Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0041-475120150001&lang=en vol. 55 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>What's your mummy doing? An overview of the status of mummy research with reference to the 8th world congress</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Die doel van hierdie artikel is om opsommend al die temas en studierigtings te beskryf wat by die 8ste Wêreldkongres oor Mummienavorsing aangebied is om die huidige stand van die bestudering van mummies aan te dui. Mummies is unieke bronne van inligting oor die verlede en die studie van mummies gee ons insig in die lewens van mense uit vervloë dae en van vele kulture. Mummies het nog altyd bekoor, selfs vandag nog. Die 8ste Wêreldkongres oor Mummienavorsing is vanaf 6 tot 9 Augustus 2013 in Rio de Janeiro, Brasilië, gehou. Hierdie kongres bring wetenskaplikes bymekaar wat mummies en hul toebehore bestudeer. Die 8ste kongres het verskeie internasionaal erkende navorsers se werk deur middel van 99 referate en 45 plakkaataanbiedings ten toon gestel. Twee plakkate het selfs oor werk gehandel wat in Suider-Afrika gedoen word, naamlik die studie van antieke Egiptiese dieremummies in Iziko Museums van Suid-Afrika (Kaapstad) en die studie van die Tuli-mummie wat in Botswana gevind is. Die wetenskaplike studie van mummies is goed gevestig en toon merkwaardige groei. Die enigste kritiek teen die kongres is egter die oordrewe klem op suiwer wetenskaplike studie en dat die kulturele en sosiale interpretasie van die mummies grootliks agterweë gelaat is. Die natuur-, mediese en chemiese wetenskappe is goed verteenwoordig en die data is waardevol, maar die ware integrasie van hierdie en die sosiale wetenskappe is nog onvoldoende. 'n Meer gebalanseerde kombinasie van die verskillende dissiplines sal die waarde van so 'n kongres aansienlik verhoog.<hr/>The aim of this article is to summarise the current state of mummy research by describing all the themes andfields of study which were covered during the 8th World Congress on Mummy Studies. Mummies are exceptional and unique sources of information about the past. The study of mummies gives us insight into the lives of peoples from bygone eras and their cultures. A mummy is the preserved body of either a human or an animal and includes skin, hair and flesh, regardless of whether it was created by natural processes or artificial methods. The best-known mummies are those from ancient Egypt, but mummies are found all over the world, from Europe to South America and even Australia. Mummification is the process whereby a mummy is created. A distinction is made between natural mummification and artificial or rather intentional mummification. Both the technical and religious aspects of mummification are of great importance when studying the funeral practices of ancient societies. Mummies have always fascinated the scientific community as well as everyday folk, a trend that continues to this day. The study of mummies and the processes and mechanisms responsible for mummification has a long and varied history. Modern mummy research is an interdisciplinary field which makes use of highly advanced experimental and analytical methodologies. Anthropologists, anatomists, chemists, physicists, biologists, geneticists and other specialists are working together to reveal the secrets of mummies. To facilitate this atmosphere of collaboration the 8th World Congress on Mummy Studies was held in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil from 6 to 9 August 2013. This congress brought together a number of scientists who work on mummies and their paraphernalia. The 8th congress exhibited the work of various internationally recognised researchers - in the form of 99 papers and 45 posters. Two posters even presented work that was done in Southern Africa, namely the study of ancient Egyptian animal mummies in Iziko Museums of South Africa (Cape Town) and the study of the Tuli mummy which was found in Botswana. Other work that was presented at this congress covered a number of scientific disciplines. The study of ancient DNA has grown in popularity as the advances in technology increased. Ancient DNA is useful in studying human population history and the evolution of diseases such as tuberculosis. Techniques such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are also popular when studying ancient pathogens. The most popular technique used by scientists presenting at the congress was computed tomography, better known as CT-scanning. This technology uses x-rays to create cross-sections or whole three-dimensional images of both organic and inorganic samples. This technique is perfect for nondestructive and non-invasive studies of mummified materials. Researchers can use this technology to perform a virtual autopsy on valuable specimens without cutting or removing anything. Information can be gathered on the health status of the mummy. The presence of tuberculosis lesions, heart disease, skeletal deformities and dental pathologies can be studied using CT-scanning technologies. Other objects associated with mummies and mummy burials can also be examined with CT-scanning. Amulets, jewellery and other known or unidentified trinkets found in mummy bundles can be seen in the scanning data and isolated to be studied in more detail. The congress showed that the scientific study of mummies is a healthy and growing field. However, the only criticism about the congress is the excessive emphasis on the pure scientific studies while the cultural and social interpretation of the data and the mummies are being neglected to a great extent. The natural, medical and chemical sciences are well represented and the data are valuable, but a true integration of the social sciences and natural sciences is still insufficient. The importance and scientific value of the congress, if such a balanced combination can be achieved in future, will increase greatly. <![CDATA[<b>German paths in the Hague. Johannes Visscher and the "südafrikanische Propaganda" during World War I</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000100002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Johannes Visscher, een Nederlandse journalist, politicus en voortrekker van de Nederlandse arbeidersbeweging, redigeerde vanaf 1909 het tijdschrift "Hollandsch Zuid-Afrika", een uitgave van de in 1881 gestichte Nederlandsch Zuid-Afrikaansche Vereniging (NZAV), de oudste op Zuid-Afrika gerichte organisatie in Nederland. Vanaf augustus 1915 tot december 1918 stond Visscher ook in nauw contact met en handelde in opdracht van de Duitse diplomatieke dienst in het kader van het door het Duitse gezantschap in Den Haag en het Berlijnse Reichskolonialamt opgerichte project "südafrikanische Propaganda". Het Persbureau van de NZAV werd door hem geïntegreerd in de semiofficiële "Hilfsstelle" van het Duitse gezantschap met als doel de Zuid-Afrikaanse pers over de situatie in Europa en de Nederlandse pers over Zuid-Afrika "deutschfreundlich" te informeren. Deze bijdrage is gewijd aan dit onbekende hoofdstuk in de geschiedenis van de DuitsNederlands-Zuid-Afrikaanse betrekkingen in de tijd van de Grote Oorlog.<hr/>On August 3rd and 4th, when the German Empire declared the state of war with France and the UK, German diplomatic services expressed their concern for the fate of the white inhabitants of the colonies and suggested that its overseas dominions should remain neutral. Nevertheless, Germany was inconsistent in this respect, and hoped for extending its colonial possessions in the new political situation. Moreover, the colonial aspirations of Britain left no illusions as to the possibility of peace preservation in the colonies. The modest German military powers in the overseas dominions involved the Schutztruppe or police divisions which mostly comprised coloured soldiers and were not designed for warfare. German South-West Africa, which constitutes the central reference point for this paper, was equally poorly prepared for military defence. German authorities believed that the Boers, minding the consequences of the Second Boer War, would refuse to join the Entente. However, when on July 7th 1914, the British government requested general Louis Botha to take over the German radio transmitters in Lüderitz and Swakopmund, Botha concurred. The attack launched by the South African army inevitably led to the surrender of the Germans. Indeed, the German forces, unable to withhold the attack any longer, surrendered on July 9th 1915. The government in Berlin realised that winning South West Africa back, might prove impossible, regardless of the course of war in Europe. By the same token, the future of the German diamond companies, united in a consortium called Diamantenregie since 1909, depended on the developing political constellation in the Union of South Africa. Since 1915, German authorities have launched a subtle diplomatic game aimed at winning the support of the South African elites and the public opinion of the country. The neutral Netherlands were the main stage of this longterm post-war policy. Due to the historical connections to South Africa, the Netherlands played an important role as a cultural and political mediator. Some members of the Dutch elites - writers, journalists, politicians - still held the pro-Boer and anti-English position when WWI broke out. This position encouraged the involvement of the Dutch elites in the German incentives regarding cultural propaganda. Such actions were designed to foster a positive image of Germany as a natural ally of the Boers. This was achieved by supporting the Afrikaner circles which were negative about the policy of Botha and Smuts, underlining the independence of the Boer republics and emphasising the significant role of the Afrikaans language (as a counterbalance for English). Altogether, this was designed to serve as a fruitful basis for the post-war relations between Germany and South Africa. This paper offers insights into the so far unpublished correspondence of the main actors of the contemporaryfield of German cultural propaganda (Kultur- und Kunstpropaganda). The main person under investigation is Johannes Visscher, a Dutch journalist and expert on South Africa. As editor of the journal Hollandsch Zuid-Afrika, published by Nederlandsch Zuid-Afrikaansche Vereniging (NZAV), Visscher was employed by the German diplomatic services in the years 1915-1918. As part of the activities financed by Reichskolonialamt, Visscher shaped the image of Germany in the South African press and the pro-German image of South Africa in the Dutch press. <![CDATA[<b>Action, virtue and forgiveness in the political thought of Hannah Arendt</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000100003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Hierdie artikel ondersoek die onderling verbandhoudende begrippe van handeling, deug en vergiffenis in die politieke denke van Hannah Arendt. Vir Arendt is 'n waarlik etiese of deugdelike lewe een wat gekenmerk word deur 'n sterk karakter en grootmoedigheid, gulhartigheid en ruimgeestigheid. As sodanig is dit die presiese teendeel van ressentiment, wraaksug en kleingeestigheid. Vergiffenis, tesame met betroubaarheid (die vermoë om beloftes te maak en te hou), maak vir Arendt die hoogste "beginsels" van handeling uit. Wanneer daaraan voldoen word, verleen dit nie alleen stabiliteit en duursaamheid aan ons handelinge nie, maar verskaf dit ook die nodige vrymoedigheid en vertroue om hoegenaamd te kan handel. Kultivering van die vermoë om beloftes te maak en te vergewe kan dus beskou word as die hoogste uitdrukking van (en die mees fundamentele voorwaarde vir) deugdelikheid. Niks op aarde kan volgens Arendt méér eties of méér deugsaam wees as om 'n situasie te help skep waarin dit vir mense moontlik word om met hulle lewens voort te gaan, d.w.s. in alle vrymoedigheid 'n nuwe begin te maak sonder om voortdurend gebukkend te gaan onder gevoelens van skuld en berou nie. Vir Arendt is wraaksugtigheid die teendeel van vergiffenis. Dit verteenwoordig die ergste ondeug, veral omdat dit suiwer reaktief is en nie in staat om enigiets nuuts of kreatief te inisieer nie. Daarom is dit vir Arendt so belangrik om strategieë te bedink om ressentiment en wraaksug te bowe te kom. Hierdie strategieë word taamlik breedvoerig bespreek, met besondere aandag aan Arendt se kritiek op morele sentimente soos jammerhartigheid en meegevoel, sowel as die egalitaristiese opvatting van sosiale geregtigheid.