Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Historia]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0018-229X20100002&lang=en vol. 55 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Dr. Maria Hugo (21 Mei 1917 – 5 Augustus 2010): in memorian</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2010000200001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>Maria Hugo - soeker na waarheid: in memorian</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2010000200002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>Professor Bunyan Booyens (14 Januarie 1916 - 25 Mei 2010): in memorian</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2010000200003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>Oom Bun - dosent en historikus: in memorian</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2010000200004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>Prof. Bun Booyens - geliefde mens en allemansvriend: in memorian</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2010000200005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>"Fools rush in"</b>: <b>writing a history of the concentration camps of the South African War</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2010000200006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In the light of recent controversy over the hygiene of the Boers in the camps of the South African War, this article explores some of the difficulties in writing a history of the camps. The article argues that although the British Blue Books were politically tainted, this does not necessarily invalidate the contents. Although the authors were loyal to the British cause and shared a Victorian middle class culture, which led them to view Boer hygiene critically, they were so consistent in their comments that they cannot be disregarded. An analysis of the camp registers confirms a picture of great poverty amongst the rural population who formed the bulk of the camp inmates. The war contributed to the destruction of republican society, creating the poor white crisis which troubled Afrikaners so greatly in the twentieth century. The post-war emergence of Afrikaner nationalism was concerned not only with unifying Afrikaners politically and uplifting them economically, but with gentrifying these urbanising poor whites. This process has been little discussed but it has bitten deeply into Afrikaner consciousness and explains the reluctance, even of twenty-first-century Afrikaners, to recognise that this pre-industrial rural society possessed a different culture.<hr/>In die lig van die onlangse omstredenheid oor die higiëne van die Boere in die kampe van die Suid-Afrikaanse Oorlog, ondersoek hierdie artikel sommige van die probleme wat uit die skryf van 'n geskiedenis van die kampe spruit. Hierdie artikel voer aan dat alhoewel die Britse Blouboeke polities gekleurd was, dit nie sonder meer die inhoud daarvan ongeldig maak nie. Alhoewel die skrywers lojaal aan die Britse saak was en 'n Victoriaanse kultuur gedeel het wat hulle krities teenoor Boer higiëne gelaat het, was hul kommentaar so konsekwent dat dit nie verontagsaam kan word nie. 'n Ontleding van die kampregisters bevestig 'n beeld van enorme armoede onder die landelike bevolking wat die grootste groep van kampbewoners uitgemaak het. Die oorlog het bygedra tot die vernietiging van die republikeinse gemeenskap en in die proses die armblankekrisis geskep wat die Afrikaners in die twintigste eeu soveel probleme verskaf het. Die naoorlogse opkoms van Afrikanernasionalisme was nie net bemoeid met die politiese vereniging van die Afrikaners en hul ekonomiese opheffing nie, maar ook met die verburgering van die verstedelike armblankes. Weinig aandag is aan hierdie proses gegee, maar dit het diep inslag gevind in die Afrikaner se psige en verduidelik die onwilligheid, selfs van Afrikaners in die een-en-twintigste eeu, om te erken dat hierdie voor-industriële landelike samelewing oor 'n ander kultuur beskik het. <![CDATA[<b>The white concentration camps of the Anglo-Boer War</b>: <b>a debate without end</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2010000200007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article gives an overview of some of the most important historiographical contributions on the white concentration camps the British erected during the Anglo-Boer War. This is followed by a criticism of two recent publications - Liz Stanely's book Mourning Becomes... Post/memory, Commemoration and the Concentration Camps of the South African War (2006, with a first South African edition in 2008), and Elizabeth van Heyningen's article entitled "A Tool for Modernisation? The Boer Concentration Camps of the South African War, 1900-1902", in the South African Journal of Science (2010). Despite quite some merit, both publications are criticised for their subjectivity. It is concluded that the truth is much more complicated and nuanced than the portrayal provided by these writers.<hr/>Hierdie artikel verskaf eers 'n oorsig van die belangrikste historiografiese bydraes oor die blanke konsentrasiekampe wat die Britte tydens die Anglo-Boereoorlog opgerig het. Dit word gevolg deur kritiek op twee onlangse publikasies - Liz Stanely se boek Mourning Becomes... Post/memory, Commemoration and the Concentration Camps of the South African War (2006, met 'n eerste Suid-Afrikaanse uitgawe in 2008), en Elizabeth van Heyningen se artikel getiteld "A Tool for Modernisation? The Boer Concentration Camps of the South African War, 1900-1902", in the South African Journal of Science (2010). Ten spyte van heelwat meriete word albei publikasies gekritiseer vir hul subjektiwteit. Daar word besluit dat die waarheid veel ingewikkelder en genuanseerd is as die uitbeelding deur hierdie skrywers. <![CDATA[<b>From trusteeship to self-determination</b>: <b>L.J. du Plessis' thinking on apartheid and his conflict with H.F. Verwoerd</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2010000200008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article analyses the conflict in the 1950s between L.J. Du Plessis of Potchefstroom University and the South African prime minister, Hendrik Verwoerd. The