Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0038-223X20090008&lang=en vol. 109 num. 8 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Activated alumina-based adsorption and recovery of excess fluoride ions subsequent to calcium and magnesium removal in base metal leach circuits</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0038-223X2009000800001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en An effective electrowinning process in hydrometallurgical industry requires fluoride levels in the base metal solution to be less than 10 mg/ Selective removal of the fluoride ions from base solution is thus desired, if fluoride was added to control calcium and magnesium in the circuit. Consequently, adsorption of fluoride onto activated alumina was studied in a batch and a column set-up. The effects of base metal solution pH, temperature, initial concentration and flow rate on activated alumina performance were investigated in either a batch or column configuration. A two-level factorial experimental design was implemented in studying column dynamics. Results demonstrate that activated alumina is an effective adsorbent for selective removal of fluoride from base solution. In the batch operation, fluoride was removed to values below the maximum allowable concentration (10 mg/) when pH was 8. In the column adsorption step at 55°C and 600mg/ initial concentration, up to 16 bed volumes were processed before breakthrough level was reached. Desorption step using 1% sodium hydroxide solution achieved an elution of 8 bed volumes. The activated alumina (AA) had a capacity of 8.65 gF/AA at the 10 mgF/ fluoride breakthrough level during the column adsorption test. <![CDATA[<b>A critical evaluation of processes to produce primary titanium</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0038-223X2009000800002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Over the last 60 years many different processes were conceived to reduce the cost of titanium produced by the Kroll process. However, success eluded all previous efforts, which were consequently terminated in periods of economic downturn. Recently, the growth in demand for titanium and the high cost of producing the metal again sparked renewed attempts in various parts of the world to replace the antiquated Kroll process with a more efficient route. The different options to produce titanium are reviewed, classified and evaluated in terms of the fundamentals underlying the technologies, and it is shown that the options considered to be the most likely to replace the Kroll process, are continuous processes to reduce TiCl4 metallo-thermically to titanium powder. Of these, continuous magnesio-thermic reduction of TiCl4 would conceptually result in the lowest-cost and highest-value product. However, when considering by-product salt removal from the titanium product and recycling of the salt as well, sodio-thermic reduction of TiCl4is better <![CDATA[<b>Catalyst management</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0038-223X2009000800003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Over the last 60 years many different processes were conceived to reduce the cost of titanium produced by the Kroll process. However, success eluded all previous efforts, which were consequently terminated in periods of economic downturn. Recently, the growth in demand for titanium and the high cost of producing the metal again sparked renewed attempts in various parts of the world to replace the antiquated Kroll process with a more efficient route. The different options to produce titanium are reviewed, classified and evaluated in terms of the fundamentals underlying the technologies, and it is shown that the options considered to be the most likely to replace the Kroll process, are continuous processes to reduce TiCl4 metallo-thermically to titanium powder. Of these, continuous magnesio-thermic reduction of TiCl4 would conceptually result in the lowest-cost and highest-value product. However, when considering by-product salt removal from the titanium product and recycling of the salt as well, sodio-thermic reduction of TiCl4is better <![CDATA[<b>The LUREC<sup>®</sup> process - key to economic smelter acid plant operation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0038-223X2009000800004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Over the last 60 years many different processes were conceived to reduce the cost of titanium produced by the Kroll process. However, success eluded all previous efforts, which were consequently terminated in periods of economic downturn. Recently, the growth in demand for titanium and the high cost of producing the metal again sparked renewed attempts in various parts of the world to replace the antiquated Kroll process with a more efficient route. The different options to produce titanium are reviewed, classified and evaluated in terms of the fundamentals underlying the technologies, and it is shown that the options considered to be the most likely to replace the Kroll process, are continuous processes to reduce TiCl4 metallo-thermically to titanium powder. Of these, continuous magnesio-thermic reduction of TiCl4 would conceptually result in the lowest-cost and highest-value product. However, when considering by-product salt removal from the titanium product and recycling of the salt as well, sodio-thermic reduction of TiCl4is better <![CDATA[<b>Burning pyrites compared to sulphur</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0038-223X2009000800005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Over