ideology might be slanting to the left, the right or the liberal centre but it always acts in defence and in support of the homogenising monolingual territorial state. The statist ideology and the dictates of the industrialised economy are interdependent and mutually reinforcing, both working towards the homogenisations and monolingualism of the territorial state. Statism harks back to the consolidation of the modern territorial state in England and France in the sixteenth century, soon followed by the other European territorial states and thereafter in the rest of the world. The advent of the first territorial states was accompanied with the emergence of large scale industrial homogenising economies in the place of the erstwhile localised agrarian economies. In discussing the homogenising and particularly monolingual consequences of the state-wide industrial economy the elucidating insights of Ernst Gellner are discussed in some detail. The ideology of statism comes in a variety of mutations spanning the entire ideological spectrum from left to right, however consistently having the same homogenising goal and effect also as far as language is concerned. All these ideologies, regardless of how divergent they are, are in the final analysis species of the same larger genus, namely the ideology of statism. In dealing with these species the French position with a more specific emphasis on the Jacobin and nationalist policies in relation to languages since the French Revolution is first dealt with. This is followed by an assessment of the position of language in terms of the right-wing nationalist approach in Spain which reached its zenith under the dictatorship of Franco. Thereafter the approach to language in Britain is discussed with reference to the impact of Anglicisation upon the Celtic languages of the British Isles. This approach was at least in part founded upon and received further momentum in the convictions articulated by some of the foremost liberal political theorists such as John Stuart Mill. The American approach - seemingly the purist liberal one - is then discussed with reference to the impact of monoculturalism on the minority languages of the United States. Subesequently, the focus shifts to the other extreme of the ideological spectrum when the Leftist approach to language with reference to Marx and Engels is assessed. The discussion reveals that the approaches in relation to languages were, if not in theoretical design, then most certainly in purpose and effect essentially the same in terms of all these ideological positions irrespective of the ideological orientations of their authors. What all of these approaches share - whether pursued from the left, right or the liberal centre - is the statist ideology which serves as the common foundation for all of them. The conclusion drawn from this is that smaller languages, that is, languages with minoritised linguistic communities stand in the way of an encompassing collection of modern ideologies that share the common ideological matrix of statism. Smaller languages and their communities are therefore imperilled by the broadly encompassing ideology of statism and not merely by an ideological assault forthcoming from a right-wing, left-wing or similarly distinctive ideology that occupies a specific position on the ideological spectrum. It is this encompassing challenge of statism that smaller linguistic communities need to overcome. <![CDATA[<b>Macrostructural adaptations between printed and e-dictionaries</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512014000300008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Die heersende leksikografieteorie is primêr ontwerp vir gedrukte woordeboeke. Aanpassings is nodig om 'n omvattende teorie te hê wat vir sowel gedrukte as e-woordeboeke voorsiening maak. Vir 'n algemene leksikografieteorie moet modelle ontwikkel word vir die leksikografiese strukture in e-woordeboeke. Hierdie artikel fokus op een van hierdie strukture, te wete die makrostruktuur. Makrostrukture in gedrukte woordeboeke word bespreek, en daar word aandag gegee aan verskeie ordeningstrukture in e-woordeboeke wat makrostrukturele kenmerke vertoon. Die gebruik van alfabetbalke en die voorkoms van artikeltrajekte en deeltrajekte, asook lemmatrajekte en lemmadeeltrajekte, word ondersoek. Daar word aangetoon dat, alhoewel e-woordeboeke nie tradisionele makrostrukture het nie, daar wel eksterne datatoeganklikheid is, onder meer danksy die gebruik van ordeningstrukture met behulp waarvan die makrostrukturele elemente bereik kan word. Aanpassings vanaf gedrukte woordeboeke het gelei tot die ontwikkeling van eiesoortige kenmerke vir hierdie ordeningstrukture van e-woordeboeke.