<hr/>This article explores the interrelated concepts of action, virtue and forgiveness in the political thought of Hannah Arend. For Arendt a truly ethical or virtuous life is one that displays strength of character and greatness or generosity of spirit (magnanimity). As such it is the exact opposite of resentment and meanness of spirit. Forgiveness, together with trustworthiness (the capacity to make and to keep promises), constitute for Arendt the highest "principles" of action. The capacities of promising and forgiving do not only impart stability and durability to our actions, but they give us, in the first place, the confidence to act at all. Cultivating the capacities ofpromising and forgiving can thus be viewed as the highest expression of (and the most fundamental precondition for) virtue. According to Arendt, nothing on earth can be more ethical or more virtuous than helping to create a situation in which it becomes possible for people to go on with their lives, to make a fresh start in all candidness without being constantly plagued by feelings of guilt and remorse. For Arendt revengefulness is the opposite of forgiveness. It represents the worst of all vices, mainly because it is purely reactive, unable to initiate anything new or creative. Hence, the basic concern for Arendt is to devise strategies towards overcoming resentment and revengefulness. These strategies are discussed in some detail, with particular attention to Arendt's criticism of moral sentiments such as pity and compassion, as well as the egalitarian view of social justice. Arendt insists on the world-directedness of virtue and forgiveness. She takes it out of the narrowly circumscribed sphere of sentiments such as love, relating it rather to something like respect, which she describes as "a kind of 'friendship' without intimacy and without closeness." Arendt insists that in principle nobody should be excluded from participating in the public life of politics. But when persons indeed make their appearance in the public sphere, they are expected to demonstrate certain qualities, and quite rightly so. They are judged in terms of their trustworthiness, their personal integrity, their capacity for judgement, often their physical courage, as well as their commitment to matters of public concern (the res publica) and to excellence, "regardless not only of social status and administrative office but even of achievement and congratulation". Thus, participating in politics necessarily has an "elitist" (i.e. "aristocratic" or self-perfectionist) dimension: Only those who exhibit exceptional qualities and a passion for public life should be "allowed" to appear in the public sphere. The demand that everybody must be allowed to participate, irrespective of their capabilities or commitment to the public interest, will eventually lead to the degeneration of political action and its corruption through extra-political issues and interests. These views of Arendt must nevertheless be seen together with her plea for the "right to have rights", i.e. the right to belong to a political community where one can be seen and heard. This is the most basic, the most fundamental human right. Itfinds its purpose and legitimacy in itself, in the human condition of worldliness, natality and plurality. From an Arendtian perspective, a political community can only claim recognition and legitimacy if its members themselves respect the human conditions of natality and plurality. This, in turn, is what makes possible and sustains the public sphere, which isfor Arendt the best guarantee for a dignified, genuinely human existence, fragile as it may be. Violating these conditions amounts for Arendt to a "law against humanity". Genuine democracy requires a belief in equality and, where necessary, measures to maintain it. But this does not at all imply uniformity or homogenising of differences, which basically follows the logic of fabrication (social engineering). According to Arendt, this would lead to the destruction of the public sphere and genuine politics, leaving the door wide open for totalitarian rule or new forms of despotism. <![CDATA[<b>The reconceptualisation of sustainability after the decade of education for sustainable development</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000100004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Die afgelope dekade (2005-2014) is gekenmerk deur verskeie bewusmakingsveldtogte aangaande volhoubare ontwikkeling. Nietemin, tesame met die veelvoudige waarskuwings wat die behoefte aan 'n volhoubare leefstyl beklemtoon, is die omgewing steeds besig om teen 'n geweldige spoed agteruit te gaan. Hierdie agteruitgang is onder meer sigbaar in die globale omgewingsprobleme soos klimaatsverandering, die afname in biodiversiteit, besoedeling, ontbossing en 'n groeiende werkloosheidsyfer. Verskeie opvoedkundige pogings is reeds aangewend om die erns van die globale sosio-ekologiese krisis te belemtoon, insluitend die Verenigde Nasies se verklaring aangaande die dekade van opvoeding vir volhoubare ontwikkeling (2005-2014). Ten spyte hiervan blyk dit dat onderwysers steeds voortgaan om te onderrig asof daar geen planetêre noodgeval bestaan nie. Nou, na die laaste jaar van die dekade van opvoeding vir volhoubare ontwikkeling, kan daar gevra word: Hoe kan onderwysers en skole volhoubaarheid ná afloop van hierdie dekade opnuut aanspreek? In hierdie artikel word daar aangevoer dat onderwysers en skole eerstens die term "volhoubaarheid" binne omgewingsopvoeding moet herkonseptualiseer voordat daar na die implementering van nuwe pedagogieë gekyk word. Die hoofdoel van hierdie artikel is dus (a) om 'n konseptuele raamwerk van só 'n veranderde siening voor te stel deur die moontlikheid van volhoubaarheid as 'n denkraamwerk te bespreek en (b) die implikasies daarvan vir onderwysers en skole te verken.<hr/>The past decade (2005-2014) has witnessed various awareness campaigns regarding sustainable development. Although the latter has been approached from different disciplines, the dominant discourses on sustainable development thus far have focused on the notion as a policy. However, despite the construction of sustainable development as a policy, together with the multiple warnings emphasizing the need for sustainable lifestyles, the environment continues to deteriorate at an alarming rate. This is visible in global environmental problems such as climate change, the decline in biodiversity, pollution, deforestation and the growing unemployment rate. Various educational attempts have already been made to address the global socio-ecological crisis including the United Nations'declaration regarding the Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014). Despite these endeavours, teachers continue to teach as if a planetary emergency does not exist. Now that the decade of education for sustainable development has passed, the question can be asked: How can schools and teachers place renewed emphasis on sustainability? Taking into account that sustainable development as a policy has mainlyfailed in addressing the environmental crisis and sustainable lifestyles, the need for a different view is warranted. Multiple reasons can be provided for these failed attempts, but we argue that one possible reason could be due to the fact that sustainable development was previously largely viewed as a policy. This policy approach has generated several contradictions, controversies and ambiguities. One being the lack of clarity on what the term "needs" means. Hitherto, limited attention has been given to defining the term "needs" within the discourses of sustainable development. This lack of clarity regarding the term "needs" can be seen as one of the main contributing factors leading to the contested nature of sustainable development. In this article we will not elaborate on the analysis of needs per se but will use it as a point of reference in discussing how it contributes to the complexity of viewing sustainable development as a policy. Based on the latter view environmental policy makers have attempted to marry two highly desired yet contested goals, that of development and conservation. In this regard policy has not only led to several problematic features of sustainable development on semantic, ethical and epistemological levels but has also reinforced an anthropocentric (human-oriented) stance. A variety of literatures across different disciplines addresses the notion of sustainable development mainly as a policy. We aver that shifting the angle of vision from "policy " to "frame of mind" is possible and necessary in the field of environmental education post the Decade of Education for Sustainable Development. The main argument that is made in this article is that teachers and schools should first reconceptualize the term "sustainability" within environmental education before they turn to the implementation of new pedagogies. This will require of teachers to expand their own existing traditional views on sustainable development and to adopt a new metaphysics. One of the main features ofsustainable development as a frame of mind entails the right relationship with nature. This implies that teachers should create pedagogical and authentic spaces in which students can experience nature first hand and develop a love for it. The argument is made that as human beings we tend to conserve those things which we love the most. By exposing students to nature on a regular basis and facilitating the right experiences promises to not only foster an ethic of care among students but also to a certain degree their action competence. However, in order to provide the desired exposures and experiences to students, teachers themselves would need to elaborate on and adjust their views regarding sustainability. The purpose of this article is (a) to introduce a conceptual framework for a changed view of sustainability by discussing the possibility of viewing sustainability as a frame of mind and (b) to explore the implications of the latter for education. <![CDATA[<b>Education, the path to a quality of life - the optimal realisation of the right to life</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000100005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Die gekompliseerdheid van die reg op lewe word teen die agtergrond van die doelwitte van die Grondwet van die Republiek van Suid-Afrika, naamlik om die lewenskwaliteit van alle lands-burgers te verbeter en om elkeen se potensiaal te bevry, ondersoek. Die doel is om hierdie deurslaggewende reg konseptueel duidelik te verwoord en dit as inklusief van die reg tot dit wat nodig is vir die sekerheidstelling of voorsiening van 'n lewe wat die moeite werd is om te leef, te beskryf. 'n Analise van regspraak dui daarop dat, wanneer howe met die reg op lewe handel, hulle bykans altyd klem plaas op die reg om met waardigheid te sterf of nie te sterf nie. Dit word gedoen binne die bestek van omstandighede wat onder andere aborsie, genadedood, die doodstraf, die neem van 'n lewe in selfverdediging en toegang tot gesondheidsorg insluit. Hierdie artikel neem egter 'n ander standpunt ten opsigte van die reg op lewe in deur te argumenteer dat die realiteit in sy diversiteit omsluit word in die reg op lewe as die heelheid van 'n individu en die breë gemeenskap sowel as die kern van menslike bestaan. Die belangrikheid van die ontvangs van 'n kwaliteit onderwys ter optimale realisering van hierdie reg word dienooreenkomstig bevind as synde essensieel.