Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0038-223X20100001&lang=pt vol. 110 num. 1 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>A comment on the paper 'A Mintek perspective of the past 25 years in mineral bioleaching'</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0038-223X2010000100001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>Converting techno talk to techno transfer</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0038-223X2010000100002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>A brief overview of mining in Ghana</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0038-223X2010000100003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>A matched case-control study of occupational injury in underground coalmine workers</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0038-223X2010000100004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt It is well known that job-related hazards and individual factors influence occupational injuries. However, research involving coal miners has been limited. This case-control study assessed the relationships of job-related hazards and individual/life style factors with injuries among underground coal miners. It compared 245 cases with at least one injury during the previous two-year period with 245 matched controls with no injury. The data were gathered via personal interview and analysed using the conditional logistic model. The significant risk factors were materials handling (adjusted OR 5.15), poor environmental/working conditions (2.63), geological/strata control-related hazards (2.35), lack of formal education (3.00), sleep disorders (1.86), alcohol consumption (2.32), disease (2.23), having a large family (5.40), and risk-taking behaviour (9.40). Machine-related hazards, sleep disorders and alcohol consumption primarily affected workers aged less than 45 years; whereas, environment/working condition-related hazards, presence of disease, smoking, risk-taking behaviour and large family size were more likely among workers aged 45 or over. <![CDATA[<b>Mine seismicity: Prediction or forecasting?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0038-223X2010000100005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Much as one hopes to predict whether damaging seismicity might occur somewhere in the next shift, this is not possible at present. Recently, an analysis of seismicity at two mines has shown that a small increase in seismicity occasionally occurs before both large and small events. This analysis is extended here to five mines, with the same results. Earthquake seismologists forecast hazard in terms of the average incidence of earthquakes over the last 50 years, adjusted on an hourly basis according to the possibility of aftershocks of events that have happened. The rate of seismicity in any area remains approximately constant when expressed as seismicity per area mined, or better still, per unit of elastic strain energy released. It is suggested that seismic hazard in mines be estimated using historical seismicity and forward modelling, adjusted according to the possibility of aftershocks. In summary, medium-term forecasting of seismicity is viable; short-term prediction of large events is not <![CDATA[<b>New technology for real-time in-stope safety management</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0038-223X2010000100006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt South African underground hard rock mines are typically managed using measurements made daily, weekly or even monthly of key parameters such as face advance, readiness to blast, blast success, temperature or dust levels. Safety and health can be greatly improved if a real-time measurement system can inform decision making. To enable this vision of widespread sensing, communication and decision support, CSIR has developed an open standard architecture for communication of sensor data, and a reference implementation using that standard. The standard is called AziSA, which means 'to inform' in isiZulu. AziSA provides an architecture that allows for connection of any type of sensor and that is particularly suited to wireless sensing. On the safety side, the CSIR is developing a suite of sensors specifically around the risk of rockfalls. Sensors such as an electronic replacement for the barring tool, or a thermal sensor that can detect loose rock, can already be used to identify potential hazards in the hangingwall. When these sensors are combined with location and time information in a single database, it becomes possible to build maps of risk and to extrapolate risk into unmined areas. It is also easy to confirm that routine safety procedures like barring are actually taking place. In the future, it is proposed that entry inspections will be made using remote techniques that will not place an individual miner at risk. While miners will still be required to bar or place support, they will do so with a clear idea of which portions of the hangingwall are safe, and which present risk. On the health side, if a network such as AziSA is deployed in the stope, it becomes much easier to monitor the condition of individual miners. The work strain experienced by miners can be monitored through heart-rate sensors, and their core body temperature can be monitored using various novel techniques discussed in the paper. Additional sensors can be added to quantify worker exposure to hazards such as noise or dust. Individual sensors allow for people who are at an unacceptably high risk of developing heat disorders to be treated timeously, and they also allow for team management based on objective measures. Over a longer period, position sensing and environment monitors, or personal dosimetry, provide a powerful management tool to prevent workers from being overexposed to hazards, and to confirm that management instructions are being followed. Cost-effective sensing in the stope is a major challenge, but one that can be overcome through technology like that used in AziSA. Sensing provides opportunities both to make immediate interventions when workers are exposed to unacceptable risk, and to manage the long-term exposure of workers to hazard <![CDATA[<b>DOHEMS<sup>®</sup>-technology to improve risk assessments and early detection</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0038-223X2010000100007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt South African underground hard rock mines are typically managed using measurements made daily, weekly or even monthly of key parameters such as face advance, readiness to blast, blast success, temperature or dust levels. Safety and health can be greatly improved if a real-time measurement system can inform decision making. To enable