Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0030-246520090001&lang=pt vol. 76 num. 1 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Proceedings: Onderstepoort Centenary Pan-African Veterinary Conference</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0030-24652009000100001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>Theiler and the 'Spirit of Onderstepoort'</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0030-24652009000100002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Although Theiler became internationally known for his pioneering veterinary research a distant century ago, there are probably few veterinary researchers today who have not heard of him. Onderstepoort, the research institute he created, is equally well, if not even better, known. Moreover, the name Onderstepoort is not only associated with his institute but also with the only South African faculty of veterinary science, another Theiler 'baby'. The purpose of this presentation is to determine why this was so, and to what extent the fame was justified. Was it due to the 'Spirit of Onderstepoort' sometimes referred to by Theiler in the early as well as later stages of his career, or was there perhaps more to it, and what was Theiler's share in the development of that spirit, that fame? <![CDATA[<b>Rinderpest: An historical overview</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0030-24652009000100003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Although Theiler became internationally known for his pioneering veterinary research a distant century ago, there are probably few veterinary researchers today who have not heard of him. Onderstepoort, the research institute he created, is equally well, if not even better, known. Moreover, the name Onderstepoort is not only associated with his institute but also with the only South African faculty of veterinary science, another Theiler 'baby'. The purpose of this presentation is to determine why this was so, and to what extent the fame was justified. Was it due to the 'Spirit of Onderstepoort' sometimes referred to by Theiler in the early as well as later stages of his career, or was there perhaps more to it, and what was Theiler's share in the development of that spirit, that fame? <![CDATA[<b>A brief history of botulism in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0030-24652009000100004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt When looking back into the history of botulism and contemplating the final understanding of the syndrome and the ultimate solutions, there are four facets that stand out clearly. The first is that much of the solution was guided by astute observations, curious travellers, committed veterinarians and particularly farmers themselves who were able to relate the occurrence of the condition to climatic and grazing conditions. Secondly, there was the identification of the osteophagia and pica syndrome which led to the feeding of bone-meal as a successful mitigating measure as well as the establishment that botulism was not due to a plant poisoning. Thirdly, the solution of the problem depended on the integration of experience and knowledge from diverse disciplines such as soil science, animal behaviour and husbandry, nutrition, botany and ultimately advanced bacteriology and the science of immunology. Finally it required the technical advancement to produce toxoids in large quantities and formulate effective aluminium hydroxide precipitated and oil emulsion vaccines. <![CDATA[<b>Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (lungsickness) in Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0030-24652009000100005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) or lung sickness, is an insidious pneumonic disease of cattle caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides small colony variant (MmmSC) and it is one of the major diseases affecting cattle in Africa. With the imminent eradication of rinderpest from Africa (Somali ecosystem) CBPP has become the disease of prime concern in terms of epizootics that affect cattle on the continent. The control and/or eradication of the disease have suffered from unsustained control actions due to lack of operational funds to support such actions and deterioration in the quality of veterinary services in many countries affected by the disease. Stamping out procedures which were adopted by Botswana to control the disease (1995-1997) cannot be carried out by many countries currently affected by CBPP due to the high financial cost, the widespread nature of disease, animal welfare considerations and the potential loss of a valuable genetic resource base. The current scenario of CBPP disease epidemiology in sub-Saharan Africa requires that proactive measures are taken to safeguard countries in southern Africa which are currently free from CBPP from being contaminated by the disease thus affecting the beef industry and people's livelihoods; and to progressively control the disease in endemic zones of Western and Central Africa. This presentation discusses the epidemiology of CBPP in Africa, diagnosis of the disease, regional strategies that could be deployed to prevent and control the spread of the disease on the continent and research thrusts on CBPP. <![CDATA[<b>Poisonous plants</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0030-24652009000100006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt South Africa is blessed with one of the richest floras in the world, which-not surprisingly-includes many poisonous plants. Theiler in the founding years believed that plants could be involved in the aetiologies of many of the then unexplained conditions of stock, such as gousiekte and geeldikkop. His subsequent investigations of plant poisonings largely laid the foundation for the