the last 60 years many different processes were conceived to reduce the cost of titanium produced by the Kroll process. However, success eluded all previous efforts, which were consequently terminated in periods of economic downturn. Recently, the growth in demand for titanium and the high cost of producing the metal again sparked renewed attempts in various parts of the world to replace the antiquated Kroll process with a more efficient route. The different options to produce titanium are reviewed, classified and evaluated in terms of the fundamentals underlying the technologies, and it is shown that the options considered to be the most likely to replace the Kroll process, are continuous processes to reduce TiCl4 metallo-thermically to titanium powder. Of these, continuous magnesio-thermic reduction of TiCl4 would conceptually result in the lowest-cost and highest-value product. However, when considering by-product salt removal from the titanium product and recycling of the salt as well, sodio-thermic reduction of TiCl4is better <![CDATA[<b>Cansolv<sup>®</sup> SO<sub>2</sub> Scrubbing System: Review of commercial applications for smelter SO<sub>2</sub> emissions control</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0038-223X2009000800006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Over the last 60 years many different processes were conceived to reduce the cost of titanium produced by the Kroll process. However, success eluded all previous efforts, which were consequently terminated in periods of economic downturn. Recently, the growth in demand for titanium and the high cost of producing the metal again sparked renewed attempts in various parts of the world to replace the antiquated Kroll process with a more efficient route. The different options to produce titanium are reviewed, classified and evaluated in terms of the fundamentals underlying the technologies, and it is shown that the options considered to be the most likely to replace the Kroll process, are continuous processes to reduce TiCl4 metallo-thermically to titanium powder. Of these, continuous magnesio-thermic reduction of TiCl4 would conceptually result in the lowest-cost and highest-value product. However, when considering by-product salt removal from the titanium product and recycling of the salt as well, sodio-thermic reduction of TiCl4is better <![CDATA[<b>Pyrite roasting, an alternative to sulphur burning</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0038-223X2009000800007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The roasting of sulphide ores and concentrates is often the first step in the production of metals or chemicals. In many processes, the production of sulphuric acid is viewed as a by-product, whereas in some plants production is an important economic factor. Regardless of the purpose, a pyrite roasting plant consists of mainly three plant sections: roasting, gas cleaning and sulphuric acid. With the addition of air, the pyrite concentrates are transformed into solid oxides and gaseous sulphur dioxide at temperatures of 600-1000°C. After cleaning and cooling, the sulphur dioxide in the roasting gas is further processed to sulphuric acid. Two types of reactors are used depending on the application: stationary or circulating fluid bed. For over 60 years, Outotec has progressively been developing the principle of fluidized bed technology in several different reactor types for a multitude of process applications. The versatility of the fluidized bed reactor system has manifested itself in the treatment of minerals, including solid fuels, and for metallurgical processes both in the ferrous and non-ferrous fields. Process applications have included roasting, calcining, combustion and charring of coals, as well as off-gas treatment. This paper provides a summary of the pyrite roasting technology currently used along with a simple cost comparison of pyrite roasting and sulphur burning processes <![CDATA[<b>MECS catalyst products and technical services update</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0038-223X2009000800008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The roasting of sulphide ores and concentrates is often the first step in the production of metals or chemicals. In many processes, the production of sulphuric acid is viewed as a by-product, whereas in some plants production is an important economic factor. Regardless of the purpose, a pyrite roasting plant consists of mainly three plant sections: roasting, gas cleaning and sulphuric acid. With the addition of air, the pyrite concentrates are transformed into solid oxides and gaseous sulphur dioxide at temperatures of 600-1000°C. After cleaning and cooling, the sulphur dioxide in the roasting gas is further processed to sulphuric acid. Two types of reactors are used depending on the application: stationary or circulating fluid bed. For over 60 years, Outotec has progressively been developing the principle of fluidized bed technology in several different reactor types for a multitude of process applications. The versatility of the fluidized bed reactor system has manifested itself in the treatment of minerals, including solid fuels, and for metallurgical processes both in the ferrous and non-ferrous fields. Process applications have included roasting, calcining, combustion and charring of coals, as well as off-gas treatment. This paper provides a summary of the pyrite roasting technology currently used along with a simple cost comparison of pyrite roasting and sulphur burning processes