issue was whether apartheid, in the way Verwoerd implemented it, was justifiable. Du Plessis came to the conclusion that apartheid would only be justifiable if it gave Africans a chance to realise their self-determination. Driven by his Calvinist convictions and inspired by the decolonisation process on the African continent, he argued for negotiations with South Africa's black political leaders, including those of the ANC. The Calvinist doctrine of justification explains why Du Plessis, who was a member of the Ossewabrandwag Grootraad during the 1940s, advocated dialogue with Africans. As a fervent cultural nationalist he believed in communities; he rejected individualism and parliamentary democracy. But when his conviction grew that time was running out for white South Africans, he was prepared to give up on apartheid as a policy. The National Party and Verwoerd rejected his proposals out of hand. Du Plessis was ostracised and expelled from the party. In the end, he became disillusioned and decided to resign from the Afrikaner Broederbond, whose chairman he had once been.<hr/>Hierdie artikel ontleed die botsing tussen L.J. du Plessis van die Universiteit van Potchefstroom en Hendrik Verwoerd, die Suid-Afrikaanse eerste minister, gedurende die 1950's. Die botsing het gehandel oor die kwessie of apartheid, soos dit deur Verwoerd toegepas is, regverdigbaar was. Du Plessis het tot die slotsom gekom dat apartheid net regverdigbaar sou wees as dit aan swartes 'n ware geleentheid vir selfbeskikking sou bied. Gedrewe deur sy Calvinistiese oortuiginge en besiel deur die proses van dekolonisasie in Afrika, het hy aangedring op onderhandelinge met die politieke leiers van swart Suid-Afrika, insluitend dié van die ANC. Die Calvinistiese leerstelling van regverdiging verduidelik waarom Du Plessis as 'n lid van die Ossewabrandwag se Grootraad gedurende die 1940's, 'n voorstander vir gesprekvoering met swartes was. As 'n vurige kulturele nasionalis, het hy in gemeenskappe geglo; hy het individualisme en parlementêre demokrasie verwerp. Sy groeiende kommer oor die toekoms van die Afrikaner het tot gevolg gehad dat hy bereid was om die apartheidsbeleid op te offer. Die Nasionale Party en Verwoerd het sy voorstelle verwerp. Du Plessis is verstoot en uit die party gesluit. Oplaas het hy as 'n teleurgestelde uit die Afrikaner Broederbond, waarvan hy eens voorsitter was, bedank. <![CDATA[<b>Dealing with a hot potato</b>: <b>the commemoration of the 1959 "Potato Boycott"</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2010000200009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The year 2009 marked the 50th commemoration of the so-called "Potato Boycott". This celebration, not unlike the boycott itself, was shrouded in convoluted controversy. While the Mpumalanga provincial government initiated premature celebrations, the event itself was beset by various misunderstandings and conflicting interpretations. This article analyses the complexity of the recent commemoration, but also considers the actual boycott, by tracing its history. The potato boycott took place in a period when blacks implemented various economic boycotts to voice their frustration with the discriminatory apartheid laws that affected their daily existence. In this case, the government tried to supply farmers in the then Eastern Transvaal with cheap "convict" labour. In June 1959 the ANC launched the "Potato Boycott" as a reaction to alleged farm labour abuse practised mainly on farms in the Transvaal highveld. By specifically boycotting potatoes, blacks sought to send farmers a direct message and to strike an economic blow to capitalist farming and its allegedly abusive nature. They also were intent on forcing the government to abandon the regulation of farm labour and admit to the illegality of the system. The protest action also elicited widespread (and contradictory) reaction among the press and non-governmental agencies.<hr/>In 2009 het die 50ste herdenking van die sogenaamde "Aartappelboikot" plaasgevind. Die herdenking, soos die boikot self, is gekenmerk deur omstredenheid. Terwyl dit blyk dat die Mpumalanga provinsiale regering voortydige vieringe onderneem het, was die herdenking ook ontsier deur verskeie misverstande en teenstrydige interpretasies. Dié artikel ontleed die gekompliseerdheid van die herdenking, maar gee ook "n histories oorsig van die boikot. Die aartappelboikot het plaasgevind in "n tydperk toe verskeie ekonomiese boikotte deur swartes gebruik is om hulle frustrasies met die apartheidswetgewing, wat hulle lewens daagliks beïnvloed het, te kenne te gee. In hierdie geval het die staat gepoog om boere, veral in die voormalige Oos-Transvaal, van goedkoop "bandiet"-arbeid te voorsien. In 1959 het die ANC "n aartappelboikot van stapel gestuur as reaksie teen die beweerde wrede behandeling van plaaswerkers, hoofsaaklik op plase in die Transvaalse hoëveld. Deur spesifiek aartappels te boikot, het swartes gepoog om "n direkte boodskap aan boere te stuur wat ten doel gehad het om "n ekonomiese slag te slaan teen kommersiële boerdery en die beweerde gepaardgaande vergrype. Hulle doel was om die regering te dwing om die plaasarbeiderskema af te skaf en om die onwettigheid van die skema te erken. Die gebeure het ook gedurende die tyd wye reaksie ontlok van onder meer die pers en nieregeringsorganisasies. <![CDATA[<b>Klaas Koen</b>: <b>identity and belonging in the Berlin Mission Society during the late nineteenth century</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2010000200010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Klaas Koen was the first South African-born missionary of the Berlin Mission Society. From the perspective of the mission authorities, he was the perfect poster boy for their activities in this country. In the dominant thinking of the times, the fact that he was of Khoisan descent should have condemned him to a life of "wicked foolishness and... all sorts of heathen sins and disgraces". Instead, in the interpretation of the mission, having been reborn in Christ, he worked diligently for the mission and remained faithful even unto death. His life was celebrated in a tract and other texts produced by the society. Given the fact that the reports sent back to headquarters by missionaries in the field followed a rigid format, it is difficult to recover what Koen himself may have thought about his life and actions. This article examines Koen's life history and explores why the mission society treated him, wrote about him, and remembered him as they did. It also suggests some reasons why he may have made the choices that he did. It concludes with an examination of some aspects of his posthumous identity.