<hr/>Against the background of the aims as expressed in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, namely to improve the quality of life of all citizens and to free everyone's potential, the perplexities of the right to life is studied. The aim hereof is to conceptually articulate this pivotal right and outline it as inclusive of the entitlement to what is necessary for the safeguarding or provision of a life worth living. An analysis of case law revealed that, when dealing with the right to life, courts almost always placed emphasis on the right to die with dignity or not to die at all. This is done within the ambit of circumstances entailing among others abortion, euthanasia, the death penalty, self-defence and access to health care. This article however takes a different stance of the right to life by arguing that reality in its diversity is encapsulated in life both as the wholeness of an individual and society at large and the nodal point of human existence. The importance of researching education as a path to a quality of life is evident when cognisance is taken of the fact that, although initiatives taken by the State have thus far been a step in the right direction for some South African citizens to report a good quality of life, the majority still struggles because of the social divisions and inequalities that remain (SASAS 2008). It is argued that the right to life must be conseptualised as an entitlement to a life with human dignity, knowledge, self-confidence and self-respect, thus encapsulating a quality of life. Although the State is constitutionally obliged to fulfil the basic needs of all its citizens, it is clearly stated that humans must accept responsibility for their own as well as the life of others. They cannot merely rely on others for their own well-being. Humans must, by way of quality education, be moulded and guided to self-determination and self-entitlement. Only then can man change and even create his own circumstances in order to ensure a quality of life for himself and others. Education has the potential to empower humans to take control of their own destiny (Krause 2012:49; Spinner-Halev 2012:169), to make rational and informed decisions and to choose the conditions under which they live (Rodin 2004:65). Education can, moreover, empower them to democratic participation (Freire 1993:12) and to hold the State accountable for protecting their rights and taking the necessary steps to meet their needs adequately. Cognisance must, however, be taken of the fact that South Africans cannot be seen as individuals apart from their country and people. In contrast to the individualistic nature of Western cultures, South Africans underscore the principle of ubuntu - the individual is part of a whole; he is a human-human: he belongs, therefore he exists (De Klerk 2012:35). The importance of receiving a quality education to realise optimally each South African's right to life whilst respecting diversity, is accordingly found to be essential. <![CDATA[<b>Guidelines for the development of a professional development programme in accordance with a workshop, support and mentorship model (WSM-model)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000100006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Die Suid-Afrikaanse onderwysstelsel beleef vir die soveelste keer 'n proses van verandering. 'n Belangrike aspek van enige verandering in die onderwysstelsel is die professionele ontwikkeling van die onderwysers wat in die praktyk staan. Volgens die Suid-Afrikaanse Departement van Basiese Onderwys is die implementering van professioneleontwikkelingsprogramme van groot waarde omdat dit die skoolstelsel transformeer en vernuwe. Volgens die Departement van Basiese Onderwys moet onderwysers en skoolhoofde die belangrikheid van professioneleontwikkelings-programme insien omdat dit waarde tot die opleiding en ontwikkeling van onderwysers kan toevoeg. Wanneer 'n professioneleontwikkelingsprogram ontwikkel word, is dit belangrik dat daar met groot sorg besluite geneem word, veral in terme van wie die professioneleontwikkelingspro-gram moet aanbied en bywoon, wat as deel van die professioneleontwikkelingsprogram ingesluit moet word en hoe die spesifieke program aangebied moet word. Buiten hierdie hoofaspekte is daar ook ander aangeleenthede wat in ag geneem moet word vir die praktiese beplanning en aanbieding van enige professioneleontwikkelingsprogram. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om riglyne te verskaf vir die beplanning en aanbieding van 'n professioneleontwikkelingsprogram ooreenkomstig die WOM-model.<hr/>The South African education system is in a process of change yet again. An important aspect of change in the education system is the professional development of in-service teachers. According to the South African Department of Basic Education the implementation of a professional development programme can be very valuable because it transforms and enriches the education system. According to the Department of Basic Education, teachers and principals need to understand the importance of a professional development programme because this will add value to the development of teachers. When a professional development programme is developed, it is important that great caution is taken especially with the main aspects of a professional development programme. These aspectsfirstly include who should be presenting the professional development programme and who should attend the programme. Secondly, what (type of content) should be included in the specific professional development programme and thirdly, how (format of) the professional development programme should be presented to the attendees. Besides the above mentioned aspects that have to be considered some organisational features also have to be taken into account when planning and presenting a professional development programme. When planning a professional development programme the Department of Basic Education policy, namely the Curriculum Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS) has to be taken into account. The school, Department of Basic Education and higher education institutions have to be part of the process in order to make the programme as effective and sustainable as possible. Furthermore, the access and scope have to be taken into account, namely when and where the programme will be presented, and what it will cost will have to be explored. The programme should also be evaluated by interested parties and experts in the field. The last feature that has to be considered is the resources that are required. The tools and resources for the presentations and the tools and resources that will be presented to attendees in order to make the programme as effective as possible, need to be considered. According to Spera et al. (2009:1150), learners' academic achievement is influenced by the knowledge of teachers, the curriculum and the management of the school, and this is the main reason why professional development is important. Teachers' continuing professional development has to be encouraged to give teachers the support in the changing environment of schooling. When teachers attend a professional development programme they usually get the opportunity to adjust to the changing elements of education. These elements include the content, pedagogical knowledge, demographic changes, innovation in the school environment and social and cultural changes. Professional development programmes have to be active, constructive and problem orientated. For this reason, a W (workshop), S (support) and M (mentorship) programme is suggested. This professional development programme structure is used in order to give teachers the relevant information and to support teachers in their workplace with components they may not yet have mastered. The mentorship component of the programme gives teachers a forum to ask questions about, for example, the components of the curriculum they mightfind challenging. This article focuses on the presentation of practical guidelines for the planning and presentation of a professional development programme. <![CDATA[<b>Mentorskap vir beginnerskoolhoofde</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000100007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Beginnerskoolhoofde in Suid-Afrika en in die buiteland vind dit al hoe moeiliker om aan die eise van hul werk te voldoen, hoofsaaklik vanweë ongenoegsame voorbereiding en ondersteuning. As beginners word hulle emosionele, sosiale en intellektuele intelligensie op die proef gestel. Daar word aangeneem dat tersiêre kwalifikasie- en opleidingsprogramme voldoende is om persone pasklaar as 'n skoolhoof af te lewer. Om die rede word daar van hulle verwag dat hulle in staat moet wees om die daaglikse nuwe eise en uitdagings te bowe te kom. Hierdie artikel konsentreer op mentorskap as ondersteuning vir beginnerskoolhoofde. 'n Kwalitatiewe navorsingsbenadering is gevolg. Deur doelgerigte steekproefneming is sewe skoolhoofde uit verskillende kulturele agtergronde as deelnemers geïdentifiseer. Die diskoersanalise wat daarna gevolg het, het aangedui dat beginnerskoolhoofde voel dat hulle bestuursvaardighede tekortskiet. Hulle het dit veral moeilik gevind om regskwessies, menseverhoudings, kommunikasie en departementele instruksies te bestuur. Ook het hulle laat blyk dat daar 'n gebrek aan gestruktureerde ondersteuning was, veral deurlopende ondersteuning.<hr/>In South Africa, novice school principals carry an exceedingly heavy burden because of inadequate education and preparation as principals. They have not necessarily been familiarised with the demands and challenges of effective school management before their appointment, and no support in the form offormal mentorship exists for preparing them (Moorosi 2012:487). Whilst an interest in mentoring has been shown in organisations (O'Neill 2005:439), little research has been conducted into the advantages of the relationship between a mentor and a novice principal, with a view to the professional development of the latter. School principals, especially novice principals, are exposed to emotional, social and intellectual demands and challenges. Moreover, as school principal leadership has become a key factor in the improvement of schools, preparation and support are essential (Wildy & Clarke 2008:269; Wildy et al. 2010:308,309; Crawford & Cowie 2012:177). The purpose of this article is to report on an investigation into whether mentoring could support novice principals. It is important that the novice school principal's emotional intelligence (seen in self-confidence), social intelligence (evident in group management and cooperative abilities) and intellectual intelligence (seen in competencies) serve as the foundation of his/her preparation to work as school principal (Lee et al. 2013:1,2; Dwiningrum 2013:144). Unfortunately, no support is available to support the abovementioned three "pillars" during the first few years of the principal's service. Consequently, school principals are weighed down by stress, emotional, psychological and social problems (Cheung & Walker 2006:406). Recently, the focus has been on the connection between theories taught in education programmes and applied to school practice. Three over-arching theories elucidate the different facets of mentoring novice school principals, viz. the knowledge transfer theory, the social capital theory and the psychosocial theory. The principle of the first is that knowledge often takes the shape of convictions about reality (Geng et al. 2009:124). The main purpose of mentorship is to present career functions, psychosocial functions and knowledge transfer to the protégé (Rynne 2013:142; Cetin et al. 2013:1; Srivastava & Thakur 2013:17). The social capital theory states that when the quality and quantity of an existing relationship in a work environment are conducive to the success of the organisation (Van Staden 2011:41), the mentor and the protégé have a social relationship. The purpose of this theory is to strengthen cooperation, participation, social norms and values and proactive actions. Social capital is the "glue" that keeps sociality, social networks and social support together (Bester 2008:4; Dwiningrum 2013:144; Fuller 2014:132). The value of structured mentorship is found in reaching outcomes, especially by continuous support. The psychosocial theory illuminates the difficult position in which novice leadersfind themselves. Frequently, leaders are expected to give support to colleagues while they themselves are affected by daily problems (Ngamaba 2014:67). The principles of the informal knowledge transfer, social capital and psychosocial support theories are basic to the novice principals' intellectual, social and emotional preparation. The newcomers receive guidance and knowledge, protection and socio-emotional support from an experienced person while advancing in their careers (Erasmus 1993:105; Scandura & Pellegrini 2007:2; Bozeman & Feeney 2010:733; Moorosi 2012:487). Mentorship can therefore be advantageous to the preparation of novice school principals. For the purpose of this qualitative design, the opinions of the novice school principals were obtained in a milieu where their daily routines were the same (Maree 2010:259). Case studies were conducted to study the novice principals' need for support (Creswell 2009:13). Problems that they had to deal with were identified, investigated and described (Zainal 2007:1,2). An analysis of the interaction between the novice school principal and the staff was done to shed light on the issue (Babbie & Mouton 2001:281,282). The research focussed on novice school principals in the Tshwane area in South Africa. Seven novices were purposely selected to represent different cultural and race groups, gender and socio-economic backgrounds (Corbin & Strauss 2008:149). Semi-structured interviews allowed the school principals to express themselves freely (De Vos et al. 2009:296,297). Two observations were made to determine whether the participants did indeed do what they said or whether they acted differently (Corbin & Strauss 2008:29,30). It is expected from novice school principals to have the same knowledge and skills as their predecessors and to master several professional skills in a short time. The knowledge transfer theory states that knowledge takes the shape of convictions about reality and that this knowledge is processed in a given situation and applied to an