Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0041-475120150002&lang=en vol. 55 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Voorwoord</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000200001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>T.T. Cloete and the subaltern</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000200002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en T.T. Cloete was nog altyd, sedert sy debuut in 1980, 'n digter wat kritiek gelewer het op die Suid-Afrikaanse samelewing in die breë. In navolging van Rancière (2004), wat in sý navorsing die verhouding tussen filosowe en die armes ondersoek het, kan die volgende vrae gestel word: In watter mate word die werklike lot van die armes in Cloete se oeuvre uitgebeeld? Hoe word hulle representeer? Spivak (1988) se teoretisering oor die subalterne en oor stemgewing aan die subalterne word betrek in hierdie ondersoek. Die vraag word ook gestel: In watter mate tree daar by die skrywende subjek 'n afleer en 'n verleer van sy bevoorregte subjekposisie in? Slaag hy daarin om aan die stemlose Ander 'n ruimte te bied waarbinne hulle kan praat?<hr/>In his poetry the eminent Afrikaans poet T.T. Cloete has, since the publication of his first collection in 1980, always been very critical of contemporary society and the lack of respect by humans for fellow human beings and for the environment, as well as of the lack of interest in intellectual matters shown by the large majority of people. In his later poems, situated in post-colonial, post-apartheid South Africa (after 1994), he is even more acerbic in his satirical take on society and in particular on the new political elite, guilty of inhumane treatment of the people who voted them into power. The French philosopher Rancière (2004) writes extensively on the poor, in particular on the prevalence of writings about the poor (an essentialist concept usedfor the sake of the theoretical argument), and asks why there is such a preoccupation with the poor amongst philosophers. He poses this question in the light of the fact that there seems to be no interest on the side of the poor for philosophy and philosophers. The theoretical basis of my reading of three poems by Cloete is underpinned by Spivak's classical question whether the subaltern can speak, as well as by her famous dictum that one should be "unlearning one'sprivilege as one's loss". Spivak (1988) examines Gramsci's use of the term subaltern and - based on her interaction with the Subaltern Studies group, in particular with the comments by Guha - shows to what extent Deleuze and Foucault perpetuated the colonial view of the subject. In her revisionary essay she uses the practice of sati, or widow burning, as an example of how the subaltern Other may be silenced. Spivak's classic essay, "Can the subaltern speak" forms the basis of this engagement with the Other in Cloete's poems. By positing this theoretical approach, the critic is aware ofthe binary oppositions underpinning such a reading, but do so in order to "interrogate the covert philosophical and political presuppositions" (Derrida) of both the text and the method of reading. Readers of analyses of literary texts still favour the search for the meaning of the text and such an approach is undermined in this analysis of Cloete's work. The premise of my reading is that the white patriarchal male writing subject uses the poor, or the underprivileged as Other, as material for his poems, not only to highlight the plight of the poor, but also to deliver his scathing commentary on the dystopic post-colonial society in which he is writing and speaking. In the second part of this analysis, I will show how two poems describing the suffering of young children mimic the poet's attempt to "unlearn" his position of privilege. As will be indicated in conclusion, however, the reader is faced with an aporia The subaltern remains silent because of the unwillingness and/or inability of the writing subject to allow them to speak in their own voices. To what extent did the subject "unlearn" his position? Despite him showing compassion towards the Other, the reader is still not satisfied. The Other is still not allowed to speak and serves merely as poetic models for the writing subject. Significant is the fact that Cloete examines a sense of self-transcending empathy with the Other in his poems on children. In thefirst ofthe two poems under discussion, the subaltern, or the object ofdescription, is a young girl. In Spivak's writings on the subaltern, perennial concerns are the position ofwomen and the silencing of women in colonial historiography. Male dominance is still central to the hegemonical discourse into which the female subaltern has to inscribe her own subjectivity. <![CDATA[<b>"The poem is play" - aspects of play in a number of T.T. Cloete's poems</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000200003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Die uitgangspunt van hierdie ondersoek is dat die poësie van T.T. Cloete benader kan word as 'n voortdurende spel - 'n spel wat outeur, teks en leser in die literêre diskoers betrek, maar wat ook gelees kan word as 'n bepaalde poëtikale opvatting. Hierdie digterlike en talige spel mond onder andere uit as 'n verwysingspel wat as skryfmodus ooreenkom met Cloete se poëtikale opvatting dat poësie 'n spel is van die dromende denke. Huizinga (1952) se tese dat poësie in spel en as spel gebore is, word in talle gedigte bevestig, want die nosie van spel het betrekking op die ontstaan van die gedig, sowel as op die bestaande gedig. Aan die hand van enkele geselekteerde gedigte en gediganalises word verskillende fasette van spel in Cloete se digterskap verken: die speelse karakter as lewenshouding; spel as digterlike strategie wat dikwels setel in 'n spel van magsverhoudings; die verhouding: spel, erotiek en taal, of die verband tussen die liggaam, die gedig en spel; en die talige besweringsmoontlikheid wat die-gedig-as-spel inhou waar dit gerig is op tydelike opheffing van die mens se eksistensiële lewens- en doodsangs, terwyl dit terselfdertyd ook dié moontlikheid ondermyn.