<hr/>Klaas Koen was die eerste Suid-Afrikaans gebore sendeling van die Berlynse Sendinggemeenskap. Vanuit die perspektief van die sendingowerheid was hy 'n ideale advertensie vir hulle werksaamhede in die land. Volgens die heersende denke van die tyd sou sy Khoisan-afkoms hom moes verdoem het tot 'n lewe van "bose stompsinnigheid en... allerlei heidense sondes en skandes". Luidens die interpretasie van die Sendinggenootskap sou sy Christelike wedergeboorte egter tot gevolg gehad het dat hy nougeset vir die genootskap bly werk het en tot die dood toe getrou was. Hy is vereer in 'n traktaatjie sowel as ander tekste wat deur die genootskap uitgegee is. Aangesien die verslae wat deur die sendelinge in die veld aan hulle hoofkwartier gestuur is, streng aan 'n bepaalde formaat voldoen het, is dit moeilik om te agterhaal wat Koen moontlik self oor sy lewe en sy werksaamhede gedink het. Hierdie artikel ondersoek Koen se lewensgeskiedenis en die redes vir die wyse waarop die Sendinggenootskap hom behandel het, oor hom geskryf het, en hom herdenk het. Dit doen ook moontlike redes aan die hand vir die keuses wat hy gemaak het. Daar word afgesluit met 'n bespreking van bepaalde aspekte van sy nadoodse identitieit. <![CDATA[<b>The local role of a Wellington Afrikaner Broederbond branch, 1937-1994</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2010000200011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The role of the Afrikaner Broederbond in local communities has not been widely explored. It is generally accepted that members of the AB, formerly a clandestine society, probably made a significant contribution to local politics during the apartheid era. This article examines the minutes of an AB branch in the town of Wellington in order to assess its political role in the period 1937-1994. It demonstrates that the local political role of the AB was somewhat limited and was mainly oriented towards the development of Afrikaner nationalism. From the 1970s, however, in anticipation of a post-apartheid dispensation it became an important discussion forum and persuasion arena for prominent local Afrikaner leaders to re-orientate themselves in the light of national socio-political change.<hr/>As 'n voormalige geheime organisasie is dit onduidelik watter rol die Afrikaner Broederbond (AB) in plaaslike gemeenskappe vertolk het. Dit word algemeen aanvaar dat AB-lede moontlik tydens die apartheidsera 'n leidende rol in plaaslike politiek gespeel het. Hierdie artikel lê die plaaslike rol bloot van 'n AB-afdeling in die funksionering van die dorp Wellington. Dit dui aan dat die plaaslike politieke rol van die AB eintlik beperk was en dat dit hoofsaaklik gerig was op die plaaslike ontwikkeling van Afrikaner-nasionalisme. Vanaf die 1970's, in afwagting van 'n postapartheid-bedeling, het hierdie afdeling egter 'n belangrike besprekingsforum en oortuigingsarena vir prominente plaaslike Afrikanerleiers geword om hulle in die lig van die landwye sosio-politieke verandering te heroriënteer. <![CDATA[<b>En route to "Dignity Day"</b>: <b>the South African Chinese and historical commemorations</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2010000200012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Not unlike most marginalised minorities within South Africa and throughout the world, the South African Chinese community have remained insular and on the periphery of mainstream national South African commemoration. However, unlike other marginalised South Africans, this situation has been perpetuated beyond the old South African dispensation into the new. The fractured nature not only of South African society, but also of the Chinese community itself, along with the changing relations with the Republic of China (on Taiwan) and the People's Republic of China partly accounts for this hiatus. While historical milestones of their presence in South Africa have gone uncelebrated, it was the recognition of their status as "black" which heralded a significant celebratory commemoration. In June 2009 the Pretoria Chinese Association celebrated "Dignity Day" to commemorate the first anniversary of their victory in the Pretoria High Court. After over a century of discrimination since the arrival of their ancestors, the South African Chinese community embarked on a successful legal battle against four ministerial departments to contest their exclusion from the Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998 and the Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment Act No. 35 of 2003. This article focuses on this event, while at the same time traces the milestones within the history of the Chinese in South Africa that have, to date, remained uncelebrated.<hr/>Soortgelyk aan baie ander gemarginaliseerde minderheidsgroepe in Suid-Afrika en regdeur die wêreld, het die Suid-Afrikaanse Chinese gemeenskap afgesonder en op die periferie van hoofstroom nasionale Suid-Afrikaanse herdenkings gebly. In teenstelling met ander gemarginaliseerde Suid-Afrikaners, het hierdie situasie egter van die ou Suid-Afrikaanse bedeling na die nuwe voortgegaan. Die verdeelde aard van nie net die Suid-Afrikaanse samelewing nie, maar ook van die Chinese gemeenskap self, tesame met die veranderende verhoudinge met die Republiek van China (op Taiwan) en die Volksrepubliek van China, is gedeeltelik verantwoordelik vir die hiaat. Terwyl die historiese mylpale van hulle teenwoordigheid in Suid-Afrika nie herdenk is nie, was dit die erkenning van hulle status as "swart" wat 'n betekenisvolle feestelike herdenking ingelui het. In Junie 2009 het Pretoria se Chinese Vereniging "Dignity Day" (Waardigheidsdag) gevier om die eerste herdenking van hulle