Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research]]> vol. 75 num. 3 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Studies on effects of lactose on experimental <i>Trypanosoma vivax </i>infection in Zebu cattle. 2. Packed cell volume</b>]]> The ability of intravenously administered lactose in normal saline to prevent a decline in packed cell volume (PCV) during experimental trypanosomosis was studied in Zebu cattle. During the lactose infusion period, the PCV was stable up to Day 5 post-infection (p.i.) in a lactose-infused group, compared to that in an uninfused group in which the PCV dropped significantly (P < 0.05) as shown by the values of cumulative percentage change. Furthermore the mean rate of change in PCV was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the uninfused group relative to the lactose-infused group during the same period. While the PCV fell markedly in the lactose-infused group a day after lactose infusion was stopped (Day 13 p.i.), subsequent PCV values were significantly (P < 0.05) higher compared to those in the uninfused group, up to the end of experiment on Day 17 p.i. However the mean rates of change in PCV did not vary significantly (P &gt; 0.05) between the groups during the period in which lactose infusion was stopped. The mean levels of parasitaemic waves and parasitaemia were higher, more prolonged and more frequent in the lactose-infused group. It was inferred that the lactose was able to prevent an early onset of anaemia in the Trypanosoma vivax-infected Zebu cattle. <![CDATA[<b>2-Phenoxyethanol as anaesthetic in removing and relocating 102 species of fishes representing 30 families from Sea World to uShaka Marine World, South Africa</b>]]> 2-Phenoxyethanol was used as an anaesthetic to translocate 102 species of fishes representing 30 families from the Sea World aquarium on Durban's beachfront to uShaka Marine World. Most fishes responded well to a final anaesthetic concentration of 0,150 mí/í and there were no mortalities. <![CDATA[<b>Detection of <i>Anaplasma </i>antibodies in wildlife and domestic species in wildlife-livestock interface areas of Kenya by major surface protein 5 competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay</b>]]> The seroprevalence of Anaplasma antibodies in wildlife (eland, blue wildebeest, kongoni, impala, Thomson's gazelle, Grant's gazelle, giraffe and plains zebra) and domestic animal (cattle, sheep and goat) populations was studied in wildlife/livestock interface areas of Kenya. Serum samples were analyzed by competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CI-ELISA), using a recombinant antigen (MSP-5) from Anaplasma marginale surface membrane. A monoclonal antibody, FC-16, was used as the primary antibody, while anti-mouse conjugated to horseradish peroxidase was used as the secondary antibody. The results indicate a high seroprevalence in both wildlife and livestock populations, in contrast to earlier reports from Kenya, which indicated a low seroprevalence. The differences are attributed to the accurate analytical method used (CI-ELISA), as compared with agglutination techniques, clinical signs and microscopy employed by the earlier workers. <![CDATA[<b>Evaluation of biochemical and ultrasonographic measurements as indicators of undernutrition in cattle</b>]]> Body condition scoring (BCS) gives an indication of the nutritional status of an animal and it is thus an invaluable management tool in domestic livestock systems. It is, however, subjective. This study aimed at identifying biochemical indicators which could be objectively used as an indicator of undernutrition in ruminants. Blood samples were collected from 50 cattle with BCS < 1 and from 50 cattle with BCS &gt; 2.5, using a 0-5 scale, and analysed for albumin, urea, creatinine, fructosamine, beta-hydroxybutyrate, non-esterified fatty acids, total serum protein and haematocrit. Rumpfat and ribfat thickness and marbling relative index were determined ultrasonographically in 15 of the low BCS group and 13 of the high BCS group. The laboratory measure with the best predictive ability for severe undernutrition was albumin, which correctly classified 94 % of cattle, using a cut-off of 31.5 g/l. In contrast to a previous study, our study did not find the fructosamine:albumin ratio to be an accurate test to indicate undernutrition in cattle. Ultrasonic measurement of subcutaneous rumpfat and ribfat proved to reliably predict undernutrition, but may, however be impractical for routine use under most field conditions. <![CDATA[<b>Cercariae developing in <i>Lymnaea natalensis </i>Krauss, 1848 collected in the vicinity of Pretoria, Gauteng Province, South Africa</b>]]> Freshwater snails are known to serve as first intermediate hosts for various parasitic diseases such as schistosomosis and fasciolosis. Snails were collected on several occasions in the proximity of Pretoria, South Africa and their cercarial sheddings were studied. This article describes three different types of cercariae shed by the freshwater snail, Lymnaea natalensis, viz. a fork-tailed cercaria of a Trichobilharzia sp., an avian parasite belonging to the family Schistosomatidae, an echinostomatid cercaria of the family Echinostomatidae, also avian parasites and a xiphidiocercaria of the family Plagiorchiidae which parasitise avians and amphibians. The morphology of these cercariae was studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. <![CDATA[<b>The helminth community of Helmeted Guineafowls, <i>Numida meleagris </i>(Linnaeus, 1758), in the north of Limpopo Province, South Africa</b>]]> The helminths of 15 Helmeted Guineafowls were collected in the north of Limpopo Province, South Africa. A total of 11 cestode, ten nematode and a single acanthocephalan species were present. Species richness ranged from 8 to 16 species per host, and nine core and nine secondary species accounted for 40.9 % of the component parasite community. The remaining 18.2 % comprised satellite species. Core species represented 91 % of all the worms present. Individual intensities ranged from 66 to 2 724 per host and overdispersion was pronounced. There were no significant differences regarding the abundance and species richness between male and female hosts. The number of component species and overall abundance did not differ significantly between