<hr/>Lexicography has a practical component, i.e. the writing of dictionaries, and a theoretical component. The formulation of a general theory of lexicography has mostly been directed at printed dictionaries. The emergence of e-lexicography has confronted lexicographers with the option to devise a new and independent theory for online lexicography, resulting in two separate theories, or to adapt the existing theory by broadening its scope to include e-dictionaries. This would improve the strength of such a general theory of lexicography. In this paper the latter approach has been adopted. One of the focal points in a general theory of lexicography is the different dictionary structures. This paper focuses on adaptations for the transfer from printed to e-dictionaries with regard to only one of these lexicographic structures, i.e. the macrostructure. In an introductory section an overview is presented of some developments in theoretical lexicography and the task facing modern-day theoretical lexicographers to decide whether structures devised for printed dictionaries can be maintained in e-dictionaries and whether existing terminology still suffices. A brief account is then given of macrostructures in printed dictionaries and some underlying theoretical approaches. Various interpretations of the concept of the macrostrucure are indicated. Different types ofmacrostructures are discussed. Within the category of alphabetical macrostructures the need for an access alphabet is emphasised. Subtypes of macrostructural procedures like nesting and niching are discussed and illustrated. Reference is also made to their possible occurrence in e-dictionaries. Three major typological criteria of macrostructures, i.e. the ordering of macrostructural elements, the existence of external data-accessibility and the class membership ofmicrostructural elements are mentioned and it is indicated that the focus will be on only one of these criteria, i.e. the ordering ofmacrostructural elements. Besides the main macrostructure, emphasis is also placed on article stretches as immediate constituents of macrostructures. The paper thenfocuses on e-dictionaries and within this category only on online dictionaries and not on CD-ROM dictionaries. It is stated and illustrated that e-dictionaries often seem to have no macrostructural ordering device. However, analysing and discussing different access possibilities in e-dictionaries to reach the required lemma it is shown that albeit that e-dictionaries do not display a traditional macrostructure as ordering device and as an instrument to ensure the lexicographic coverage of the subject matter of a given dictionary, there are various other ordering structures. Looking at the use of alphabet bars to guide the user to article stretches the paper shows how existing e-dictionaries do not only use article stretches and partial article stretches to order lemmata but they also employ lemma stretches and partial lemma stretches. Users have the option to employ a rapid access to a desired lemma, a procedure that does not rely on any macrostructural ordering. They also have the option to use a longer version of the access process and reach their target lemma via a browsing function that allows them to page through a dictionary or via alphabet bars and article stretches. This establishes the poly-accessibility of e-dictionaries. The use of alphabet bars is an innovative feature of e-dictionaries. An alphabet bar is a point of departure of a consultation process and also a starting point to reach all microstructural elements in an ordered and systematic way. Prevailing e-dictionaries use article and lemma stretches in different ways to enhance the access process. As is the case in printed dictionaries provision is also made for functional partial article and lemma stretches that cluster articles or lemmata in accordance with criteria of the genuine purpose of a given dictionary. It is shown that e-lexicography does utilise a range of features typical of macrostructures. The use of article and lemma stretches is enhanced and expanded, and along with alphabet bars, they are the major ordering structures of many e-dictionaries. As ordering structures they also play an important role to satisfy the criterion of external data-accessibility. <![CDATA[<b>J.S. Bach's<i> Passacaglia</i> and<i> </i>Walter Benjamin's<i> Das Passagen-Werk</i> <i>- </i>literary montage as mosaic in<i> Memorandum. A story with paintings</i> (2006)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512014000300009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Van Niekerk se Memorandum-narratief is 'n gedenkskrif vir die elegies-realistiese skilder, Adriaan van Zyl, wat in September 2006 sterf - soos Walter Benjamin in sy laat veertigs en insgelyks met sy kunstenaarsloopbaan onderbreek. Van Niekerk stel in Memorandum vir haarself 'n uitdagende taak (soos Wiid dit formuleer aan die begin van "Memorandum 3"): om Bach se Passacaglia en fuga in C Mineur (BWV 582) (± 1715) te "vertaal" in prosa en om 'n kleiner, Afrikaanse weergawe van Benjamin se Das Passagen-Werk (1983) te skryf. Die struktuur van Benjamin se teks word bepaal deur die argitektuur van die stad Parys, en besinning daaroor ingeweef rondom 'n enorme mosaïek van aanhalings. Soos Benjamin se onvoltooide werk oorweldig met sy volume en vreemde tekstuele apparatuur, so ook Van Niekerk se teks met sy woordelyste, addenda, voetnote plus drie memoranda in verskillende grafiese vorme. Onvoltooidheid, onafheid, uitreik na later en na voltooiing, is die afwesige aanwesigheid. Maar albei tekste word in die toekoms wat wag, onvermydelik gefnuik deur die dood van die kunstenaar (van Benjamin en van Adriaan van Zyl plus die fiktiewe skrywer, Wiid). Van Zyl se laaste skildery, "Die wagkamer" word onvoltooid in die Afrikaanse gesamentlike werk ingesluit. Die onvoltooidheid merk die Duitse sowel as Afrikaanse tekste met die dood.