future Sections of Toxicology at the Institute and the Faculty of Veterinary Science (UP). The history of research into plant poisonings over the last 100 years is briefly outlined. Some examples of sustained research on important plant poisonings, such as cardiac glycoside poisoning and gousiekte, are given to illustrate our approach to the subject and the progress that has been made. The collation and transfer of information and the impact of plant poisonings on the livestock industry is discussed and possible avenues of future research are investigated. <![CDATA[<b>Assessing the economics of animal trypanosomosis in Africa-history and current perspectives</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0030-24652009000100007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Finding appropriate ways of dealing with the problem of tsetse and trypanosomosis will be an important component of efforts to alleviate poverty in Africa. This article reviews the history of economic analyses of the problem, starting with the use of cost to guide choice of technique for tsetse control in the 1950s, followed by work in the 1970s and 1980s linking these to the impact of the disease on livestock productivity, and in the 1990s to its wider impact. In the current situation, with limited resources and a range of techniques for controlling or eliminating tsetse, the cost implications of choosing one technique or another are important and a recent study reviewed these costs. A novel approach to assessing the potential benefits from removing trypanosomosis by creating 'money maps' showed that high losses from animal trypanosomosis currently occur in areas with high cattle population densities on the margins of the tsetse distribution and where animal traction is an important component of farming systems. Given the importance of the decisions to be made in the next decade, when prioritising and choosing techniques for dealing with tsetse and trypanosomosis, more work needs to be done underpinning such mapping exercises and estimating the true cost and likely impact of planned interventions. <![CDATA[<b>The genetics of African trypanosomes</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0030-24652009000100008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Finding appropriate ways of dealing with the problem of tsetse and trypanosomosis will be an important component of efforts to alleviate poverty in Africa. This article reviews the history of economic analyses of the problem, starting with the use of cost to guide choice of technique for tsetse control in the 1950s, followed by work in the 1970s and 1980s linking these to the impact of the disease on livestock productivity, and in the 1990s to its wider impact. In the current situation, with limited resources and a range of techniques for controlling or eliminating tsetse, the cost implications of choosing one technique or another are important and a recent study reviewed these costs. A novel approach to assessing the potential benefits from removing trypanosomosis by creating 'money maps' showed that high losses from animal trypanosomosis currently occur in areas with high cattle population densities on the margins of the tsetse distribution and where animal traction is an important component of farming systems. Given the importance of the decisions to be made in the next decade, when prioritising and choosing techniques for dealing with tsetse and trypanosomosis, more work needs to be done underpinning such mapping exercises and estimating the true cost and likely impact of planned interventions. <![CDATA[<b>Tsetse and trypanosomosis in Africa: The challenges, the opportunities</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0030-24652009000100009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Tsetse-fly and the disease it transmits, trypanosomosis, remain an enormous disease challenge in the 37 countries of sub-Saharan Africa where the impact continues to be manifest in disease burden, increased level of poverty and decreased agricultural productivity. The impact also extends over an estimated 10 million kmĀ² (a third of the African continent) of land area, a third of which contains some well-watered part of the continent, thus denying humans and livestock of potentially rich arable and pastureland. The disease is a threat to an estimated 50 million people and 48 million cattle with estimated annual losses in cattle production alone of 1-1.2 billion US$. These losses are due to stock mortality and depressed productivity, which may be of meat, milk, reproduction or traction. Beyond its direct effects on humans and livestock is its impact on African agriculture and the livelihood of the rural population in the affected countries: the fly and the disease influence where people decide to live, how they manage their livestock, and the intensity and the mix of crop agriculture. The combined effects result in changes in land use and environment which may, in turn, affect human welfare and increase the vulnerability of agricultural activity. Trypanosomosis is, therefore, both a public health and an agricultural development constraint. The challenges that the elimination or control of tsetse fly and trypanosomosis pose as well as the opportunities to develop appropriate intervention technologies are discussed in this presentation. <![CDATA[<b>Prospects for controlling trypanosomosis</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0030-24652009000100010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The best technical package for the future comprises trypanocidal drugs for temporary relief and the use of insecticide-treated cattle, artificial baits and aerial spraying to attack the vector, to so give more lasting security. Whether this can speed the previously slow progress will depend on