own world (Geng et al. 2009:124). The findings of this investigation showed that the novice school principal is indeed bombarded by new knowledge and vocational demands, and that there is a lack of sufficient time to process the new knowledge, which can be damaging in the end. The social capital theory, on the other hand, maintains that social networks ought to support the novice school principal (Van Staden 2011:41). According to the literature, the novice school principal begins to feel isolated after his/her appointment because of the absence of supportfrom the staff and community (Lester et al. 2011:413). This investigation showed that it is indeed true. Because of the lack of approval and trust of the staff and community, novice school principals do not have good communication channels. The knowledge transfer, psychosocial and social capital theories, as it was shown by this investigation, present valuable perspectives on the issue of mentorship to novice school principals. Novice school principals, especially in South Africa, do not receive adequate preparation and training, are isolated and receive little or no social support (Boschman et al. 2013:748). They experience a lack of knowledge about how to meet daily demands and to be successful school principals. They need support, formal and informal, in the form of continuous mentorship or a mentorship programme that provides them with clear guidelines before their appointment. In the South African context, there is a need for mentorship in order to enhance the efficiency of school principal leadership and to promote learner achievements. <![CDATA[<b>Charl-Pierre Naudé and Gert Vlok Nel in the Low Countries: Lateral transnational movements of Afrikaans poets into Dutch and English language areas</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000100008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Nederlandse literatuur is méér dan de literatuur die in het Nederlandse taalgebied wordt geproduceerd, gedistribueerd, geconsumeerd en gerecipieerd. Ook anderstalige literaturen, al dan niet in vertaling, functioneren en circuleren in een nationaal literair circuit, in het kritisch repertoire van schrijvers en critici, in een literair discours en in fondsen van uitgevershuizen. Buitenlandse schrijvers en teksten participeren direct of indirect in het gesprek over literatuur. In het literaire veld van Nederland en Vlaanderen zijn al langer Zuid-Afrikaanse auteurs aanwezig. Naast de canonieke stemmen - Breytenbach, Brink, Krog, Van Heerden en Van Niekerk - zijn Afrikaans-talige dichters present op literaire festivals, in kranten, tijdschriften en op internetblogs, in vertaling. Gert Vlok Nel en Charl-Pierre Naudé, debutanten in het midden van de jaren negentig in de Afrikaanse poëzie, zijn beiden naar het Nederlands vertaald. Hoewel Nel vooral een dichterperformer is en Naudé met zij n poëzie minder aanwezig is op de bühne en al helemaal geen muziek gebruikt om zijn gedichten voor een publiek van toehoorders te brengen, vertoont hun schrijversloopbaan een vergelijkbare laterale beweging van het Afrikaans naar het Nederlands of van een "marginale" literatuur naar een middelgrote taal in Europees perspectief. Tegelijk publiceren beiden in het Engels. Met name Naudés zelfvertaling Against the light en enkele vertalingen van Nels gedichten in opdracht van Poetry International Rotterdam kunnen in dat opzicht worden genoemd. Deze auteurs bewegen zich dus evenzeer in een verticale richting naar de metropool van de hedendaagse wereldliteratuur.<hr/>Translations and interviews, performances at international festivals, transnational writer networks and (mentions in) literary criticism are indications of the local, national or global circulation of literary authors and texts beyond the boundaries of a national field or a specific language area. The concept of transnationalism or world literature is too broad for indicating the specific moves foreign writers make. The way poets and texts position and manifest themselves in an international poly-systemic atmosphere can be of various kinds. Shih and Lionnet introduced for this purpose the concept of "minor transnationalism". Relationships and interactions between minority cultures or marginal literatures, such as Afrikaans and Dutch, can be seen as "lateral" movements. From an international perspective Dutch literature, situated in a language area of about 23 million native speakers, can also be considered as in the centre of European literature. In that way we can better speak of a "vertical" movement. The case studies on Gert Vlok Nel and Charl-Pierre Naudé are interesting from this perspective. Nel is mostly known as a poet-performer who makes use of music to bring his poems to stage in South Africa and elsewhere. From that perspective Naudé's authorship is related to a more traditional posture. His literary work is printed in books and performances for a live audience are rather limited. Both poets have been translated into Dutch and their presence and reception in the literature of Flanders and the Netherlands is obvious. Nevertheless the critical reception of their poetry is quite different. Nel's and Naudé's poems are also translated into English. Therefore we can speak of a global vertical movement towards the Anglo-American epicentre of contemporary world literature. <![CDATA[<b>EATING and DRINKING in Afrikaans - a lexical semantic study</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000100009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Die artikel is 'n kognitief semantiese, korpusgebaseerde leksikale ondersoek na die konsepte EET en DRINK in Afrikaans en vorm een onderdeel van 'n groter navorsingsprojek. Die artikel sluit aan by die studie van Taljard en Bosman (2014) wat interkulturele variasie tussen Noord-Sotho en Afrikaanse EET-metafore ondersoek en brei hierop uit deur ook DRINK-metafore te betrek. Die groter polisemiese struktuur van werkwoorde in die eet- en drinkwoordvelde is vervolgens ook by die ontleding betrek. As teoretiese raamwerk is die konseptuele metafoorteorie gebruik. Metafore is geïdentifiseer deur twee groot korpusse, naamlik die Universiteit van Pretoria Afrikaanse Korpus en die Taalkommissiekorpus met soekwoorde wat verband hou met die konsepte EET en DRINK te deursoek. Die motiverende rol wat die volksverstaan van die eet- en drink-prosesse speel in die tussendomeinkarterings is ondersoek en daar is aangetoon dat ons beliggaamde ervaring van die twee prosesse die groot dryfkrag is agter die totstandkoming van die metafore. Vir die bestudering van die interne polisemiese netwerke is daar gesteun op artikels in die WAT. Een afleiding wat gemaak word, is dat figuurlike betekenisuitbreidings, wat op grond van konseptuele metafore met die letterlike, meer basiese betekenisse skakel, volledig geleksikaliseer is in Afrikaans. In die slotparagraaf word aspekte soos die ouderdom en moontlike universele aard van die metafore aangeraak.<hr/>This article reports on a cognitive semantic, corpus-based investigation into the semantics of eating and drinking in Afrikaans. It is part of a bigger research project on these concepts and builds on research by Taljard and Bosman (2014) on cross-linguistic variation between Northern Sotho and Afrikaans metaphors for eating, by also including metaphors for drinking in the analysis. The current article has as its focus the semasiological network of verbs in the word fields of eating and drinking and involves more than metaphor identification, although it is undoubtedly the case that metaphor plays an important role in such a network of expanding meanings. The study can broadly be described as Cognitive Semantic and in particular makes use of the insights regarding polysemy whithin this field. Conceptual Metaphor Theory as initially developed by Lakoff and Johnson (1980), Kõvecses (1986) and Lakoff (1987a, 1987b, 1993) provided the heuristic tools for analysing the linguistic metaphors that were identified. Newman's (1997, 2009b) work on what he terms the "linguistics of eating and drinking" served as the stimulus for the research. The methodology chosen to identify the metaphors is empirical and corpus-based. As Stefanowitsch (2007:12) points out, corpus-based research into conceptual metaphors is still relatively new. In the light of Steen et al. 's (2010) plea for more rigorous methods in linguistics in general, and in metaphor research in particular, this study aimed to complement linguistic intuition with data extracted from two Afrikaans corpora, namely the University of Pretoria Afrikaans Corpus (UPAK, 15 million running words) and the corpus of the Language Commission of the South African Academy of Science and Arts (44 million running words). In addition, the Woordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal ("Dictionary of the Afrikaans Language") and De Stadler and De Stadler's Tesourus van Afrikaans ("Thesaurus of Afrikaans") were used. The focus ofthis investigation was not so much the verbs "to eat" and "to drink", signifying the activity of physically eating, as the conceptual notions of eating and drinking. Hence, the search words included not only the lexical items eet ("eat") and drink ("drink") and their derived forms, but also verbs which are semantically related to the notions of eating and drinking, such as vreet ("eating done by animals"), suip ("drinking done by animals"), verteer ("consume") and insluk ("swallow, gulp down"). After identifying possible search words, Wordsmith Tools was used to generate concordances in which the words could be studied in their context. Linguistic metaphors were identified by means of a manual search of the concordance lines. The folk theory of the processes of eating and drinking was used to look for the motivation behind the metaphors. The embodied experience of the two processes and visual images representing the destruction and disappearance of the physical food and fluids clearly play a role in the creation of the metaphors. Moreover, some of the lexical items in the word field of eating and drinking, such as vreet, suip, verteer and verorber, carry additional emotive semantic meanings and associated images which contribute to the motivation underpinning, for example, metaphors of destruction. As in Newman (2009b), the metaphorical expressions were grouped into two main categories: the first was based on the concept of internalisation, the second on that of destruction. Metaphors such as EMOTIONAL OR INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY IS EATING/DRINKING; EMOTIONAL OR SPIRITUAL PAIN IS DRINKING; INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY IS EATING and ACCEPTING IDEAS IS EATING/DRINKING were grouped under Internalisation. DIMINISHING IS EATING/ DRINKING, PHYSICAL OR SPIRITUAL TORMENT OR TORTURE IS EATING and DISAPPEARING OR ABSENCE IS EATING/DRINKING were grouped under the metaphors of destruction. Where metaphors showed evidence of both internalisation and destruction, such as ENSLAVEMENT or VICTORY IS EATING, they were discussed in a third group. An analysis of the polysemous structure of some of the verbs showed that conceptual metaphors such as PHYSICAL TORMENT IS EATING are present in the figurative meaning extensions and are fully lexicalised in Afrikaans. Lakoff (1993) suggests that some metaphors are universal, some are widespread and some are culture-specific. It may be argued that most of the Afrikaans metaphors that were identified are universal and not culture-specific, probably because the concepts themselves do not depend on specific cultural codes, but stem from universal embodied experiences. With regard to methodological considerations, it was noted that Stefanowitsch's call for more quantitative research to indicate the relative frequency and salience of certain metaphors still poses a challenge for Afrikaans. <![CDATA[<b>Redakteursnota: Afrikaans as universiteitstaal </b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000100010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Die artikel is 'n kognitief semantiese, korpusgebaseerde leksikale ondersoek na die konsepte EET en DRINK in Afrikaans en vorm een onderdeel van 'n groter navorsingsprojek. Die artikel sluit aan by die studie van Taljard en Bosman (2014) wat interkulturele variasie tussen Noord-Sotho en Afrikaanse EET-metafore ondersoek en brei hierop uit deur ook DRINK-metafore te betrek. Die groter polisemiese struktuur van werkwoorde in die eet- en drinkwoordvelde is vervolgens ook by die ontleding betrek. As teoretiese raamwerk is die konseptuele metafoorteorie gebruik. Metafore is geïdentifiseer deur twee groot korpusse, naamlik die Universiteit van Pretoria Afrikaanse Korpus en die Taalkommissiekorpus met soekwoorde wat verband hou met die konsepte EET en DRINK te deursoek. Die motiverende rol wat die volksverstaan van die eet- en drink-prosesse speel in die tussendomeinkarterings is ondersoek en daar is aangetoon dat ons beliggaamde ervaring van die twee prosesse die groot dryfkrag is agter die totstandkoming van die metafore. Vir die bestudering van die interne polisemiese netwerke is daar gesteun op artikels in die WAT. Een afleiding wat gemaak word, is dat figuurlike betekenisuitbreidings, wat op grond van konseptuele metafore met die letterlike, meer basiese betekenisse skakel, volledig geleksikaliseer is in Afrikaans. In die slotparagraaf word aspekte soos die ouderdom en moontlike universele aard van die metafore aangeraak.