Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy]]> vol. 114 num. 6 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>The increasing role of computers in engineering</b>]]> <![CDATA[<b>President's corner</b>]]> <![CDATA[<b>The Danie Krige Memorial Lecture</b>]]> <![CDATA[<b>SANCOT and the International Tunnelling Association (ITA)</b>]]> <![CDATA[<b>Opening of Mining exhibition at Sci-Bono</b>]]> <![CDATA[<b>The Joburg Indaba</b>]]> <![CDATA[<b>A computational fluid dynamics model for investigating air flow patterns in underground coal mine sections</b>]]> This investigation compares the results from an experimental and numerical study of air flow in a scaled-down underground coal mine model. This was done in order to determine if numerical analysis can be relied upon when searching for ventilation solutions to control high concentration of coal dust and methane gas in underground coal mines. Steady state analyses were used to identify flow patterns and recirculation regions within the mining section while transient state analyses were used to determine the time taken to extract the initial air from the model. The agreement between the experimental and numerical results indicates that numerical modelling is useful in this regard. The study went further to devise a method of determining the optimum position of the jet fan that is responsible for mine-gas dilution at different stages of mining. <![CDATA[<b>A heuristic sublevel stope optimizer with multiple raises</b>]]> A new heuristic sublevel mining stope optimizer is presented. The optimizer seeks the best locations and lengths of a series of vertical raises that, together with the blocks linked to each raise, define a mining stope. Five design constraints - the footwall angle, the hangingwall angle, the number of raises, the maximum distance of a block from a raise, and the minimum width required to move the farthest block towards the raise - allow the shape of the sub-stopes associated with each raise to be controlled. The optimization is done on the locations and lengths of raises using a genetic algorithm to efficiently sample the parameters' space. For each raise, a local network is defined in cylindrical coordinates around the raise such as to impose the design constraints. A maxflow algorithm on the local network is used to determine the optimal sub-stope for each raise. All sub-stopes are combined to define the global stope for the entire deposit. The best global stope is obtained using a genetic algorithm to find the raise parameters providing the best profit over the entire deposit. Two synthetic cases and one real deposit are used to evaluate the new algorithm and compare the results with the single-raise optimizer. The multiple raises approach leads to significantly improved economics compared with the single-raise stope optimizer, and the dilution is also substantially reduced compared to the single-raise case. <![CDATA[<b>Risk indexing tool for mine planning</b>]]> The purpose of this paper is to establish a qualitative method to estimate the risk level (e.g. rating and ranking) resulting from mining activity. Risk is the product of two factors: probability of failure and cost of consequences. A resultant assessment scale matrix is then used to assign a risk index value which is directly proportional to the potential for excavation instability. A case study, the No. 1 Shear East orebody at Vale's Garson Mine in Sudbury, Ontario will be examined. A three-dimensional, elastoplastic, finite difference model (FLAC 3D) is presented for a mine development intersection situated 1.5 km below ground surface. The developed assessment scale matrix is used to estimate risk index for intersection (2981) located on 5000 level. The results are presented and categorized with respect to risk-index value, probability of instability, cost of consequence, and mining stage. <![CDATA[<b>Dealing with open fire in an underground coal mine by ventilation control techniques</b>]]> Open fire in coal mines is one of the most serious threats to miners, as well as to the mine. Open fire can often be effectively dealt with by prompt local action, otherwise it very quickly becomes uncontrollable. In one incident, none of the available open fire control technologies, viz., water deluge and sprinkler systems, high-expansion foam, high-pressure high-stability nitrogen foam, water misting, and ventilation and pressure control techniques, were effective for saving the mine without sealing from surface, since the fuel-rich environment prohibited underground access due to the methane explosion hazard. The authors have developed a methodology for dealing with advanced-stage open fires underground by the application of a modified ventilation control technique. It is based primarily on a better understanding of the behaviour of open fires, proper diagnosis of the problem, application of judicious ventilation control techniques, and selection of suitable fire indices for assessing the status of an open fire. This methodology was used to successfully control an open fire in Surakachhar 3 and 4 incline mine Surakachhar, central India. The fire area was sealed underground and production subsequently resumed in record time. The paper discusses the behaviour of open fires, particulars of the mine, diagnosis of the problem, experimentation methods, and the results obtained. <![CDATA[<b>Empirical observations of dilution in panel caving</b>]]> The extraction of ore in panel caving operations also involves the co-extraction of non-economic material, known as dilution. Forecasting, avoiding, and understanding the mechanics of dilution is critical to long-term planning. The models of dilution that are currently in use in panel caving operations are those by Laubscher (1994), who postulated that dilution is due to gravitational flow and depends on the height of interaction, the column height, and the draw uniformity. This paper presents a back-analysis of extraction and dilution behaviour at Codelco's El Salvador and Andina Divisions, which use panel caving as a mining method. This analysis was conducted in order to review the existent dilution entry mechanisms and calculation methods. Three sources of dilution were identified. The first source is 'gravitational dilution', which is due