oorwinning in Pretoria se hooggeregshof te herdenk. Na meer as 'n eeu van diskriminasie sedert die aankoms van hulle voorvaders, het die Suid-Afrikaanse Chinese gemeenskap 'n suksesvolle regstryd teen vier ministeriële departemente onderneem om hulle uitsluiting van die Wet op Gelyke Indiensneming No. 55 van 1998 en die Breë-Basis Swart Ekonomiese Bemagtiging Wet No. 35 van 2003 teen te staan. Hierdie artikel fokus op hierdie gebeurtenis, maar kyk ook terselfdertyd na die mylpale in die geskiedenis van die Chinese in Suid-Afrika, wat tot op hede ongevier gebly het. <![CDATA[<b>Moving with the times in search of permanence</b>: <b>the digitization of "liberation struggle" archives in southern Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2010000200013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The struggle to liberate southern Africa was an important epoch in contemporary history. It follows then that this history must be preserved for posterity's sake. Of late, there has been a concerted effort by academics and archivists to preserve, digitize and disseminate on the web the "struggle archives" of southern Africa. The wide range of material reflects the diverse nature of the struggle; liberation was achieved by violent as well as non-violent means. The digitization of such records reinforces the view that these archives are part of Africa's heritage to be bequeathed to future generations and that they should be jealously guarded because they are a treasured resource. In carrying out the digitization exercise there is a need to exercise extreme caution in view of the lack of permanence of digital objects and the challenges posed by access and copyright restrictions. The issue that needs to be addressed centres on the commodification of African heritage by those with the financial and technological muscle, whilst the purported beneficiaries are left impoverished due to a lack of ownership and sustainability. In other words, through digitization Africa's cultural heritage is made vulnerable to commercial exploitation by people in the North, and the entrenchment of the digital divide.<hr/>Die bevrydingstryd was vir suidelike Afrika 'n belangrike tydperk in die moderne geskiedenis. Gevolglik moet hierdie geskiedenis akkuraat vir die nageslag opgeteken word. Die afgelope tyd was daar 'n doelbewuste poging deur akademici, argivarisse en inligtingpraktisyns om versamelings dokumente wat met die bevrydingstryde in suidelike Afrika verband hou, te bewaar, te digitaliseer en op die web te versprei. Digitalisering is die rekenaarmatige vasleggings- en bergingsmetode vir beeldmateriaal ten einde die aanlyn beskikbaarheid van inligting te bewerkstellig. "Bevrydingstrydargiewe" bestaan uit 'n verskeidenheid vorme wat illustreer hoe divers die bevrydingsproses was. Die stryd om selfbeskikking is deur middel van gewelddadige en nie-gewelddadige metodes gevoer. Die gewapende stryd weerspieël die gewelddadige aard van die stryd, terwyl weerstandsbewegings en drukgroepe die diplomatiese inisiatief verteenwoordig. Die digitalisering van rekords wat op hierdie manier geskep is, bevestig die uitgangspunt dat hierdie argiewe deel van Afrika se erfenis is wat vir toekomstige geslagte bewaar moet word. Dit moet jaloers as 'n waardevolle hulpbron gekoester word. By die uitvoering van die digitalisering daarvan, is dit egter nodig om buitengewone omsigtigheid aan die dag te lê binne die raamwerk van die politisering wat sinoniem met die proses was, veral wat toegang en kopieregbeperkings betref. Die saak wat aangespreek behoort te word, het betrekking op die kommodifisering van die Afrika-erfenis deur diegene met die finansiële en tegnologiese slaankrag, terwyl die sogenaamde bevoordeeldes verarm ten opsigte van eienaarskap, volhoubaarheid, ondervinding, befondsing, ensovoorts. Met ander woorde, digitalisering kan Afrika se kultuurerfenis kwesbaar laat ten opsigte van kommersiële uitbuiting en dus die digitale kloof verskans. <![CDATA[<b>On the republican idea</b>: <b>an exercise in remembrance</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2010000200014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In die artikel word 'n bondige politiek van herinnering met betrekking tot die republikeinse tradisie van Afrikaners beoefen. Die bedoeling daarmee is nie om aan te voer dat Afrikaners in antwoord op die uitdagings waarvoor hulle vandag as kultuurgemeenskap te staan gekom het, op 'n simplistiese of reaksionêre wyse na hulle republikeinse tradisie kan terugkeer nie. Die bedoeling is eerder om in en deur die vraag na (en herinnering aan) die betekenis van hulle republikeinse erfenis, die ruimte vir 'n "anders dink" oor hulle kontemporêre toestand lewendig te hou. In die eerste afdeling word stilgestaan by die betekenis van die begrip "politiek van herinnering" self. In die daaropvolgende afdelings word slegs by enkele belangrike eienskappe van die republikeinse gedagte stilgestaan. In die besonder sal gevra word na die republikeinse voorstelling van die verhouding tussen die geheel en die dele (in onder meer die Amerikaanse en Franse republikeinse erfenis); die republikeinse idee van vryheid (onderskeid van die liberale idee van vryheid); sowel as die republikeinse voorstelling van die verhouding tussen politiek en godsdiens (die sogenaamde teologies-politieke probleem).