Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Historia]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0018-229X20160001&lang=pt vol. 61 num. 1 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b><i>Historia@60: </i></b><b>Reflection and renewal</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2016000100001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>HASA@60 </b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2016000100002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b><i>Historia@60: </i></b><b>Reflecting and charting the landscape</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2016000100003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>"Zimbabwe is not a South African province": Historicising South Africa's Zimbabwe policy since the 1960s</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2016000100004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This paper interrogates analyses of Thabo Mbeki's South Africa's Zimbabwe policy which compare his approach to that of John Vorster's government in the 1970s and decry Mbeki's inability or unwillingness to use its ostensibly considerable hegemonic power to force Robert Mugabe to practise good governance.1 It is argued that just as Vorster used South Africa's dominant influence over Rhodesia to "persuade" Ian Smith to negotiate with the country's African nationalist leaders, the Mbeki administration should have taken a similar line instead of pursuing "quiet diplomacy". The assumption is that little had changed in the relations between the two countries in the meantime and that South Africa continued to have the same level of hegemonic power over Zimbabwe. The paper argues that a more historicised approach shows that the relations between the two countries had changed so dramatically by the 1990s that South Africa no longer wielded compelling power and influence over its northern neighbour. The thirty-year liberation wars in the region and the "debt" that the ANC government owed the region for its support during the struggle, among other factors, meant that the dynamics governing South Africa-Zimbabwe relations were very different.<hr/>Hierdie artikel bevraagteken analises wat Suid-Afrika se Zimbabwiese beleid in die Mbeki-era vergelyk met dié van John Vorster se regering in die 1970's, en wat Mbeki se onvermoë of onwilligheid betreur om sy land se oënskynlik noemenswaardige hegemoniese mag te gebruik om Robert Mugabe tot 'n verantwoordbare regering te dwing. Daar is aangevoer dat net soos wat Vorster gebruik gemaak het van Suid-Afrika se magsoorwig om Ian Smith te "oorreed" om met sy land se swart nasionalistiese leiers te onderhandel, die Mbeki-regering, in plaas van sy "stille diplomasie", dieselfde roete moes gevolg het. Die aanname is dat daar in die tussentyd weinig verander het wat betref die verhouding tussen die twee lande, en dat Suid-Afrika steeds dieselfde mate van hegemoniese mag oor Zimbabwe gehad het. Hierdie artikel voer aan dat 'n meer historistiese benadering daarop wys dat die verhouding tussen die twee lande teen die 1990's só dramaties verander het dat Suid-Afrika nie meer dieselfde mag en invloed oor sy noordelike buurman kon uitoefen nie. Die streek se dertig jaar-lange vryheidsoorloë en die ANC se "morele skuld" teenoor die streek na dié se steun tydens die vryheidstryd het, tesame met ander faktore, daarop neergekom dat die verhoudingsdinamika tussen Suid-Afrika en Zimbabwe baie anders was. <![CDATA[<b>The state and black business development: The Small Enterprises Development Corporation and the politics of indigenisation and economic empowerment in Zimbabwe</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2016000100005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Using the historical experiences of the Small Enterprises Development Corporation (SEDC0), a Zimbabwe statutory corporation created to finance and support viable small to medium enterprises (SMEs), the article examines the state's shifting black economic empowerment policies in the post-colonial period. SEDC0 went through a decline following the creation of a SME ministry in 2002 and the subsequent passing of the Indigenisation and Economic Empowerment Act in 2007, thus an analysis of its history is significant to unpacking the nature and trajectory of debates on black economic empowerment. The corporation's history is also examined in an effort to understand the state's changing interaction with the black businesspeople it had targeted as needing support to redress past disparities and to establish future national economic development. Here, the article examines issues on redressing the colonial legacy and economic justice, well aware of the Zimbabwean government's early 1980s moderate response to the interests of black businesspeople and how this moved radically towards black empowerment rhetoric to prop up its waning political support. This article shifts the academic focus from land reform, by using SEDCO's historical experiences to examine the "third chimurenga" (war of economic liberation) from an indigenisation and economic empowerment perspective.