Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0041-475120190001&lang= vol. 59 num. 1 lang. <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>The Role of the High Courts of the United States of America, South Africa and the European Union in Foreign Affairs</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512019000100001&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= In die Verenigde State van Amerika (VSA) beskik die President oor besondere wye magte ten opsigte van buitelandse aangeleenthede; so ook die Kongres, en die Senaat in besonder. Die regsgesag het geen grondwetlik geformuleerde rol met betrekking tot buitelandse aangeleenthede nie. Dit beteken egter nie dat die Hooggeregshof (HH) se uitsprake nie 'n wesentlike invloed op buitelandse beleidsmaatreëls het nie. Die beklemtoning van menseregte het in 1994 sterk na vore getree met Suid-Afrika (SA) se benadering tot buitelandse aangeleenthede. Algaande het hierdie benadering begin verflou. Die Konstitusionele Hof (KH) het nie teruggedeins om die uitvoerende gesag krities oor sy grondwetlike verpligtinge tereg te wys en van sy vergrype ongrondwetlik te verklaar nie. Die Europese Geregshof (EG) het ewe-eens oor dekades heen bepaalde beslissings gelewer wat die buitelandse beleidstandpunte van die Europese Unie (EU) in wese geraak het. Vir die Unie is sy Hof 'n kernpilaar om die hele stelsel standvastig te hou. Terwyl politieke gesagsinstellings buitelandse beleid die direkste raak, is die bydrae van die regsgesag nie minder betekenisvol nie. Dit bepaal die grense waarbinne politieke take verrig mag word. Die regsgesag het die onmiskenbare feit dat dit 'n rol in buitelandse aangeleenthede het beklemtoon.<hr/>The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of the Supreme Court of the United States of America (SCOTUS), the two Appellate Courts of South Africa and the European Court of Justice of the European Union (ECJ) in foreign affairs. The latter three Courts do not have a history or track record in matters involving foreign affairs to the same extent as SCOTUS. The main focus has consequently been on this Court, with a more incisive examination of its role in foreign affairs. The study presents essential material and analysis on foreign affairs by all four Courts through their decisions, presentations and briefs to the Courts, scholarly contributions and relevant publications. SCOTUS is not charged explicitly by the Constitution with any responsibility in foreign affairs. It does, however, embody the crucial principles of the separation of powers and checks and balances. Together with the doctrine of judicial review that the Court explicitly defined in 1803, SCOTUS is assured of being a formidable force in US society - and one no less in that country's foreign affairs from a very early stage. In the past 25 years SCOTUS has dealt more and more with issues pertaining to foreign affairs. The result has been that the executive paid the price when SCOTUS started cutting the President down to constitutional size. Therefore, while SCOTUS may not formulate foreign policy, nor engage in relations with foreign entities, many judicial actions directly and indirectly affect foreign affairs. The point is thus not whether the judiciary has a role to play in foreign affairs, but rather how great its influence is. The stage has now been reached where the President can no longer merely assume that his actions - defined as constitutional overreach - will not be critically scrutinised and he himself even be rebuked. The Court has thus determined that the point has been reached that a President has to be called constitutionally to order when he has gone too far. The conclusion reached is that SCOTUS is a de facto element in US foreign affairs. SCOTUS does decide cases that affect the relationship of the USA with the rest of the world; and as the Justices decide these cases, they are doing as much as anyone to influence US foreign affairs. The Court's pronouncements in an age of globalisation, international terror, economic turmoil and, now lately, also with the ever growing international debate on immigration, and their consequential impact on the country's foreign affairs are not to be underestimated. Consequently, the stage is set for a greater involvement of SCOTUS in foreign affairs than before. The highest judicial authority in South Africa has not shied away from involving itself in issues that may have an impact on foreign affairs. While not enough cases have as yet been decided to serve as a study equal in scope to that handled by SCOTUS, these two South African Courts have already decided benchmark cases. With a determined approach to human rights issues, their rulings have already left an indelible reminder that the judiciary will not be kept from adjudicating cases that may have implications for the country's foreign affairs. With its stern reprimands in these cases, the two Courts have lived up to their role of upholding the rule of law in exemplary fashion. Their rulings carried another equally important message: the judiciary has an unmistakable role to play in foreign affairs. In doing so these two Courts will not only hold the executive to the principles enshrined in the Constitution, but also keep the executive within constitutional limits. From its inception, the ECJ has been an unusual international forum for the EU. Over the years it has expanded its jurisdictional authority well beyond its original, narrow boundaries. Its influence has become more apparent and contested. Contrariwise, the ECJ has been hailed as the most powerful supranational court in world history. It has already had a significant impact on the EU's foreign affairs by placing human rights unequivocally at the heart of the EU legal order. It secured an appropriate balance between fighting terrorism and protecting those rights. The Court's central argument was that the protection of fundamental rights forms part of the very foundation of the EU's legal order whereby the Court is committed to guide the EU in its foreign affairs. In doing so the Court has ensured that all EU actions are commensurate with and in harmony with obligations encompassed in all EU treaties. Over six decades the ECJ has grown into a formidable force, so much so that it has not endeared itself to the United Kingdom. In the Brexit negotiations between the UK and the EU, the ECJ has become a major bone of contention. While the political branches of government most directly determine outcomes in foreign affairs, the contributions of the judiciary are no less significant. Many questions impacting on foreign affairs require constitutional interpretations relating to the authority vested in the executive and legislative branches. Only the judiciary possesses the authority to interpret constitutional and treaty stipulations. In doing so judicial decisions define the parameters and boundaries within which the political branches can and should operate - in domestic affairs and most definitely also in the foreign affairs of the USA, South Africa and the EU. <![CDATA[<b>Poetic control and reinterpretation: T.T. Cloete's transcription of two antique texts in <em>Onversadig</em> ("Unquenched")</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512019000100002&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Die doel van hierdie artikel is om twee gedigte uit die later werk van T.T. Cloete te ontleed met die oog daarop om sy siening van die "omvattende gedig" te demonstreer. Daar word aangetoon hoedat hierdie twee gedigte (wat eksemplaries is vir ʼn groot deel van die digterlike oeuvre) saamgestel is uit intertekstuele verwysings na die werk van talryke ander digters én na sy eie werk. Daar word hoofsaaklik eksemplaries te werk gegaan met die veronderstelling dat die gekose gedigte die kernaspekte van Cloete se poëtika verteenwoordig en in ʼn groot mate poëtiese gestalte gee aan gedagtes wat die skering en inslag vorm van sy selfrefleksiewe werk Die ander een is ek (2013). Die praktyk van jukstaposisie word as belangrike teoretiese basis gebruik. Daarbenewens word verskillende vorme van intertekstualiteit ondersoek. Laasgenoemde praktyk vind in die twee tersaaklike gedigte veral gestalte in woordelikse herskrywing of transkripsie. Die gevolgtrekking word gemaak dat die digter in die afdeling "saamsing", uit die bundel Onversadig ʼn kortbegrip van sy ars poëtika aanbied en dat hy nie net lig werp op sy digterlike praktyk nie, maar dat hy ook sy eie identiteit as digter en geskende mens in die gedigte "saamsing" en "Achilles se skild" inskryf.<hr/>One of the most distinctive features of the poet T.T. Cloete's work is the great number of intertextual references to the work of other poets and texts. From numerous interviews, lectures and conversations, but also from documents such as his famous memoir, Die ander een is ek ("The other one I am") (Cloete 2013), it seems that the poet himself also regards intertextuality in many different forms and varieties as one of the most typical aspects of his poetic practice. In Die ander een is ekhe repeatedly demonstrates how his poems originated from, strike up conversations with and critically comment on other poems, stories, scientific articles, myths, philosophies and other texts. The purpose of this article is to analyze two poems from T.T. Cloete's later work in order to demonstrate his view of the "comprehensive poem" (Afr. "omvattende gedig"). It will be demonstrated how these two poems (which are exemplary of a large part of Cloete's poetic oeuvre) are composed of intertextual references to the work of many other poets and to the poet's own work. The assumption is made that the chosen poems represent the core aspects of Cloete's poetics and that they poetically shape the main thoughts which form the warp and woof of his self-reflexive work Die ander een is ek. The poetic practice of juxtaposition is used as an important theoretical basis for this article. In addition, different forms of intertextuality are investigated. In the two relevant poems the latter practice mainly appears in the form of verbatim rewriting of existing poems (transcription). The conclusion is made that, in the section "saamsing" ("singing together") in the