<hr/>In essence the article is nothing but a brief exercise in what can be referred to as a politics of remembrance with regard to the republican tradition of Afrikaners. The aim of this brief exercise is not to argue that Afrikaners as cultural-historical community can respond to the many crises it faces with a mere return to their republican tradition. Rather, the aim of such a politics of remembrance is to keep the question about the meaning of the republican tradition alive. In the first section the meaning of the concept "politics of remembrance" is discussed. In the following sections, the focus shifts to three important characteristics of the republican tradition: firstly, the way in which the republican tradition represents the relationship between the whole and its parts (with specific reference to the American and French republican traditions); secondly, the republican idea of freedom (as distinguished from the liberal idea of freedom); and lastly a republican representation of the relationship between politics and religion (in other words, the theological-political problem). <![CDATA[<b>The role of the South African business community regarding political mobilisation in the run-up to a new South Africa, 1980-1992</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2010000200015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Die erodering van apartheid as politieke beleid, 'n verswakkende ekonomie, vrees vir 'n rewolusie en sterker kohesie in die sakeomgewing het die blanke Suid-Afrikaanse sakegemeenskap oor kultuur- en rasgrense heen saamgesnoer ter beskerming van hulle belange. Die Rubicon-toespraak van 1985 het as 'n sneller gedien vir sakelui se aanvaarding van 'n politieke rol, sodat hulle met die stigting van die CBM openlik en gesamentlik teen apartheid gemobiliseer het. Swart sakelui het hierdie mobilisering gesteun, omdat hulle 'n belang in 'n vryemarkekonomie en onderhandelde politieke skikking gehad het. Die blanke sakegemeenskap het die regering beïnvloed om politieke hervorming op die agenda te hou. Omdat politici sakelui nodig gehad het om die politiek te stabiliseer, is hulle invloed versterk. Die CBM het die ekonomiese debat na praktiese probleme gestuur om van ideologiese oplossings weg te skram. Besigheid is vir verandering voorberei en verandering is deur 'n brugbourol en katalisatorrol gefasiliteer. 'n Konsensusbenadering het gesprekvoering tussen ekonomiese rolspelers vergemaklik en die klem op sosio-ekonomiese opheffing geplaas. Met gemeenskapsbetrokkenheid en sosiale opheffing het Suid-Afrikaanse sakelui in die praktyk geïllustreer waarom 'n vryemarkstelsel eerder as sosialistiese tegnieke, die erge ekonomiese ongelykheid in Suid-Afrika kon aanspreek.<hr/>The erosion of apartheid as political policy, a weakening economy, fear for a revolution and stronger cohesion within the business community caused the white business community to unite across cultural and racial divides to protect their interests. The Rubicon speech of 1985 acted as a trigger for business to embrace a political role. The CBM was established and business started to mobilise openly against apartheid. Black business supported this mobilisation, as they had an interest in a free market economy and a negotiated political settlement. The white business community influenced government to keep political reform on the agenda. This influence was substantial, given the importance of the white business community in stabilising politics. Within the CBM, debate about the economy was shaped around identifying practical problems as to bar the adoption of solutions based on ideology. By adopting a bridge-building and a catalyst role, the CBM prepared business for change. The adopted consensus approach eased communication between economic role players and focused all role players on socio-economic development. Through social involvement and social development, South African business demonstrated the suitability of the free-market system to address the grave economic inequalities of South Africa. <![CDATA[<b>The Congregational Church in Uitenhage and the Group Areas Act</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2010000200016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Die bruin mense het die Groepsgebiedewet beskou as 'n wet van geweld, 'n wet van onteiening en 'n onregverdige wet. Hierdie artikel fokus op twee kerkgemeenskappe in Uitenhage, die Rose Lane Congregational Kerk (gestig in 1828) en die Dale Street Congregational Kerk (gestig in 1896). Beide hierdie gemeentes is vernietig omdat hulle geïsoleerde kleurling eiendom in 'n geproklameerde wit groepsgebied was. Hierdie hegte gemeenskappe is met dwang verskuif van die historiese hart van Uitenhage na nuwe bruin woonbuurte aan die buitewyke van die dorp. In 1968 is die bruin mense, wat almal eiendom besit het, van Naabosch verskuif. In 1975 is al die eiendom van die Rose Lane Kerk verkoop omdat dit in "'n geproklameerde gebied" geleë was. Al die bestaande geboue (kerk, skool en pastorie) is daarna gesloop. Die twee pastorieë, skool- en kerkgebou van die Dale Street Kerk is ook gesloop. Eerw. Allan Hendrickse, wat Dale Street 35-jaar lank as predikant gedien het, was bereid om te vergewe, maar kon nie vergeet wat met hulle kerkeiendomme gebeur het nie.<hr/>The coloured people regarded the Group Areas Act as an act of violence, an act of dispossession and an iniquitous act. This article will focus on two church communities in Uitenhage, the Rose Lane Congregational Church (founded in 1828) and Dale Street Congregational Church (founded in 1896). Both of these congregations have been destroyed because they were isolated pockets of coloured property in a proclaimed white group area. These closely-knit communities were forcibly removed from the historic heart of Uitenhage to new coloured areas on the outskirts of the town. In 1968 the coloured people, who all owned their properties, were removed from Naabosch. In 1975 the total property of the Rose Lane Church was sold because it was situated in "a declared area". All the existing buildings (church, school and manse) were demolished thereafter. The two manses, school building and church building of the Dale Street Church, were also demolished. Rev. Allan Hendrickse, who served as a minister for 35 years at Dale Street, could forgive, but not forget because of what happened to their church properties. <![CDATA[<b>"The story of a disease"</b>: <b>African horsesickness and its direct influence on the necessary development of veterinary science in South Africa c. 1890s-1920s</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2010000200017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Veterinary science was underdeveloped in South Africa prior to the early twentieth century. Horses were crucial to the country's (economic) development, and therefore the health of these animals became very important to South Africa; any horse disease had a major impact on the country's progress. A study of AHS is not only about sick or dead horses; it goes beyond the obvious and uncovers the many social implications that animal disease can cause. AHS has been encountered in South Africa since the first horses arrived in the Cape when Jan van Riebeeck disembarked and even today the disease is not uncommon. Due to its active presence, AHS had an impact on far more than the economic development of the country.