<hr/>The conclusion of Agaat (2004) suggests the cosmopolitan ideological stance in Memorandum through metafictional comments. Proceeding to Memorandum, it is read as constituting, inter alia, an in memoriam for the initiator and co-contributor to the book, the painter Adriaan van Zyl. He was roughly the same age as Walter Benjamin, in his late forties, when his promising artistic career ended abruptly with his death in September 2006 (shortly after the production of the book). Van Niekerk's surface narrative of a terminally ill cancer patient, is accompanied by Van Zyl's reproductions of his Tygerberg "Hospital Series 2004‐2006", with the last painting, "The waiting room", left incomplete, due to his death. The short narrative text is also highly philosophical, suggesting concern with the whole of western culture and humanity 's future. In Memorandum Van Niekerk set a daunting task for herself (as formulated through the fictive beginning writer, Wiid, at the start of "Memorandum 3"): to translate Bach's Passacaglia and fugue in D Minor (BMW 582) into prose and plausibly to write a smaller, Afrikaans version of Walter Benjamin 's Das Passagen-Werk (1983), a text in which the architecture of Parow (a Cape Town suburb) and reflections upon it, determine the structure of the narrative. Benjamin 's text is woven around a mosaic of quotations, with his own comments interspersed. This incomplete work overwhelms the reader with its volume and strange textual apparatus. Van Niekerk's narrative has the same effect with its word lists, addenda, copious footnotes plus memoranda in different graphic formats. Incompleteness, discontinuity, a yearning forward to completion, is the absent presence. Yet both texts get caught up in the artists' deaths (Benjamin 's and Van Zyl's). Incompleteness is a permanent characteristic of both texts. Benjamin (1892‐1940) identified three consecutive steps for the production of good prose: firstly a musical level, on which it is composed, thereafter an architectonic one, on which it is built, and eventually a textile level, on which it is woven (1972:102). Benjamin 's oeuvre is an important intertext for Memorandum and identifying the separate levels of composition, structuring (or building) and weaving is a useful tool for understanding the narrative text. The musical level on which it is composed, corresponds to the twenty variations constituting Bach 's Passacaglia (Mulbury 1972c). Van Niekerk's narrative is "composed" around the nocturnal dialogue between the dying patients X and Y on the night of 5 October 2005, with Wiid listening in as another patient in the same ward (presumably an oncology ward). Each variation is centered around a certain hour of the night, starting at nine, and ending at around six o'clock in the morning. Following on the permutation logic in Bach 's iconic composition, Van Niekerk strives for a similar classic text with her narrative. For architectonic structure the author of Memorandum uses topoi from Benjamin 's convolutes (the flâneur, the poet-writer, the collector, eternal return, catacombs, dream city and dream house, the streets ofthe city, literary history, and mirrors, Benjamin 1983:81). The textile design, upon which it is woven, has to do with the weaving through of detailed references to fill each ofthe topoi. For the ideal house, city and building, she uses especially Joseph Rykwert's Adam's house in paradise, but also Idea of a town and The seduction of place; for the dehumanizing of modern medicinal practice, Iva nIlich 's "Hospitality and pain" an dLimits to medicine; Gaston Bachelard's The poetics of space for the idea of bird nests as ideal homes; Friedrich Nietzsche 's Ecce homo for the nature of the ideal reader, and Benjamin 's Ursprung des deutschen Trauerspiel for ideas on the nature of tragedy and contemplation of death. To complicate matters, thematic content also deals with urban architectural designs, music and textiles (mosaics, nest weaving and Mexican quipo). In Van Niekerk 's text the consciousness of a multitude of micro- and macrospheres (Sloterdijk 2004) replaces Benjamin 's prophetic cultural consciousness of a dawning new technological era (1970:219‐254). The narrative text is organised like a highly dense, non-hierarchical neural network. In Memorandum (an infinitely shorter text than Das Passagen-Werk) the reader finds a similar montage technique of a mosaic of citations throughout. In his central section on Baudelaire Benjamin remarks: "The poet has made his dwelling in space itself, one could say - or in the abyss" (1999:352). Van Niekerk's Memorandum ties onto this idea, via Heidegger - Wiid, as archetypal poet, experiences "Unheimlichkeit" intensely in the hospital, and even at home in his desolate flat. The similarity between Bach and Benjamin's greatest works, Passacaglia and Das Passagen-Werk, is