volume Onversadig ("Unquenched"), a short concept of the poet's Ars Poetics is presented, and that he not only sheds light on his poetic practice, but also on his own personal identity as poet and disfigured individual in the poems "swerwende verse" ("migrating verses") and "Achilles se skild" ("Achilles's shield"). The first main point deals with the poem "swerwende verse". This poem is read as an extensive Ars Poetics in which the poet reflects on one of the most important themes in his creative work, namely his amazement at everything that was created, including specifically creative texts. He manipulates the ancient intertexts by quoting selectively those parts and ideas with which he can identify and which form the basis of his own life and world view as illustrated by his body of creative work. Then he fertilises the old poems with modern insights that ensue from the themes of the ancient poems. As an academic who is familiar with postmodernist theory, Cloete deliberately emphasizes the process of text construction and the constructed nature of his text. From snippets of the ancient texts he abstracts the essence of those texts and constructs a new text, representing the poet's own interpretation of the intertexts. In this way, he re-activates the old texts by making them relevant and stimulating to the modern reader. A poem that is structurally and thematically strongly associated with "swerwende verse" is "Achilles se skild". These two poems frame the section "saamsing" in Onversadig. According to Yuri Lotman (1972: 306), the frame of a narrative (and in this case also of a series of poems in which the "story" of the poet's creative work is "told") has an important structuring and thematic function. References to Achilles's shield often appear in Cloete's work and illustrate the concept of self-transcendation which Cloete, according to his memoir Die ander een is ek, regards as one of the most important aspects of the creative process. He identifies with the ancient myth of Achilles's Shield in more than one way. In the second main point I discuss the way in which Cloete identifies with the lame god Hefaistos of ancient Greece. Cloete himself was disfigured in his youth by poliomyelitis and often refers to himself in metaphors of disfiguration. The cripple who is also an artist is a constant theme in the poetical oeuvre of T.T. Cloete. By accentuating the role of Hefaistos in the poem "Achilles se skild" the poet makes a statement about his personal identity as a so-called "cripple". Hefaistos becomes a persona of the author himself. <![CDATA[<b>The influence of agentive passive constructions on the changing use of the adposition <i>deur</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512019000100003&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Daar is min deskriptiewe navorsing beskikbaar oor die gebruik van setsels in Afrikaans. Die meerderheid van die literatuur fokus op wat presies setsels is en hoe setsels in konstruksies gebruik word, sonder om veel aandag te skenk aan die grammatikale funksie daarvan in sodanige konstruksies. Diachroniese navorsing oor setsels is ook beperk en die diachroniese navorsing wat wel beskikbaar is, fokus nie op die veranderende gebruik van setsels nie. ʼn Setsel waaroor daar min navorsing beskikbaar is, is deur. In hierdie artikel word ondersoek ingestel na die veranderende gebruik van die setsel deur vir die periode 1911 tot 2010. Die setsel se prominentste en ander meer of minder algemene gebruike word aan die hand van funksionele sintaksis, spesifiek die voorstellingsfunksie, geïdentifiseer met behulp van korttermyn-diachroniese korpuslinguistiese metodes. Elke afdeling van die korpus verteenwoordig ʼn dekade van Afrikaanse taalgebruik, naamlik 1911-1920 (A1), 1941-1950 (A2), 1971-1980 (A3) en 2001-2010 (A4). Die analises toon dat die belangrikste algehele frekwensieveranderinge wat deur ondergaan het, ten nouste verweef is met die gebruik van deur-setselstukke om akteurs in agenthebbende passiefkonstruksies in te lei. Tussen A1 en A2 van die korpus is daar ʼn beduidende toename in die algehele gebruik van setselstukke met deur, gevolg deur ʼn beduidende afname in gebruik tussen A2 en A4. Ongeveer 47% van al die setselstukke met deur word oor die korpus heen gebruik om die akteur van agenthebbende passiewe konkrete prosesse in te lei. Die prominentste gebruik van deur het waarskynlik verander as gevolg van ʼn verandering in die totale passiefgebruik oor die korpus heen. Die veranderende setselgebruik van deur kan gevolglik nie toegeskryf word aan verandering in die gebruik van die setsel op sigself nie, maar dit is eerder indirek die resultaat van die veranderende gebruik van passiefkonstruksies oor die korpus heen.<hr/>Descriptive research on Afrikaans adpositions is very limited and the majority of the research focuses on what adpositions are (such as Ponelis 1979; 1993; Van Schoor 1983:67-84), and how they are used in constructions (such as Kempen 1984; Pretorius 1972; Ponelis 1984), without paying much attention to the function of the adposition in constructions. An Afrikaans adposition that is extremely under-researched is deur ("by" / "through"). This article investigates the reasons behind the frequency changes in the use of the adposition deur in Afrikaans between 1911 and 2010. Halliday and Matthiessen's (2014) representational function, a functional approach to syntax within the theoretical framework of systemic functional grammar, is used to analyse and interpret diachronic corpus data. The four sections in Kirsten's (2016) Historiese korpus van geskrewe Afrikaans (Historical corpus of written Afrikaans) are used to conduct the analyses. Each section of the corpus represents a decade of Afrikaans language usage, namely 1911-1920 (S1), 1941-1950 (S2), 1971-1980 (S3) and 2001-2010 (S4), with intervals of 20 years between each decade - each section consists of approximately 261 000 words. Random samples of 500 instances of deur were extracted from each section of the corpus for further analyses. The analyses indicate that between S1 and S2 of the corpus there is a significant increase in the total adpositional use of deur. The adposition, however, is used less frequently after S2 of the corpus, leading to a gradual, significant decline in usage between S2 and S4 of the corpus. Based on the analyses, it was determined that adpositional phrases with deur are used predominantly in conjunction with material processes. The overall frequency changes of the adpositional use of deur with material processes resemble the frequency changes observed in the overall adpositional use of deur. Between S1 and S2 of the corpus there is a significant increase in the use of adpositions with deur with material processes, followed by a significant decrease in use between S2 and S4 of the corpus. The same pattern of frequency changes is once again observed in the most salient use of adpositional phrases with deur with material processes, and where phrases with deur are used as part of the agent in passive constructions. This led us to the initial conclusion that changes in the most salient use of adpositional phrases with deur were the most likely explanation for the overall frequency changes of the adpositional use of deur. Approximately 85% of the total uses of deur as part of the agent with material processes are used to indicate the agent in long passives. There is therefore a strong relationship between the overall use of passive constructions in Afrikaans and the use of deur. Between S1 and S3 of the corpus there is a significant increase in the overall use of passive constructions, followed by a significant decline in usage between S3 and S4 of the corpus. Since the pattern of changes observed in the overall change of the adpositional uses of deur is very similar to the pattern of the overall change in the use of passive constructions in the corpus, the most likely explanation for the overall frequency changes in die adpositional uses of deur is the result of the change in use of passive constructions. The changes in the use of passive constructions directly impacted the most salient adpositional use of deur, to mark the agent in long passives, which caused the overall change in the adpositional use of deur. <![CDATA[<b>The possiblie impact of an absent father on a child's development — a teacher's perspective</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512019000100004&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= <![CDATA[<b>The effect of a compulsory academic literacy module on the academic writing skills of Afrikaans mother-tongue first-year nursing students</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512019000100005&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= In hierdie artikel word die effek van 'n verpligte akademiesegeletterdheidsmodule op Afrikaansmoedertaal-eerstejaarverpleegstudente se akademiese skryfwerk deur middel van 'n evaluering, ondersoek. Alhoewel akademiese geletterdheid meer as net akademiese skryfwerk behels, is skryf steeds een van die hoofaktiwiteite waarmee universiteitstudente geassesseer word (Archer 2008:24). Die evaluering van die module het binne die konteks van toegepaste taalkunde plaasgevind aangesien een van die belangrikste funksies van toegepaste taalkunde is om oplossings vir taalprobleme te ontwerp en voor te stel. 'n Gevallestudienavorsingsontwerp is gebruik om die evaluering van die module uit te voer. Beide kwalitatiewe en kwantitatiewe navorsingsmetodes is gebruik om data in te samel en te analiseer. Eerstens is aanlyn vraelyste aan verpleegkundedosente gestuur om 'n behoeftebepaling aangaande verpleegstudente se skryfwerk te doen. Volgens die dosente sukkel verpleegstudente met skryfwerk en veral met argumentasievaardighede en het dié studente hulp nodig met hulle akademiese skryfwerk. Tweedens is die studente se akademiese skryfwerk deur middel van 'n merkskema geassesseer. Die studente het ook deur middel van fokusgroeponderhoude aangedui of die module wel 'n effek op hulle akademiese skryfwerk gehad het. Uit die empiriese resultate blyk dit dat die module wel 'n positiewe effek op die studente se skryfwerk gehad het. Dit is egter duidelik dat die studente se skryfwerk nie volmaak is na slegs een module nie. Verdere intervensies en navorsing is nodig om alle studente met hulle akademiese skryfwerk te ondersteun sodat hulle hul plek in die akademiese gemeenskap kan vind en hulle studies suksesvol kan voltooi.