<hr/>Voor die vroeë twintigste eeu was veeartsenykunde in Suid-Afrika onderontwikkel. Perde was in daardie stadium van deurslaggewende belang vir die land se (ekonomiese) ontwikkeling. Die gesondheid van hierdie diere was dus baie belangrik in Suid-Afrika aangesien enige perdesiekte 'n groot impak op die land se vooruitgang gehad het. 'n Studie van Afrika-perdesiekte gaan daarom nie net oor siek of dooie perde nie; dit strek verder as die voor die hand liggende feite en belig die vele sosiale implikasies van 'n dieresiekte. Afrika-perdesiekte kom in Suid-Afrika voor reeds sedert die eerste perde saam met Jan van Riebeeck aan die Kaap geland het, en dit is vandag steeds 'n baie algemene siekte onder perde. Weens die hoë voorkoms daarvan het Afrika-perdesiekte 'n impak wat veel verder strek as die ekonomiese ontwikkeling van die land. <![CDATA[<b>I've been inspired and influenced by so many</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2010000200018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Veterinary science was underdeveloped in South Africa prior to the early twentieth century. Horses were crucial to the country's (economic) development, and therefore the health of these animals became very important to South Africa; any horse disease had a major impact on the country's progress. A study of AHS is not only about sick or dead horses; it goes beyond the obvious and uncovers the many social implications that animal disease can cause. AHS has been encountered in South Africa since the first horses arrived in the Cape when Jan van Riebeeck disembarked and even today the disease is not uncommon. Due to its active presence, AHS had an impact on far more than the economic development of the country.<hr/>Voor die vroeë twintigste eeu was veeartsenykunde in Suid-Afrika onderontwikkel. Perde was in daardie stadium van deurslaggewende belang vir die land se (ekonomiese) ontwikkeling. Die gesondheid van hierdie diere was dus baie belangrik in Suid-Afrika aangesien enige perdesiekte 'n groot impak op die land se vooruitgang gehad het. 'n Studie van Afrika-perdesiekte gaan daarom nie net oor siek of dooie perde nie; dit strek verder as die voor die hand liggende feite en belig die vele sosiale implikasies van 'n dieresiekte. Afrika-perdesiekte kom in Suid-Afrika voor reeds sedert die eerste perde saam met Jan van Riebeeck aan die Kaap geland het, en dit is vandag steeds 'n baie algemene siekte onder perde. Weens die hoë voorkoms daarvan het Afrika-perdesiekte 'n impak wat veel verder strek as die ekonomiese ontwikkeling van die land. <![CDATA[<b>Persone wat my beïnvloed en geïnspireer het</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2010000200019&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Veterinary science was underdeveloped in South Africa prior to the early twentieth century. Horses were crucial to the country's (economic) development, and therefore the health of these animals became very important to South Africa; any horse disease had a major impact on the country's progress. A study of AHS is not only about sick or dead horses; it goes beyond the obvious and uncovers the many social implications that animal disease can cause. AHS has been encountered in South Africa since the first horses arrived in the Cape when Jan van Riebeeck disembarked and even today the disease is not uncommon. Due to its active presence, AHS had an impact on far more than the economic development of the country.<hr/>Voor die vroeë twintigste eeu was veeartsenykunde in Suid-Afrika onderontwikkel. Perde was in daardie stadium van deurslaggewende belang vir die land se (ekonomiese) ontwikkeling. Die gesondheid van hierdie diere was dus baie belangrik in Suid-Afrika aangesien enige perdesiekte 'n groot impak op die land se vooruitgang gehad het. 'n Studie van Afrika-perdesiekte gaan daarom nie net oor siek of dooie perde nie; dit strek verder as die voor die hand liggende feite en belig die vele sosiale implikasies van 'n dieresiekte. Afrika-perdesiekte kom in Suid-Afrika voor reeds sedert die eerste perde saam met Jan van Riebeeck aan die Kaap geland het, en dit is vandag steeds 'n baie algemene siekte onder perde. Weens die hoë voorkoms daarvan het Afrika-perdesiekte 'n impak wat veel verder strek as die ekonomiese ontwikkeling van die land. <![CDATA[<b>Substansiële bydrae tot die literatuur oor die Angola Afrikaners</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2010000200020&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Veterinary science was underdeveloped in South Africa prior to the early twentieth century. Horses were crucial to the country's (economic) development, and therefore the health of these animals became very important to South Africa; any horse disease had a major impact on the country's progress. A study of AHS is not only about sick or dead horses; it goes beyond the obvious and uncovers the many social implications that animal disease can cause. AHS has been encountered in South Africa since the first horses arrived in the Cape when Jan van Riebeeck disembarked and even today the disease is not uncommon. Due to its active presence, AHS had an impact on far more than the economic development of the country.<hr/>Voor die vroeë twintigste eeu was veeartsenykunde in Suid-Afrika onderontwikkel. Perde was in daardie stadium van deurslaggewende belang vir die land se (ekonomiese) ontwikkeling. Die gesondheid van hierdie diere was dus baie belangrik in Suid-Afrika aangesien enige perdesiekte 'n groot impak op die land se vooruitgang gehad het. 