not by accident. In both works walking, wandering or flâneurship plays a central role ("passe"=walk and "calle"=street, while "passage" in French refers to walkways between small shops, or arcades). Similarly there is a walking up and down passageways at the opening and in the cyclical ending of Memorandum. In Van Niekerk 's narrative the suggested presence ofa multitude ofspheres (Debray 1995; Sloterdijk 2004) replaces Benjamin 's prophetic cultural consciousness of the dawning of a new technological era (1970:219‐254). Benjamin 's Paris is juxtaposed with Van Niekerk's Parow, a large northern suburb of Cape Town, complete with prostitutes, street vendors and crowds, a large hospital and shops. There is also a feasible link between Bach 's baroque music and Benjamin 's study of baroque literature in Ursprung des deutschen Trauerspiels (1928). <![CDATA[<b>Trauma Processing in Krog's<i> Kleur kom nooit alleen nie [Colour Never Comes Alone]</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512014000300010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Hierdie artikel ondersoek die terapeutiese waarde van poësie skryf in die verwerking van trauma.3 Daar word gefokus op Antjie Krog se digbundel Kleur kom nooit alleen nie (2000), veral die afdelings "Wondweefsel" en "Bindweefsel" met verse oor die Anglo-Boereoorlog, apartheid en die Rwandese volksmoord. Krog se rol as sekondêre getuie tydens die Waarheids- en Versoeningskommissie kom onder die loep en daar word gekyk na hoe sy haar eie trauma van die WVK-verhore verwerk, asook wat die nagevolge is van haar deelname daaraan (wat Laub noem "hazards of listening"). Daar word ook verwys na die geskenk van stories (getuienis) en die verantwoordelikheid van die sekondêre getuie om hulle etiese plig te vervul en daardie stories ook aan ander mee te deel, sodat diegene wat gesterf het, kan voortleef in herinneringe.<hr/>Although Antjie Krog established her South African literary reputation as a poet who writes in her mother tongue Afrikaans, she gained world recognition for her English autobiographical text, Country of My Skull (1998), in which she wrote about her experiences as a radio journalist reporting on South Africa 's Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Subsequently she continued publishing in English, but only after writing an Afrikaans volume of poetry in 2000, Kleur kom nooit alleen nie [Colour Never Comes Alone], in which she attempts to reconnect with her mother tongue and in doing so, initiates the healing process of a fractured psyche. Throughout Krog's oeuvre she has struggled with her identity as a white Afrikaans speaker with liberal beliefs during the era of apartheid. Her complicated relationship with her privileged, Afrikaner past and the role her race and even her language, Afrikaans, played during the apartheid era exacerbates her guilt and complicity in past atrocities. In Kleur kom nooit alleen nie [Colour Never Comes Alone] the reader undertakes a physical and psychological journey along with the poet in her aim to reconcile her ideology with the horrendous human rights violations witnessed during the TRC testimonies. One of the main themes in Kleur kom nooit alleen nie [Colour Never Comes Alone] is reconciliation - the reconciliation of people who were previously separated by race, class and political ideology. This article examines the therapeutic value of writing poetry in the processing of trauma. The focus is on Kleur kom nooit alleen nie [Colour Never Comes Alone], especially the second and fourth sections, "Wondweefsel" ["Wound Tissue"]and "Bindweefsel" ["Connective Tissue"] with verses on the Anglo Boer War, Apartheid and the Rwandan genocide. Krog 's role as secondary witness at the Truth an Reconciliation Commission hearings is examined, as well as her experience of trauma, and the consequences of her (or any other secondary witness's) participation. Dori Laub refers to these consequences of witnessing as "hazards of listening". Reference will also be made to traumatic memory, the processing of trauma, the gift of stories (testimony) and the responsibility of the secondary witness to fulfill her ethical duty to act as guardian of these narratives and share them with others, so that those who had died can remain alive in memory. <![CDATA[<b>The management of ordinary daily worries by primary school learners</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512014000300011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In hierdie studie is die alledaagse bekommernisse en laerskoolleerders se hantering daarvan verken en beskryf deur die benutting van 'n beskrywende kwalitatiewe navorsingsontwerp. Dertig laerskoolleerders in hulle laat middelkinderjare (tien tot elf jaar) is in 'n spesifieke skool deur 'n eenvoudige ewekansige steekproef geselekteer. Data is deur die voer van semi-gestruktureerde, een-tot-een onderhoude ingesamel. Die data-analise is volgens Braun en Clarke se metode van tematiese analise gedoen. Temas en subtemas is gevolglik geïdentifiseer en bevindinge is met verwysing na relevante literatuur geverifieer. Die bevindinge van die studie dui daarop dat bekommernisse op intra- en