<hr/>Worldwide and in South Africa it seems that various perceptions exist of first-year university students who are not academically literate and struggle to produce acceptable forms of academic writing (Boughey 2000:282). Standardised testing in higher education appears to support these perceptions that students' academic literacy is not on par. Countless sources in the realm of academic literature also support the perceptions that students, and specifically first-year students, have difficulties in writing due to a number of variables. Many universities have therefore begun to realise their responsibilities in supporting students with academic literacy modules to address their general academic literacy and writing needs. The purpose and nature of these modules often vary due to the different requirements and expectations of students, subject groups, faculties and universities. Even though being academically literate entails more than just proficiency with respect to academic writing, the focus in this study was on writing because writing is considered by many universities as a high-stakes activity as it remains one of the main forms of assessment, and if students struggle with writing, the likelihood of not being able to cope with their studies is imminent. Another reason why the focus in this study was on writing is because one of the issues that lecturers complain about most, is that undergraduate students cannot write. Many lecturers assume that students have the necessary basic language skills and knowledge of academic conventions required for tertiary studies, believe that students can cope with any literacy demands, and expect them to produce academically correct written assignments. When students enter university, they are expected to adopt language appropriate for university level, and many students struggle to immerse themselves in the academic community. It is quite difficult for students to work out what is expected of them, and subject lecturers also do not always explicitly provide students with ground rules for academic writing in their subject areas and believe that students should work out what is required by themselves. The need for academic writing interventions is therefore apparent. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect an academic writing intervention (as part of PhD research) conducted for this study had on the students from the case study. The students from the subject group Nursing in a Faculty of Health Sciences served as a convenience sample because of their accessibility to the researcher. During the time the research was conducted, the nursing students were the only homogeneous group and were therefore chosen to be part of the case study for this thesis. One of the reasons why Afrikaans mother-tongue nursing students were identified to be studied as a case study in this thesis was that it is assumed, as stated in literature (Weigle 2002:4), that there is a relationship between academic success and writing ability in terms of first-language contexts. In order to be successful in their careers and as university students, nursing students need to be proficient writers. An answer to a fundamental question, "why can't students write?", frequently asked by nursing staff who lecture nursing students and by professional nurses in practice, was also investigated in this study. The main issue addressed in this study was therefore to determine how effective the writing component of a compulsory academic literacy module (an intervention focussing among others on writing development) at a South African university is in achieving its aims and objectives, and whether it contributes to the overall academic writing proficiency of first-year nursing students, as a case in point. This module evaluation was situated within the context of Applied Linguistics, because one of the main functions of Applied Linguistics is to design and suggest solutions to language problems. A case study research design was used to carry out the evaluation of the module. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used to collect data for analyses. Firstly, online questionnaires were sent to nursing lecturers in order to do a needs analysis regarding the academic writing of nursing students. According to the lecturers, nursing students especially struggle with argumentation skills, and most of the lecturers felt that the students needed help with their academic writing. Secondly, a rubric was used to assess the students' academic essay writing. Finally, in focus group interviews, the nursing students gave their opinions on whether the module had an effect on their academic writing. The empirical results indicated that the module had a positive effect on the students' academic writing. However, it is clear that the students' writing was not perfect after only one module. Further interventions and research are necessary to support students with their academic writing. This will ensure that they find their own way in the academic community and are able to complete their studies successfully. <![CDATA[<b>Grade R educators' experience of their professional development following an intervention programme</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512019000100006&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Hierdie studie ondersoek die invloed van ʼn intervensieprogram op Graad R-opvoeders se ervaring van hul professionele ontwikkeling. ʼn Intervensieprogram is saamgestel op grond van basislyndata omtrent deelnemers se voorkennis van spelgebaseerde geletterdheid, die deelnemers se vrese en bekommernisse omtrent die volg van ʼn spelgebaseerde benadering vir Graad R-leerders, asook die deelnemers se behoefte betreffende die onderrig van spelgebaseerde geletterdheid. Die intervensieprogram is voorts deur middel van deelnemende aksienavorsing ontwerp. Aangesien die intervensieprogram op die professionele ontwikkeling van opvoeders fokus, is daar van drie modelle as teoretiese raamwerke gebruik gemaak. Die CRASP I- en CRASP II-modelle fokus op die professionele ontwikkeling van opvoeders, terwyl die bekommernissegebaseerde model van onderwysersopleiding opvoeders bewus maak van moontlike vrese en bekommernisse ten opsigte van hul onderrig en hulle dan help om hierdie vrese te oorkom. Empiriese data is deur middel van kwalitatiewe data-insamelingsmetodes gegenereer. Die metodes het navorsingsrefleksiejoernale van die deelnemers en die navorser, samewerkende besprekings, semigestruktureerde fokusgroeponderhoude, observasie, oopeindevrae en oopeinde-onderhoude ingesluit. Die bevindinge van die studie dui daarop dat die deelnemers die intervensieprogram baie positief beleef het. Die bevindinge dui verder daarop dat die deelnemers na afloop van die intervensieprogramme meer insig in leerders se agterstande asook insig in hul eie onderrigmetodes gekry het. Die deelnemers aan die studie se selfvertroue in die benutting van spelgebaseerde onderrig het verbeter sodat hulle meer doelgerig kon onderrig en beplan. Die deelnemers het verder daarop gewys dat hul kennis in so ʼn mate verbeter het dat hulle leerders met uitdagings beter kan identifiseer en dienooreenkomstig kan ondersteun. Die studie, bevindinge en aanbevelings kan ʼn bydrae lewer tot die professionele ontwikkeling van opvoeders betreffende die onderrig van spelgebaseerde geletterdheid.<hr/>This study investigates Grade R educators' experience of their professional development, following an intervention programme. An intervention programme was compiled based on baseline data. The baseline data indicated that the participants' prior knowledge of play-based literacy was very limited. In the baseline data, the participants indicated that they experienced fears and concerns about the use of a play-based approach for Grade R learners. The participants were uncertain about how or whether to plan for play-based literacy, as well as how to identify their learners' challenges through a play-based approach. Participatory action research was chosen as a meta-theoretical paradigm for the study. One of the characteristics of participatory action research is that it is conducted in cycles. Empirical data were collected over a period of eight weeks through the five cycles of participatory action research. The data were generated by means of qualitative data collection methods. These methods included research reflection journals of the participants and the researcher, collaborative discussions, semi-structured focus group interviews, observation, open-ended questions and open-ended interviews. Based on the baseline data collected, and as the study focused on the professional development of educators, two models were chosen as theoretical frameworks. The first models used, were CRASP I and CRASP II, focusing on the professional development of educators through participatory action research. Through participatory action research, educators can do critical self-evaluation about their own knowledge. A critical attitude causes a search for answers and leads to responsibility and a need for professional development. The purpose of the CRASP models is to change educators' attitudes, skills and practices through professional development so that there can be an improvement in learners' learning outcomes. The second model used during the study is the concerns-based model of teacher development. Education changes regularly, and as educators develop fears and worries about their own teaching methods, the concerns-based model of teacher development aims to help educators overcome their fears and concerns about teaching. CRASP I and CRASP II, as well as the concerns-based model of teacher development, have been combined to contribute to the professional development of Grade R educators through play-based literacy. The findings of the study indicate that the participants experienced the intervention programme as very positive. The findings further indicate that through the intervention programme, all the