overcoming past hindrances to tsetse control: sporadic support, disputes over its desirability, difficulties of sustaining international operations, and poor planning in some instances. The Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Campaign intends to speed the progress but will fail unless it improves its image by breaking its association with the sterile insect technique and quickly executing some cheap and effective operations in large areas. Even then, there could be severe brakes due to Africa's political and financial instability. Overall, the pace of control is likely to increase, but perhaps only a little. <![CDATA[<b>Economic impacts of tick-borne diseases in Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0030-24652009000100011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The best technical package for the future comprises trypanocidal drugs for temporary relief and the use of insecticide-treated cattle, artificial baits and aerial spraying to attack the vector, to so give more lasting security. Whether this can speed the previously slow progress will depend on overcoming past hindrances to tsetse control: sporadic support, disputes over its desirability, difficulties of sustaining international operations, and poor planning in some instances. The Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Campaign intends to speed the progress but will fail unless it improves its image by breaking its association with the sterile insect technique and quickly executing some cheap and effective operations in large areas. Even then, there could be severe brakes due to Africa's political and financial instability. Overall, the pace of control is likely to increase, but perhaps only a little. <![CDATA[<b>Trends in the control of theileriosis in sub-Saharan Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0030-24652009000100012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The best technical package for the future comprises trypanocidal drugs for temporary relief and the use of insecticide-treated cattle, artificial baits and aerial spraying to attack the vector, to so give more lasting security. Whether this can speed the previously slow progress will depend on overcoming past hindrances to tsetse control: sporadic support, disputes over its desirability, difficulties of sustaining international operations, and poor planning in some instances. The Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Campaign intends to speed the progress but will fail unless it improves its image by breaking its association with the sterile insect technique and quickly executing some cheap and effective operations in large areas. Even then, there could be severe brakes due to Africa's political and financial instability. Overall, the pace of control is likely to increase, but perhaps only a little. <![CDATA[<b>Persistence mechanisms in tick-borne diseases</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0030-24652009000100013&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The use of new, highly sensitive diagnostic methods has revealed persistent infections to be a common feature of different tick-borne diseases, such as babesiosis, anaplasmosis and heartwater. Antigenic variation can contribute to disease persistence through the continual elaboration of new surface structures, and we know in several instances how this is achieved. Known or suspected mechanisms of persistence in babesial parasites include cytoadhesion and rapid variation of the adhesive ligand in Babesia bovis and genetic diversity in several merozoite stage proteins of different Babesia spp. In Anaplasma, extensive variation in the pfam01617 gene family accompanies cycling of organism levels in chronic infection. One result from the pioneering research at Onderstepoort is the definition of a related polymorphic gene family that is likely involved in immunity against heartwater disease. We are beginning to understand the sizes of the antigenic repertoires and full definition is close, with the possibility of applying simultaneous high-throughput sequencing to the order of 1 000 small genomes. We also, for the first time, can consider modifying these genomes and looking at effects on persistence and virulence. However, important biological questions remain unanswered; for example, why we are seeing a new emerging Anaplasma infection of humans and is infection of endothelial cells by Anaplasma significant to persistence in vivo. <![CDATA[<b>Canine babesiosis</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0030-24652009000100014&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Babesiosis is a tick-borne disease affecting humans and many domestic and wild animals. Domestic animals showing appreciable morbidity and mortality include dogs, cats, cattle and horses. Both canine and feline babesiosis are diseases characterised by haemolytic anaemia, icterus and haemoglobinuria. Canine babesiosis can range from chronic or subclinical to peracute and fatal, depending on the virulence of the species and the susceptibility of the host. This paper deals with canine babesiosis with specific reference to pathogenesis, clinical findings, complications, diagnosis and treatment, as well as newly identified prognostic factors in Babesia rossi babesiosis. <![CDATA[<b>A century of tick taxonomy in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0030-24652009000100015&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Eighty ixodid tick species, 25 argasid tick species and Nuttalliella namaqua occur in South Africa. Twenty-one of the 80 ixodid species and two of the argasid species occur only in this country, while N. namaqua is present only in South Africa and Namibia. Forty-six of the 80 ixodid species and 16 of the 25 argasid species as well as N. namaqua have been