Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research]]> vol. 76 num. 4 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Morphology of the tongue of the emu <i>(Dromaius novaehollandiae). </i>II. Histological features</b>]]> Although a number of brief, fragmented descriptions have been provided on the gross morphology of the ratite tongue, very few studies have documented the histological structure of this organ. This paper presents the first definitive histological description of the emu tongue and reviews, consolidates and compares the scattered information on the histology of the ratite tongue available in the literature. Five tongues were removed from heads obtained from birds at slaughter and fixed in 10 % neutral buffered formalin. Appropriate longitudinal and transverse segments were removed, routinely processed for light microscopy, and sections examined after staining with H & E and PAS. The entire tongue (body and root) is invested by a non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. The supporting connective tissue of the tongue dorsum displays only large, simple branched tubular mucus-secreting glands, whereas the caudal tongue body ventrum and tongue root, in addition to these glands, also exhibits small, simple tubular mucus-secreting glands. Herbst corpuscles are associated with the large, simple branched glands. Lymphoid tissue is restricted to the tongue ventrum and is particularly obvious at the junction of the ventral tongue body and frenulum where a large aggregation of diffuse lymphoid tissue, with nodular tissue proximally, was consistently observed. A structure resembling a taste bud was located in the epithelium on the caudal extremity of the tongue root of one bird. This is the first reported observation of taste buds in ratites. Forming the core of the tongue body is the cartilaginous paraglossum lying dorsal to the partially ossified rostral projection of the basihyale. The histological features of the emu tongue are generally similar to those described for the greater rhea and ostrich, except that taste buds were not identified in these species. The results would suggest that the emu tongue functions as a sensory organ, both for taste and touch (by virtue of taste receptors and Herbst corpuscles, respectively), as well as fulfilling an immunological function. <![CDATA[<b><i>Cryptosporidium </i></b><b>infection in non-human hosts in Malawi</b>]]> <![CDATA[<b>Comparative histopathology of the lymph nodes, spleen, liver and kidney in experimental ovine trypanosomosis</b>]]> The infection of Yankassa rams with three important trypanosome species affecting livestock, namely, Trypanosoma congolense, T. vivaxand T. bruceiproduced both acute and chronic fatal conditions. Chronic infections were induced in the three infections by the application of subcurative doses of diaminazene aceturate (Berenil®). Pathological changes in the infected animals included splenomegaly and hepatomegaly which were more pronounced in acute than in chronic T. congolense infection. However, these changes were more severe in chronic than in acute T. vivax infection. While splenomegaly was more pronounced in chronic T. brucei infection than in acute, hepatomegaly and lymphadenopathy were more severe in acute than in the chronic condition. The increases in size of the spleen, lymph nodes and liver were associated with congestion, increases in cell density related to increased immunological reactions in the spleen and lymph nodes as well as increase in numbers, size and activity of the phagocytic cells in these organs. <![CDATA[<b>Molecular monitoring of African swine fever virus using surveys targeted at adult <i>Ornithodoros </i>ticks: A re-evaluation of Mkuze Game Reserve, South Africa</b>]]> The Mkuze Game Reserve (MGR), in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa is an African swine fever virus (ASF) controlled area. In a survey conducted in 1978, ASF prevalence in warthogs and Ornithodoros ticks in MGR was determined to be 2 % and 0.06 %, respectively. These values, acknowledged as being unusually low compared to other East and southern African ASF-positive sylvatic-cycle host populations, have not been assessed since. The availability of a sensitive PCR-based virus detection method, developed specifically for the sylvatic tampan host, prompted a re-evaluation of ASF virus (ASFV) prevalence in MGR ticks. Of the 98 warthog burrows inspected for Ornithodoros presence, 59 (60.2 %>) were found to contain tampans and tick sampling was significantly male-biased. Whilst gender sampling-bias is not unusual, the 27 °% increase in infestation rate of warthog burrows since the 1978 survey is noteworthy as it anticipates a concomitant increase in ASFV prevalence, particularly in light of the high proportion (75 %>) of adult ticks sampled. However, despite DNA integrity being confirmed by internal control amplification of the host 16S gene, PCR screening failed to detect ASFV. These results suggest that ASFV has either disappeared from MGR or if present, is localized, occurring at exceptionally low levels. Further extensive surveys are required to establish the ASFV status of sylvatic hosts in this controlled area. <![CDATA[<b>Traditional remedies used for the treatment of cattle wounds and myiasis in Amatola Basin, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa</b>]]> A questionnaire survey was carried out to document traditional remedies used in the treatment of cattle wounds and myiasis in Amatola Basin. Eighty-three cattle farmers from nine villages were interviewed. The majority of respondents (67.9 %) use traditional remedies for treatment of these conditions. However, 25.9 % of them use a combination of traditional remedies with conventional medicines. The survey revealed that 13 medicinal plants belonging to 11 families were used. Aloe ferox, Prunus persica and Phytolacca heptandra were, however, the most commonly used. Leaves are the most frequently used plant part, often prepared as an infusion. Other non-plant remedies used include disinfectants, antiseptics as well as diesel and petrol. Manual removal of maggots from wounds was also practise and treatment is usually continued until the wound