participants have gained insight into the learners' deficits, as well as insight into their own teaching methods. Nine out of ten of the participants in the study indicated that their self-confidence in the utilisation of play-based education had improved to such an extent that following the intervention programme, they understood the value of a spell-based approach and that they could effectively plan for a play-based approach. The participants further pointed out that they had improved their knowledge to such an extent that they could better identify and support learners with challenges. The study, the findings and the recommendations may contribute to the professional development of educators in terms of the teaching of play-based literacy. <![CDATA[<b>Decolonising the curriculum: Contextualising Economics and Business Studies Teaching</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512019000100007&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Die debat oor die dekolonisering van opvoeding het (her)opgeduik in Suid-Afrika. Daar word erken dat dekolonisering ʼn komplekse en veelvlakkige proses is met betrekking tot die betekenis, wie behoort in Afrika-universiteite te onderrig, wat behoort onderrig te word vir watter student (SU 2017). Komplekse begrippe soos Afrikanisasie, Eurosentrisme, verwestersing, kolonialisme, kolonialiteit, dekolonisering en dekolonialiteit het verskyn en is belig (sien SU 2017; Le Grange 2016; Le Grange 2018; Mbembe 2015). Daar is egter ʼn swye in huidige diskoerse wanneer dit kom by onderwysersopleiding (Sayed, Motala, & Hoffman 2017), spesifiek betreffende die onderrig van Ekonomie en Besigheidstudie (EBSO). Dit is omdat die dekoloniseringsdebat merendeels op hoër onderrig in die algemeen gefokus is (sien Le Grange 2016; Le Grange 2018; Mtembe 2015). Die vraag is hoe die EBSO-kurrikulum as deel van ʼn aanvanklike onderwysersopleidingsprogram gedekoloniseer en die kontekstuele en inhoudskennis belyn kan word. Inhoudskennis in EBSO is gemodelleer op ʼn oorwegend neoklassieke wêreldsiening wat meestal ontdaan is van plaaslike Suid-Afrikaanse sosio-ekonomiese werklikhede (America 2014; Maistry & David 2018) en waar ongelykheid en armoede in die samelewing steeds aansienlik hoog is (Bernstein 2014; Wêreldbank 2018). Die pre- en postkoloniale tydperke het voetspore gelaat in die hedendaagse ongelykheid en ʼn disposisie wat diep gewortel is in instellings en organisasies. Die hedendaagse sakewêreld en ekonomie waarin instellings en organisasies gevestig is, vorm deel van die inhoud van EBSO, maar is nie noodwendig 'n aanduiding van die kontekstuele kennis nie. Die rol van instellings word later bespreek. Ons argumenteer dat insig in die volgende drie aspekte riglyne kan verskaf vir die belyning van kontekstuele met inhoudskennis in onderwysersopleiding: die meriete van geskiedenis, die stel van kritiese vrae en die modellering van gekontekstualiseerde onderrig. Die toepassing van kennis wat relevant is vir spesifiek (Suid-)Afrikaanse kontekste kan studente in staat stel om beter sin te maak van hul vakgebied. Voorafgaande impliseer ʼn tweeledige aanpassing in die EBSO-kurrikulum: eerstens die insluiting van Afrika-perspektiewe en tweedens die integrasie van ekonomie en besigheidsgeskiedenis in die kurrikulum.<hr/>The decolonisation of education debate has (re)surfaced in South Africa. It is acknowledged that decolonisation is a complex and multi-layered process (see Jansen 2017; Le Grange 2016; Le Grange 2018; Venter 2018; Mbembe 2015; CHE 2017). Clarification and understanding of the complex concepts such as Africanisation, Eurocentrism, Westernisation, colonialism, coloniality, decolonialism and decoloniality also surfaced (see Jansen 2017; Le Grange 2016; Le Grange 2018; Maldonado-Torres 2007; Venter 2018; Mbembe 2015; CHE 2017). However, there is a silence in current discourses when it comes to teacher education (Sayed, Motala & Hoffman 2017) and specifically Economics Teaching and Business Studies Teaching (EBST), since the focus of the decolonisation debate has been on higher education in general. Teacher education is a field that functions at the interface of higher education and schooling and therefore the complexity and context of the school system (in)directly impact on teacher education programmes. Mbembe (2015:17) argues that most of the implications for decolonising higher education have to do with content and the extent of what is to be taught (curriculum reform). But, this does not mean that decolonising knowledge is simply about de-Westernisation or to reject Western epistemic contributions to the world (Mignolo 2011:82), or to reverse technological advancement, or simply turn back the clock and revert to old ways of doing (Le Grange 2016). Rather, it is about developing a "perspective which can allow us to see ourselves clearly, but always in relationship with ourselves and to other selves in the universe, non-humans included" (Mbembe 2015:24). The question is how the EBST curriculum, as part of an initial teacher education programme, can be decolonised. Not enough is known about the alignment of EBST's contextual and content knowledge in decolonising of teacher education. The aim of this article is to extend the conversation on decolonising of the curriculum by focusing on EBST disciplinary/content knowledge and the generation of contextually relevant knowledge. Young and Muller (2013:107-108) view disciplinary knowledge as "powerful knowledge" that is regarded as "reliable knowledge" and produced in "specialist knowledge communities" with "rules", "concepts" and "boundaries". Horden (2018) maintains that the powerfulness depicted by Young and Muller is also dependent on certain socio-epistemic and institutional conditions. Maistry and David (2018) are of the view that business education has shown an ideological bias, which is couched within a predominant neo-classical worldview that is mostly devoid of local (South) African realities. Moreover, firms in Africa have received little attention in mainstream business management literature (Barnard, Cuervo-Cazurra & Manning 2017). Barnard et al. (2017:3) argue that there are different dimensions of the business world at play in Africa that we are only beginning to understand. For example, traditional concepts such as ubuntu, an African concept which means "I only exist through my interaction with you", play an important institutional role in many African firms. Contemporary business in Africa takes place in a context where people are mindful of the relative recent history of colonialism (Barnard et al. 2017). The perpetuation of imperial or neo-colonial tendencies cannot be looked at in isolation from socio-economic realities. We argue that knowledge needs to be looked at in the context and history of colonialism and apartheid, and the overt and covert features of the (mis)management of power. The pre- and post-colonial eras have footprints in present day wealth inequality and a disposition that is rooted in institutions and organisations. Institutions and organisations are firmly entrenched in modern-day business and the economy, which enfold EBST content knowledge. Therefore the role of institutions is discussed, and examples put forward to illustrate its importance in EBST. We argue that insights into three aspects, namely, why history matters, asking guiding questions and modelling contextualized teaching, could provide guidelines for aligning contextual and content knowledge in teacher education. The first aspect relates to path dependency which broadly defines the way the patterns of the past tend to shape the future (North 1990). The history of colonial Africa has become a popular topic in the development and economics literature (Viegi 2016) and recently also in the literature on decolonisation of higher and school education in South Africa. At the higher education level broadly, there is the call for the recognition of African voices in the advancement and reproduction of knowledge (Mbembe 2015). At school level a specific call is made for the teaching of history from an Afrocentric view as opposed to a Eurocentric worldview (Motsega 2018). History is important since it gives insight into understanding current inequality and understanding of a particular mindset of pre- and post-colonial eras we are still troubled by today. The importance of history and the coloniality of power are also deeply interwoven in institutions and organisations. The second aspect of contextualized teaching is to ask guiding questions such as "why do countries differ so much in development?" (Acemoglu & Robinson 2012). EBST teacher educators are often themselves not critical about the formal curriculum so as to mediate learning that raises questions about the conduct and decision-making of corporates. As is the case with most subjects, the question is which content is considered to be the most impactful, how should it be taught and in which context. Asking pertinent questions about the impact of economic crises or key contemporary issues in (South) Africa, and challenging existing worldviews are important. The third aspect of contextualised teaching is to explicitly model contextualised thinking, which can be done through a path of learning which could facilitate "interculturality: a process of un-learn, re-learn and then move toward learning to undertaking" (De Carvalho & Florez-Florez 2014:134). Interculturality is an active process of transformation, which identifies the integrated relationships between persons or social groups of diverse worldviews and cultures. Selecting relevant EBST resource material is important, such as use of African case studies and the encouragement of Afrocentric innovations (Barnard et al. 2017). For years, the most accessible and dominant resources for EBST have been from a Western and/or Eurocentric worldview from which narratives revolve around a masculine, white, and liberal view of reality (Maistry & David 2018). Over the years, educators became dependent on these knowledge systems, epistemological traditions and curriculum materials. Applying knowledge that is also relevant to (South) African contexts can allow students to better make sense of the discipline within which they