described as new species since 1908. People working in South Africa have written or contributed to the descriptions of 24 of these 63 new species, while foreign researchers have described the remainder. New species indigenous to South Africa are still being discovered, while the names of some species, well known because of their veterinary importance, have been altered. <![CDATA[<b>Sir Arnold Theiler and the discovery of anaplasmosis: A centennial perspective</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0030-24652009000100016&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Sir Arnold Theiler's research in 1908/09 led to the discovery of the first rickettsial pathogen, Anaplasma marginale, and set the stage for his development and implementation of an effective live vaccine based on a less virulent strain, A. marginale ss. centrale. His 1910 report, describing A. marginale, is among the classic monographs in infectious disease research, presenting not only observations in exacting detail but also highlighting the deductive reasoning leading to association of a new pathogen with a specific disease. With a centennial perspective and both conceptual frameworks and molecular tools unimaginable in Theiler's time, the significance of several observations in the original report- cyclic bacteremia, strain superinfection, and taxonomic position-is now clear and highlight the broad applicability of key principles of pathogen biology. <![CDATA[<b>Trends in the control of heartwater</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0030-24652009000100017&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Heartwater is an economically serious tick-borne disease of ruminants caused by the intracellular bacterium Ehrlichia ruminantium. The disease has traditionally been controlled by four different approaches: controlling the tick vector by dipping, establishing endemic stability, performing immunisation by infection and treatment, and preventing the disease by regular administration of prophylactic antibiotics. The first three of these methods are subject to failure for various epidemiological reasons, and serious disease outbreaks can occur. Prophylaxis is effective, but very expensive, and the logistics are daunting when large herds of animals are involved. The development of a safe, cheap and effective vaccine is the only likely way in which heartwater can be economically controlled, and over the past 15 years three new types of experimental vaccine have been developed: inactivated, attenuated, and recombinant vaccines. These new vaccines have shown varying degrees of promise, but none is as yet sufficiently successful to be marketable. We describe the experimental products, and the various technical and biological difficulties which are being encountered, and report on ways in which new technologies are being used to improve vaccine effectiveness. <![CDATA[<b>African swine fever</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0030-24652009000100018&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt African swine fever (ASF) is a devastating haemorrhagic fever of pigs that causes up to 100 % mortality, for which there is no vaccine. It is caused by a unique DNA virus that is maintained in an ancient cycle between warthogs and argasid ticks, making it the only known DNA arbovirus. ASF has a high potential for transboundary spread, and has twice been transported from Africa to other continents- Europe and subsequently the Caribbean and Brazil (1957, 1959) and the Caucasus (2007). It is also a devastating constraint for pig production in Africa. Research at Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute has made and is making important contributions to knowledge of this disease, focusing on the cycle in warthogs and tampans and transmission from that cycle to domestic pigs, resistance to its effects in domestic pigs, and the molecular genetic characterisation and epidemiology of the virus. <![CDATA[<b>African horsesickness</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0030-24652009000100019&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt African swine fever (ASF) is a devastating haemorrhagic fever of pigs that causes up to 100 % mortality, for which there is no vaccine. It is caused by a unique DNA virus that is maintained in an ancient cycle between warthogs and argasid ticks, making it the only known DNA arbovirus. ASF has a high potential for transboundary spread, and has twice been transported from Africa to other continents- Europe and subsequently the Caribbean and Brazil (1957, 1959) and the Caucasus (2007). It is also a devastating constraint for pig production in Africa. Research at Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute has made and is making important contributions to knowledge of this disease, focusing on the cycle in warthogs and tampans and transmission from that cycle to domestic pigs, resistance to its effects in domestic pigs, and the molecular genetic characterisation and epidemiology of the virus. <![CDATA[<b>History of bluetongue research at Onderstepoort</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0030-24652009000100020&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Research on this economically important disease of ruminants, especially sheep, which had been named bluetongue by farmers in the 19th century, has been part and parcel of the activities at Onderstepoort ever since its establishment in 1908 and therefore covers a full century of the OVI's existence. In view of Onderstepoort's centenary celebration a brief overview of this research is given in terms of the historic milestones which influenced and guided global research on this and other viral diseases of animals. <![CDATA[<b>Veterinary education in Africa: Current and future