<hr/>Hierdie artikel stel ondersoek in na die geskiedenis van die Small Enterprises Development Corporation (SEDCO), 'n Zimbabwiese staturêre liggaam wat gestig is om lewensvatbare klein- en medium ondernemings (KMO's) te finansier en te steun. Daardeur bestudeer die artikel die staat se wisselvallige swart ekonomiese bemagtigingsbeleid in die na-koloniale tydperk, veral gegewe SEDCO se agteruitgang nâ die totstandkoming van'n KMO-ministerie in 2002 en die daaropvolgende aanvaarding van die Verinheemsing- en Ekonomiese Bemagtingingswet van 2007. 'n Ontleding van sy geskiedenis is belangrik ten einde die aard en trajek van debatte oor swart ekonomiese bemagtiging te ontrafel. Die instansie se geskiedenis word ook onder die loep geneem om sodoende die staat se veranderende interaksie met swart besigheidsmense, naamlik dié wat geteiken is vir hulpverlening om historiese ongelykhede aan te spreek en toekomstige ekonomiese ontwikkeling te vestig, te verstaan. In hierdie opsig stel die artikel ook ondersoek in na vraagstukke betreffende die hantering van die koloniale nalatenskap en ekonomiese geregtigheid, met inagneming van die Zimbabwiese regering se aanvanklike gematigde houding jeens die belange van swart besigheidsmense, en die wyse waarop dit radikaal omgeswaai het na swart ekonomiese bemagtigingsretoriek ten einde kwynende politieke steun die hoof te bied. Die artikel verskuif die heersende akademiese fokus, weg van grondhervorming, deur gebruik te maak van SEDCO se ervaring om sodoende die "derde chimurenga" (ekonomiese vryheidsoorlog) vanuit die hoek van verinheemsing en ekonomiese bemagtiging te bestudeer. <![CDATA[<b>Innovation and expansion: Product innovation and expansion in insurance in South Africa. The case of Sanlam, 1920-1998</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2016000100006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The insurance industry is generally perceived to be a conservative, risk averse enterprise following market developments rather than leading them. This article explores the development of innovation in the South African long-term insurance market in the context of the development of the South African economy after the formation of the Union of South Africa. A leading role player in this market is Sanlam, a company leading the South African long-term insurance industry in product innovation. This article investigates the strategy used by Sanlam to establish itself in a market dominated by British insurance companies. It then explores the use of product innovation by Sanlam since the early 1920s to expand its market share. The competitive advantage acquired by Sanlam in the insurance industry by the end of the twentieth century paved the way for subsequent expansion and diversification.<hr/>'n Algemene aanname oor die versekeringsbedryf is dat dit 'n konserwatiewe, risiko-vermydende sektor is wat eerder markneigings navolg as om dit te inisieer. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die ontwikkeling van innovering in die Suid-Afrikaanse langtermynversekeringsmark teen die agtergrond van die ontwikkeling van die ekonomie na die totstandkoming van die Unie van Suid-Afrika. 'n Onderneming wat n leidende rol in hierdie mark in Suid-Afrika gespeel het, is Sanlam wat in die langtermynversekeringsmark op die voorpunt van produkontwikkeling is. Verder word ondersoek ingestel na die strategieë wat deur Sanlam gevolg is om die maatskappy te vestig in hierdie mark wat aanvanklik deur Britse maatskappye oorheers is. Die artikel ondersoek Sanlam se gebruik van produk-innovasie sedert die vroeë 1920's om hul markaandeel te vergroot. Die mededingende voordeel wat Sanlam teen die einde van die twintigste eeu verwerf het, het die grondslag gele vir daaropvolgende uitbreiding en diversifikasie. <![CDATA[<b>Exploring panarchy and social-ecological resilience: Towards understanding water history in precolonial Southern Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2016000100007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt There is a growing corpus of social-ecological thinking in the field of resilience studies.One example is the pioneering work of Gunderson and Holling (2002) on panarchy. The work has had a significant impacton disciplinary collaboration between toenatoral and human sciences. It appears that the discipline of History can benefi tparticularly from these interactions - particularly witthin the framework of panarchy theory. In the front loop of panarchy, Gunderson and Holling have safely ensconced