study. The implications for the EBST-curriculum is therefore two-fold: the inclusion of African perspectives and secondly, the integration of economic and business history in the curriculum. <![CDATA[<b>Redakteursnota</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512019000100008&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Die debat oor die dekolonisering van opvoeding het (her)opgeduik in Suid-Afrika. Daar word erken dat dekolonisering ʼn komplekse en veelvlakkige proses is met betrekking tot die betekenis, wie behoort in Afrika-universiteite te onderrig, wat behoort onderrig te word vir watter student (SU 2017). Komplekse begrippe soos Afrikanisasie, Eurosentrisme, verwestersing, kolonialisme, kolonialiteit, dekolonisering en dekolonialiteit het verskyn en is belig (sien SU 2017; Le Grange 2016; Le Grange 2018; Mbembe 2015). Daar is egter ʼn swye in huidige diskoerse wanneer dit kom by onderwysersopleiding (Sayed, Motala, & Hoffman 2017), spesifiek betreffende die onderrig van Ekonomie en Besigheidstudie (EBSO). Dit is omdat die dekoloniseringsdebat merendeels op hoër onderrig in die algemeen gefokus is (sien Le Grange 2016; Le Grange 2018; Mtembe 2015). Die vraag is hoe die EBSO-kurrikulum as deel van ʼn aanvanklike onderwysersopleidingsprogram gedekoloniseer en die kontekstuele en inhoudskennis belyn kan word. Inhoudskennis in EBSO is gemodelleer op ʼn oorwegend neoklassieke wêreldsiening wat meestal ontdaan is van plaaslike Suid-Afrikaanse sosio-ekonomiese werklikhede (America 2014; Maistry & David 2018) en waar ongelykheid en armoede in die samelewing steeds aansienlik hoog is (Bernstein 2014; Wêreldbank 2018). Die pre- en postkoloniale tydperke het voetspore gelaat in die hedendaagse ongelykheid en ʼn disposisie wat diep gewortel is in instellings en organisasies. Die hedendaagse sakewêreld en ekonomie waarin instellings en organisasies gevestig is, vorm deel van die inhoud van EBSO, maar is nie noodwendig 'n aanduiding van die kontekstuele kennis nie. Die rol van instellings word later bespreek. Ons argumenteer dat insig in die volgende drie aspekte riglyne kan verskaf vir die belyning van kontekstuele met inhoudskennis in onderwysersopleiding: die meriete van geskiedenis, die stel van kritiese vrae en die modellering van gekontekstualiseerde onderrig. Die toepassing van kennis wat relevant is vir spesifiek (Suid-)Afrikaanse kontekste kan studente in staat stel om beter sin te maak van hul vakgebied. Voorafgaande impliseer ʼn tweeledige aanpassing in die EBSO-kurrikulum: eerstens die insluiting van Afrika-perspektiewe en tweedens die integrasie van ekonomie en besigheidsgeskiedenis in die kurrikulum.<hr/>The decolonisation of education debate has (re)surfaced in South Africa. It is acknowledged that decolonisation is a complex and multi-layered process (see Jansen 2017; Le Grange 2016; Le Grange 2018; Venter 2018; Mbembe 2015; CHE 2017). Clarification and understanding of the complex concepts such as Africanisation, Eurocentrism, Westernisation, colonialism, coloniality, decolonialism and decoloniality also surfaced (see Jansen 2017; Le Grange 2016; Le Grange 2018; Maldonado-Torres 2007; Venter 2018; Mbembe 2015; CHE 2017). However, there is a silence in current discourses when it comes to teacher education (Sayed, Motala & Hoffman 2017) and specifically Economics Teaching and Business Studies Teaching (EBST), since the focus of the decolonisation debate has been on higher education in general. Teacher education is a field that functions at the interface of higher education and schooling and therefore the complexity and context of the school system (in)directly impact on teacher education programmes. Mbembe (2015:17) argues that most of the implications for decolonising higher education have to do with content and the extent of what is to be taught (curriculum reform). But, this does not mean that decolonising knowledge is simply about de-Westernisation or to reject Western epistemic contributions to the world (Mignolo 2011:82), or to reverse technological advancement, or simply turn back the clock and revert to old ways of doing (Le Grange 2016). Rather, it is about developing a "perspective which can allow us to see ourselves clearly, but always in relationship with ourselves and to other selves in the universe, non-humans included" (Mbembe 2015:24). The question is how the EBST curriculum, as part of an initial teacher education programme, can be decolonised. Not enough is known about the alignment of EBST's contextual and content knowledge in decolonising of teacher education. The aim of this article is to extend the conversation on decolonising of the curriculum by focusing on EBST disciplinary/content knowledge and the generation of contextually relevant knowledge. Young and Muller (2013:107-108) view disciplinary knowledge as "powerful knowledge" that is regarded as "reliable knowledge" and produced in "specialist knowledge communities" with "rules", "concepts" and "boundaries". Horden (2018) maintains that the powerfulness depicted by Young and Muller is also dependent on certain socio-epistemic and institutional conditions. Maistry and David (2018) are of the view that business education has shown an ideological bias, which is couched within a predominant neo-classical worldview that is mostly devoid of local (South) African realities. Moreover, firms in Africa have received little attention in mainstream business management literature (Barnard, Cuervo-Cazurra & Manning 2017). Barnard et al. (2017:3) argue that there are different dimensions of the business world at play in Africa that we are only beginning to understand. For example, traditional concepts such as ubuntu, an African concept which means "I only exist through my interaction with you", play an important institutional role in many African firms. Contemporary business in Africa takes place in a context where people are mindful of the relative recent history of colonialism (Barnard et al. 2017). The perpetuation of imperial or neo-colonial tendencies cannot be looked at in isolation from socio-economic realities. We argue that knowledge needs to be looked at in the context and history of colonialism and apartheid, and the overt and covert features of the (mis)management of power. The pre- and post-colonial eras have footprints in present day wealth inequality and a disposition that is rooted in institutions and organisations. Institutions and organisations are firmly entrenched in modern-day business and the economy, which enfold EBST content knowledge. Therefore the role of institutions is discussed, and examples put forward to illustrate its importance in EBST. We argue that insights into three aspects, namely, why history matters, asking guiding questions and modelling contextualized teaching, could provide guidelines for aligning contextual and content knowledge in teacher education. The first aspect relates to path dependency which broadly defines the way the patterns of the past tend to shape the future (North 1990). The history of colonial Africa has become a popular topic in the development and economics literature (Viegi 2016) and recently also in the literature on decolonisation of higher and school education in South Africa. At the higher education level broadly, there is the call for the recognition of African voices in the advancement and reproduction of knowledge (Mbembe 2015). At school level a specific call is made for the teaching of history from an Afrocentric view as opposed to a Eurocentric worldview (Motsega 2018). History is important since it gives insight into understanding current inequality and understanding of a particular mindset of pre- and post-colonial eras we are still troubled by today. The importance of history and the coloniality of power are also deeply interwoven in institutions and organisations. The second aspect of contextualized teaching is to ask guiding questions such as "why do countries differ so much in development?" (Acemoglu & Robinson 2012). EBST teacher educators are often themselves not critical about the formal curriculum so as to mediate learning that raises questions about the conduct and decision-making of corporates. As is the case with most subjects, the question is which content is considered to be the most impactful, how should it be taught and in which context. Asking pertinent questions about the impact of economic crises or key contemporary issues in (South) Africa, and challenging existing worldviews are important. The third aspect of contextualised teaching is to explicitly model contextualised thinking, which can be done through a path of learning which could facilitate "interculturality: a process of un-learn, re-learn and then move toward learning to undertaking" (De Carvalho & Florez-Florez 2014:134). Interculturality is an active process of transformation, which identifies the integrated relationships between persons or social groups of diverse worldviews and cultures. Selecting relevant EBST resource material is important, such as use of African case studies and the encouragement of Afrocentric innovations (Barnard et al. 2017). For years, the most accessible and dominant resources for EBST have been from a Western and/or Eurocentric worldview from which narratives revolve around a masculine, white, and liberal view of reality (Maistry & David 2018). Over the years, educators became dependent on these knowledge systems, epistemological traditions and curriculum materials. Applying knowledge that is also relevant to (South) African contexts can allow students to better make sense of the discipline within which they study. The implications for the EBST-curriculum is therefore two-fold: the inclusion of African perspectives and secondly, the integration of economic and business history in the curriculum. <![CDATA[<b>Guidelines for the choice of road projects by government</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512019000100009&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Dié artikel verduidelik waarom die voorsiening van openbare paaie aan markmislukking onderhewig is, en verduidelik die redes waarom openbare paaie deur die staat voorsien word. Dié oorwegings is hoofsaaklik ekonomies van aard en word uit 'n sektorale, mikro- en makroëkonomiese oogpunt toegelig. Die bedryfseienskappe van padvervoer, teenoor dié van spoorvervoer, wat vir die stimulering van ekonomiese lewenskragtigheid bevorderlik is, word oorsigtelik verduidelik. Die staat se plig om padinfrastruktuur te voorsien bring mee dat daarvoor begroot moet word. Die artikel beskryf die situasie wanneer padowerhede reaktief die voordele van padvoorsiening moet probeer maksimeer onder die beperking van fiskale rantsoenering en 'n vaste begroting. Ten slotte word voorgestel dat padowerhede, met oordeelkundige benutting ook van leningsfondse, proaktief optree om die voordele van padvoorsiening te maksimeer deur hulle padboubegrotings as veranderlik te benader, maar onderworpe aan 'n prestasiereël.