<hr/>This article reports on a cognitive semantic, corpus-based investigation into the semantics of eating and drinking in Afrikaans. It is part of a bigger research project on these concepts and builds on research by Taljard and Bosman (2014) on cross-linguistic variation between Northern Sotho and Afrikaans metaphors for eating, by also including metaphors for drinking in the analysis. The current article has as its focus the semasiological network of verbs in the word fields of eating and drinking and involves more than metaphor identification, although it is undoubtedly the case that metaphor plays an important role in such a network of expanding meanings. The study can broadly be described as Cognitive Semantic and in particular makes use of the insights regarding polysemy whithin this field. Conceptual Metaphor Theory as initially developed by Lakoff and Johnson (1980), Kõvecses (1986) and Lakoff (1987a, 1987b, 1993) provided the heuristic tools for analysing the linguistic metaphors that were identified. Newman's (1997, 2009b) work on what he terms the "linguistics of eating and drinking" served as the stimulus for the research. The methodology chosen to identify the metaphors is empirical and corpus-based. As Stefanowitsch (2007:12) points out, corpus-based research into conceptual metaphors is still relatively new. In the light of Steen et al. 's (2010) plea for more rigorous methods in linguistics in general, and in metaphor research in particular, this study aimed to complement linguistic intuition with data extracted from two Afrikaans corpora, namely the University of Pretoria Afrikaans Corpus (UPAK, 15 million running words) and the corpus of the Language Commission of the South African Academy of Science and Arts (44 million running words). In addition, the Woordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal ("Dictionary of the Afrikaans Language") and De Stadler and De Stadler's Tesourus van Afrikaans ("Thesaurus of Afrikaans") were used. The focus ofthis investigation was not so much the verbs "to eat" and "to drink", signifying the activity of physically eating, as the conceptual notions of eating and drinking. Hence, the search words included not only the lexical items eet ("eat") and drink ("drink") and their derived forms, but also verbs which are semantically related to the notions of eating and drinking, such as vreet ("eating done by animals"), suip ("drinking done by animals"), verteer ("consume") and insluk ("swallow, gulp down"). After identifying possible search words, Wordsmith Tools was used to generate concordances in which the words could be studied in their context. Linguistic metaphors were identified by means of a manual search of the concordance lines. The folk theory of the processes of eating and drinking was used to look for the motivation behind the metaphors. The embodied experience of the two processes and visual images representing the destruction and disappearance of the physical food and fluids clearly play a role in the creation of the metaphors. Moreover, some of the lexical items in the word field of eating and drinking, such as vreet, suip, verteer and verorber, carry additional emotive semantic meanings and associated images which contribute to the motivation underpinning, for example, metaphors of destruction. As in Newman (2009b), the metaphorical expressions were grouped into two main categories: the first was based on the concept of internalisation, the second on that of destruction. Metaphors such as EMOTIONAL OR INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY IS EATING/DRINKING; EMOTIONAL OR SPIRITUAL PAIN IS DRINKING; INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY IS EATING and ACCEPTING IDEAS IS EATING/DRINKING were grouped under Internalisation. DIMINISHING IS EATING/ DRINKING, PHYSICAL OR SPIRITUAL TORMENT OR TORTURE IS EATING and DISAPPEARING OR ABSENCE IS EATING/DRINKING were grouped under the metaphors of destruction. Where metaphors showed evidence of both internalisation and destruction, such as ENSLAVEMENT or VICTORY IS EATING, they were discussed in a third group. An analysis of the polysemous structure of some of the verbs showed that conceptual metaphors such as PHYSICAL TORMENT IS EATING are present in the figurative meaning extensions and are fully lexicalised in Afrikaans. Lakoff (1993) suggests that some metaphors are universal, some are widespread and some are culture-specific. It may be argued that most of the Afrikaans metaphors that were identified are universal and not culture-specific, probably because the concepts themselves do not depend on specific cultural codes, but stem from universal embodied experiences. With regard to methodological considerations, it was noted that Stefanowitsch's call for more quantitative research to indicate the relative frequency and salience of certain metaphors still poses a challenge for Afrikaans. <![CDATA[<b>SAAWK Simposium: Opsomming van die gesprekke op 24 Julie 2014</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000100011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Die artikel is 'n kognitief semantiese, korpusgebaseerde leksikale ondersoek na die konsepte EET en DRINK in Afrikaans en vorm een onderdeel van 'n groter navorsingsprojek. Die artikel sluit aan by die studie van Taljard en Bosman (2014) wat interkulturele variasie tussen Noord-Sotho en Afrikaanse EET-metafore ondersoek en brei hierop uit deur ook DRINK-metafore te betrek. Die groter polisemiese struktuur van werkwoorde in die eet- en drinkwoordvelde is vervolgens ook by die ontleding betrek. As teoretiese raamwerk is die konseptuele metafoorteorie gebruik. Metafore is geïdentifiseer deur twee groot korpusse, naamlik die Universiteit van Pretoria Afrikaanse Korpus en die Taalkommissiekorpus met soekwoorde wat verband hou met die konsepte EET en DRINK te deursoek. Die motiverende rol wat die volksverstaan van die eet- en drink-prosesse speel in die tussendomeinkarterings is ondersoek en daar is aangetoon dat ons beliggaamde ervaring van die twee prosesse die groot dryfkrag is agter die totstandkoming van die metafore. Vir die bestudering van die interne polisemiese netwerke is daar gesteun op artikels in die WAT. Een afleiding wat gemaak word, is dat figuurlike betekenisuitbreidings, wat op grond van konseptuele metafore met die letterlike, meer basiese betekenisse skakel, volledig geleksikaliseer is in Afrikaans. In die slotparagraaf word aspekte soos die ouderdom en moontlike universele aard van die metafore aangeraak.<hr/>This article reports on a cognitive semantic, corpus-based investigation into the semantics of eating and drinking in Afrikaans. It is part of a bigger research project on these concepts and builds on research by Taljard and Bosman (2014) on cross-linguistic variation between Northern Sotho and Afrikaans metaphors for eating, by also including metaphors for drinking in the analysis. The current article has as its focus the semasiological network of verbs in the word fields of eating and drinking and involves more than metaphor identification, although it is undoubtedly the case that metaphor plays an important role in such a network of expanding meanings. The study can broadly be described as Cognitive Semantic and in particular makes use of the insights regarding polysemy whithin this field. Conceptual Metaphor Theory as initially developed by Lakoff and Johnson (1980), Kõvecses (1986) and Lakoff (1987a, 1987b, 1993) provided the heuristic tools for analysing the linguistic metaphors that were identified. Newman's (1997, 2009b) work on what he terms the "linguistics of eating and drinking" served as the stimulus for the research. The methodology chosen to identify the metaphors is empirical and corpus-based. As Stefanowitsch (2007:12) points out, corpus-based research into conceptual metaphors is still relatively new. In the light of Steen et al. 's (2010) plea for more rigorous methods in linguistics in general, and in metaphor research in particular, this study aimed to complement linguistic intuition with data extracted from two Afrikaans corpora, namely the University of Pretoria Afrikaans Corpus (UPAK, 15 million running words) and the corpus of the Language Commission of the South African Academy of Science and Arts (44 million running words). In addition, the Woordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal ("Dictionary of the Afrikaans Language") and De Stadler and De Stadler's Tesourus van Afrikaans ("Thesaurus of Afrikaans") were used. The focus ofthis investigation was not so much the verbs "to eat" and "to drink", signifying the activity of physically eating, as the conceptual notions of eating and drinking. Hence, the search words included not only the lexical items eet ("eat") and drink ("drink") and their derived forms, but also verbs which are semantically related to the notions of eating and drinking, such as vreet ("eating done by animals"), suip ("drinking done by animals"), verteer ("consume") and insluk ("swallow, gulp down"). After identifying possible search words, Wordsmith Tools was used to generate concordances in which the words could be studied in their context. Linguistic metaphors were identified by means of a manual search of the concordance lines. The folk theory of the processes of eating and drinking was used to look for the motivation behind the metaphors. The embodied experience of the two processes and visual images representing the destruction and disappearance of the physical food and fluids clearly play a role in the creation of the metaphors. Moreover, some of the lexical items in the word field of eating and drinking, such as vreet, suip, verteer and verorber, carry additional emotive semantic meanings and associated images which contribute to the motivation underpinning, for example, metaphors of destruction. As in Newman (2009b), the metaphorical expressions were grouped into two main categories: the first was based on the concept of internalisation, the second on that of destruction. Metaphors such as EMOTIONAL OR INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY IS EATING/DRINKING; EMOTIONAL OR SPIRITUAL PAIN IS DRINKING; INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY IS EATING and ACCEPTING IDEAS IS EATING/DRINKING were grouped under Internalisation. DIMINISHING IS EATING/ DRINKING, PHYSICAL OR SPIRITUAL TORMENT OR TORTURE IS EATING and DISAPPEARING OR ABSENCE IS EATING/DRINKING were grouped under the metaphors of destruction. Where metaphors showed evidence of both internalisation and destruction, such as ENSLAVEMENT or VICTORY IS EATING, they were discussed in a third group. An analysis of the polysemous structure of some of the verbs showed that conceptual metaphors such as PHYSICAL TORMENT IS EATING are present in the figurative meaning extensions and are fully lexicalised in Afrikaans. Lakoff (1993) suggests that some metaphors are universal, some are widespread and some are culture-specific. It may be argued that most of the Afrikaans metaphors that were identified are universal and not culture-specific, probably because the concepts themselves do not depend on specific cultural codes, but stem from universal embodied experiences. With regard to methodological considerations, it was noted that Stefanowitsch's call for more quantitative research to indicate the relative frequency and salience of certain metaphors still poses a challenge for Afrikaans. <![CDATA[<b>Die uitdagings vir Afrikaans in die hoër onderwys</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000100012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Die artikel is 'n kognitief semantiese, korpusgebaseerde leksikale ondersoek na die konsepte EET en DRINK in Afrikaans en vorm een onderdeel van 'n groter navorsingsprojek. Die artikel sluit aan by die studie van Taljard en Bosman (2014) wat interkulturele variasie tussen Noord-Sotho en Afrikaanse EET-metafore ondersoek en brei hierop uit deur ook DRINK-metafore te betrek. Die groter polisemiese struktuur van werkwoorde in die eet- en drinkwoordvelde is vervolgens ook by die ontleding betrek. As teoretiese raamwerk is die konseptuele metafoorteorie gebruik. Metafore is geïdentifiseer deur twee groot korpusse, naamlik die Universiteit van Pretoria Afrikaanse Korpus en die Taalkommissiekorpus met soekwoorde wat verband hou met die konsepte EET en DRINK te deursoek. Die motiverende rol wat die volksverstaan van die eet- en drink-prosesse speel in die tussendomeinkarterings is ondersoek en daar is aangetoon dat ons beliggaamde ervaring van die twee prosesse die groot dryfkrag is agter die totstandkoming van die metafore. Vir die bestudering van die interne polisemiese netwerke is daar gesteun op artikels in die WAT. Een afleiding wat gemaak word, is dat figuurlike betekenisuitbreidings, wat op grond van konseptuele metafore met die letterlike, meer basiese betekenisse skakel, volledig geleksikaliseer is in Afrikaans. In die slotparagraaf word aspekte soos die ouderdom en moontlike universele aard van die metafore aangeraak.