<hr/>The rationale of this investigation is that the poetry of TT Cloete can be approached as continuous play - play that involves the author, text and reader in the literary discourse, but that can also be read as a specific poetic conception. Cloete raised explicit verse-external opinions with regard to play, for example: "The poem is play, even body-play. " (Freely translated.) Although Cloete made the statement within the context of the creation of a specific poem, it is, however, a poetic perception that could be applied to his complete oeuvre. This poetic and word game feeds among others into reference play and especially intertextual play. Johan Huizinga's thesis (in Homo Ludens. A study of the Play-Element of Culture) that poetry is play and born in play, is also confirmed in numerous poems, because the notion of play relates to the creation of a poem, as well as the existing poem. In this article different facets of play are explored with regard to a number of selected poems and poem analyses in the poetry of Cloete. A characteristic of play in poetry is the playful character as attitude to life. It is, however, important to note that this playful attitude to life frequently can be typecast as "play-play in all seriousness" (freely translated from "Oordag" in Driepas/ The origin of the playful attitude to life is with Cloete, partially theological in nature. God plays with man and also allows man to play with Him as is obvious from the poem "job die tweede" (Cloete 1985:47) in which the narrator identifies with Job and in which he argues with God. As a consequence of the playful attitude to life, Cloete's poetic prowess is indeed situated as dynamic play, but often not an ideological innocent play. Play, poetical prowess and power relations are explicitly verbalised in the poem, "balspel" (Cloete 2007:110). The key idea, which is put forward as a thesis in this poem, is "the poet is always a batsman". Being a poet is, therefore, equated to a ball game and the poet as the defendant in this game finds himself in a tussle with the dynamics and the wilfulness of language. In this poem the whole poetic procede is in the light of the poetic play - a play of words, of repetition and of sound and echoes. There are furthermore two aspects of play and the playful attitude to life that are explored in the article: the fulfilled person in his love play (which can once again be equated to poetic play), and the possibility of an incantation or the liberating function of play that is aimed at the temporary abolishment of man's existential fear of life or his fear of death. Both these facets illustrate the ambiguous essential nature of play, as well as its underlying seriousness, in spite of its playful attitude to life. Huizinga (1952:44) points out that in the Germanic languages it is obvious to equate play and eroticism (as well as play and strife). He also mentions that the play of love is the purest form of all forms of play, as it demonstrates the characteristics of play the most clearly. Therefore, the statement can be made that eroticism, language/poetry and play have many aspects in common. This statement is confirmed in the poem "Zeus vandag" (Cloete 1989:14). This poem has play, eroticism and language as important thematic premises. Apart from this, this text has other texts (among others, also a Dutch text) as source texts - intertextual play is, therefore, also relevant. Masking, identification and obfuscation are, for example, typical play elements, which are also stressed with regard to enumeration. The erotic play also features in language, words, the poetic process - a relationship that is confirmed by the closing lines of the poem with the explicit poetic gist: Die poësie laat hom geld met delikate geweld. (Freely translated as Poetry asserts itself with delicate violence.) There are different perceptions with regard to the handling of death in Cloete's poetry, but there is one common denominator: despite the grim seriousness of the given the form of play is always recognisable, because this play on life and death has a liberating effect because of the possibility of an incantation. Cloete ends the poem "Ewigheid-en Kroeks" (Cloete 1982:75), for example, with the expressed longing to stay at home for one day to play "cheating the eternity" ("dat ons Kroek-die-Ewigheid speel"). The poet attempts, however, to also cheat Eternity by means of the poetic word and poetic play that manifest itself in different ways in his oeuvre. In the first place it manifests itself in the urge to identify himself - there is an identification with the experience and handling of the concept of death by fellow artists and predecessor poets, and by means of this the own painful experience is objectified and reconstructed. In the second instance Cloete also utilises intertextual play to process the death experience in and through poetry. He uses texts of co- and predecessor poets as source texts to nuance and to put in relief the own experience of death. By means of references, puns, juxtapositioning and citation he plays with great effect back onto specific death poems. The paradox of play, however, manifests itself in the fact that the poem-as-play anticipates a wordy incantation possibility, which is aimed at the temporary abolition of man's existential fear of life and death, and/or the relentless assault of oblivion and death, but which also can undermine the possibility of an incantation. <![CDATA[<b>"What is man that Thou hast endowed him with such grace?" The representation of the battle between Carnival and Lent by Bruegel and T.T. Cloete</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000200004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In hierdie artikel word 'n vergelyking getref tussen die skildery Die geveg tussen Karnaval en Lent van Pieter Bruegel de Oude en T.T. Cloete se bundel Karnaval en Lent is een gedig. Die vergelykende ontleding word gedoen met aandag aan die uitbeelding van die tydgenootlike mens in sy toestand van swakheid en verval, aan die ooreenkomste en verskille ten opsigte van die gebruik van simboliek en aan vraatsug as simptoom van 'n ongebalanseerde, skeefgetrekte samelewing. Daar word geredeneer dat, hoewel beide kunstenaars sterk op kategoriese opposisies fokus, die tema van beide werke eintlik die ambivalensie is wat die menslike kondisie kenmerk. Die kunswerke dien as spieël vir die mens sodat hy sy eie dwaasheid kan erken en dié insig hom tot selfkennis kan lei.<hr/>The aim of this article is to compare certain similarities and differences in Peter Breugel the Elder's painting "The battle between Carnival and Lent" and T.T. Cloete S most recent volume of poetry, "Karnaval en Lent is een gedig" ("Carnival and Lent are one poem"). The central theme of the volume of poetry is based on the painting by Bruegel which was painted in 1559. Because both works of art function by means of collective transcendents, thereby activating archetypal matter, it is possible to make such a comparison. The implication intended by this statement is that basic human nature, which is depicted in both works of art, does not change with time. Thus it is possible that, 450 years after Bruegel's painting was made, we can still identify with his representation of the human condition, which is, to some extent, depicted in a modern version in Cloete's work. It will be argued that, in both works of art, the emphasis falls on the representation of Carnival and Lent as symbols of the good and the evil nature of man, but also that the liminal zone, where no categorical oppositions are possible, is the focus point of both artists. It is clear that Bruegel neither sides with the "bad behaviour" (of the Lutherans) that is depicted on the left part of the painting, nor with the "good behaviour" (of the Roman Catholics) portrayed on the right. In his painting the accent clearly falls on the folly of man, who will, notwithstanding his religious denomination, always be prone to human folly and sin. In Cloete's poetry the accent falls on the Janus-faced man and the inherent duality which is characteristic of human nature: man is both body and mind, holy and evil, egotistic and part of the O/other. His purpose - after the manner of Desiderius Erasmus - is to emphasise oppositions in order to reconcile the antitheses which are an inherent feature of man's nature as such. Bruegel and Cloete regard the human condition - the condition of the unthinking, anonymous masses - as folly and depravity. In this regard, both works of art have a somewhat moralistic character, although not in a restrictive sense. Both artworks focus on the symbolic significance of eating as a metaphor of the decadent and debased human society in which the artists live. Bruegel paints the diseased, disfigured and disabled human being as a mirror in which human society should see itself. The same underlying principle marks several of Cloete's poems, works in which he refers to those who deform themselves by overeating and other excesses and by gross overutilization of that which we have received through the grace of God. However, Cloete's characters are neither sick, nor disabled or mutilated - they are unsightly as a result of their unhealthy lifestyles. On the other hand, whenever Cloete uses disabled characters throughout his body of work they mostly symbolise either the author himself, or (and!) the creative artist (for instance the crippled Hefaistos who manufactures the shield of Achilles). Thus it would appear that both Bruegel and Cloete aim to confront human society with a metaphorical mirror in order to facilitate a process of reflection which might lead to self-knowledge. An important part of this process is that which Bakhtin calls "carnavalesque laughter": the liberating laughter at the foolishness of humanity in which everybody joins in, an ambivalent laughter, at the same time mocking and triumphant, and full of joy. In essence this kind of reflection is a collective process which takes place in the liminal space of the Carnival, as well as in the space in which the fool looks at his reflection in the mirror which the artist holds up in front of him, i.e. in order for him to perceive his own foolishness. <![CDATA[<b>"Die huid huil luid in stilhuil" [The epidermis cries loudly in still crying] - tracking (sound) repetition in T.T. Cloete's poetry</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000200005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In hierdie artikel word hulde gebring aan T.T. Cloete die gewaardeerde dosent én die gerespekteerde digter. Die gedig "stilhuil" word gelees met inagneming van vooropgestelde taalgebruik waarneem-baar in metaforisering, sintakties-tipografiese strukturering en klankmatig-ritmiese aksentuering. Voorts word die kontinuering van die vooropgestelde sinsnede "die huid huil luid in stilhuil" in die hele oeuvre nagegaan.<hr/>T.T. Cloete is both a distinguished scholar and a revered poet. In addition to his significant contribution to research and teaching as a specialist of Afrikaans and Dutch literature, he initiated the study of literary theory at several South African universities. As a former student of Cloete I engage, in this paper, both with the academic and the poet. In acknowledging the academic I deliberately make use of reading strategies based on postgraduate research originally supervised by Cloete. I also refer to Cloete's recent selfreflective study on "life" in general, but also on poetry in particular, namely Die ander een is ek [I am the other] (2013). In addition, I refer to information on the "history" of the poem "stilhuil" and the importance of the phenomenon of crying (or laughing) in his poetic thought graciously provided to me by Cloete via e-mail. My interaction with the poet is carried out in two stages. After an analysis of the poem "stilhuil" [still crying] the continuation of a foregrounded very short sentence, namely "die huid huil luid in stilhuil" ["the epidermis cries loudly in still crying"] taken from this poem, is traced in anthologies of poetry (to date, there are ten altogether) by Cloete. In the reading of both the single poem and its continuation in all of the anthologies, I outline the precise specification achieved by the interaction of words and phrases within the poem "stilhuil"; thereafter, further specification of the abovementioned foregrounded sentence is traced with reference to selected examples taken from the entire collection of poems by Cloete. The first part of this paper, then, is devoted to an analysis ofpoetic strategies utilised by T.T. Cloete in portraying the anguish suffered by grieving relatives or friends after the death of beloved ones. Intratextual relations among words, phrases, verselines and sentences within the poem "stilhuil" are scrutinised by analysing aspects of poetic language such as metaphor, syntax, sound and rhythm/metre. The short sentence "die huid huil luid in stilhuil" is singled out because it is foregrounded within the poem in various ways. The metaphorical characterisation of "huid" [skin/epidermis] as capable of silent crying alerts the reader to the unusual specification of skin. Attention is also focused on the short sentence because it is wedged between two full stops within the same line of verse. In addition, sound repetition in successive words results in accents on four of the six words, "huid", "huil", "luid" and "stilhuil". As a result of this multiple foregrounding the short sentence is marked. The title of the poem, "stilhuil" [still crying] is often repeated in the poem in different syntactic phrases or typographic units (verselines or stanzas), whereby it gradually acquires a precise content within the context of the poem. Therefore, it is very difficult to capture its enriched meaning in translation. The compound "stilhuil", a word newly coined by Cloete, in itself contains a contradiction, in that "huil" [crying] is metaphorically characterised as "stil" [silent/still]. This contradiction is deepened when "stilhuil" is coupled to a supposedly loudly crying epidermis in the short sentence quoted above - "Die huid huil luid in sitlhuil". Not only is the epidermis personified in that it acquires the ability to cry, but it does so loudly, which contradicts the "silent/ still" quality presumably associated with anguished crying. In the various metaphorical constructions in which the gradual specification of the title may be traced by means of a comparison between violent actions and the result thereof in parallel syntactic constructions, the actual effect of the unusual means of crying is revealed. Instead of external lamentations, prolonged anguished griefexpresses itself by means ofan internal violation of the entire body whereby the latter is transfixed by "'n gloeiende gestolde weerlig" [a burning solidified lightning stroke] into not only an absolute silence, but also a deathlike immobility. The rhythmical retardation achieved by means of a succession of accents in the foregrounded "die huid huil luid in stilhuil" [the skin cries loudly in still crying], in its marked slowing down of movement, can be read as an anticipation of the immobility associated with anguished grief in the poem "stilhuil" [still crying]. However, a tracking