<hr/>This article explains why the supply of public roads may be subject to market failure; it also explains why public roads are supplied by government. The reasons are mainly economic and are explained from a sectoral, micro- and macroeconomic perspective. The article makes the point that expenditure on road construction projects injects funds into the private sector and promotes production. This, together with an increased demand for transport, can stimulate the economy. Stimulation of economic activities is associated with higher profits and personal incomes, and the resultant increase in taxes boosts government income. In this way, non-users also help to "repay" the capital amount invested in the transport facilities that originally helped to stimulate economic activity. New and improved roads provide access to property, and facilitate mobility and interaction within and between areas that support economic growth and development potential, which can give rise to new economic land-use patterns and the acceleration of business activities. These factors increase financial returns to investors and fixed-property owners, which in turn boost land values. The increase in taxable-land values leads to an increase in the revenue of local authorities from property tax. As a result, local authorities may have more funds available to maintain the local road networks that stimulated the increase in tax revenue in their jurisdictions. The operational characteristics of road transport that are conducive to the stimulation of economic activity are identified and described. It was found that road transport infrastructure and services can serve as mechanisms to gain access to economic activities; trigger economic development; accelerate economic growth; and serve as a catalyst to equalise the distribution of wealth. The article explains how the achievement of sectoral and microeconomic benefits by economically justified roads leads to the attainment of macroeconomic goals. Government's obligation to supply public roads necessitates proper planning and budgeting for such roads. The article describes the situation where road authorities have to endeavour reactively to maximise the benefits of road provision when they are restricted by a rationed and fixed budget. Lastly, in order to mitigate the effects of government economic failure, it is proposed that road authorities act proactively, through judicious use of loan funds, to maximise the benefits of road provision by treating their road budgets as variable, but subject to a performance rule. <![CDATA[<b>Proposed methods to maximise the benefits of road projects</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512019000100010&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Hierdie artikel stel metodes voor wat 'n vervoerowerheid kan volg om die voordele van padvoorsiening te maksimeer. Ná die inleiding word 'n metode voorgestel waarvolgens openbare padprojekte gekies kan word wanneer 'n vaste begroting vir padbouprojekte geld. Hierdie metode bestaan uit vyf stappe en is gegrond op die inkrementele-voordeel-koste-beginsel. 'n Prestasiegeoriënteerde metode word voorgestel vir die proaktiewe keuse van padprojekte om ekonomiese groei en ontwikkeling teweeg te bring wanneer 'n veranderlike begroting moontlik is. Die metode bestaan uit drie stappe en is, soos die keuringsproses wat bespreek is, gegrond op die inkrementele-voordeel-koste-beginsel. Hierdie twee metodes word met behulp van voorbeelde toegelig. Die gevolgtrekkings wat uit die studie vloei, word dan aangebied.<hr/>This article proposes methods that a transport authority can apply to maximise the benefits of road provision both when the rationing of funds leads to a curtailed and fixed budget limit, and, proactively, when a variable budget subject to a funding rule is available. With a fixed limit on public capital expenditure, public projects compete with one another for funding. When a number of mutually exclusive and independent projects are under consideration for selection and prioritisation and the decision maker has to maximise benefit subject to a fixed budget constraint, a method of project selection based on incremental benefit-cost ratio analysis is recommended. The proposed selection process in the case of a fixed budget limit is demonstrated by an example. The proposed procedure consists of the following five steps: 1) Identify all projects that may be considered for selection, having due regard to the budget limit, and eliminate all projects (a) of which the implementation cost exceeds this limit, and (b) that are not economically viable, technically feasible and environmentally acceptable. 2) Classify all mutually exclusive projects (i.e. alternative projects) that qualify for consideration into separate, independent groups, and arrange the alternatives in each group in order of increasing implementation cost. 3) Provisionally select in each group the project that has the highest benefit-cost (BC) ratio. 4) From these projects, select the one with the highest ratio and then note the remaining balance in the capital budget. The more expensive projects in the group from which the highest-ratio project was provisionally selected are then considered in terms of their incremental BC ratios. Put the alternative in this group with the highest viable incremental BC ratio, if there is such an alternative, on the list of the other projects still to be considered. In the remainder of the selection process (i.e. the subsequent iterative rounds) selecting the best project in each group follows a two-step process. Firstly, the project with the highest (viable) incremental BC ratio is identified and compared with the rest of the independent projects. Then projects are chosen consecutively in order of descending economic viability; they are identified by either the BC ratio of an independent project (in another group) or the incremental BC ratio of a mutually exclusive project (in the same group). Secondly, as each project is provisionally selected, the balance in the budget is adjusted to reflect the effect of the projects selected. All remaining projects of which the implementation cost exceeds this balance are excluded. This iterative process ends when the balance of the budget is (a) exhausted or insufficient to cover any other project's implementation cost, or (b) when no viable projects remain for consideration. 5) If a balance remains in the available budget, consider whether inclusion of any of the excluded projects or exclusion of any of the included projects would increase the aggregate net present value (NPV) of the final budget. If the budget has no fixed limit, the problem is one of weighing public against private uses of the resources. One now follows the rule that an indivisible public project (such as a road facility) is worth undertaking provided its benefits exceed its investment cost. The justification for the rule is that the cost of investing one rand in the public sector is the loss of one rand of benefits in the private sector - a loss which results from not investing n rand in the private sector. The article proposes and outlines a procedure to select road projects subject to a funding rule based on expenditure productivity. The rule may be that each unit of capital expenditure should yield at least a certain threshold amount more in benefits. All the alternative projects in each independent group that comply with the funding criterion of minimum productivity are considered for possible selection. When using a funding rule, therefore, projects are selected from the alternatives in each independent group. With a funding rule based on a productivity criterion, a project cannot be eliminated from the selection process on account of its implementation expenditure exceeding a certain budget limit. The procedure for project selection is simpler than with a given budget constraint. Different independent groups are no longer in competition - the most productive alternative project in each group can be selected on condition that it meets the funding rule. The proposed selection method according to a funding rule consists of the following three steps: 1) Consider only those alternative projects in each group of mutually exclusive projects that are economically viable, technically feasible and environmentally acceptable, and arrange them per group in order of increasing implementation cost. 2) Identify in each group the project that has the highest BC ratio. If the ratio of this project exceeds the prescribed threshold ratio value, funding of the project is acceptable, and if not, no project is chosen from the group. 3) Choose from the more expensive projects in each group the one with the highest incremental BC ratio, provided this ratio exceeds the prescribed threshold value. If there are no costlier projects with an incremental BC ratio that exceeds the threshold ratio value, the project identified in Step 2 is the selected project. If there are costlier projects with an incremental BC ratio that exceeds the funding rule threshold value, the one with the highest ratio is chosen. The process should be repeated until there are no costlier alternatives left with incremental BC ratios that satisfy the funding rule than the last one considered most justified. The proposed method to select projects subject to a funding rule is demonstrated by an example in the article. <![CDATA[<b>Kommentaar op die artikels van prof Wessel Pienaar rakende riglyne by die keuse van padprojekte deur die Suid-Afrikaanse owerheid</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512019000100011&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Hierdie artikel stel metodes voor wat 'n vervoerowerheid kan volg om die voordele van padvoorsiening te maksimeer. Ná die inleiding word 'n metode voorgestel waarvolgens openbare padprojekte gekies kan word wanneer 'n vaste begroting vir padbouprojekte geld. Hierdie metode bestaan uit vyf stappe en is gegrond op die inkrementele-voordeel-koste-beginsel. 