heals. <![CDATA[<b>A retrospective longitudinal study of animal and human rabies in Botswana 1989-2006</b>]]> A longitudinal study of animal and human rabies covering 18 years from 1989 to 2006 was retrospectively conducted in order to highlight the epidemiological features and trends of the disease in Botswana. Over the 18-year period, a total of 4 306 brain specimens collected from various species of animals including human beings with clinical signs consistent with rabies were submitted to the National Veterinary Laboratory in Gaborone for confirmatory diagnosis. Of the samples submitted, 2 419 cases were found to be positive for lyssavirus antigen; this presents an overall prevalence rate of 56.18 ± 1.48 %. About 85.7 % (2 074/2 419) of the cases were from domestic animals, 14.2 % (343/2 419) cases were from wild animals and two cases (0.1 %) were from human beings. During the first half of the study (1989-1997) the prevalence rate of the disease was estimated at 62.79 ± 1.85 % (1 645/2 620 positive) whereas during the second half (1998-2006) it was estimated at 45.91 ± 2.38 % (774/1 686 positive) and the difference between the two estimates was statistically, highly significant (Δ % = 16.88, SE (95), diff % = 3.015, SD = 5.599; P< 0.001). Ruminant rabies accounted for 79.99 % (50.92 % bovine, 28.40 % caprine and 0.67 % ovine) whereas canine (domestic dog) and feline (domestic cat) accounted for 16.01 and 0.87 %, respectively. Equine rabies accounted for 3.13 % with 1.35 and 1.78 %, respectively, for horses and donkeys. Jackal rabies accounted for more than 60 % of the total cases in wild animals. These findings are discussed in relation to the previous epidemiological situation of the disease (1979-1988), its socio-economic impact, monitoring and control in Botswana. <![CDATA[<b>Responses of serum electrolytes of goats to twelve hours of road transportation during the hot-dry season in Nigeria, and the effect of pretreatment with ascorbic acid</b>]]> Twenty goats which served as the experimental group were administered ascorbic acid (AA) per os at a dosage rate of 100 mg/kg body mass, while 20 others served as controls and were given 10 ml each of sterile water. Forty minutes after the administration and loading, the goats were transported for 12 h. Handling and loading of the experimental and control groups of goats decreased (p< 0.05) the potassium and sodium serum concentrations. The concentration of serum chloride, sodium and calcium increased significantly (p< 0.05) immediately post-transportation, while potassium and magnesium decreased (p < 0.05) in the control goats. In AA-treated goats sodium and magnesium concentrations decreased abruptly (p< 0.05), while calcium increased significantly (p< 0.05) after transportation. Handling, loading and transportation adversely affected the electrolyte balance of the goats which suggested respiratory alkalosis, dehydration and muscular damage in the transported goats, and the administration of AA alleviated the adverse effects of road transportation stress on serum electrolytes. <![CDATA[<b>The pathology of tuberculosis caused by <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis </i>in a herd of semi-free-ranging springbok (<i>Antidorcas marsupialis</i>)</b>]]> The first detailed description of the pathology of tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in springbok is reported. The springbok were part of a semi-free-ranging herd kept on the grounds of iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Science (LABS) in the Kuils River district of the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated from three animals out of a total of 33 sampled, with two animals showing tuberculosis lesions. The index case was an adult ewe that showed advanced miliary tuberculosis with marked macroscopic and microscopic lesions in the lungs, pleura and respiratory lymph nodes, and numerous acid-fast bacilli. Six healthy rams were sampled nine months later and a pilot study indicated miliary tuberculosis lesions in one ram, which again were macroscopically most prominent in the lungs, pleura and respiratory lymph nodes. Macroscopic lesions were also noted in the sternal, iliac, prefemoral and retropharyngeal lymph nodes. Microscopy in this animal revealed lesions in the macroscopically affected organs as well as numerous other lymph nodes, and suspected lesions occurred in the testicle and colon. Acid-fast bacilli were scarce to moderate in affected organs. Because of the miliary nature of the lesions in both affected animals, the route of infection could not be established conclusively. The lesions in most affected organs of both animals resembled classical tuberculous granulomas. A main study conducted on healthy animals 19 months after the pilot study failed to find any animal with tuberculosis lesions in the group of 25 sampled, and all were negative for mycobacteria via mycobacterial culture. <![CDATA[<b>The Brody effect induced by premature ventricular complexes in the ovine heart</b>]]> The QRS response of the electrocardiogram to bleeding has been a source of interest to the physiologist for more than a century. Studies in the dog, cat and chicken have shown a reduction in QRS amplitude in response to bleeding. This effect has been explained by the so-called Brody effect, in which the intraventricular mass of blood acts as a conducting medium, augmenting radial conduction, thus resulting in the subsequent reduction in QRS amplitude in conditions where the intraventricular mass of blood is reduced. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the Brody effect will be present in the ovine heart and, furthermore, to evaluate if the right and left ventricles will demonstrate the same QRS change if the Brody effect is indeed present. This study clearly demonstrated that the Brody effect is present in the ovine heart. Furthermore, two unique aspects emanating from this study are firstly the fact that this is the first study to show that premature ventricular complexes are able to induce the Brody effect and, secondly that there is a very clear difference in the response of the right and the left ventricles when the Brody effect is induced in the ovine heart.