of the continuation of individual words in the sentence in the entire collection of poems, reveals more nuanced meanings. Skin serves two main purposes - whereas a "thinning" skin is indicative of insufficient protection of the body made visible by the effects of aging or illness, by contrast, a rosy, sensitive skin signals health and sensuality. Although crying is repeated less frequently than skin, it is defined mainly in its interaction with its supposed opposite, namely laughing, since the latter is not self-evidently associated with joy or light-heartedness, but could sometimes reveal an underlying sadness. Grief is, however, defined especially in its association with lack of sound and immobility as revealed in the continuation of "stil" [still] throughout the collection of poems. <![CDATA[<b><i>Aan die</i></b><b> and<i> </i><i>besig</i> in Afrikaans progressive construction: A corpus investigation (2)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000200006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In 'n tweetal artikels (hierdie artikel en Breed & Van Huyssteen 2014) stel ons ondersoek in na die wyse waarop twee perifrastiese konstruksies, te wete die V KOP besig om te V- en die V KOP aan die V-konstruksies, gebruik word om progressiewe betekenis in Afrikaans uit te druk. Die bespreking word gebaseer op 'n korpusondersoek waarin drie Afrikaanse perifrastiese progressiewe konstruksies (d.i. die twee genoemde konstruksies, sowel as die V POS en V-konstruksie; sien Breed 2012 en Breed & Brisard 2015) met mekaar vergelyk is. Drie ewekniekonstruksies word in Nederlands gevind, en daarom word die konstruksies ook, waar ter sake, met die Nederlandse konstruksies vergelyk. In Breed (2012) word die grammatikaliseringsproses verduidelik, en daar word aangetoon dat die aan die-/aan het-konstruksies lokatiewe oorsprong het, terwyl die oorsprong van die besig-/bezig-konstruksies leksikaal gemotiveerd is. In hierdie artikel word die frekwensie van die twee konstruksies ondersoek en daar word bewys dat daar aansienlike verskille tussen die verspreiding van die Afrikaanse en Nederlandse konstruksies is. Die werkwoorde waarmee elk van die konstruksies prototipies kombineer, word bestudeer en daar word bevind dat die Afrikaanse besig-konstruksie met 'n groot aantal werkwoordtipes kan kombineer, terwyl die aan die-progressiefkonstruksie meer gespesialiseerd is.<hr/>Progressive aspect is a grammatical category which signifies that an event is continuing or taking place (Comrie 1976:33-36; Bybee et al. 1994:126). In two articles, this article and (Breed & Van Huyssteen 2014), we investigate the manner in which two periphrastic constructions, namely the V COP besig om te V and the V COP aan die V constructions, are used to express progressive meaning in Afrikaans. The discussions are based on a corpus investigation in which the three Afrikaans periphrastic progressive constructions (the two already mentioned) and the V POS en V constructions are compared to each other (Breed 2012; Breed & Brisard 2015). Dutch has three similar constructions, and for this reason the constructions were also compared to the Dutch ones where relevant. Breed and Brisard (2015) explains how the V POS en construction is used to express progressive meaning. In this article and in Breed and Van Huyssteen (2014) the focus is therefore on the specific manner in which the besig and aan die constructions are used as progressive markers. Grammaticalisation theory offers insight into the manner in which grammatical constructions develop. For this reason the origin, development and use of the two relevant periphrastic constructions were investigated from this perspective. Grammaticalisation can be described as the process of language change during which lexical constructions develop systematically into constructions with grammatical meaning. This process of language change is characterised by specific mechanisms or characteristics, for instance universal routes, unidirectional change, lexical origin, semantic generalisation, an increase in frequency and re-analysis (cf. Bybee et al. 1994:4-5; Croft 1990:257; Heine & Reh 1984:11-12; Hopper & Traugott 2003:1; Lehmann 1995:3). Breed and Van Huyssteen (2014) firstly explains the theory of grammaticalisation. The grammaticalisation of the Afrikaans auxiliary het is given as an example to illustrate specific relevant aspects of grammaticalisation, namely universal routes, unidirectionality, lexical source, semantic bleaching, frequency and reanalysis. Secondly this article explains how the aan die and besig periphrastic constructions originate and develop. One of the most general lexical origins for progressive constructions is constructions with locative meaning (Bybee et al. 1994:129). The motivation behind the development of a progressive from locative constructions is probably due to the connotation of "be in the place of VERBing" or "be at VERBing" (Bybee et al. 1994:129-130). The hypothesis offered by Bybee et al. (1994:131) is that, apart from a few exceptions, all progressive constructions develop from locative meaning. The aan die progressive is a construction of locative origin. The structure of the periphrastic construction can be divided into three parts: firstly, the introductory copulative verb, secondly the locative aan preposition and thirdly the nominalised verb which is preceded by the definite article die. [aan + die] has received unit status and forms the analysed construction of the periphrasis. The aan die progressive therefore supports the hypothesis that progressive constructions develop from locative meanings. The besig progressive's lexical origin differs from that of the aan die progressive, as well as from the V POS en progressive (consult Breed 2012; Breed & Brisard 2015), due to the fact that this progressive construction does not have a locative origin. The word "besig" has a lexical meaning which implies that a subject is involved by means of a process which is continuing, and the development of this progressive construction is, therefore, lexically motivated. In this article, we investigate the frequency of these two constructions, as well as the verbs with which each of the constructions prototypically combine. The frequency of the two constructions was investigated in order to determine to what extent the constructions have been generalised. The aan die progressive (approximately 4,900 results in a corpus of circa 60 million words) appears significantly less frequently than the besig progressive (approximately 8,000 results). For the aan die construction a variant construction was also apparent, namely the aan 't progressive. This construction is, however, very scarce (only 330 results) and is seemingly archaic. Furthermore, it seems as though besig has been generalised to such an extent that the progressive use of this word (62%) in Afrikaans, is more frequent than the lexical use (38%). It seems as though the aan die construction forms strong collocations and has a few specialised uses, amongst others, to be combined with i) inchoative verbs (such as toeneem, afneem, taan and opbou); ii) idiomatic