interpersoonlike vlak ervaar en hanteer word. Op intrapersoonlike vlak is bekommernisse geïdentifiseer oor sekere emosies wat ervaar word. Hantering op hierdie vlak geskied deurdat die deelnemers verkies om alleen te wees; hulle probeer nie aan bekommernisse dink nie; huil, skryf of teken in dagboeke; deur gebed, eet of te slaap. Op interpersoonlike vlak is bekommernisse rakende die skool, die gesin, vriende en verlies geïdentifiseer. Hantering op hierdie vlak geskied deur tyd te spandeer met gesinslede; vriende; die media; troeteldiere of deur vir ondersteuning by die skool te vra. Aanbevelings word gemaak dat skole sekere aspekte ten opsigte van skoolklimaat en verhoudingswelstand in ag moet neem om skoolleerders te help om alledaagse bekommernisse te hanteer en so moontlike gesonde ontwikkeling bewerkstellig. Daarom is dit belangrik dat skole en ouers bewus gemaak word van kinders (laerskoolleerders) se alledaagse bekommernisse en hoe hulle dit hanteer, sodat die laerskoolleerders beter ondersteun en bygestaan kan word.<hr/>Ordinary daily worries and how these worries are managed by primary school learners were explored and described in this study by making use of a descriptive qualitative research design. Worries form part of most children 's everyday development and can influence their functioning and development if they are not supported properly. It is therefore important that parents and teachers should be aware of these worries, in order to help their children to manage them effectively. The goal of this study was to determine the ordinary daily worries of primary school learners in a specific school and to determine how these primary school learners cope with these worries. Data obtained will be used to help parents and teachers cultivate awareness so that children can be better supported in managing their worries. Thirty primary school learners in their late middle childhood (ten to eleven years old) in a specific school were selected by a simple random sample. Data were obtained until saturation of data occurred by making use of semi-structured one-on-one interviews. Data were analysed by means of Braun and Clarke 's thematic analysing method after which themes and subthemes were identified. The findings of the study were verified with reference to relevant literature. The findings showed that all the participants experience daily worries, and that they manage these worries in different ways. The two research questions, namely (1) What are the ordinary daily worries of primary school learners? and (2) How do primary school learners manage these everyday worries? were used to identify the themes and subthemes from the interview data. Worries and ways of managing worries were divided into two categories, namely on an intrapersonal level (focusing on personal thoughts, reflections, beliefs and values about the self), and on an interpersonal level (interaction between individuals, including relationships, groups or the public). On an intrapersonal level worries about certain emotions experienced (sadness, anger and uncertainty) were identified. The ways of coping with worries on an intrapersonal level were: the preference of participants to being alone; trying not to think about worries; crying; writing or drawing in diaries; praying; eating or sleeping. On an interpersonal level worries were identified with regard to school (strict teachers, punishment that can follow, and possible low achievement); family (conflict in the family, safety in the family, finance and unemployment in the family as well as the consequences of divorce); friends (conflict with friends, acceptance of a peer group as well as bullying behaviour); and lastly, the worry of loss (the death of self or family members, as well as the death of a loved pet). Ways of managing worries on this level were to spend time with family members, friends, pets, interaction with various types of media or to ask for support from the school. Themes were written in a narrative form and are supported with appropriate quotes from the interviews. It was recommended that schools need to consider certain aspects regarding school climate as well as relational well-being to help school learners to cope with everyday worries with the possibility to ensure healthy development. It is therefore necessary that parents and teachers should be made aware of children 's (primary school learners) worries and how they manage these worries, so that this specific age group of children can be better supported and assisted. <![CDATA[<b>'n Versetdrama oor óns taal, óns kerk en óns grond</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512014000300012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In hierdie studie is die alledaagse bekommernisse en laerskoolleerders se hantering daarvan verken en beskryf deur die benutting van 'n beskrywende kwalitatiewe navorsingsontwerp. Dertig laerskoolleerders in hulle laat middelkinderjare (tien tot elf jaar) is in 'n spesifieke skool deur 'n eenvoudige ewekansige steekproef geselekteer. Data is deur die voer van semi-gestruktureerde, een-tot-een onderhoude ingesamel. Die data-analise is volgens Braun en