'n Studie van Afrika-perdesiekte gaan daarom nie net oor siek of dooie perde nie; dit strek verder as die voor die hand liggende feite en belig die vele sosiale implikasies van 'n dieresiekte. Afrika-perdesiekte kom in Suid-Afrika voor reeds sedert die eerste perde saam met Jan van Riebeeck aan die Kaap geland het, en dit is vandag steeds 'n baie algemene siekte onder perde. Weens die hoë voorkoms daarvan het Afrika-perdesiekte 'n impak wat veel verder strek as die ekonomiese ontwikkeling van die land. <![CDATA[<b>The death of the animal in South African history</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2010000200021&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Veterinary science was underdeveloped in South Africa prior to the early twentieth century. Horses were crucial to the country's (economic) development, and therefore the health of these animals became very important to South Africa; any horse disease had a major impact on the country's progress. A study of AHS is not only about sick or dead horses; it goes beyond the obvious and uncovers the many social implications that animal disease can cause. AHS has been encountered in South Africa since the first horses arrived in the Cape when Jan van Riebeeck disembarked and even today the disease is not uncommon. Due to its active presence, AHS had an impact on far more than the economic development of the country.<hr/>Voor die vroeë twintigste eeu was veeartsenykunde in Suid-Afrika onderontwikkel. Perde was in daardie stadium van deurslaggewende belang vir die land se (ekonomiese) ontwikkeling. Die gesondheid van hierdie diere was dus baie belangrik in Suid-Afrika aangesien enige perdesiekte 'n groot impak op die land se vooruitgang gehad het. 'n Studie van Afrika-perdesiekte gaan daarom nie net oor siek of dooie perde nie; dit strek verder as die voor die hand liggende feite en belig die vele sosiale implikasies van 'n dieresiekte. Afrika-perdesiekte kom in Suid-Afrika voor reeds sedert die eerste perde saam met Jan van Riebeeck aan die Kaap geland het, en dit is vandag steeds 'n baie algemene siekte onder perde. Weens die hoë voorkoms daarvan het Afrika-perdesiekte 'n impak wat veel verder strek as die ekonomiese ontwikkeling van die land. <![CDATA[<b>The place of whites in the struggle against apartheid</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2010000200022&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Veterinary science was underdeveloped in South Africa prior to the early twentieth century. Horses were crucial to the country's (economic) development, and therefore the health of these animals became very important to South Africa; any horse disease had a major impact on the country's progress. A study of AHS is not only about sick or dead horses; it goes beyond the obvious and uncovers the many social implications that animal disease can cause. AHS has been encountered in South Africa since the first horses arrived in the Cape when Jan van Riebeeck disembarked and even today the disease is not uncommon. Due to its active presence, AHS had an impact on far more than the economic development of the country.<hr/>Voor die vroeë twintigste eeu was veeartsenykunde in Suid-Afrika onderontwikkel. Perde was in daardie stadium van deurslaggewende belang vir die land se (ekonomiese) ontwikkeling. Die gesondheid van hierdie diere was dus baie belangrik in Suid-Afrika aangesien enige perdesiekte 'n groot impak op die land se vooruitgang gehad het. 'n Studie van Afrika-perdesiekte gaan daarom nie net oor siek of dooie perde nie; dit strek verder as die voor die hand liggende feite en belig die vele sosiale implikasies van 'n dieresiekte. Afrika-perdesiekte kom in Suid-Afrika voor reeds sedert die eerste perde saam met Jan van Riebeeck aan die Kaap geland het, en dit is vandag steeds 'n baie algemene siekte onder perde. Weens die hoë voorkoms daarvan het Afrika-perdesiekte 'n impak wat veel verder strek as die ekonomiese ontwikkeling van die land. <![CDATA[<b>A welcome and reliable companion for students and scholars</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2010000200023&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Veterinary science was underdeveloped in South Africa prior to the early twentieth century. Horses were crucial to the country's (economic) development, and therefore the health of these animals became very important to South Africa; any horse disease had a major impact on the country's progress. A study of AHS is not only about sick or dead horses; it goes beyond the obvious and uncovers the many social implications that animal disease can cause. AHS has been encountered in South Africa since the first horses arrived in the Cape when Jan van Riebeeck disembarked and even today the disease is not uncommon. Due to its active presence, AHS had an impact on far more than the economic development of the country.<hr/>Voor die vroeë twintigste eeu was veeartsenykunde in Suid-Afrika onderontwikkel. Perde was in daardie stadium van deurslaggewende belang vir die land se (ekonomiese) ontwikkeling. Die gesondheid van hierdie diere was dus baie belangrik in Suid-Afrika aangesien enige perdesiekte 'n groot impak op die land se vooruitgang gehad het. 'n Studie van Afrika-perdesiekte gaan daarom nie net oor siek of dooie perde nie; dit strek verder as die voor die hand liggende feite en belig die vele sosiale implikasies van 'n dieresiekte. Afrika-perdesiekte kom in Suid-Afrika voor reeds sedert die eerste perde saam met Jan van Riebeeck aan die Kaap geland het, en dit is vandag steeds 'n baie algemene siekte onder perde. Weens die hoë voorkoms daarvan het Afrika-perdesiekte 'n impak wat veel verder strek as die ekonomiese ontwikkeling van die land. <![CDATA[<b>The road to readers' hell is paved with good intentions</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2010000200024&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Veterinary science was underdeveloped in South Africa prior to the early twentieth century. Horses were crucial to the country's (economic) development, and therefore the health of these animals became very important to South Africa; any horse disease had a major impact on the country's progress. A study of AHS is not only about sick or dead horses; it goes beyond the obvious and uncovers the many social implications that animal disease can cause. AHS has been encountered in South Africa since the first horses arrived in the Cape when Jan van Riebeeck disembarked and even today the disease is not uncommon. Due to its active presence, AHS had an impact on far more than the economic development of the country.