<hr/>This article reports on a cognitive semantic, corpus-based investigation into the semantics of eating and drinking in Afrikaans. It is part of a bigger research project on these concepts and builds on research by Taljard and Bosman (2014) on cross-linguistic variation between Northern Sotho and Afrikaans metaphors for eating, by also including metaphors for drinking in the analysis. The current article has as its focus the semasiological network of verbs in the word fields of eating and drinking and involves more than metaphor identification, although it is undoubtedly the case that metaphor plays an important role in such a network of expanding meanings. The study can broadly be described as Cognitive Semantic and in particular makes use of the insights regarding polysemy whithin this field. Conceptual Metaphor Theory as initially developed by Lakoff and Johnson (1980), Kõvecses (1986) and Lakoff (1987a, 1987b, 1993) provided the heuristic tools for analysing the linguistic metaphors that were identified. Newman's (1997, 2009b) work on what he terms the "linguistics of eating and drinking" served as the stimulus for the research. The methodology chosen to identify the metaphors is empirical and corpus-based. As Stefanowitsch (2007:12) points out, corpus-based research into conceptual metaphors is still relatively new. In the light of Steen et al. 's (2010) plea for more rigorous methods in linguistics in general, and in metaphor research in particular, this study aimed to complement linguistic intuition with data extracted from two Afrikaans corpora, namely the University of Pretoria Afrikaans Corpus (UPAK, 15 million running words) and the corpus of the Language Commission of the South African Academy of Science and Arts (44 million running words). In addition, the Woordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal ("Dictionary of the Afrikaans Language") and De Stadler and De Stadler's Tesourus van Afrikaans ("Thesaurus of Afrikaans") were used. The focus ofthis investigation was not so much the verbs "to eat" and "to drink", signifying the activity of physically eating, as the conceptual notions of eating and drinking. Hence, the search words included not only the lexical items eet ("eat") and drink ("drink") and their derived forms, but also verbs which are semantically related to the notions of eating and drinking, such as vreet ("eating done by animals"), suip ("drinking done by animals"), verteer ("consume") and insluk ("swallow, gulp down"). After identifying possible search words, Wordsmith Tools was used to generate concordances in which the words could be studied in their context. Linguistic metaphors were identified by means of a manual search of the concordance lines. The folk theory of the processes of eating and drinking was used to look for the motivation behind the metaphors. The embodied experience of the two processes and visual images representing the destruction and disappearance of the physical food and fluids clearly play a role in the creation of the metaphors. Moreover, some of the lexical items in the word field of eating and drinking, such as vreet, suip, verteer and verorber, carry additional emotive semantic meanings and associated images which contribute to the motivation underpinning, for example, metaphors of destruction. As in Newman (2009b), the metaphorical expressions were grouped into two main categories: the first was based on the concept of internalisation, the second on that of destruction. Metaphors such as EMOTIONAL OR INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY IS EATING/DRINKING; EMOTIONAL OR SPIRITUAL PAIN IS DRINKING; INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY IS EATING and ACCEPTING IDEAS IS EATING/DRINKING were grouped under Internalisation. DIMINISHING IS EATING/ DRINKING, PHYSICAL OR SPIRITUAL TORMENT OR TORTURE IS EATING and DISAPPEARING OR ABSENCE IS EATING/DRINKING were grouped under the metaphors of destruction. Where metaphors showed evidence of both internalisation and destruction, such as ENSLAVEMENT or VICTORY IS EATING, they were discussed in a third group. An analysis of the polysemous structure of some of the verbs showed that conceptual metaphors such as PHYSICAL TORMENT IS EATING are present in the figurative meaning extensions and are fully lexicalised in Afrikaans. Lakoff (1993) suggests that some metaphors are universal, some are widespread and some are culture-specific. It may be argued that most of the Afrikaans metaphors that were identified are universal and not culture-specific, probably because the concepts themselves do not depend on specific cultural codes, but stem from universal embodied experiences. With regard to methodological considerations, it was noted that Stefanowitsch's call for more quantitative research to indicate the relative frequency and salience of certain metaphors still poses a challenge for Afrikaans. <![CDATA[<b>Afrikaans in 'n meertalige - konteks Uitdagings vir HO</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000100013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Die artikel is 'n kognitief semantiese, korpusgebaseerde leksikale ondersoek na die konsepte EET en DRINK in Afrikaans en vorm een onderdeel van 'n groter navorsingsprojek. Die artikel sluit aan by die studie van Taljard en Bosman (2014) wat interkulturele variasie tussen Noord-Sotho en Afrikaanse EET-metafore ondersoek en brei hierop uit deur ook DRINK-metafore te betrek. Die groter polisemiese struktuur van werkwoorde in die eet- en drinkwoordvelde is vervolgens ook by die ontleding betrek. As teoretiese raamwerk is die konseptuele metafoorteorie gebruik. Metafore is geïdentifiseer deur twee groot korpusse, naamlik die Universiteit van Pretoria Afrikaanse Korpus en die Taalkommissiekorpus met soekwoorde wat verband hou met die konsepte EET en DRINK te deursoek. Die motiverende rol wat die volksverstaan van die eet- en drink-prosesse speel in die tussendomeinkarterings is ondersoek en daar is aangetoon dat ons beliggaamde ervaring van die twee prosesse die groot dryfkrag is agter die totstandkoming van die metafore. Vir die bestudering van die interne polisemiese netwerke is daar gesteun op artikels in die WAT. Een afleiding wat gemaak word, is dat figuurlike betekenisuitbreidings, wat op grond van konseptuele metafore met die letterlike, meer basiese betekenisse skakel, volledig geleksikaliseer is in Afrikaans. In die slotparagraaf word aspekte soos die ouderdom en moontlike universele aard van die metafore aangeraak.<hr/>This article reports on a cognitive semantic, corpus-based investigation into the semantics of eating and drinking in Afrikaans. It is part of a bigger research project on these concepts and builds on research by Taljard and Bosman (2014) on cross-linguistic variation between Northern Sotho and Afrikaans metaphors for eating, by also including metaphors for drinking in the analysis. The current article has as its focus the semasiological network of verbs in the word fields of eating and drinking and involves more than metaphor identification, although it is undoubtedly the case that metaphor plays an important role in such a network of expanding meanings. The study can broadly be described as Cognitive Semantic and in particular makes use of the insights regarding polysemy whithin this field. Conceptual Metaphor Theory as initially developed by Lakoff and Johnson (1980), Kõvecses (1986) and Lakoff (1987a, 1987b, 1993) provided the heuristic tools for analysing the linguistic metaphors that were identified. Newman's (1997, 2009b) work on what he terms the "linguistics of eating and drinking" served as the stimulus for the research. The methodology chosen to identify the metaphors is empirical and corpus-based. As Stefanowitsch (2007:12) points out, corpus-based research into conceptual metaphors is still relatively new. In the light of Steen et al. 's (2010) plea for more rigorous methods in linguistics in general, and in metaphor research in particular, this study aimed to complement linguistic intuition with data extracted from two Afrikaans corpora, namely the University of Pretoria Afrikaans Corpus (UPAK, 15 million running words) and the corpus of the Language Commission of the South African Academy of Science and Arts (44 million running words). In addition, the Woordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal ("Dictionary of the Afrikaans Language") and De Stadler and De Stadler's Tesourus van Afrikaans ("Thesaurus of Afrikaans") were used. The focus ofthis investigation was not so much the verbs "to eat" and "to drink", signifying the activity of physically eating, as the conceptual notions of eating and drinking. Hence, the search words included not only the lexical items eet ("eat") and drink ("drink") and their derived forms, but also verbs which are semantically related to the notions of eating and drinking, such as vreet ("eating done by animals"), suip ("drinking done by animals"), verteer ("consume") and insluk ("swallow, gulp down"). After identifying possible search words, Wordsmith Tools was used to generate concordances in which the words could be studied in their context. Linguistic metaphors were identified by means of a manual search of the concordance lines. The folk theory of the processes of eating and drinking was used to look for the motivation behind the metaphors. The embodied experience of the two processes and visual images representing the destruction and disappearance of the physical food and fluids clearly play a role in the creation of the metaphors. Moreover, some of the lexical items in the word field of eating and drinking, such as vreet, suip, verteer and verorber, carry additional emotive semantic meanings and associated images which contribute to the motivation underpinning, for example, metaphors of destruction. As in Newman (2009b), the metaphorical expressions were grouped into two main categories: the first was based on the concept of internalisation, the second on that of destruction. Metaphors such as EMOTIONAL OR INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY IS EATING/DRINKING; EMOTIONAL OR SPIRITUAL PAIN IS DRINKING; INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY IS EATING and ACCEPTING IDEAS IS EATING/DRINKING were grouped under Internalisation. DIMINISHING IS EATING/ DRINKING, PHYSICAL OR SPIRITUAL TORMENT OR TORTURE IS EATING and DISAPPEARING OR ABSENCE IS EATING/DRINKING were grouped under the metaphors of destruction. Where metaphors showed evidence of both internalisation and destruction, such as ENSLAVEMENT or VICTORY IS EATING, they were discussed in a third group. An analysis of the polysemous structure of some of the verbs showed that conceptual metaphors such as PHYSICAL TORMENT IS EATING are present in the figurative meaning extensions and are fully lexicalised in Afrikaans. Lakoff (1993) suggests that some metaphors are universal, some are widespread and some are culture-specific. It may be argued that most of the Afrikaans metaphors that were identified are universal and not culture-specific, probably because the concepts themselves do not depend on specific cultural codes, but stem from universal embodied experiences. With regard to methodological considerations, it was noted that Stefanowitsch's call for more quantitative research to indicate the relative frequency and salience of certain metaphors still poses a challenge for Afrikaans. <![CDATA[<b>Enkele gedagtes oor Afrikaans as onderrigtaal aan die Universiteit van Pretoria</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000100014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Die artikel is 'n kognitief semantiese, korpusgebaseerde leksikale ondersoek na die konsepte EET en DRINK in Afrikaans en vorm een onderdeel van 'n groter navorsingsprojek. Die artikel sluit aan by die studie van Taljard en Bosman (2014) wat interkulturele variasie tussen Noord-Sotho en Afrikaanse EET-metafore ondersoek en brei hierop uit deur ook DRINK-metafore te betrek. Die groter polisemiese struktuur van werkwoorde in die eet- en drinkwoordvelde is vervolgens ook by die ontleding betrek. As teoretiese raamwerk is die konseptuele metafoorteorie gebruik. Metafore is geïdentifiseer deur twee groot korpusse, naamlik die Universiteit van Pretoria Afrikaanse Korpus en die Taalkommissiekorpus met soekwoorde wat verband hou met die konsepte EET en DRINK te deursoek. Die motiverende rol wat die volksverstaan van die eet- en drink-prosesse speel in die tussendomeinkarterings is ondersoek en daar is aangetoon dat ons beliggaamde ervaring van die twee prosesse die groot dryfkrag is agter die totstandkoming van die metafore. Vir die bestudering van die interne polisemiese netwerke is daar gesteun op artikels in die WAT. Een afleiding wat gemaak word, is dat figuurlike betekenisuitbreidings, wat op grond van konseptuele metafore met die letterlike, meer basiese betekenisse skakel, volledig geleksikaliseer is in Afrikaans. In die slotparagraaf word aspekte soos die ouderdom en moontlike universele aard van die metafore aangeraak.