Clarke se metode van tematiese analise gedoen. Temas en subtemas is gevolglik geïdentifiseer en bevindinge is met verwysing na relevante literatuur geverifieer. Die bevindinge van die studie dui daarop dat bekommernisse op intra- en interpersoonlike vlak ervaar en hanteer word. Op intrapersoonlike vlak is bekommernisse geïdentifiseer oor sekere emosies wat ervaar word. Hantering op hierdie vlak geskied deurdat die deelnemers verkies om alleen te wees; hulle probeer nie aan bekommernisse dink nie; huil, skryf of teken in dagboeke; deur gebed, eet of te slaap. Op interpersoonlike vlak is bekommernisse rakende die skool, die gesin, vriende en verlies geïdentifiseer. Hantering op hierdie vlak geskied deur tyd te spandeer met gesinslede; vriende; die media; troeteldiere of deur vir ondersteuning by die skool te vra. Aanbevelings word gemaak dat skole sekere aspekte ten opsigte van skoolklimaat en verhoudingswelstand in ag moet neem om skoolleerders te help om alledaagse bekommernisse te hanteer en so moontlike gesonde ontwikkeling bewerkstellig. Daarom is dit belangrik dat skole en ouers bewus gemaak word van kinders (laerskoolleerders) se alledaagse bekommernisse en hoe hulle dit hanteer, sodat die laerskoolleerders beter ondersteun en bygestaan kan word.<hr/>Ordinary daily worries and how these worries are managed by primary school learners were explored and described in this study by making use of a descriptive qualitative research design. Worries form part of most children 's everyday development and can influence their functioning and development if they are not supported properly. It is therefore important that parents and teachers should be aware of these worries, in order to help their children to manage them effectively. The goal of this study was to determine the ordinary daily worries of primary school learners in a specific school and to determine how these primary school learners cope with these worries. Data obtained will be used to help parents and teachers cultivate awareness so that children can be better supported in managing their worries. Thirty primary school learners in their late middle childhood (ten to eleven years old) in a specific school were selected by a simple random sample. Data were obtained until saturation of data occurred by making use of semi-structured one-on-one interviews. Data were analysed by means of Braun and Clarke 's thematic analysing method after which themes and subthemes were identified. The findings of the study were verified with reference to relevant literature. The findings showed that all the participants experience daily worries, and that they manage these worries in different ways. The two research questions, namely (1) What are the ordinary daily worries of primary school learners? and (2) How do primary school learners manage these everyday worries? were used to identify the themes and subthemes from the interview data. Worries and ways of managing worries were divided into two categories, namely on an intrapersonal level (focusing on personal thoughts, reflections, beliefs and values about the self), and on an interpersonal level (interaction between individuals, including relationships, groups or the public). On an intrapersonal level worries about certain emotions experienced (sadness, anger and uncertainty) were identified. The ways of coping with worries on an intrapersonal level were: the preference of participants to being alone; trying not to think about worries; crying; writing or drawing in diaries; praying; eating or sleeping. On an interpersonal level worries were identified with regard to school (strict teachers, punishment that can follow, and possible low achievement); family (conflict in the family, safety in the family, finance and unemployment in the family as well as the consequences of divorce); friends (conflict with friends, acceptance of a peer group as well as bullying behaviour); and lastly, the worry of loss (the death of self or family members, as well as the death of a loved pet). Ways of managing worries on this level were to spend time with family members, friends, pets, interaction with various types of media or to ask for support from the school. Themes were written in a narrative form and are supported with appropriate quotes from the interviews. It was recommended that schools need to consider certain aspects regarding school climate as well as relational well-being to help school learners to cope with everyday worries with the possibility to ensure healthy development. It is therefore necessary that parents and teachers should be made aware of children 's (primary school learners) worries and how they manage these worries, so that this specific age group of children can be better supported and assisted. <![CDATA[<b>Stefans Grové 1922 - 2014</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512014000300013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In hierdie studie is die alledaagse bekommernisse en laerskoolleerders se hantering daarvan verken en beskryf deur die benutting van 'n beskrywende kwalitatiewe navorsingsontwerp. Dertig laerskoolleerders in hulle laat middelkinderjare (tien tot elf jaar) is