'n Prestasiegeoriënteerde metode word voorgestel vir die proaktiewe keuse van padprojekte om ekonomiese groei en ontwikkeling teweeg te bring wanneer 'n veranderlike begroting moontlik is. Die metode bestaan uit drie stappe en is, soos die keuringsproses wat bespreek is, gegrond op die inkrementele-voordeel-koste-beginsel. Hierdie twee metodes word met behulp van voorbeelde toegelig. Die gevolgtrekkings wat uit die studie vloei, word dan aangebied.<hr/>This article proposes methods that a transport authority can apply to maximise the benefits of road provision both when the rationing of funds leads to a curtailed and fixed budget limit, and, proactively, when a variable budget subject to a funding rule is available. With a fixed limit on public capital expenditure, public projects compete with one another for funding. When a number of mutually exclusive and independent projects are under consideration for selection and prioritisation and the decision maker has to maximise benefit subject to a fixed budget constraint, a method of project selection based on incremental benefit-cost ratio analysis is recommended. The proposed selection process in the case of a fixed budget limit is demonstrated by an example. The proposed procedure consists of the following five steps: 1) Identify all projects that may be considered for selection, having due regard to the budget limit, and eliminate all projects (a) of which the implementation cost exceeds this limit, and (b) that are not economically viable, technically feasible and environmentally acceptable. 2) Classify all mutually exclusive projects (i.e. alternative projects) that qualify for consideration into separate, independent groups, and arrange the alternatives in each group in order of increasing implementation cost. 3) Provisionally select in each group the project that has the highest benefit-cost (BC) ratio. 4) From these projects, select the one with the highest ratio and then note the remaining balance in the capital budget. The more expensive projects in the group from which the highest-ratio project was provisionally selected are then considered in terms of their incremental BC ratios. Put the alternative in this group with the highest viable incremental BC ratio, if there is such an alternative, on the list of the other projects still to be considered. In the remainder of the selection process (i.e. the subsequent iterative rounds) selecting the best project in each group follows a two-step process. Firstly, the project with the highest (viable) incremental BC ratio is identified and compared with the rest of the independent projects. Then projects are chosen consecutively in order of descending economic viability; they are identified by either the BC ratio of an independent project (in another group) or the incremental BC ratio of a mutually exclusive project (in the same group). Secondly, as each project is provisionally selected, the balance in the budget is adjusted to reflect the effect of the projects selected. All remaining projects of which the implementation cost exceeds this balance are excluded. This iterative process ends when the balance of the budget is (a) exhausted or insufficient to cover any other project's implementation cost, or (b) when no viable projects remain for consideration. 5) If a balance remains in the available budget, consider whether inclusion of any of the excluded projects or exclusion of any of the included projects would increase the aggregate net present value (NPV) of the final budget. If the budget has no fixed limit, the problem is one of weighing public against private uses of the resources. One now follows the rule that an indivisible public project (such as a road facility) is worth undertaking provided its benefits exceed its investment cost. The justification for the rule is that the cost of investing one rand in the public sector is the loss of one rand of benefits in the private sector - a loss which results from not investing n rand in the private sector. The article proposes and outlines a procedure to select road projects subject to a funding rule based on expenditure productivity. The rule may be that each unit of capital expenditure should yield at least a certain threshold amount more in benefits. All the alternative projects in each independent group that comply with the funding criterion of minimum productivity are considered for possible selection. When using a funding rule, therefore, projects are selected from the alternatives in each independent group. With a funding rule based on a productivity criterion, a project cannot be eliminated from the selection process on account of its implementation expenditure exceeding a certain budget limit. The procedure for project selection is simpler than with a given budget constraint. Different independent groups are no longer in competition - the most productive alternative project in each group can be selected on condition that it meets the funding rule. The proposed selection method according to a funding rule consists of the following three steps: 1) Consider only those alternative projects in each group of mutually exclusive projects that are economically viable, technically feasible and environmentally acceptable, and arrange them per group in order of increasing implementation cost. 2) Identify in each group the project that has the highest BC ratio. If the ratio of this project exceeds the prescribed threshold ratio value, funding of the project is acceptable, and if not, no project is chosen from the group. 3) Choose from the more expensive projects in each group the one with the highest incremental BC ratio, provided this ratio exceeds the prescribed threshold value. If there are no costlier projects with an incremental BC ratio that exceeds the threshold ratio value, the project identified in Step 2 is the selected project. If there are costlier projects with an incremental BC ratio that exceeds the funding rule threshold value, the one with the highest ratio is chosen. The process should be repeated until there are no costlier alternatives left with incremental BC ratios that satisfy the funding rule than the last one considered most justified. The proposed method to select projects subject to a funding rule is demonstrated by an example in the article. <![CDATA[<b>Een engel en een ganzenveer</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512019000100012&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Hierdie artikel stel metodes voor wat 'n vervoerowerheid kan volg om die voordele van padvoorsiening te maksimeer. Ná die inleiding word 'n metode voorgestel waarvolgens openbare padprojekte gekies kan word wanneer 'n vaste begroting vir padbouprojekte geld. Hierdie metode bestaan uit vyf stappe en is gegrond op die inkrementele-voordeel-koste-beginsel. 'n Prestasiegeoriënteerde metode word voorgestel vir die proaktiewe keuse van padprojekte om ekonomiese groei en ontwikkeling teweeg te bring wanneer 'n veranderlike begroting moontlik is. Die metode bestaan uit drie stappe en is, soos die keuringsproses wat bespreek is, gegrond op die inkrementele-voordeel-koste-beginsel. Hierdie twee metodes word met behulp van voorbeelde toegelig. Die gevolgtrekkings wat uit die studie vloei, word dan aangebied.<hr/>This article proposes methods that a transport authority can apply to maximise the benefits of road provision both when the rationing of funds leads to a curtailed and fixed budget limit, and, proactively, when a variable budget subject to a funding rule is available. With a fixed limit on public capital expenditure, public projects compete with one another for funding. When a number of mutually exclusive and independent projects are under consideration for selection and prioritisation and the decision maker has to maximise benefit subject to a fixed budget constraint, a method of project selection based on incremental benefit-cost ratio analysis is recommended. The proposed selection process in the case of a fixed budget limit is demonstrated by an example. The proposed procedure consists of the following five steps: 1) Identify all projects that may be considered for selection, having due regard to the budget limit, and eliminate all projects (a) of which the implementation cost exceeds this limit, and (b) that are not economically viable, technically feasible and environmentally acceptable. 2) Classify all mutually exclusive projects (i.e. alternative projects) that qualify for consideration into separate, independent groups, and arrange the alternatives in each group in order of increasing implementation cost. 3) Provisionally select in each group the project that has the highest benefit-cost (BC) ratio. 4) From these projects, select the one with the highest ratio and then note the remaining balance in the capital budget. The more expensive projects in the group from which the highest-ratio project was provisionally selected are then considered in terms of their incremental BC ratios. Put the alternative in this group with the highest viable incremental BC ratio, if there is such an alternative, on the list of the other projects still to be considered. In the remainder of the selection process (i.e. the subsequent iterative rounds) selecting the best project in each group follows a two-step process. Firstly, the project with the highest (viable) incremental BC ratio is identified and compared with the rest of the independent projects. Then projects are chosen consecutively in order of descending economic viability; they are identified by either the BC ratio of an independent project (in another group) or the incremental BC ratio of a mutually exclusive project (in the same group). Secondly, as each project is provisionally selected, the balance in the budget is adjusted to reflect the effect of the projects selected. All remaining projects of which the implementation cost exceeds this balance are excluded. This iterative process ends when the balance of the budget is (a) exhausted or insufficient to cover any other project's implementation cost, or (b) when no viable projects remain for consideration. 