<hr/>This article reports on a cognitive semantic, corpus-based investigation into the semantics of eating and drinking in Afrikaans. It is part of a bigger research project on these concepts and builds on research by Taljard and Bosman (2014) on cross-linguistic variation between Northern Sotho and Afrikaans metaphors for eating, by also including metaphors for drinking in the analysis. The current article has as its focus the semasiological network of verbs in the word fields of eating and drinking and involves more than metaphor identification, although it is undoubtedly the case that metaphor plays an important role in such a network of expanding meanings. The study can broadly be described as Cognitive Semantic and in particular makes use of the insights regarding polysemy whithin this field. Conceptual Metaphor Theory as initially developed by Lakoff and Johnson (1980), Kõvecses (1986) and Lakoff (1987a, 1987b, 1993) provided the heuristic tools for analysing the linguistic metaphors that were identified. Newman's (1997, 2009b) work on what he terms the "linguistics of eating and drinking" served as the stimulus for the research. The methodology chosen to identify the metaphors is empirical and corpus-based. As Stefanowitsch (2007:12) points out, corpus-based research into conceptual metaphors is still relatively new. In the light of Steen et al. 's (2010) plea for more rigorous methods in linguistics in general, and in metaphor research in particular, this study aimed to complement linguistic intuition with data extracted from two Afrikaans corpora, namely the University of Pretoria Afrikaans Corpus (UPAK, 15 million running words) and the corpus of the Language Commission of the South African Academy of Science and Arts (44 million running words). In addition, the Woordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal ("Dictionary of the Afrikaans Language") and De Stadler and De Stadler's Tesourus van Afrikaans ("Thesaurus of Afrikaans") were used. The focus ofthis investigation was not so much the verbs "to eat" and "to drink", signifying the activity of physically eating, as the conceptual notions of eating and drinking. Hence, the search words included not only the lexical items eet ("eat") and drink ("drink") and their derived forms, but also verbs which are semantically related to the notions of eating and drinking, such as vreet ("eating done by animals"), suip ("drinking done by animals"), verteer ("consume") and insluk ("swallow, gulp down"). After identifying possible search words, Wordsmith Tools was used to generate concordances in which the words could be studied in their context. Linguistic metaphors were identified by means of a manual search of the concordance lines. The folk theory of the processes of eating and drinking was used to look for the motivation behind the metaphors. The embodied experience of the two processes and visual images representing the destruction and disappearance of the physical food and fluids clearly play a role in the creation of the metaphors. Moreover, some of the lexical items in the word field of eating and drinking, such as vreet, suip, verteer and verorber, carry additional emotive semantic meanings and associated images which contribute to the motivation underpinning, for example, metaphors of destruction. As in Newman (2009b), the metaphorical expressions were grouped into two main categories: the first was based on the concept of internalisation, the second on that of destruction. Metaphors such as EMOTIONAL OR INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY IS EATING/DRINKING; EMOTIONAL OR SPIRITUAL PAIN IS DRINKING; INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY IS EATING and ACCEPTING IDEAS IS EATING/DRINKING were grouped under Internalisation. DIMINISHING IS EATING/ DRINKING, PHYSICAL OR SPIRITUAL TORMENT OR TORTURE IS EATING and DISAPPEARING OR ABSENCE IS EATING/DRINKING were grouped under the metaphors of destruction. Where metaphors showed evidence of both internalisation and destruction, such as ENSLAVEMENT or VICTORY IS EATING, they were discussed in a third group. An analysis of the polysemous structure of some of the verbs showed that conceptual metaphors such as PHYSICAL TORMENT IS EATING are present in the figurative meaning extensions and are fully lexicalised in Afrikaans. Lakoff (1993) suggests that some metaphors are universal, some are widespread and some are culture-specific. It may be argued that most of the Afrikaans metaphors that were identified are universal and not culture-specific, probably because the concepts themselves do not depend on specific cultural codes, but stem from universal embodied experiences. With regard to methodological considerations, it was noted that Stefanowitsch's call for more quantitative research to indicate the relative frequency and salience of certain metaphors still poses a challenge for Afrikaans. <![CDATA[<b>Uitdagings vir Afrikaans in hoëronderwys: Die taalbeleid van die Universiteit van Johannesburg as gevallestudie</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000100015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Die artikel is 'n kognitief semantiese, korpusgebaseerde leksikale ondersoek na die konsepte EET en DRINK in Afrikaans en vorm een onderdeel van 'n groter navorsingsprojek. Die artikel sluit aan by die studie van Taljard en Bosman (2014) wat interkulturele variasie tussen Noord-Sotho en Afrikaanse EET-metafore ondersoek en brei hierop uit deur ook DRINK-metafore te betrek. Die groter polisemiese struktuur van werkwoorde in die eet- en drinkwoordvelde is vervolgens ook by die ontleding betrek. As teoretiese raamwerk is die konseptuele metafoorteorie gebruik. Metafore is geïdentifiseer deur twee groot korpusse, naamlik die Universiteit van Pretoria Afrikaanse Korpus en die Taalkommissiekorpus met soekwoorde wat verband hou met die konsepte EET en DRINK te deursoek. Die motiverende rol wat die volksverstaan van die eet- en drink-prosesse speel in die tussendomeinkarterings is ondersoek en daar is aangetoon dat ons beliggaamde ervaring van die twee prosesse die groot dryfkrag is agter die totstandkoming van die metafore. Vir die bestudering van die interne polisemiese netwerke is daar gesteun op artikels in die WAT. Een afleiding wat gemaak word, is dat figuurlike betekenisuitbreidings, wat op grond van konseptuele metafore met die letterlike, meer basiese betekenisse skakel, volledig geleksikaliseer is in Afrikaans. In die slotparagraaf word aspekte soos die ouderdom en moontlike universele aard van die metafore aangeraak.<hr/>This article reports on a cognitive semantic, corpus-based investigation into the semantics of eating and drinking in Afrikaans. It is part of a bigger research project on these concepts and builds on research by Taljard and Bosman (2014) on cross-linguistic variation between Northern Sotho and Afrikaans metaphors for eating, by also including metaphors for drinking in the analysis. The current article has as its focus the semasiological network of verbs in the word fields of eating and drinking and involves more than metaphor identification, although it is undoubtedly the case that metaphor plays an important role in such a network of expanding meanings. The study can broadly be described as Cognitive Semantic and in particular makes use of the insights regarding polysemy whithin this field. Conceptual Metaphor Theory as initially developed by Lakoff and Johnson (1980), Kõvecses (1986) and Lakoff (1987a, 1987b, 1993) provided the heuristic tools for analysing the linguistic metaphors that were identified. Newman's (1997, 2009b) work on what he terms the "linguistics of eating and drinking" served as the stimulus for the research. The methodology chosen to identify the metaphors is empirical and corpus-based. As Stefanowitsch (2007:12) points out, corpus-based research into conceptual metaphors is still relatively new. In the light of Steen et al. 's (2010) plea for more rigorous methods in linguistics in general, and in metaphor research in particular, this study aimed to complement linguistic intuition with data extracted from two Afrikaans corpora, namely the University of Pretoria Afrikaans Corpus (UPAK, 15 million running words) and the corpus of the Language Commission of the South African Academy of Science and Arts (44 million running words). In addition, the Woordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal ("Dictionary of the Afrikaans Language") and De Stadler and De Stadler's Tesourus van Afrikaans ("Thesaurus of Afrikaans") were used. The focus ofthis investigation was not so much the verbs "to eat" and "to drink", signifying the activity of physically eating, as the conceptual notions of eating and drinking. Hence, the search words included not only the lexical items eet ("eat") and drink ("drink") and their derived forms, but also verbs which are semantically related to the notions of eating and drinking, such as vreet ("eating done by animals"), suip ("drinking done by animals"), verteer ("consume") and insluk ("swallow, gulp down"). After identifying possible search words, Wordsmith Tools was used to generate concordances in which the words could be studied in their context. Linguistic metaphors were identified by means of a manual search of the concordance lines. The folk theory of the processes of eating and drinking was used to look for the motivation behind the metaphors. The embodied experience of the two processes and visual images representing the destruction and disappearance of the physical food and fluids clearly play a role in the creation of the metaphors. Moreover, some of the lexical items in the word field of eating and drinking, such as vreet, suip, verteer and verorber, carry additional emotive semantic meanings and associated images which contribute to the motivation underpinning, for example, metaphors of destruction. As in Newman (2009b), the metaphorical expressions were grouped into two main categories: the first was based on the concept of internalisation, the second on that of destruction. Metaphors such as EMOTIONAL OR INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY IS EATING/DRINKING; EMOTIONAL OR SPIRITUAL PAIN IS DRINKING; INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY IS EATING and ACCEPTING IDEAS IS EATING/DRINKING were grouped under Internalisation. DIMINISHING IS EATING/ DRINKING, PHYSICAL OR SPIRITUAL TORMENT OR TORTURE IS EATING and DISAPPEARING OR ABSENCE IS EATING/DRINKING were grouped under the metaphors of destruction. Where metaphors showed evidence of both internalisation and destruction, such as ENSLAVEMENT or VICTORY IS EATING, they were discussed in a third group. An analysis of the polysemous structure of some of the verbs showed that conceptual metaphors such as PHYSICAL TORMENT IS EATING are present in the figurative meaning extensions and are fully lexicalised in Afrikaans. Lakoff (1993) suggests that some metaphors are universal, some are widespread and some are culture-specific. It may be argued that most of the Afrikaans metaphors that were identified are universal and not culture-specific, probably because the concepts themselves do not depend on specific cultural codes, but stem from universal embodied experiences. With regard to methodological considerations, it was noted that Stefanowitsch's call for more quantitative research to indicate the relative frequency and salience of certain metaphors still poses a challenge for Afrikaans. <![CDATA[<b>Afrikaans as universiteitstaal - uitdagings! En hoe! Die posisie by die NWU</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000100016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Die artikel is 'n kognitief semantiese, korpusgebaseerde leksikale ondersoek na die konsepte EET en DRINK in Afrikaans en vorm een onderdeel van 'n groter navorsingsprojek. Die artikel sluit aan by die studie van Taljard en Bosman (2014) wat interkulturele variasie tussen Noord-Sotho en Afrikaanse EET-metafore ondersoek en brei hierop uit deur ook DRINK-metafore te betrek. Die groter polisemiese struktuur van werkwoorde in die eet- en drinkwoordvelde is vervolgens ook by die ontleding betrek. As teoretiese raamwerk is die konseptuele metafoorteorie gebruik. Metafore is geïdentifiseer deur twee groot korpusse, naamlik die Universiteit van Pretoria Afrikaanse Korpus en die Taalkommissiekorpus met soekwoorde wat verband hou met die konsepte EET en DRINK te deursoek. Die motiverende rol wat die volksverstaan van die eet- en drink-prosesse speel in die tussendomeinkarterings is ondersoek en daar is aangetoon dat ons beliggaamde ervaring van die twee prosesse die groot dryfkrag is agter die totstandkoming van die metafore. Vir die bestudering van die interne polisemiese netwerke is daar gesteun op artikels in die WAT. Een afleiding wat gemaak word, is dat figuurlike betekenisuitbreidings, wat op grond van konseptuele metafore met die letterlike, meer basiese betekenisse skakel, volledig geleksikaliseer is in Afrikaans. In die slotparagraaf word aspekte soos die ouderdom en moontlike universele aard van die metafore aangeraak.