in 'n spesifieke skool deur 'n eenvoudige ewekansige steekproef geselekteer. Data is deur die voer van semi-gestruktureerde, een-tot-een onderhoude ingesamel. Die data-analise is volgens Braun en Clarke se metode van tematiese analise gedoen. Temas en subtemas is gevolglik geïdentifiseer en bevindinge is met verwysing na relevante literatuur geverifieer. Die bevindinge van die studie dui daarop dat bekommernisse op intra- en interpersoonlike vlak ervaar en hanteer word. Op intrapersoonlike vlak is bekommernisse geïdentifiseer oor sekere emosies wat ervaar word. Hantering op hierdie vlak geskied deurdat die deelnemers verkies om alleen te wees; hulle probeer nie aan bekommernisse dink nie; huil, skryf of teken in dagboeke; deur gebed, eet of te slaap. Op interpersoonlike vlak is bekommernisse rakende die skool, die gesin, vriende en verlies geïdentifiseer. Hantering op hierdie vlak geskied deur tyd te spandeer met gesinslede; vriende; die media; troeteldiere of deur vir ondersteuning by die skool te vra. Aanbevelings word gemaak dat skole sekere aspekte ten opsigte van skoolklimaat en verhoudingswelstand in ag moet neem om skoolleerders te help om alledaagse bekommernisse te hanteer en so moontlike gesonde ontwikkeling bewerkstellig. Daarom is dit belangrik dat skole en ouers bewus gemaak word van kinders (laerskoolleerders) se alledaagse bekommernisse en hoe hulle dit hanteer, sodat die laerskoolleerders beter ondersteun en bygestaan kan word.<hr/>Ordinary daily worries and how these worries are managed by primary school learners were explored and described in this study by making use of a descriptive qualitative research design. Worries form part of most children 's everyday development and can influence their functioning and development if they are not supported properly. It is therefore important that parents and teachers should be aware of these worries, in order to help their children to manage them effectively. The goal of this study was to determine the ordinary daily worries of primary school learners in a specific school and to determine how these primary school learners cope with these worries. Data obtained will be used to help parents and teachers cultivate awareness so that children can be better supported in managing their worries. Thirty primary school learners in their late middle childhood (ten to eleven years old) in a specific school were selected by a simple random sample. Data were obtained until saturation of data occurred by making use of semi-structured one-on-one interviews. Data were analysed by means of Braun and Clarke 's thematic analysing method after which themes and subthemes were identified. The findings of the study were verified with reference to relevant literature. The findings showed that all the participants experience daily worries, and that they manage these worries in different ways. The two research questions, namely (1) What are the ordinary daily worries of primary school learners? and (2) How do primary school learners manage these everyday worries? were used to identify the themes and subthemes from the interview data. Worries and ways of managing worries were divided into two categories, namely on an intrapersonal level (focusing on personal thoughts, reflections, beliefs and values about the self), and on an interpersonal level (interaction between individuals, including relationships, groups or the public). On an intrapersonal level worries about certain emotions experienced (sadness, anger and uncertainty) were identified. The ways of coping with worries on an intrapersonal level were: the preference of participants to being alone; trying not to think about worries; crying; writing or drawing in diaries; praying; eating or sleeping. On an interpersonal level worries were identified with regard to school (strict teachers, punishment that can follow, and possible low achievement); family (conflict in the family, safety in the family, finance and unemployment in the family as well as the consequences of divorce); friends (conflict with friends, acceptance of a peer group as well as bullying behaviour); and lastly, the worry of loss (the death of self or family members, as well as the death of a loved pet). Ways of managing worries on this level were to spend time with family members, friends, pets, interaction with various types of media or to ask for support from the school. Themes were written in a narrative form and are supported with appropriate quotes from the interviews. It was recommended that schools need to consider certain aspects regarding school climate as well as relational well-being to help school learners to cope with everyday worries with the possibility to ensure healthy development. It is therefore necessary that parents and teachers should be made aware of children 's (primary school learners) worries and how they manage these worries, so that this specific age group of children can be better supported and assisted. <![CDATA[<b>Uitnodiging - Bydraes oor T.T. Cloete</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512014000300014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In hierdie studie is die alledaagse