to gravitational flow and mixing as dilution migrates by gravity from a sector located above the panel under analysis. The second source of dilution is 'caving dilution', which occurs when an air gap is formed in a large area and a sudden propagation of a hang-up occurs, inducing early ingress of waste into the production level from a level above. The third mode observed is 'lateral dilution', which occurs when the panel is located next to an exhausted sector and the broken material enters the draw column early during draw. In the last two cases, dilution could migrate large distances horizontally. The mine data indicated that draw and caving strategy are key for long-term planning of large panel caves. <![CDATA[<b>Design principles for optimizing an established survey slope monitoring system</b>]]> When slope angles are designed during open pit optimization, there is a risk factor applied in steepening the slopes. The steepening of slope angles has implications for the safety and economics of the mining operation. The steeper the slope angles, the greater the probability of slope failure. Although a slope failure will result in added costs, the challenge is to compile an accurate cost-benefit exercise optimizing the economic benefits of the project without exposing mine workers and equipment to unacceptable risk of rockfalls. A balance between the safety of the operation and the economics of the investment is therefore required. The ideal situation is to have a slope monitoring system that will predict slope failure by detecting any ground movement before the actual failure occurs. This early warning will allow the risk factor to be applied with a high degree of confidence, knowing that the risk will be adequately mitigated. The objective of this paper is to provide guidelines on how to design an optimal survey slope monitoring system. It is the authors' view that for a survey monitoring system to yield desirable results, it should adhere to survey principles such as working from the whole to part and consistently cross-checking. The case study used is Jwaneng Mine, and the design strategy outlined can be used as a guideline for developing a new slope monitoring system or to optimize an existing one. <![CDATA[<b>Estimation of rock strength from quantitative assessment of rock texture</b>]]> The compressive strength of rock (σc) has an important effect on design of structures in rock engineering. Compressive strength can be determined in the laboratory using the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) test. Some other index tests, such as the point load test, are also used, particularly when suitable samples for UCS are not available. The quantification of rock texture has introduced a new method in rock engineering for estimating the mechanical and physical properties of rock materials from microscopic investigations. The aim of this study is to quantify rock texture to estimate rock strength from the texture coefficient (TC), which is determined from a statistical assessment of thin section images. Rock texture is quantified by twelve different images from a single thin section to increase the reliability of texture analysis. A data-set is prepared to investigate correlations between TC and σc. The statistical correlations are computed after classifying of the rock samples based on their lithology as well as grain features. Equations derived based on the results of this study are used to predict the approximate value of compressive strength from the texture coefficient. This method is particularly useful for preliminary studies in rock engineering projects prior to detailed site investigation. <![CDATA[<b>A new process for the recovery of iron, vanadium, and titanium from vanadium titanomagnetite</b>]]> A new process comprising metallizing reduction, magnetic separation, and electroheat melting separation is proposed with the aim of achieving high recoveries of iron, vanadium, and titanium from vanadium titanomagnetite. The effects of magnetic intensity, reduction temperature, reduction time, carbon ratio, and coal particle size on the efficiency of reduction-magnetic separation were investigated, the reaction mechanisms elucidated by SEM and EDS analysis, and the optimal process parameters established. Recoveries of up to 80.08% for titanium, 95.07% for iron, and 71.60% for vanadium were achieved. The reduction sequence is shown to be: Fe2O3 → Fe3O4 → FeO → Fe; Fe2TiO5 → Fe2TiO4 + TiO2 → Fe + FeTiO3 → Fe + FeTi2O5 → Fe + TiO2. <![CDATA[<b>A methodology for determining the erosion profile of the freeze lining in submerged arc furnace</b>]]> This paper presents a heat conduction model to determine the erosion profile of freeze linings in a ferronickel submerged arc furnace. Kirchhoff transformation was adopted to simplify the nonlinear equation governing heat conduction. The boundary element method (BEM) and Nelder-Mead simplex optimization method were employed to solve an inverse heat conduction problem. Erosion profiles could be obtained when calculated temperatures at sensor locations agreed well with measured temperatures. The model was validated by comparing the heat loss through the linings, which was calculated by BEM and integral operation after erosion profiles were obtained, with the value calculated from industrial data such as actual power consumption, tap-to-tap time, and ferronickel output. The optimal solution for the erosion profile could be acquired when the difference in heat losses calculated by these two methods is at a minimum. <![CDATA[<b>Life-of-mine ventilation and refrigeration planning for Resolution Copper Mine</b>]]> Resolution Copper Mine is planned to be a 2000 m deep panel cave mine with virgin rock temperatures above 80°C in rock with a high crystalline silica content. The planned run-of-mine production rate is 120 kt/day. The project is in prefeasibility evaluation. This paper discusses features of the ventilation system design, which include multiple ventilation shafts with total flow of about 3000 m³/s and both surface and underground refrigeration systems with more than 140 MW total capacity. This will be a very challenging mine to ventilate, but this work has demonstrated that it will be technically achievable with the application of existing technology.