expressions such as aan die brand, aan die slaap andaan die rol; iii) process nouns such as aan die gang and aan die stuur, and iii) activity verbs. The aan 't progressive seems to be less specialised than the aandie progressive, although this construction is combined mainly with activity verbs. This construction is also generally found in contexts where a feeling of being "old-fashioned" or nostalgic is being conveyed, for example historical novels. The besig progressive combines with a great variety of verb types (i.e. activities, accomplishments and achievements). The frequency of transitive verbs with the besig progressive is also high in comparison to the other Afrikaans periphrastic progressive constructions. <![CDATA[<b>The South African Navy's so-called controversial new frigates: Their first decade of service, 2004-2014</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000200007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Nie baie Suid-Afrikaners waardeer die feit dat Suid-Afrika 'n seemoondheid is nie. Gevolglik is vlootgeskiedenis 'n verwaarloosde onderwerp. Toe die Suid-Afrikaanse regering in 1998 aangekondig het dat - as deel van 'n omvattende wapenpakket - onder meer vier nuwe fregatte vir die Suid-Afrikaanse (SA) Vloot aangekoop gaan word, was daar diegene wat die sinvolheid daarvan bevraagteken het. In hierdie artikel word die rol wat die vier Valour-klas-fregatte in die eerste dekade van hul bestaansgeskiedenis (2004-2014) gespeel het, onder die loep geneem en ontleed. Vrae wat aan die orde gestel word, sluit in: Was die besluit om Duitse Meko A-200-fregatte aan te koop geregverdig en die regte keuse? Was die aankoop van die fregatte dus werklik 'n omstrede besluit? Watter funksies het die skepe die afgelope tien jaar in diens van die SA Vloot vervul? Die rol wat die vier Valour-klas-fregatte tydens vlootoefeninge in Suid-Afrikaanse waters met skepe van ander lande gespeel het, word bespreek, soos ook die besoeke van die SA Vlootfregatte aan Suid-Afrikaanse hawens (as deel van die Vloot se plaaslike openbare skakel- en uitreikaksies). Heelwat aandag word aan die fregatte se rol as grys diplomate gewy; met ander woorde, wanneer hulle op buitelandse vlagvertoonvaarte die land oorsee verteenwoordig ten einde bestaande diplomatieke betrekkinge uit te bou of nuwe bande te help smee - en tegelyk ook aan skeepsmaneuvers oorsee deel te neem. Hulle rol tydens teen-seerowerpatrollies in die Mosambiek-kanaal en in soek-en-reddingsaksies word ook belig. Die artikel dui ten slotte aan dat, alles in ag genome, die SA Vloot se nuwe fregatte (en dus ook hul bemannings) hulle in die jare 2004-2014 besonder goed van hul taak gekwyt het en dat die Vloot dit nie kan bekostig om nie oor fregatte te beskik nie.<hr/>Not many South Africans appreciate the fact that South Africa is a maritime country. Consequently, it is no surprise that naval history, including the history of the South African (SA) Navy, is a neglected topic, especially in academic circles. And when, in 1998, the South African government decided to approve an arms package (arms deal) for the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) - which included the acquisition of three submarines and four frigates for the SA Navy - many people questioned the need for new weaponry. The allegations of irregularities and corruption with regard to the arms deal, have added fuel to the fire, and the official enquiry continues to this day (2015). This article focuses on the history of the four "Valour" class frigates that were acquired by the SA Navy as part of the arms deal. Proceeding from the assumption that a littoral country, such as South Africa, with a coastline of some 2 800 km, and with the strategic Cape sea-route on its doorstep, should at least have four frigates in its navy, the purpose of this article is to provide a review and an analysis of the first ten years of service (i.e. from 2004 to 2014) of the "Valour" class frigates in the SA Navy. The acquisition of these four frigates is placed in historical perspective by briefly looking at the history of South Africa's naval forces and the role frigates have played in its past, followed by a discussion of the rationale behind the decision to order four German-designed Meko A-200frigates. Some of the questions that are posed (and discussed), include the following: To what extent have the "Valour" class frigates enabled the SA Navy to take its diplomatic role to another level of excellence? What other functions have these frigates fulfilled in the first decade of their existence? How successful have the ships been in the SA Navy service? Was the acquisition of the frigates really as controversial as some commentators would have it? South Africa's naval forces were established in 1922, but the country acquired its first frigates (three British "Loch" class ships) as late as 1944-1945; i.e. shortly before the end of the Second World War. They were followed by the acquisition of a single British Type 15 frigate (SAS Vrystaat) in 1956. These frigates served the SA Navy with distinction until the early 1960s, when they were replaced by three modern British-built Type 12 frigates. The last Type 12 frigate was withdrawn from service in 1985, and for the next two decades, the SA Navy had to make do without the services of frigate-size combat vessels. Since the late 1960s there have been several attempts to acquire new frigates, but South Africa's growing international isolation (a result of the South African government's policy of apartheid), put paid to all these efforts. However, the dawning of the new truly democratic South Africa in 1994, opened up many new opportunities for the country, including the possibility of buying military hardware abroad. In 1999 a contract was signed with a consortium to build four ultra-modern Meko A-200 frigates for the SA Navy. The ships were laid down at two German shipyards in 2001-2002, launched in 2002-2003, and arrived in Simon's Town in 2003-2004, where their combat suites and weaponry were fitted. Eventually, in 2006-2007, all four ships were commissioned as fully-operational frigates of the SA Navy. Even before being formally commissioned, the ships visited South African ports so that the public could see for themselves on what their income-tax money had been spent and soon the ships would take part in many other activities. In South African waters, the "Valour" class frigates have taken part in joint exercises with visiting warships from countries such as Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, India, the United States of America and France. As grey diplomats, the SA Navy frigates have also been deployed on several flag-showing cruises, which have taken them to many countries, including those in Africa, in South America and in the Far East (for example the People's Republic of China and Vietnam), as well as the United Kingdom. While showing the flag abroad, the ships have also taken part in joint naval exercises. Since the beginning of 2011 all four of the "Valour" class frigates have also taken turns to participate in counter-piracy patrols in the Mozambique