Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Historia]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0018-229X20170001&lang=en vol. 62 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Free burgher women in the eighteenth century and the quest for status</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2017000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en As the burgher population at the Cape of Good Hope developed over the course of the eighteenth century, identity and status became increasingly important. Material culture, used for the purpose of personal adornment, was a prominent means of demonstrating social positions. This article explores the role of burgher women in Cape Dutch society, and demonstrates how this group used clothing as markers of distinction to denote their social position. By using objects such as clothing, free burgher women managed to create an association with a particular status group, and in so doing increased their own social importance. Association with the higher echelons of society was particularly important to a group of nouveaux riche burghers who had started to intermarry with the VOC official elite. This article argues that burgher women in perpetuating the notion of "conspicuous consumption" used clothing and personal adornment as a means of establishing and in some instances increasing their status and social importance in Cape Dutch society.<hr/>Namate die burgherlike bevolking aan die Kaap van Goeie Hoop in die loop van die agtiende eeu ontwikkel het, het identiteit en status toenemend belangrik geraak. Materiële kultuur, en veral die gebruik van persoonlike versiering, was 'n prominente wyse om sosiale posisies en status uit te beeld. Hierdie artikel verken die rol van burger vroue binne Kaaps-Hollandse samelewing, en demonstreer hoe hierdie groep klere as merkers van onderskeiding gebruik het om hul sosiale posisie aan te dui. Deur die gebruik van voorwerpe soos klere het vryburger vroue daarin geslaag om 'n verbintenis met 'n bepaalde status groep te skep, en het sodoende hul eie sosiale posisie beklemtoon en selfs verhoog. Interaksie met die hoër range van die samelewing was veral belangrik vir die groep nouveaux riche burgers wat begin het om ondertrou met die amptelike VOC elite. Hierdie artikel voer aan dat burger vroue klere en persoonlike versiering as 'n middel gebruik het om hul status en sosiale belangrikheid te beklemtoon en selfs te laat toeneem binne die koloniale samelewing. <![CDATA[<b>A clash of military doctrine: Brigadier-General Wilfrid Malleson and the South Africans at Salaita Hill, February 1916</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2017000100002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Brigadier-General Wilfrid Malleson (1866-1946) received his commission into the Royal Artillery in 1886 and transferred to the Indian Army in 1904. He was relatively inexperienced in combat having served on the staff of Field Marshal Kitchener as part of the British military mission in Afghanistan. Malleson was later transferred to East Africa where the 2nd South African Division fell under his overall command during the catastrophic attack on Salaita Hill. This was the first occasion, since the formation of the Union Defence Force (UDF) in 1912, where a British officer commanded South African troops in battle - with disastrous consequences. There were deep underlying reasons behind the fledgling UDF's first defeat at the hands of the veteran Germans, commanded by the wily Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck (1870-1964). Malleson's lack of combat experience was a factor in the defeat, but more importantly, the uninspired plan of attack doomed the UDF to failure.