perspectives</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0030-24652009000100021&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Veterinary education commenced in South Africa in 1920 at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute in South Africa in association with the Transvaal University College, now the University of Pretoria. Sir Arnold Theiler, Director of Veterinary Research and Education, was the first Dean. Today there are 46 veterinary training institutions in Africa of which 21 are in sub-Saharan Africa. Veterinary services are indispensable to the sustained health and wellbeing of animals and humans, and agricultural economies of countries worldwide. Veterinary education, postgraduate training, and research, and adequate numbers of veterinarians, are essential to satisfy the millennium development goals, the objectives of NEPAD and the African Union, and the agreements regulating international trade. The relevance of the veterinary profession internationally is currently subject to profound scrutiny. Its contributions are assessed against major environmental, demographic, political, disease, technological and economic needs. The scope of veterinary training in future will have to emphasise veterinary public health, food safety, emerging diseases, international trade, bioterrorism, and biomedical research, within the context of a one-health system focusing on the interface between wildlife, domesticated animals, humans, and their environment. Within the context of time available, it would mean reducing the time allocated to training in the field of companion animals. A brief history and scope of veterinary education; current international trends in veterinary education and provisioning; and some perspectives on future veterinary training and initiatives applicable to Africa are provided. <![CDATA[<b>Field services: Eradication and control of animal diseases</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0030-24652009000100022&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Prevention, eradication and control of animal diseases, as well as public health assurance are major functions of veterinary authorities. The strategies to control animal diseases differ from disease to disease but are often similar on a disease basis from country to country depending on the main objective of the measure employed. These measures include among others movement control and quarantine, vaccination, treatment and mass slaughtering. However, not every country uses all these control measures at the same time. A combination of measures may be employed to avoid spreading of the disease from infected to clean animals and success is dependent on a variety of factors, including the strength and capacity of the veterinary services, cross border efforts for disease surveillance, political will, diagnostic facilities and financial support. <![CDATA[<b>The future of private veterinary practice in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0030-24652009000100023&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Prevention, eradication and control of animal diseases, as well as public health assurance are major functions of veterinary authorities. The strategies to control animal diseases differ from disease to disease but are often similar on a disease basis from country to country depending on the main objective of the measure employed. These measures include among others movement control and quarantine, vaccination, treatment and mass slaughtering. However, not every country uses all these control measures at the same time. A combination of measures may be employed to avoid spreading of the disease from infected to clean animals and success is dependent on a variety of factors, including the strength and capacity of the veterinary services, cross border efforts for disease surveillance, political will, diagnostic facilities and financial support. <![CDATA[<b>Currently important animal disease management issues in sub-Saharan Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0030-24652009000100024&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>More appropriate disease control policies for the developing world</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0030-24652009000100025&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Investment in disease control should be targeted to critical points that provide the greatest benefit to the livelihoods of livestock-dependent stakeholders. Risk-based targeting should balance the impacts of diseases against the feasibility of their control. This requires sensitive and specific surveillance systems that provide representative overviews of the animal health situation for accurate assessment of disease impact and transmission patterns. Assessment of impact should include household and market effects. The key in surveillance is involving livestock owners using active methods that ensure their disease priorities are addressed. Epidemiological targeting of interventions to critical points in disease transmission cycles should be done to obtain maximal disease reduction. Interventions should be delivered in full partnership with both private and community-based stakeholders to assure high uptake and sustainability. In developing countries, approaches such as participatory disease surveillance and community-based animal health programs have been effective and comply with international animal health standards. <![CDATA[<b>The role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) to facilitate the international trade in animals and animal products</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0030-24652009000100026&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The international trade in animals and animal products has become a sensitive issue for both developed and