Channel (Operation Copper). From time to time, the ships have fulfilled ceremonial functions (for example in fleet reviews), taken part in search-and-rescue operations, and acted as guardships during the 2010 FIFA World Cup Soccer Tournament. This article clearly indicates that, notwithstanding the controversies surrounding the acquisition process, the SA Navy's four "Valour" class frigates have served the Navy, as well as the SANDF, the country and its people, very well in the years 2004-2014. Thanks to the dedication and professionalism of their commanding officers and crews, they have indeed lived up to expectations. With these frigates in its inventory, the SA Navy has regained its blue-water status, can project power as never before, and can take part in naval exercises with pride and confidence. The SA Navy cannot afford not to have these ships. <![CDATA[<b>The effect of an animal-assisted reading programme on word recognition and spelling skills of grade 3 children</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000200008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Die doel van die huidige studie was om die effek van 'n troeteldier-ondersteunde leesprogram (TOL) op die woordherkenningsvaardighede van graad 3-kinders te bepaal. Al die kinders wat met behulp van die ESSI Leestoets as nievaardige lesers (N=102) geïdentifiseer is, is ewekansig toegewys aan drie eksperimentele groepe en een kontrolegroep. Een maal per week vir 10 weke lank het die Leeshondgroep (n=27) vir 'n leeshond in die teenwoordigheid van 'n Pets as Therapy-vrywilliger gelees, die Volwassenegroep (n=24) het slegs vir 'n volwassene gelees terwyl die Teddiebeergroep (n=26) vir 'n teddiebeer in die teenwoordigheid van 'n volwassene gelees het. Die Kontrolegroep (n=25) het voortgegaan met hul normale skoolaktiwiteite. Die kinders in die drie eksperimentele groepe het individueel vir ongeveer 20 minute gelees uit graad 1-, 2- en 3-vlak boekies. Data-insameling het plaasgevind voor die aanvang van die leesprogram (Tyd 1), direk ná voltooiing van die leesprogram (Tyd 2) en met 'n opvolgmeting agt weke later (Tyd 3). Die resultate het getoon dat die kinders in die Leeshondgroep op 'n beduidend hoër graadvlak gelees het tydens Tyd 2 en Tyd 3 as die ander drie groepe.<hr/>Reading problems constitute a problem world-wide. Literacy figures in South Africa are particularly worrying. The reading skills of 80% of South African children are not fully developed by the time they reach grade 5. In recent literacy tests, South African children fared worse than their peers from African countries like Mozambique, Botswana, Swaziland and Tanzania. Despite attempts to improve literacy and numeracy, South African children do not reach their potential. Many South African schools are labelled as "dysfunctional" and 79% of schools do not have libraries. This is a complex matter with multiple causes. Reading programmes may contribute to addressing this issue. There are different types of reading programmes and they can take place at different levels. One type of programme includes the use of pets. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of an animal-assisted reading programme on the word recognition and spelling skills of grade 3 children in a working class rural South African school. All the grade 3 children were assessed with the ESSI Reading and Spelling Test. Those who were identified as poor readers (N=102) were randomly assigned to three experimental groups and one control group. The Dog Group (n=27) read to a dog in the presence of a Pets as Therapy volunteer, the Adult Group (n=24) read to an adult only while the Teddy Bear Group (n=26) read to a teddy bear in the presence of an adult. The Control Group (n=25) continued with their normal school activities. Collection of the data took place before the start of the reading programme (Time 1) and directly after completion of the programme (Time 2) with a follow-up measurement eight weeks later (Time 3). The Reading Educational Assistance Dogs (R.E.A.D.) programme of Intermountain Therapy Animals was followed. Once a week during the 10 week animal-assisted reading, all the children read for approximately 20 minutes from grade 1, grade 2 and grade 3 level reading books which they chose themselves. The children were called from their classrooms, individually, to another room where they could read calmly and peacefully either to a dog with an adult present, to an adult only, or to a teddy bear with an adult present, depending on the group in which they were. Nine PAT volunteers and their therapy dogs and 10 other student volunteers were used in this project. All the volunteers received the same instructions from the researcher. At the start of the programme the reading ability of all the children were on grade 1 to 2 level. After a 10-week reading programme (Time 2) the children from the Dog Group read on a significantly higher grade level than the children from the Adult Group, the Teddy Bear Group and the Control Group. With the follow up measures at Time 3, the children from the Dog Group still performed at a significantly higher grade level than the Adult Group, the Teddy Bear Group and the Control Group. This study contributed to the knowledge of human-animal-interaction and specifically to the use of dogs to improve the reading skills of children. This unique reading programme is flexible and can be successfully used in schools and libraries. More research on this topic needs to be undertaken. <![CDATA[<b>Differensiasie: Die basis van samelewingsvryhede</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000200009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Hierdie artikel verg enersyds begripsonderskeidinge en andersyds 'n oorsigtelike beeld van ongedifferensieerde en gedifferensieerde samelewings. Waar ding-begrippe in die Grieks-Middeleeuse intellektuele erfenis prominent was (die vraag na die konkrete wat-heid van die dinge), sou die moderne ontwikkelinge sedert die Renaissance al meer klem op funksie-begrippe plaas (die vraag na die hoedanigheid van dinge). In die lig van hierdie onderskeiding blyk dit dat die term differensiasie 'n biotiese funksiebegrip is wat ten nouste verband hou met die multifunksionele aard van lewende dinge - wat tewens 'n eenheid in die menigvuldigheid organiese aktiwiteite daarvan vertoon (getalsfunksie), en wat 'n samehangende (organiese) geheel met integrale dele vorm wat in voortdurende wisselwerking met mekaar staan (die ruimtelike, kinematiese en fisiese funksies). Biotiese groei omvat beide die vertakking (differensiasie) van lewensfunksies en die saambind (integrasie) daarvan. Besinning oor die aard van die menslike samelewing stuit onvermydelik op die analogiese gebruik van hierdie biotiese terme (differensiasie en integrasie). Dit gebeur spesifiek wanneer van ongedifferensieerde en gedifferensieerde samelewings gepraat word. Waar die individuele mens grootliks in ongedifferensieerde samelewings opgaan (as deel van 'n groter geheel), bied die langsame kultuur-historiese proses van samelewingsdifferensiasie eventueel ruimte vir die uitkristallisering van die staat as regsverband naas en in onderskeiding van 'n menigvuldigheid nie-staatlike samelewingsvorme - en tegelyk tree daar 'n persoonlike vryheidsfeer na vore waarin die persoonlike ruimte van individue onderken word afgesien van enige lewensvorm-verbintenis waarin die mens as deel van 'n groter geheel mag optree. Dit lei tot die gevolgtrekking dat differensiasie inderdaad die basis van ons publieke vryhede, persoonlike vryhede en samelewingsvryhede vorm. Die terme wat in die titel van hierdie artikel vervat is, is ongewyfeld bekend uit ons alledaagse spraakgebruik. Sodra daar egter nader rekenskap gegee wil word van bepaalde konnotasies waarin dit ook in 'n filosofiese besinning gebruik kan word, blyk dit spoedig dat dit nie so 'n eenvoudige taakstelling is nie.