this vision of widespread sensing, communication and decision support, CSIR has developed an open standard architecture for communication of sensor data, and a reference implementation using that standard. The standard is called AziSA, which means 'to inform' in isiZulu. AziSA provides an architecture that allows for connection of any type of sensor and that is particularly suited to wireless sensing. On the safety side, the CSIR is developing a suite of sensors specifically around the risk of rockfalls. Sensors such as an electronic replacement for the barring tool, or a thermal sensor that can detect loose rock, can already be used to identify potential hazards in the hangingwall. When these sensors are combined with location and time information in a single database, it becomes possible to build maps of risk and to extrapolate risk into unmined areas. It is also easy to confirm that routine safety procedures like barring are actually taking place. In the future, it is proposed that entry inspections will be made using remote techniques that will not place an individual miner at risk. While miners will still be required to bar or place support, they will do so with a clear idea of which portions of the hangingwall are safe, and which present risk. On the health side, if a network such as AziSA is deployed in the stope, it becomes much easier to monitor the condition of individual miners. The work strain experienced by miners can be monitored through heart-rate sensors, and their core body temperature can be monitored using various novel techniques discussed in the paper. Additional sensors can be added to quantify worker exposure to hazards such as noise or dust. Individual sensors allow for people who are at an unacceptably high risk of developing heat disorders to be treated timeously, and they also allow for team management based on objective measures. Over a longer period, position sensing and environment monitors, or personal dosimetry, provide a powerful management tool to prevent workers from being overexposed to hazards, and to confirm that management instructions are being followed. Cost-effective sensing in the stope is a major challenge, but one that can be overcome through technology like that used in AziSA. Sensing provides opportunities both to make immediate interventions when workers are exposed to unacceptable risk, and to manage the long-term exposure of workers to hazard <![CDATA[<b>Mine-wide panel stability monitoring at Anglo Platinum Union JV</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0038-223X2010000100008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This paper describes the development and implementation of a mine-wide continuous stability monitoring system at the Declines Section, Anglo Platinum Union JV. The Declines Section at Union JV experienced a number of large panel collapses during 2005 and 2006. As well as posing a major safety risk, the panel collapses had a major effect on production since the Declines Section is a semi-mechanized operation. The collapses would often extend into the mechanized strike roadways, resulting in a loss of access to both current and future production faces. The collapses have been largely overcome owing to a change in support design and the implementation of a mine-wide stability monitoring programme. This paper describes the precursors to collapses, which were identified using continuous closure measurements and the remedial measures taken. It also outlines the design and introduction of a robust and reliable monitoring tool, which is now used on a mine-wide basis to provide early warning of large-scale collapses <![CDATA[<b>The impact of caring relationships on safety performance: 'Reaching the hearts and minds of people'</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0038-223X2010000100009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The concept of caring is in most cases confused with material needs and not psychological needs. By giving employees a job, most managers think that employees should be grateful and return the favour by being loyal, productive and working safely. Other managers hold the view that employees can be lucky to have a job. To show and demonstrate that management are caring for the safety of the workforce requires involvement, dedication and commitment. Obtaining the trust and respect of the workforce should be the main thrust of any organization because within trust and respect lie the secret of optimal safety performance. In the last 70 years, all the fatalities and serious injuries that occurred in the mining industry can be traced back to one thing, non-caring. The same safety non-compliances are still observed, reported and planned against as 70 years ago, and strange as it may sound, the same injuries occur the same way. The question could be asked: Does the mining industry need more risk assessments? More codes of conduct? More engineering. Or does the mining industry need more caring? <![CDATA[<b>In-stope bolting for a safer working environment</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0038-223X2010000100010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Rock fall accidents continue to be the main cause of fatal and serious injuries in the mining industry. Although there has been an improvement in the FOG (falls of ground) related fatal and serious injuries over the past few years, the rate is still too high. New technology has made it possible to reduce this rate significantly. FOG accidents imply failure of the support system or the design of the support system in use. In this paper we deal with the latest technology available to assist the mines to reduce the rates of FOG related injuries and fatalities <![CDATA[<b>Fatigue risk management: Charting a path to a safer workplace</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0038-223X2010000100011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt There have been several high-profile accidents in the South African mining industry where fatigue was identified as either causal or contributory. The risk of fatigue is inherent in any work-time arrangement involving shift work and work that is physically or mentally demanding, repetitive, or requires high vigilance. The management of fatigue is not simply a matter of correct shift scheduling. A more comprehensive approach is needed. In order to be successful, a fatigue management programme should address the unique needs of the operation in which it will be implemented and should be integrated into normal operations. Fatigue management is a shared responsibility between the organization and its employees, and all stakeholders should participate in order to provide the safest and healthiest working environment possible