a "memory" feeder, a progressive trend leading towards the conservation and responsible exploitation of nattural resources. In toepanarchymodel toisphase is especially evidentbefore toeonsetof almost inevitable creativedestruction/collapse thatpaves toeway for renewal to theback loop. The understanding of "memory" to thepanarchy cycle focuses on instittutional memory, traditional knowledge and mem orialised experience of resource management. Special attention is given to "memory" to that it createsopportonities forhistorical thinking. By introducing a discourseon historical consciousness, the concept of memory moves more in line with formal historical thinking. The meaning of "creativedestruction"/collapse is therefore categorised to terns of Rüsen's (2013) conception of sense-making of toe crisis phenomenon. Interpretive historical toought can then find space inpanarchy theory. At toe same time toeuseofmemory, from an ecological Md socialperspective could create abetterunderstandingof indigenous and/or localknowledge systems related to thepast. to toe final sectfon there is a brief discussion on toe Iron Age to soutoernAfrica (from about 200 to 1850CE), focusing specificallyon theproto-urban development of Mapungubwe and Great Zimbabwe.The exposition is consciously opaque. The objective is to encourage the reader to think about the interpretation of water history in precolonial southern Africa.<hr/>Tans is daar 'n groeiende korpus van werk op die terrein sosiaal-ekologiese veerkragtigheidstudies. Een voorbeeld is die baanbrekerswerk van Gunderson en Holling (2002) oor panargie. Die werk het 'n betekenisvolle invloed op samewerking tussen die natuur- en geesteswetenskappe uitgeoefen. Dit wil voorkom asof die dissipline van geskiedenis by dié interaksies kan baat vind - veral binne die raamwerk van panargieteorie. In die voorstevoeder van die panargie-siklus het Gunderson en Holling die konsep van "herinnering" ingevoer wat 'n progressiewe en bewegende tendens voorwaarts inlei. Dan volg 'n fase of vlak van bewaring en die verantwoordelike eksploitering van die natuurlike hulpbronne. In die panargiemodel is die fase duidelik tot op 'n punt waar daar 'n onafwendbare proses van kreatiewe destruksie/ineenstorting plaasvind. Daarna word die weg voorberei vir hernuwing in die agterste kurwe van die panargieproses. Die verstaan van "herinnering" hou verband met institusionele herinnering, tradisionele kennis en prysenswaardige herinneringe aan hulpbronbewaring. In die artikel word o.m. aandag gegee aan herinnering wat die geleentheid skep vir die ontwikkeling van historiese denke. Deur 'n diskoers oor historiese bewussyn in te voer word herinnering deel van formele historiese denke. Die betekenis van "kreatiewe destruksie"/ineenstorting word derhalwe gekategoriseer in terme van Rüsen se voorstelling van singewing aan die krisisverskynsel. Interpretatiewe geskiedenisdenke kan derhalwe met gemak in panargieteorie staanplek kry. Terselfdertyd word die gebruik van herinnering, vanuit 'n sosiaal-ekologiese perspektief, gebruik om inheemse en/of plaaslike kennisstelsels, in verhouding tot die verlede, beter te verstaan. In die finale afdeling word kortliks aandag gegee aan die Ystertydperk in die geskiedenis van suider-Afrika (sowat 2001850 jaar voor die hede) wat spesifiek op watergeskiedenis en proto-stedelike ontwikkeling in die nedersettings van Mapungubwe en Groot Zimbabwe fokus. Die uiteensetting is noodwendig vaag en slegs in breë lyne aangestip. Die doelwit is om die leser se denke te stimuleer in die interpretasie van watergeskiedenis in pre-koloniale suider-Afrika. <![CDATA[<b>Tendense in populêre werke oor Suid-Afrikaanse rugby, 1948-1995: 'n Historiografiese studie</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2016000100008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Die hervatting van internasionale rugby na die Tweede Wereldoorlog het nuwe belangstelling onder rugby ondersteuners wêreldwyd gekweek. Tientalle populêre rugbyboeke het in die daaropvolgende jare in Suid-Afrika verskyn en rugby het een van die land se grootste sporte geword. Rugbyboeke het algemene items op Suid-Afrikaanse boekrakke geword. Hierdie artikel stel ondersoek in na die ontwikkeling van tendense in populêre Suid-Afrikaanse rugbygeskiedskrywing tussen 1948 en 1995. Tendense word geïdentifiseer en binne kontekstuele verband nagevolg deur middel van 'n noukeurige studie van die inhoud en stilistiese aspekte van die boeke. Daar word gekyk na wat in populêre rugbyboeke geskryf is, hoe daar geskryf is, en gevra waarom daar so geskryf is. Dit word duidelik dat hierdie tendense deur die veranderende politieke- en sosiale landskap van die twintigste eeu beïnvloed is. Die polities gemotiveerde betogings teen die Springbokke op oorsese toere, die uiteindelike internasionale sportboikot van die Springbokke, asook die koms van televisie in 1976 het elk 'n merkbare impak op Suid-Afrikaanse rugbygeskiedskrywing gehad.