<hr/>A concept unities a multiplicity of identified features into a logical-analytical unity and it presupposes the universality of each one of these properties. On the basis of a conceptual analysis of the nature and seat of the term differentiation, analogical usages of it guided our understanding of the difference between undifferentiated and differentiated societies. Whereas the Greek-Medieval legacy mainly focused on thing concepts (captured in the substance concept), the modern era (since the Renaissance) increasingly gave prominence to function concepts. The term differentiation does not refer to a thing concept, but to a biological function concept. When a living entity grows an increasing complexity emerges because its organic activities differentiate while, at the same time these differentiated activities are also integrated into the biotic unity of such a living entity. As a biological function concept the term differentiation is intimately connected to the multifunctional nature of living entities. Every living entity is a unity amidst a multiplicity of organic activities (quantitative function), which is an enduring and cohering organic whole (totality) in which all the organic parts are constantly interacting. Biotic growth therefore encompasses both the differentiation of the organic activities of a living entity and the integration of these activities. Although these biotic features are unique their functional meaning only comes to full expression in the coherence between the biotic aspect of living entities and those non-biotic functions within which they appear as analogies of the original meaning of the biotic mode. The differentiation of sense-organs within sentient creatures (animals and humans) shows that within the sensitive aspect an analogy of biotic differentiation and integration is found. The logical-analytical abilities of human beings also give shelter to these biotic analogies, reflected in speaking of logical-analytical differentiation and integration. The normed nature of logical-analytical activities highlight another peculiar feature of the post-sensitive aspects, namely that one can distinguish between analogies on the norm-side of these aspects, correlated with analogies at the factual side. The uniqueness of every number in the succession of (natural) numbers serves as the foundation for the logical principles of identity and non-contradiction, enabling the distinction between logically sound and illogical concepts and arguments. Likewise the principle of sufficient ground analogically reflects, on the norm-side of the logical-analytical aspect, the physical relation of cause and effect (causality). Among the cultural-historical modal principles attention is given to the principles of historical continuity, historical differentiation and historical integration. It is then shown that these modal historical principles are specified in a typical way within societal processes, particularly the process of societal differentiation. Reflection on the nature of human society inevitably stumbles upon analogical usages of these terms, particularly when an account is given of the difference between undifferentiated and differentiated societies. The undifferentiated nature of traditional societies embraces a multiplicity of interwoven societal structures that are, within non-traditional societies, differentiated societal entities with a distinct form of organization. One can therefore distinguish between an undifferentiated and a differentiated foundation and qualification. In traditional societies the undifferentiated foundation is found in a single form of organization and its undifferentiated qualification is found in the role of one of the intertwined structures. In die case of differentiated societalforms a unique foundational function and qualifying function is present. The state, for example, has its foundational function in the cultural-historical aspect (organized in a territorial power-formation) and its qualifying function in the jural aspect (giving everyone his or her due). The development from early Roman law (the initial ius civile - which was an exclusive folk-law) to the later ius gentium, broadened the scope but did not open the way for a differentiation of church and state during the medieval era. After the struggle for dominance (between the emperor and the pope) the late-Scholastic nominalistic movement paved the way for this differentiation. Elias has shown that a money economy (coins used in exchanges as a common measure) was a necessary condition for the differentiation of labour. The modern university emerged in the subsequent process of societal differentiation which, during the industrial revolution, was followed by the differentiation of the domestic family business into the nuclear family and the business firm. The rise of national states in Western Europe was accompanied by this process through which distinct societal entities with their own societal responsibilities and competence came to the fore. In spite of individualistic and universalistic theories of the social contract, the modern states of the past two centuries witnessed an increasing awareness of basic political and civil freedoms - all in all the fruits of an extensive historical process of societal differentiation. It is also remarkable that theorists from disciplines such as law, political science and sociology (Kuyper, Habermas, Rawls, and Münch) show an awareness of the importance of acknowledging sphere-sovereign societal entities with their societal freedoms. <![CDATA[<b>Huldigingsgedigte vir T.T. Cloete op 91</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000200010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Hierdie artikel verg enersyds begripsonderskeidinge en andersyds 'n oorsigtelike beeld van ongedifferensieerde en gedifferensieerde samelewings. Waar ding-begrippe in die Grieks-Middeleeuse intellektuele erfenis prominent was (die vraag na die konkrete wat-heid van die dinge), sou die moderne ontwikkelinge sedert die Renaissance al meer klem op funksie-begrippe plaas (die vraag na die hoedanigheid van dinge). In die lig van hierdie onderskeiding blyk dit dat die term differensiasie 'n biotiese funksiebegrip is wat ten nouste verband hou met die multifunksionele aard van lewende dinge - wat tewens 'n eenheid in die menigvuldigheid organiese