<hr/>Voor die vroeë twintigste eeu was veeartsenykunde in Suid-Afrika onderontwikkel. Perde was in daardie stadium van deurslaggewende belang vir die land se (ekonomiese) ontwikkeling. Die gesondheid van hierdie diere was dus baie belangrik in Suid-Afrika aangesien enige perdesiekte 'n groot impak op die land se vooruitgang gehad het. 'n Studie van Afrika-perdesiekte gaan daarom nie net oor siek of dooie perde nie; dit strek verder as die voor die hand liggende feite en belig die vele sosiale implikasies van 'n dieresiekte. Afrika-perdesiekte kom in Suid-Afrika voor reeds sedert die eerste perde saam met Jan van Riebeeck aan die Kaap geland het, en dit is vandag steeds 'n baie algemene siekte onder perde. Weens die hoë voorkoms daarvan het Afrika-perdesiekte 'n impak wat veel verder strek as die ekonomiese ontwikkeling van die land. <![CDATA[<b>An extremely problematic account</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2010000200025&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Veterinary science was underdeveloped in South Africa prior to the early twentieth century. Horses were crucial to the country's (economic) development, and therefore the health of these animals became very important to South Africa; any horse disease had a major impact on the country's progress. A study of AHS is not only about sick or dead horses; it goes beyond the obvious and uncovers the many social implications that animal disease can cause. AHS has been encountered in South Africa since the first horses arrived in the Cape when Jan van Riebeeck disembarked and even today the disease is not uncommon. Due to its active presence, AHS had an impact on far more than the economic development of the country.<hr/>Voor die vroeë twintigste eeu was veeartsenykunde in Suid-Afrika onderontwikkel. Perde was in daardie stadium van deurslaggewende belang vir die land se (ekonomiese) ontwikkeling. Die gesondheid van hierdie diere was dus baie belangrik in Suid-Afrika aangesien enige perdesiekte 'n groot impak op die land se vooruitgang gehad het. 'n Studie van Afrika-perdesiekte gaan daarom nie net oor siek of dooie perde nie; dit strek verder as die voor die hand liggende feite en belig die vele sosiale implikasies van 'n dieresiekte. Afrika-perdesiekte kom in Suid-Afrika voor reeds sedert die eerste perde saam met Jan van Riebeeck aan die Kaap geland het, en dit is vandag steeds 'n baie algemene siekte onder perde. Weens die hoë voorkoms daarvan het Afrika-perdesiekte 'n impak wat veel verder strek as die ekonomiese ontwikkeling van die land. <![CDATA[<b>Somewhat lacking in conceptual and methodological imagination</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2010000200026&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Veterinary science was underdeveloped in South Africa prior to the early twentieth century. Horses were crucial to the country's (economic) development, and therefore the health of these animals became very important to South Africa; any horse disease had a major impact on the country's progress. A study of AHS is not only about sick or dead horses; it goes beyond the obvious and uncovers the many social implications that animal disease can cause. AHS has been encountered in South Africa since the first horses arrived in the Cape when Jan van Riebeeck disembarked and even today the disease is not uncommon. Due to its active presence, AHS had an impact on far more than the economic development of the country.<hr/>Voor die vroeë twintigste eeu was veeartsenykunde in Suid-Afrika onderontwikkel. Perde was in daardie stadium van deurslaggewende belang vir die land se (ekonomiese) ontwikkeling. Die gesondheid van hierdie diere was dus baie belangrik in Suid-Afrika aangesien enige perdesiekte 'n groot impak op die land se vooruitgang gehad het. 'n Studie van Afrika-perdesiekte gaan daarom nie net oor siek of dooie perde nie; dit strek verder as die voor die hand liggende feite en belig die vele sosiale implikasies van 'n dieresiekte. Afrika-perdesiekte kom in Suid-Afrika voor reeds sedert die eerste perde saam met Jan van Riebeeck aan die Kaap geland het, en dit is vandag steeds 'n baie algemene siekte onder perde. Weens die hoë voorkoms daarvan het Afrika-perdesiekte 'n impak wat veel verder strek as die ekonomiese ontwikkeling van die land. <![CDATA[<b>Cherchez la femme!</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2010000200027&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Veterinary science was underdeveloped in South Africa prior to the early twentieth century. Horses were crucial to the country's (economic) development, and therefore the health of these animals became very important to South Africa; any horse disease had a major impact on the country's progress. A study of AHS is not only about sick or dead horses; it goes beyond the obvious and uncovers the many social implications that animal disease can cause. AHS has been encountered in South Africa since the first horses arrived in the Cape when Jan van Riebeeck disembarked and even today the disease is not uncommon. Due to its active presence, AHS had an impact on far more than the economic development of the country.<hr/>Voor die vroeë twintigste eeu was veeartsenykunde in Suid-Afrika onderontwikkel. Perde was in daardie stadium van deurslaggewende belang vir die land se (ekonomiese) ontwikkeling. Die gesondheid van hierdie diere was dus baie belangrik in Suid-Afrika aangesien enige perdesiekte 'n groot impak op die land se vooruitgang gehad het. 'n Studie van Afrika-perdesiekte gaan daarom nie net oor siek of dooie perde nie; dit strek verder as die voor die hand liggende feite en belig die vele sosiale implikasies van 'n dieresiekte. Afrika-perdesiekte kom in Suid-Afrika voor reeds sedert die eerste perde saam met Jan van Riebeeck aan die Kaap geland het, en dit is vandag steeds 'n baie algemene siekte onder perde. Weens die hoë voorkoms daarvan het Afrika-perdesiekte 'n impak wat veel verder strek as die ekonomiese ontwikkeling van die land.