developing countries by posing an important risk for the international spread of animal and human pathogens whilst at the same time being an essential activity to ensure world-wide food security and food safety. The OIE has since its founding in 1924, applied a democratic and transparent decision-making process to continuously develop and review international standards for animal health and zoonoses to facilitate trade in animals and animal products. The role of the OIE is also mandated by the World Trade Organization (WTO) as international reference point for standards related to animal health. In support of its overall objective of promoting animal health world-wide, the OIE has also launched several other initiatives such as the improvement of the governance of veterinary services within its member countries and territories and to enhance the availability of diagnostic and scientific expertise on a more even global geographical distribution. Several trade facilitating concepts such as country, zonal and compartment freedom from disease as well the trade in disease free commodities has been introduced to enhance the trade in animals and animal products for all its members including those from developing and transitional countries who are still in the process of enhancing to full compliance with international sanitary standards. <![CDATA[<b>Livestock policy and trade issues in SADC</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0030-24652009000100027&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt As from 2001, the Southern African Development Community (SADC) has embarked on a course to deepen regional integration through restructuring. Under the new structure SADC has centralised the coordination of its activities to the Secretariat in Gaborone. The former Sector Coordinating Units have been merged into four directorates, one of which is the Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources (FANR) Directorate, which comprises, amongst others, the Livestock Development Unit (LDU). The LDU, under the aegis of the FANR, formulates policies for regional livestock development in order to respond to the objectives of the Regional Indicative Strategic Development Plan (RISDP), and which are mainly to: • Contribute to improved food security. • Promote wealth creation. • Enhance rural livelihood. • Enhance livestock as a tradable and consumable commodity. Following the launch of the SADC Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) negotiations, the eight SADC EPA member states identified sanitary and phytosanitary and technical barriers to trade to be major trade barriers for access to international markets, especially the EU market where standards are normally set beyond international standards. SADC has already brought some of the issues related to beef exports to the OIE Regional Commission for Africa as SADC member states feel that a few of the present requirements do not have a scientific basis. The paper discusses the process that the LDU follows in the formulation of policies and strategies in regional livestock development with the objective of bolstering intra and extra regional trade in livestock and livestock products. <![CDATA[<b>Improved management of drugs, hormones and pesticides in Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0030-24652009000100028&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Drugs, hormones and pesticides are chemical compounds used for alleviation of various diseases in animals. There are many classes of drugs which have been used and in the case of natural steroid hormones these have been used to increase mass gain by stimulating protein anabolism. Pesticides have been used for many years in the control of ectoparasites which transmit important human and livestock diseases. The purpose of the present article is to review procedures for management of veterinary products to facilitate national and international trade. These compounds and/or their metabolites have the potential to cause undesirable health effects to either target animals or consumers. Most African countries do not have competent authorities to conduct risk analysis for veterinary drug and pesticide residues in edible tissues. Because of the possible undesirable health effects from residues of veterinary compounds, the FAO/WHO established expert groups to establish acceptable daily intake and maximum residue levels (MRLs) for each drug or pesticide. In the case of natural steroids like oestradiol, progesterone and testosterone implants, no withdrawal period is required since there is no risk to the consumer. Bulls can have levels of testosterone ranging from 535-10 950 pg/g, heifers 92-250 and treated steers 100 pg/g, respectively. Data to enable approval of drugs and pesticides is to a large extent similar and include toxicity studies, reproductive studies, stability studies, safety, efficacy, tissue residue depletion studies and environmental impact. Good practice in the use of acaricides as indicated on the label is inevitable so that residue levels of these compounds remain below the specified MRL. Enactment and enforcement of legislations by various countries for the control of registration, sale, distribution and usage of ethical products should be enforced including use of prescriptions by veterinarians. Good practice in the use of veterinary drugs is the recommended or authorized usage of drugs. It should be enforced to ensure safe animal products for human consumption and to facilitate regional or international trade. In conclusion, for efficient production of animal protein from food producing animals all veterinary products should be approved prior to use, residue monitoring programs should be implemented; veterinarians and producers must use these compounds prudently using recommended good practices.