<hr/>This article reports on a cognitive semantic, corpus-based investigation into the semantics of eating and drinking in Afrikaans. It is part of a bigger research project on these concepts and builds on research by Taljard and Bosman (2014) on cross-linguistic variation between Northern Sotho and Afrikaans metaphors for eating, by also including metaphors for drinking in the analysis. The current article has as its focus the semasiological network of verbs in the word fields of eating and drinking and involves more than metaphor identification, although it is undoubtedly the case that metaphor plays an important role in such a network of expanding meanings. The study can broadly be described as Cognitive Semantic and in particular makes use of the insights regarding polysemy whithin this field. Conceptual Metaphor Theory as initially developed by Lakoff and Johnson (1980), Kõvecses (1986) and Lakoff (1987a, 1987b, 1993) provided the heuristic tools for analysing the linguistic metaphors that were identified. Newman's (1997, 2009b) work on what he terms the "linguistics of eating and drinking" served as the stimulus for the research. The methodology chosen to identify the metaphors is empirical and corpus-based. As Stefanowitsch (2007:12) points out, corpus-based research into conceptual metaphors is still relatively new. In the light of Steen et al. 's (2010) plea for more rigorous methods in linguistics in general, and in metaphor research in particular, this study aimed to complement linguistic intuition with data extracted from two Afrikaans corpora, namely the University of Pretoria Afrikaans Corpus (UPAK, 15 million running words) and the corpus of the Language Commission of the South African Academy of Science and Arts (44 million running words). In addition, the Woordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal ("Dictionary of the Afrikaans Language") and De Stadler and De Stadler's Tesourus van Afrikaans ("Thesaurus of Afrikaans") were used. The focus ofthis investigation was not so much the verbs "to eat" and "to drink", signifying the activity of physically eating, as the conceptual notions of eating and drinking. Hence, the search words included not only the lexical items eet ("eat") and drink ("drink") and their derived forms, but also verbs which are semantically related to the notions of eating and drinking, such as vreet ("eating done by animals"), suip ("drinking done by animals"), verteer ("consume") and insluk ("swallow, gulp down"). After identifying possible search words, Wordsmith Tools was used to generate concordances in which the words could be studied in their context. Linguistic metaphors were identified by means of a manual search of the concordance lines. The folk theory of the processes of eating and drinking was used to look for the motivation behind the metaphors. The embodied experience of the two processes and visual images representing the destruction and disappearance of the physical food and fluids clearly play a role in the creation of the metaphors. Moreover, some of the lexical items in the word field of eating and drinking, such as vreet, suip, verteer and verorber, carry additional emotive semantic meanings and associated images which contribute to the motivation underpinning, for example, metaphors of destruction. As in Newman (2009b), the metaphorical expressions were grouped into two main categories: the first was based on the concept of internalisation, the second on that of destruction. Metaphors such as EMOTIONAL OR INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY IS EATING/DRINKING; EMOTIONAL OR SPIRITUAL PAIN IS DRINKING; INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY IS EATING and ACCEPTING IDEAS IS EATING/DRINKING were grouped under Internalisation. DIMINISHING IS EATING/ DRINKING, PHYSICAL OR SPIRITUAL TORMENT OR TORTURE IS EATING and DISAPPEARING OR ABSENCE IS EATING/DRINKING were grouped under the metaphors of destruction. Where metaphors showed evidence of both internalisation and destruction, such as ENSLAVEMENT or VICTORY IS EATING, they were discussed in a third group. An analysis of the polysemous structure of some of the verbs showed that conceptual metaphors such as PHYSICAL TORMENT IS EATING are present in the figurative meaning extensions and are fully lexicalised in Afrikaans. Lakoff (1993) suggests that some metaphors are universal, some are widespread and some are culture-specific. It may be argued that most of the Afrikaans metaphors that were identified are universal and not culture-specific, probably because the concepts themselves do not depend on specific cultural codes, but stem from universal embodied experiences. With regard to methodological considerations, it was noted that Stefanowitsch's call for more quantitative research to indicate the relative frequency and salience of certain metaphors still poses a challenge for Afrikaans. <![CDATA[<b>Een eindeloos weekje met een <i>rooiborsduif</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512015000100017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Die artikel is 'n kognitief semantiese, korpusgebaseerde leksikale ondersoek na die konsepte EET en DRINK in Afrikaans en vorm een onderdeel van 'n groter navorsingsprojek. Die artikel sluit aan by die studie van Taljard en Bosman (2014) wat interkulturele variasie tussen Noord-Sotho en Afrikaanse EET-metafore ondersoek en brei hierop uit deur ook DRINK-metafore te betrek. Die groter polisemiese struktuur van werkwoorde in die eet- en drinkwoordvelde is vervolgens ook by die ontleding betrek. As teoretiese raamwerk is die konseptuele metafoorteorie gebruik. Metafore is geïdentifiseer deur twee groot korpusse, naamlik die Universiteit van Pretoria Afrikaanse Korpus en die Taalkommissiekorpus met soekwoorde wat verband hou met die konsepte EET en DRINK te deursoek. Die motiverende rol wat die volksverstaan van die eet- en drink-prosesse speel in die tussendomeinkarterings is ondersoek en daar is aangetoon dat ons beliggaamde ervaring van die twee prosesse die groot dryfkrag is agter die totstandkoming van die metafore. Vir die bestudering van die interne polisemiese netwerke is daar gesteun op artikels in die WAT. Een afleiding wat gemaak word, is dat figuurlike betekenisuitbreidings, wat op grond van konseptuele metafore met die letterlike, meer basiese betekenisse skakel, volledig geleksikaliseer is in Afrikaans. In die slotparagraaf word aspekte soos die ouderdom en moontlike universele aard van die metafore aangeraak.<hr/>This article reports on a cognitive semantic, corpus-based investigation into the semantics of eating and drinking in Afrikaans. It is part of a bigger research project on these concepts and builds on research by Taljard and Bosman (2014) on cross-linguistic variation between Northern Sotho and Afrikaans metaphors for eating, by also including metaphors for drinking in the analysis. The current article has as its focus the semasiological network of verbs in the word fields of eating and drinking and involves more than metaphor identification, although it is undoubtedly the case that metaphor plays an important role in such a network of expanding meanings. The study can broadly be described as Cognitive Semantic and in particular makes use of the insights regarding polysemy whithin this field. Conceptual Metaphor Theory as initially developed by Lakoff and Johnson (1980), Kõvecses (1986) and Lakoff (1987a, 1987b, 1993) provided the heuristic tools for analysing the linguistic metaphors that were identified. Newman's (1997, 2009b) work on what he terms the "linguistics of eating and drinking" served as the stimulus for the research. The methodology chosen to identify the metaphors is empirical and corpus-based. As Stefanowitsch (2007:12) points out, corpus-based research into conceptual metaphors is still relatively new. In the light of Steen et al. 's (2010) plea for more rigorous methods in linguistics in general, and in metaphor research in particular, this study aimed to complement linguistic intuition with data extracted from two Afrikaans corpora, namely the University of Pretoria Afrikaans Corpus (UPAK, 15 million running words) and the corpus of the Language Commission of the South African Academy of Science and Arts (44 million running words). In addition, the Woordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal ("Dictionary of the Afrikaans Language") and De Stadler and De Stadler's Tesourus van Afrikaans ("Thesaurus of Afrikaans") were used. The focus ofthis investigation was not so much the verbs "to eat" and "to drink", signifying the activity of physically eating, as the conceptual notions of eating and drinking. Hence, the search words included not only the lexical items eet ("eat") and drink ("drink") and their derived forms, but also verbs which are semantically related to the notions of eating and drinking, such as vreet ("eating done by animals"), suip ("drinking done by animals"), verteer ("consume") and insluk ("swallow, gulp down"). After identifying possible search words, Wordsmith Tools was used to generate concordances in which the words could be studied in their context. Linguistic metaphors were identified by means of a manual search of the concordance lines. The folk theory of the processes of eating and drinking was used to look for the motivation behind the metaphors. The embodied experience of the two processes and visual images representing the destruction and disappearance of the physical food and fluids clearly play a role in the creation of the metaphors. Moreover, some of the lexical items in the word field of eating and drinking, such as vreet, suip, verteer and verorber, carry additional emotive semantic meanings and associated images which contribute to the motivation underpinning, for example, metaphors of destruction. As in Newman (2009b), the metaphorical expressions were grouped into two main categories: the first was based on the concept of internalisation, the second on that of destruction. Metaphors such as EMOTIONAL OR INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY IS EATING/DRINKING; EMOTIONAL OR SPIRITUAL PAIN IS DRINKING; INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY IS EATING and ACCEPTING IDEAS IS EATING/DRINKING were grouped under Internalisation. DIMINISHING IS EATING/ DRINKING, PHYSICAL OR SPIRITUAL TORMENT OR TORTURE IS EATING and DISAPPEARING OR ABSENCE IS EATING/DRINKING were grouped under the metaphors of destruction. Where metaphors showed evidence of both internalisation and destruction, such as ENSLAVEMENT or VICTORY IS EATING, they were discussed in a third group. An analysis of the polysemous structure of some of the verbs showed that conceptual metaphors such as PHYSICAL TORMENT IS EATING are present in the figurative meaning extensions and are fully lexicalised in Afrikaans. Lakoff (1993) suggests that some metaphors are universal, some are widespread and some are culture-specific. It may be argued that most of the Afrikaans metaphors that were identified are universal and not culture-specific, probably because the concepts themselves do not depend on specific cultural codes, but stem from universal embodied experiences. With regard to methodological considerations, it was noted that Stefanowitsch's call for more quantitative research to indicate the relative frequency and salience of certain metaphors still poses a challenge for Afrikaans.