juvenile and adult hosts, but Cyrnea parroti was significantly more abundant, and the prevalence of Hadjelia truncata was higher in young birds than in adults. In contrast, Gongylonema congolense and Porogynia paronai were absent in juveniles, but had a prevalence of 60 % and 70 %, respectively, in adults. Pairwise Spearman's rank correlation yielded one positive and 10 negative significant species correlations. A single trematode, Dicrocoelium macrostomum, was collected from five of nine guineafowls, but was not included in the helminth community study. <![CDATA[<b>Relative economic benefits of tactical anthelmintic treatment and urea-molasses block supplementation of Boer goats raised under extensive grazing conditions at Onderstepoort, Pretoria, South Africa</b>]]> The potential economic benefits of combining tactical anthelmintic treatment for gastrointestinal nematodes and nutritional supplementation with urea-molasses blocks were examined in Boer goats raised under extensive grazing conditions in the summer rainfall area of South Africa. Eight groups of nine goats were monitored over a 12-month period from 1 October 2002 to 9 October 2003. Ad libitum nutritional supplementation with urea-molasses blocks was provided when the goats were housed at night, during the summer (wet season-December 2002 to February 2003), and/or the winter (dry season-June 2003 to August 2003). All the goats were treated symptomatically for Haemonchus contortus infection when deemed necessary by clinical examination of the conjunctiva for anaemia using the FAMACHA© system. Half the groups were tactically treated for gastrointestinal nematodes in mid-summer (28 January 2003). Under the symptomatic treatment, climatic and extensive grazing conditions encountered during the trial, feed supplementation in the winter dry season had the greatest economic benefit and is therefore recommended. Tactical anthelmintic treatment afforded no additional advantage, but the nematode challenge was low. <![CDATA[<b>Cardiotoxic effects of pavetamine extracted from <i>Pavetta harborii </i>in the rat</b>]]> Previous studies have shown that crude extracts from Pavetta harborii as well as dried plant material have cardiotoxic effects on rats and sheep that can lead to heart failure. The active component has since been isolated and identified. This substance has been named pavetamine. The aim of this study was to determine whether pavetamine has cardiotoxic effects similar to those seen in previous reports, when administered to rats intraperitoneally. Sprague Dawley rats received two doses, initially 4 mg/kg and then 3 mg/kg pavetamine respectively and were monitored for 35 days before cardiodynamic parameters were measured by inserting a fluid-filled catheter into the left ventricle via the right carotid artery. These values were compared to those of control rats that had received only saline. Pavetamine significantly reduced systolic function and body mass in the treated rats, which indicates that it has the potential to induce heart failure in this animal model. <![CDATA[<b>Intramammary antibiotic withdrawal periods for dairy goats compared to those for dairy cattle</b>]]> This study investigated the withdrawal periods (WP) of two intramammary antibiotics Cloxamast LC (Intervet SA) and Spectrazol Milking Cow (Schering-Plough Animal Health) in dairy goats and compared them to those recommended for use in cattle. The WP for Cloxamast LC, measured by the Thermo Resistant Inhibitory Substances (TRIS) test, was 60 h in composite samples, 56 h in udder half samples, and the dye was visible for up to 56 h. The WP was significantly shorter than the 72 h recommended WP for use in cattle. It was however significantly longer when the 24 h safety margin (48 h) was subtracted from the recommended WP for cattle. For Spectrazol Milking Cow the antibiotics could be detected by the TRIS test for 61 h in composite samples and 59 h in udder half samples. This did not differ significantly from the recommended 60 h WP for cattle. However, it was significantly longer than that recommended for use in cattle without the 24 h safety margin. There was no significant difference in WP between infected and non-infected udder halves, while there was a weak positive correlation between WP and stage of lactation (R² = 0.253). There was a moderate positive correlation (R² = 0.583) between the TRIS test and the presence of dye in milk in udder half samples and between WP in both udder half and composite milk samples (R² = 0.456). Weak to moderate positive correlations were present between milk yield and the WP in both udder half (R² = 0.414) and composite (R² = 0.262) milk samples. Significant differences (P < 0.001) were also observed between the milk yield of udder halves with and without palpable udder damage and between samples that tested TRIS positive and negative on both composite (P = 0.008) and udder half samples (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the milk yield of samples with or without dye. There was a significant difference in milk yield between infected and non-infected udder halves (P = 0.054) and a weak negative correlation between milk yield and stage of lactation (R² = -0.379). <![CDATA[<b>Helminth parasites of Natal long-fingered bats, <i>Miniopterus natalensis </i>(Chiroptera: Miniopteridae), in South Africa</b>]]> The helminth community infecting Miniopterus natalensis was studied at two localities, the De Hoop Nature Reserve (DHNR) (n = 57), Western Cape Province and Pretoria (n = 12), Gauteng Province, South Africa. Hosts from the DHNR had formed part of an earlier, unrelated study and were all pregnant females. A single hymenolepidid cestode species, the nematodes Molinostrongylus ornatus and Litomosa chiropterorum together with nematodes of the subfamily Capillariinae were present at both study sites, while a single digenean, Allassogonoporus sp., was only found in hosts from the DHNR. The prevalence of helminth infections was high at both localities, 68.4 % in the DHNR and 77.7 % in Pretoria, whereas the mean intensity of infection was low at the DHNR (3.76 ± 3.15), but higher in Pretoria (10.4 ± 9.9). Molinostrongylus ornatus and, to a lesser extent L. chiropterorum, were the main contributors to the higher intensities in Pretoria. The species richness ranged from 0 to 4 at both localities.