<hr/>The resumption of international rugby after the Second World War sparked a renewed interest in sport among supporters worldwide. In South Africa dozens of popular rugby books were published in subsequent years and rugby grew tobe one of the country's biggest sports. These rugby books became popular items on the South African bookshelf. This article investigates the tendencies in popular South African rugby historiography. Trends are identified in the changing political context from 1948 to 1995 and studied by means of an in-depth analysis of their content and stylistic aspects. Questions relating to what was written in popular rugby books, how it was written, as well as why it was written, are explored. It becomes apparent that these trends were influenced by the changing socio-political landscape of twentieth-century South Africa. The politically motivated protests against the Springboks on tours overseas, the eventual boycott of the Springboks and the introduction of television to the country in 1976 all had a noticeable influence on popular South African rugby historiography. <![CDATA[<b>Performing the aporias of the archive: Towards a future for South African music archives</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2016000100009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt National memory is continuously contested in South Africa and archives and museums are often called upon to store objects or material remnants of similarly contested pasts or histories. In addition, these institutions may already have collections that could be seen as contentious. If we consider these institutions as places where history is produced, what should be done with these objects and collections in a democratic country? This article provides a critical enquiry into the systems through which these objects are produced/recorded, appraised, catalogued and preserved as one methodology through which we can engage more fully with how these resources can be mobilised in the present. As a case study, the article will look at the International Library of African Music (ILAM), arguably one of the most important music archives in South Africa. The largest portion of ILAM's holdings comprises field recordings collected by Hugh Tracey, a scholar who is both celebrated and contested. This paper proposes that through engaging with the processes and ambivalence inherent in Hugh Tracey's recording and classification methods, ILAM has the capacity to provide critical and nuanced insight into one of the most important collections of music in southern-Africa.<hr/>In Suid-Afrika, waar die nasionale geheue op 'n kontinue basis betwis word, word daar gereeld op argiewe en museums 'n beroep gedoen om objekte of materiële oorblyfsels van gekontesteerde verledes en geskiedenisse te berg. Boonop het argiewe reeds versamelings in hulle besit wat beskou kan word as omstrede. Indien ons hierdie instansies beskou as plekke waar geskiedenis geproduseer word, wat moet met hierdie objekte en versamelings gebeur in 'n demokratiese land? Hierdie artikel oorweeg die moontlikhede wat gebied word deur 'n kritiese ondersoek na die sisteme waardeur hierdie objekte geskep, beoordeel en gekatalogiseer en bewaar word, as een metodologie waardeur daar meer volledig omgegaan kan word met die wyses waarop hierdie bronne in die hede gemobiliseer kan word. As 'n gevallestudie, kyk hierdie artikel na die International Library of African Music (ILAM), een van die belangrikste musiekargiewe in die land. Die grootste deel van ILAM se versameling bestaan uit veldopnames wat gemaak is deur Hugh Tracey, 'n figuur wat beide gevier en betwis word. Die artikel stel voor dat, deur om te gaan met die prosesse en ambivalensie wat inherent deel van Hugh Tracey se opneem- en klassifikasie metodes was, ILAM oor die kapasiteit beskik om kritiese en genuanseerde insigte te lewer op een van die belangrikste versamelings van musiek in suidelike Afrika. <![CDATA[<b>The <i>Over the Orange Times, </i>World War One Imaginary: An explanation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2016000100010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt National memory is continuously contested in South Africa and archives and museums are often called upon to store objects or material remnants of similarly contested pasts or histories. In addition, these institutions may already have collections that could be seen as contentious. If we consider these institutions as places where history is produced, what should be done with these objects and collections in a democratic country? This article provides a critical enquiry into the systems through which these objects are produced/recorded, appraised, catalogued and preserved as one methodology through which we can engage more fully with how these resources can be mobilised in the present. As a case study, the article will look at the International Library of African Music (ILAM), arguably one of the most important music archives in South Africa. The largest portion of ILAM's holdings comprises field recordings collected by Hugh Tracey, a scholar who is both celebrated and contested. This paper proposes that through engaging with the processes and ambivalence inherent in Hugh Tracey's recording and classification methods, ILAM has the capacity to provide critical and nuanced insight into one of the most important collections of music in southern-Africa.