<hr/>Brigadier-Generaal Wilfrid Malleson (1966-1946) het in 1886 sy kommissie ontvang in die Koninklike Artillerie, waarna hy in 1904 na die Indiese Leër toe verplaas is. Ten spyte daarvan dat hy deel was van veldmaarskalk Kitchener se staf tydens die Britse militêre missie in Afghanistan, was sy gevegservaring relatief beperk. Malleson is later verplaas na Oos-Afrika waar hy in bevel was van die Suid-Afrikaanse 2de Divisie tydens die katastrofiese aanval op Salaita-heuwel. Dit was die eerste geval, sedert die stigting van die Unieverdedigingsmag (UVM) in 1912, dat ʼn Britse offisier in bevel was van Suid-Afrikaanse troepe tydens ʼn geveg - met rampspoedige gevolge. Daar was diep onderliggende redes vir die UVM se eerste nederlaag teen ervare Duitse troepe onder die bevel van die uitgeslape kolonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck (1870-1964). Hoewel Malleson se gebrek aan gevegservaring ʼn rol gespeel het in die nederlaag, was dit grotendeels die ongeïnspireerde plan vir die aanval wat gelei het tot die UVM se mislukking. <![CDATA[<b>"Let Mrs Mafekeng stay": An evaluation of the Paarl riots of 1959</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2017000100003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In South African historical research, the Paarl riots of 9-10 November 1959 have been viewed fleetingly as an episode centred around Elizabeth Mafekeng,[1] a trade union activist of the 1940s and 1950s. On closer examination, however, most of the participants in the events, Coloured people,[2] seem to have drawn to them for multifaceted reasons which question assigning their cause to the banishment of Mafekeng alone. The Cape Times, Cape Argus, New Age, Die Burger and Paarl Post newspapers were examined for information concerning the riots. The Paarl Magistrate's Criminal Records also provided insight into the nature of the unrest, while secondary literature concerning the Coloured population was also studied. The basis of the involvement of local inhabitants in the events was found to have been divided. Their participation could not be pinned down to one person or a single cause. Instead, a depiction and investigation of the full account of the events reveals three main groups that could be identified within their collective body. There were those who were actively involved; those who consciously separated themselves from the proceedings; and those whose participation did not seem to be politically motivated. The events appear to be more complex than they have been remembered.<hr/>In Suid-Afrikaanse historiese navorsing, is die Paarl onluste van 9-10 November 1959 vlugtig gesien as 'n episode gesentreer rondom Elizabeth Mafekeng, 'n vakbond-aktivis van die 1940's en 1950's. Met nadere ondersoek, het die meeste van die deelnemers, Kleurling mense, vir veelsydige redes in die gebeurtenisse betrokke geraak. Dit begin om dus te bevraagteken of die verbanning van Mafekeng alleen hulle na die onluste getrek het. Die Cape Times, Cape Argus, New Age, Die Burger en Paarl Post koerante is vir inligting oor die onluste ondersoek. Die Paarl-landdroshof Kriminele Rekords verskaf insig in die aard van die onrus, terwyl sekondêre literatuur, met betrekking tot die Kleurlingbevolking ook bestudeer is. Die basis van die betrokkenheid van plaaslike inwoners in die gebeure is gevind om van 'n gedeelde aard te gewees het. Hul deelname kon nie vasgepen wees aan een persoon of 'n enkele oorsaak nie. In plaas daarvan, gee 'n uitbeelding en ondersoek van die volle rekening van die gebeure tekens van drie hoofgroepe, wat geïdentifiseer kan word binne hul kollektiewe liggaam. Daar was diegene wat aktief betrokke was; diegene wat hulself doelbewus geskei het van die gebeurtenisse; en diegene wie se deelname nie polities gemotiveer gelyk het nie. Die gebeure blyk meer kompleks as wat dit onthou is. <![CDATA[<b>The war for Southern Africa (1966-1989) that continues to fascinate and haunt us</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2017000100004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In this review article certain aspects of the history of the War for Southern Africa of 1966 to 1989, as well as its consequences, are evaluated critically by looking at three recent publications on interrelated topics. The most controversial of the three publications deals with the highly-classified operations conducted from 1978 to 1988 by the South African Special Forces in Angola and Mozambique - with invaluable assistance provided by the South African Navy. The second book focuses on the war in Angola in the years 1975 to 1989, looking at the conflict from the South African, Russian, Cuban and East German point of view, and also includes an invaluable list of sources that deal with the war. The third book explores, inter alia, the impact that the years of conflict had (and still have) on South African society and culture. These three publications form part of the continued outpouring of books on the years of struggle in southern Africa, but are of a much higher standard than some of the many popular works of recent years.