bekommernisse en laerskoolleerders se hantering daarvan verken en beskryf deur die benutting van 'n beskrywende kwalitatiewe navorsingsontwerp. Dertig laerskoolleerders in hulle laat middelkinderjare (tien tot elf jaar) is in 'n spesifieke skool deur 'n eenvoudige ewekansige steekproef geselekteer. Data is deur die voer van semi-gestruktureerde, een-tot-een onderhoude ingesamel. Die data-analise is volgens Braun en Clarke se metode van tematiese analise gedoen. Temas en subtemas is gevolglik geïdentifiseer en bevindinge is met verwysing na relevante literatuur geverifieer. Die bevindinge van die studie dui daarop dat bekommernisse op intra- en interpersoonlike vlak ervaar en hanteer word. Op intrapersoonlike vlak is bekommernisse geïdentifiseer oor sekere emosies wat ervaar word. Hantering op hierdie vlak geskied deurdat die deelnemers verkies om alleen te wees; hulle probeer nie aan bekommernisse dink nie; huil, skryf of teken in dagboeke; deur gebed, eet of te slaap. Op interpersoonlike vlak is bekommernisse rakende die skool, die gesin, vriende en verlies geïdentifiseer. Hantering op hierdie vlak geskied deur tyd te spandeer met gesinslede; vriende; die media; troeteldiere of deur vir ondersteuning by die skool te vra. Aanbevelings word gemaak dat skole sekere aspekte ten opsigte van skoolklimaat en verhoudingswelstand in ag moet neem om skoolleerders te help om alledaagse bekommernisse te hanteer en so moontlike gesonde ontwikkeling bewerkstellig. Daarom is dit belangrik dat skole en ouers bewus gemaak word van kinders (laerskoolleerders) se alledaagse bekommernisse en hoe hulle dit hanteer, sodat die laerskoolleerders beter ondersteun en bygestaan kan word.<hr/>Ordinary daily worries and how these worries are managed by primary school learners were explored and described in this study by making use of a descriptive qualitative research design. Worries form part of most children 's everyday development and can influence their functioning and development if they are not supported properly. It is therefore important that parents and teachers should be aware of these worries, in order to help their children to manage them effectively. The goal of this study was to determine the ordinary daily worries of primary school learners in a specific school and to determine how these primary school learners cope with these worries. Data obtained will be used to help parents and teachers cultivate awareness so that children can be better supported in managing their worries. Thirty primary school learners in their late middle childhood (ten to eleven years old) in a specific school were selected by a simple random sample. Data were obtained until saturation of data occurred by making use of semi-structured one-on-one interviews. Data were analysed by means of Braun and Clarke 's thematic analysing method after which themes and subthemes were identified. The findings of the study were verified with reference to relevant literature. The findings showed that all the participants experience daily worries, and that they manage these worries in different ways. The two research questions, namely (1) What are the ordinary daily worries of primary school learners? and (2) How do primary school learners manage these everyday worries? were used to identify the themes and subthemes from the interview data. Worries and ways of managing worries were divided into two categories, namely on an intrapersonal level (focusing on personal thoughts, reflections, beliefs and values about the self), and on an interpersonal level (interaction between individuals, including relationships, groups or the public). On an intrapersonal level worries about certain emotions experienced (sadness, anger and uncertainty) were identified. The ways of coping with worries on an intrapersonal level were: the preference of participants to being alone; trying not to think about worries; crying; writing or drawing in diaries; praying; eating or sleeping. On an interpersonal level worries were identified with regard to school (strict teachers, punishment that can follow, and possible low achievement); family (conflict in the family, safety in the family, finance and unemployment in the family as well as the consequences of divorce); friends (conflict with friends, acceptance of a peer group as well as bullying behaviour); and lastly, the worry of loss (the death of self or family members, as well as the death of a loved pet). Ways of managing worries on this level were to spend time with family members, friends, pets, interaction with various types of media or to ask for support from the school. Themes were written in a narrative form and are supported with appropriate quotes from the interviews. It was recommended that schools need to consider certain aspects regarding school climate as well as relational well-being to help school learners to cope with everyday worries with the possibility to ensure healthy development. It is therefore necessary that parents and teachers should be made aware of children 's (primary school learners) worries and how they manage these worries, so that this specific age group of children can be better supported and assisted.