<hr/>In Suid-Afrika, waar die nasionale geheue op 'n kontinue basis betwis word, word daar gereeld op argiewe en museums 'n beroep gedoen om objekte of materiële oorblyfsels van gekontesteerde verledes en geskiedenisse te berg. Boonop het argiewe reeds versamelings in hulle besit wat beskou kan word as omstrede. Indien ons hierdie instansies beskou as plekke waar geskiedenis geproduseer word, wat moet met hierdie objekte en versamelings gebeur in 'n demokratiese land? Hierdie artikel oorweeg die moontlikhede wat gebied word deur 'n kritiese ondersoek na die sisteme waardeur hierdie objekte geskep, beoordeel en gekatalogiseer en bewaar word, as een metodologie waardeur daar meer volledig omgegaan kan word met die wyses waarop hierdie bronne in die hede gemobiliseer kan word. As 'n gevallestudie, kyk hierdie artikel na die International Library of African Music (ILAM), een van die belangrikste musiekargiewe in die land. Die grootste deel van ILAM se versameling bestaan uit veldopnames wat gemaak is deur Hugh Tracey, 'n figuur wat beide gevier en betwis word. Die artikel stel voor dat, deur om te gaan met die prosesse en ambivalensie wat inherent deel van Hugh Tracey se opneem- en klassifikasie metodes was, ILAM oor die kapasiteit beskik om kritiese en genuanseerde insigte te lewer op een van die belangrikste versamelings van musiek in suidelike Afrika. http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2016000100011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt National memory is continuously contested in South Africa and archives and museums are often called upon to store objects or material remnants of similarly contested pasts or histories. In addition, these institutions may already have collections that could be seen as contentious. If we consider these institutions as places where history is produced, what should be done with these objects and collections in a democratic country? This article provides a critical enquiry into the systems through which these objects are produced/recorded, appraised, catalogued and preserved as one methodology through which we can engage more fully with how these resources can be mobilised in the present. As a case study, the article will look at the International Library of African Music (ILAM), arguably one of the most important music archives in South Africa. The largest portion of ILAM's holdings comprises field recordings collected by Hugh Tracey, a scholar who is both celebrated and contested. This paper proposes that through engaging with the processes and ambivalence inherent in Hugh Tracey's recording and classification methods, ILAM has the capacity to provide critical and nuanced insight into one of the most important collections of music in southern-Africa.<hr/>In Suid-Afrika, waar die nasionale geheue op 'n kontinue basis betwis word, word daar gereeld op argiewe en museums 'n beroep gedoen om objekte of materiële oorblyfsels van gekontesteerde verledes en geskiedenisse te berg. Boonop het argiewe reeds versamelings in hulle besit wat beskou kan word as omstrede. Indien ons hierdie instansies beskou as plekke waar geskiedenis geproduseer word, wat moet met hierdie objekte en versamelings gebeur in 'n demokratiese land? Hierdie artikel oorweeg die moontlikhede wat gebied word deur 'n kritiese ondersoek na die sisteme waardeur hierdie objekte geskep, beoordeel en gekatalogiseer en bewaar word, as een metodologie waardeur daar meer volledig omgegaan kan word met die wyses waarop hierdie bronne in die hede gemobiliseer kan word. As 'n gevallestudie, kyk hierdie artikel na die International Library of African Music (ILAM), een van die belangrikste musiekargiewe in die land. Die grootste deel van ILAM se versameling bestaan uit veldopnames wat gemaak is deur Hugh Tracey, 'n figuur wat beide gevier en betwis word. Die artikel stel voor dat, deur om te gaan met die prosesse en ambivalensie wat inherent deel van Hugh Tracey se opneem- en klassifikasie metodes was, ILAM oor die kapasiteit beskik om kritiese en genuanseerde insigte te lewer op een van die belangrikste versamelings van musiek in suidelike Afrika.