<hr/>In hierdie oorsigartikel word sekere aspekte van die geskiedenis van die Oorlog vir Suidelike Afrika van 1966 tot 1989, asook die gevolge wat dit ingehou het, krities geëvalueer aan die hand van drie onlangse publikasies oor verbandhoudende temas. Die mees omstrede van hierdie boeke handel oor die hoogs geklassifiseerde operasies wat vanaf 1978 tot 1988 deur Suid-Afrikaanse Spesiale Magte in Angola en Mosambiek van stapel gestuur is, danksy die deurslaggewend belangrike hulp wat deur die Suid-Afrikaanse Vloot verleen is. Die tweede boek fokus op die oorlog in Angola in die jare 1975 tot 1989, belig dié konflik vanuit die Suid-Afrikaanse, Russiese, Kubaanse en Oos-Duitse oogpunt, en bevat ook 'n waardevolle lys van bronne wat oor die oorlog handel. Die derde boek ondersoek onder meer die impak wat die jare van konflik op die Suid-Afrikaanse samelewing en kultuur gehad het (en steeds het). Hierdie drie publikasies maak deel uit van die voortgesette stroom boeke wat oor die stryd in suidelike Afrika gepubliseer word, maar is van 'n beter kwaliteit as sommige van die talle populêre publikasies wat verskyn. <![CDATA[<b>White on white: Real and imagined crises in white Southern Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2017000100005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This review article looks at two recent books on white voices in South Africa and Zimbabwe, by Nicky Falkof and Irikidzayi Manase respectively. Together they offer insight on how different historical contexts affected white fears of belonging in the colonial and post-colonial state. For Falkof, the final death throes of apartheid caused a range of moral panics among white communities. This panic expressed itself largely in moral terms with the issues of Satanism and family murder becoming paramount. Manase's book, however, focuses on a very different historical context. Manase investigates the outpouring of accounts written by white Zimbabweans since 2000 and the start of the fast-track land reforms. He seeks to answer questions about why so many books were produced at this time; how they portrayed the land reforms; and how they narrated questions of race, belonging and politics. Ultimately, Manase notes, the long contestation over land in Zimbabwe still dramatically affects recent and current accounts of belonging and victimhood. These publications raise some interesting questions about conducting research into whiteness in southern Africa and the different ways of undertaking such studies. While there are points of issue in both books, they utilise a range of methodologies and approaches that should stimulate further research and facilitate critical engagement on histories of whites and whiteness by a broader community of scholars.<hr/>Hierdie bespekingsartikel behandel twee onlangse publikasies oor wit ervaringe in Suid-Afrika en Zimbabwe, deur onderskeidelik Nicky Falkof en Irikidzayi Manase. Saam bied hierdie twee boeke insig oor hoe wit vrese oor behoording binne die koloniale en post-kolonial staat deur verskillende historiese kontekste gevorm is. Volgens Falkof het die doodsnikke van apartheid 'n verskeidenheid van morele panieke binne die wit gemeenskap veroorsaak. Die historiese konteks wat in Manase se boek onder die loep kom, het egter heelwat hiervan verskil. Hy ondersoek vrae rondom die vele boeke wat in hierdie tyd geproduseer is; hoe hulle grondhervorming voorgestel het; en hul narratiewe oor ras, behoording en die politiek. Uiteindelik, meen Manase, oefen die voortdurende twis oor grondbesit in Zimbabwe steeds 'n dramatiese invloed op onlangse en hedendaagse narratiewe rondom behoording en slagofferskap uit. Die boeke bring interessante vrae in verband met witheid-navorsing in Suider-Afrika, en verskillende benaderinge daartoe, na vore. Alhoewel albei boeke 'n aantal probleme openbaar, word 'n verskeidenheid van metodologieë en benaderinge benut wat verdere navorsing sal stimuleer. Dit sal hopelik ook daartoe lei dat 'n breër akademiese gemeenskap hul krities met die geskiedenis van wittes en witheid sal bemoei. http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2017000100006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en