5) If a balance remains in the available budget, consider whether inclusion of any of the excluded projects or exclusion of any of the included projects would increase the aggregate net present value (NPV) of the final budget. If the budget has no fixed limit, the problem is one of weighing public against private uses of the resources. One now follows the rule that an indivisible public project (such as a road facility) is worth undertaking provided its benefits exceed its investment cost. The justification for the rule is that the cost of investing one rand in the public sector is the loss of one rand of benefits in the private sector - a loss which results from not investing n rand in the private sector. The article proposes and outlines a procedure to select road projects subject to a funding rule based on expenditure productivity. The rule may be that each unit of capital expenditure should yield at least a certain threshold amount more in benefits. All the alternative projects in each independent group that comply with the funding criterion of minimum productivity are considered for possible selection. When using a funding rule, therefore, projects are selected from the alternatives in each independent group. With a funding rule based on a productivity criterion, a project cannot be eliminated from the selection process on account of its implementation expenditure exceeding a certain budget limit. The procedure for project selection is simpler than with a given budget constraint. Different independent groups are no longer in competition - the most productive alternative project in each group can be selected on condition that it meets the funding rule. The proposed selection method according to a funding rule consists of the following three steps: 1) Consider only those alternative projects in each group of mutually exclusive projects that are economically viable, technically feasible and environmentally acceptable, and arrange them per group in order of increasing implementation cost. 2) Identify in each group the project that has the highest BC ratio. If the ratio of this project exceeds the prescribed threshold ratio value, funding of the project is acceptable, and if not, no project is chosen from the group. 3) Choose from the more expensive projects in each group the one with the highest incremental BC ratio, provided this ratio exceeds the prescribed threshold value. If there are no costlier projects with an incremental BC ratio that exceeds the threshold ratio value, the project identified in Step 2 is the selected project. If there are costlier projects with an incremental BC ratio that exceeds the funding rule threshold value, the one with the highest ratio is chosen. The process should be repeated until there are no costlier alternatives left with incremental BC ratios that satisfy the funding rule than the last one considered most justified. The proposed method to select projects subject to a funding rule is demonstrated by an example in the article. <![CDATA[<b>Kommas en betekenis</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0041-47512019000100013&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Hierdie artikel stel metodes voor wat 'n vervoerowerheid kan volg om die voordele van padvoorsiening te maksimeer. Ná die inleiding word 'n metode voorgestel waarvolgens openbare padprojekte gekies kan word wanneer 'n vaste begroting vir padbouprojekte geld. Hierdie metode bestaan uit vyf stappe en is gegrond op die inkrementele-voordeel-koste-beginsel. 'n Prestasiegeoriënteerde metode word voorgestel vir die proaktiewe keuse van padprojekte om ekonomiese groei en ontwikkeling teweeg te bring wanneer 'n veranderlike begroting moontlik is. Die metode bestaan uit drie stappe en is, soos die keuringsproses wat bespreek is, gegrond op die inkrementele-voordeel-koste-beginsel. Hierdie twee metodes word met behulp van voorbeelde toegelig. Die gevolgtrekkings wat uit die studie vloei, word dan aangebied.<hr/>This article proposes methods that a transport authority can apply to maximise the benefits of road provision both when the rationing of funds leads to a curtailed and fixed budget limit, and, proactively, when a variable budget subject to a funding rule is available. With a fixed limit on public capital expenditure, public projects compete with one another for funding. When a number of mutually exclusive and independent projects are under consideration for selection and prioritisation and the decision maker has to maximise benefit subject to a fixed budget constraint, a method of project selection based on incremental benefit-cost ratio analysis is recommended. The proposed selection process in the case of a fixed budget limit is demonstrated by an example. The proposed procedure consists of the following five steps: 1) Identify all projects that may be considered for selection, having due regard to the budget limit, and eliminate all projects (a) of which the implementation cost exceeds this limit, and (b) that are not economically viable, technically feasible and environmentally acceptable. 2) Classify all mutually exclusive projects (i.e. alternative projects) that qualify for consideration into separate, independent groups, and arrange the alternatives in each group in order of increasing implementation cost. 3) Provisionally select in each group the project that has the highest benefit-cost (BC) ratio. 4) From these projects, select the one with the highest ratio and then note the remaining balance in the capital budget. The more expensive projects in the group from which the highest-ratio project was provisionally selected are then considered in terms of their incremental BC ratios. Put the alternative in this group with the highest viable incremental BC ratio, if there is such an alternative, on the list of the other projects still to be considered. In the remainder of the selection process (i.e. the subsequent iterative rounds) selecting the best project in each group follows a two-step process. Firstly, the project with the highest (viable) incremental BC ratio is identified and compared with the rest of the independent projects. Then projects are chosen consecutively in order of descending economic viability; they are identified by either the BC ratio of an independent project (in another group) or the incremental BC ratio of a mutually exclusive project (in the same group). Secondly, as each project is provisionally selected, the balance in the budget is adjusted to reflect the effect of the projects selected. All remaining projects of which the implementation cost exceeds this balance are excluded. This iterative process ends when the balance of the budget is (a) exhausted or insufficient to cover any other project's implementation cost, or (b) when no viable projects remain for consideration. 5) If a balance remains in the available budget, consider whether inclusion of any of the excluded projects or exclusion of any of the included projects would increase the aggregate net present value (NPV) of the final budget. If the budget has no fixed limit, the problem is one of weighing public against private uses of the resources. One now follows the rule that an indivisible public project (such as a road facility) is worth undertaking provided its benefits exceed its investment cost. The justification for the rule is that the cost of investing one rand in the public sector is the loss of one rand of benefits in the private sector - a loss which results from not investing n rand in the private sector. The article proposes and outlines a procedure to select road projects subject to a funding rule based on expenditure productivity. The rule may be that each unit of capital expenditure should yield at least a certain threshold amount more in benefits. All the alternative projects in each independent group that comply with the funding criterion of minimum productivity are considered for possible selection. When using a funding rule, therefore, projects are selected from the alternatives in each independent group. With a funding rule based on a productivity criterion, a project cannot be eliminated from the selection process on account of its implementation expenditure exceeding a certain budget limit. The procedure for project selection is simpler than with a given budget constraint. Different independent groups are no longer in competition - the most productive alternative project in each group can be selected on condition that it meets the funding rule. The proposed selection method according to a funding rule consists of the following three steps: 1) Consider only those alternative projects in each group of mutually exclusive projects that are economically viable, technically feasible and environmentally acceptable, and arrange them per group in order of increasing implementation cost. 2) Identify in each group the project that has the highest BC ratio. If the ratio of this project exceeds the prescribed threshold ratio value, funding of the project is acceptable, and if not, no project is chosen from the group. 3) Choose from the more expensive projects in each group the one with the highest incremental BC ratio, provided this ratio exceeds the prescribed threshold value. If there are no costlier projects with an incremental BC ratio that exceeds the threshold ratio value, the project identified in Step 2 is the selected project. If there are costlier projects with an incremental BC ratio that exceeds the funding rule threshold value, the one with the highest ratio is chosen. The process should be repeated until there are no costlier alternatives left with incremental BC ratios that satisfy the funding rule than the last one considered most justified. The proposed method to select projects subject to a funding rule is demonstrated by an example in the article.