aktiwiteite daarvan vertoon (getalsfunksie), en wat 'n samehangende (organiese) geheel met integrale dele vorm wat in voortdurende wisselwerking met mekaar staan (die ruimtelike, kinematiese en fisiese funksies). Biotiese groei omvat beide die vertakking (differensiasie) van lewensfunksies en die saambind (integrasie) daarvan. Besinning oor die aard van die menslike samelewing stuit onvermydelik op die analogiese gebruik van hierdie biotiese terme (differensiasie en integrasie). Dit gebeur spesifiek wanneer van ongedifferensieerde en gedifferensieerde samelewings gepraat word. Waar die individuele mens grootliks in ongedifferensieerde samelewings opgaan (as deel van 'n groter geheel), bied die langsame kultuur-historiese proses van samelewingsdifferensiasie eventueel ruimte vir die uitkristallisering van die staat as regsverband naas en in onderskeiding van 'n menigvuldigheid nie-staatlike samelewingsvorme - en tegelyk tree daar 'n persoonlike vryheidsfeer na vore waarin die persoonlike ruimte van individue onderken word afgesien van enige lewensvorm-verbintenis waarin die mens as deel van 'n groter geheel mag optree. Dit lei tot die gevolgtrekking dat differensiasie inderdaad die basis van ons publieke vryhede, persoonlike vryhede en samelewingsvryhede vorm. Die terme wat in die titel van hierdie artikel vervat is, is ongewyfeld bekend uit ons alledaagse spraakgebruik. Sodra daar egter nader rekenskap gegee wil word van bepaalde konnotasies waarin dit ook in 'n filosofiese besinning gebruik kan word, blyk dit spoedig dat dit nie so 'n eenvoudige taakstelling is nie.<hr/>A concept unities a multiplicity of identified features into a logical-analytical unity and it presupposes the universality of each one of these properties. On the basis of a conceptual analysis of the nature and seat of the term differentiation, analogical usages of it guided our understanding of the difference between undifferentiated and differentiated societies. Whereas the Greek-Medieval legacy mainly focused on thing concepts (captured in the substance concept), the modern era (since the Renaissance) increasingly gave prominence to function concepts. The term differentiation does not refer to a thing concept, but to a biological function concept. When a living entity grows an increasing complexity emerges because its organic activities differentiate while, at the same time these differentiated activities are also integrated into the biotic unity of such a living entity. As a biological function concept the term differentiation is intimately connected to the multifunctional nature of living entities. Every living entity is a unity amidst a multiplicity of organic activities (quantitative function), which is an enduring and cohering organic whole (totality) in which all the organic parts are constantly interacting. Biotic growth therefore encompasses both the differentiation of the organic activities of a living entity and the integration of these activities. Although these biotic features are unique their functional meaning only comes to full expression in the coherence between the biotic aspect of living entities and those non-biotic functions within which they appear as analogies of the original meaning of the biotic mode. The differentiation of sense-organs within sentient creatures (animals and humans) shows that within the sensitive aspect an analogy of biotic differentiation and integration is found. The logical-analytical abilities of human beings also give shelter to these biotic analogies, reflected in speaking of logical-analytical differentiation and integration. The normed nature of logical-analytical activities highlight another peculiar feature of the post-sensitive aspects, namely that one can distinguish between analogies on the norm-side of these aspects, correlated with analogies at the factual side. The uniqueness of every number in the succession of (natural) numbers serves as the foundation for the logical principles of identity and non-contradiction, enabling the distinction between logically sound and illogical concepts and arguments. Likewise the principle of sufficient ground analogically reflects, on the norm-side of the logical-analytical aspect, the physical relation of cause and effect (causality). Among the cultural-historical modal principles attention is given to the principles of historical continuity, historical differentiation and historical integration. It is then shown that these modal historical principles are specified in a typical way within societal processes, particularly the process of societal differentiation. Reflection on the nature of human society inevitably stumbles upon analogical usages of these terms, particularly when an account is given of the difference between undifferentiated and differentiated societies. The undifferentiated nature of traditional societies embraces a multiplicity of interwoven societal structures that are, within non-traditional societies, differentiated societal entities with a distinct form of organization. One can therefore distinguish between an undifferentiated and a differentiated foundation and qualification. In traditional societies the undifferentiated foundation is found in a single form of organization and its undifferentiated qualification is found in the role of one of the intertwined structures. In die case of differentiated societalforms a unique foundational function and qualifying function is present. The state, for example, has its foundational function in the cultural-historical aspect (organized in a territorial power-formation) and its qualifying function in the jural aspect (giving everyone his or her due). The development from early Roman law (the initial ius civile - which was an exclusive folk-law) to the later ius gentium, broadened the scope but did not open the way for a differentiation of church and state during the medieval era. After the struggle for dominance (between the emperor and the pope) the late-Scholastic nominalistic movement paved the way for this differentiation. Elias has shown that a money economy (coins used in exchanges as a common measure) was a necessary condition for the differentiation of labour. The modern university emerged in the subsequent process of societal differentiation which, during the industrial revolution, was followed by the differentiation of the domestic family business into the nuclear family and the business firm. The rise of national states in Western Europe was accompanied by this process through which distinct societal entities with their own societal responsibilities and competence came to the fore. In spite of individualistic and universalistic theories of the social contract, the modern states of the past two centuries witnessed an increasing awareness of basic political and civil freedoms - all in all the fruits of an extensive historical process of societal differentiation. It is also remarkable that theorists from disciplines such as law, political science and sociology (Kuyper, Habermas, Rawls, and Münch) show an awareness of the importance of acknowledging sphere-sovereign societal entities with their societal freedoms.