Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Historia]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0018-229X20170002&lang=en vol. 62 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Airpower in the Union of South Africa's First World War campaign in German South West Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2017000200001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en During the Great War, aircraft were used primarily for reconnaissance and artillery spotting. The Union of South Africa's First World War campaign in German South West Africa (GSWA) allowed for South Africa's first employment of military aeroplanes in conventional warfare. The creation and employment of the South African Aviation Corps (SAAC) within the Union Defence Force (UDF) provided ground forces with a substantial force multiplier in terms of forward reconnaissance. The aerial reconnaissance allowed General Louis Botha and his subordinate commanders to gain a better understanding of the tactical picture and facilitated the battle concept. This paper discusses the role and impact of aerial operations during the GSWA campaign. The campaign was characterised by sweeping envelopments which were executed by the Union's commandos. During the latter part of the campaign aeroplanes provided the UDF with intelligence in terms of the location and concentration of German forces, which assisted in their final encirclement.<hr/>Gedurende die Eerste Wêreldoorlog was vliegtuie hoofsaaklik gebruik vir verkenningsdoeleindes, en om vuurleiding te gee vir artillerie. Die eerste keer wat die Unie van Suid-Afrika militêre vliegtuie aangewend het in ʼn konvensionele rol, was tydens die veldtog in Duits Suidwes-Afrika (DSWA). Die stigting en operasionele aanwending van die Suid-Afrikaanse Vliegkorps, as deel van die Unieverdedigingsmag (UVM), het die magstruktuur en aanwending van die Suid-Afrikaanse troepe ter velde positief beïnvloed, veral in terme van die vergroting van die operasionele verkenningsektor. Sodoende het Generaal Louis Botha en sy stafoffisiere ʼn beter taktiese waardering van die gevegsfront gekry, wat ʼn daadwerklike invloed op die meegaande Suid-Afrikaanse gevegsontwerp gehad het. Hierdie artikel bespreek die rol en impak van lugoperasies tydens die veldtog in DSWA. Die veldtog was gekenmerk deur operasionele omsingelings wat op ʼn groot skaal uitgevoer was deur die UVM se kommando's. Teen die einde van die veldtog het lugverkenning gehelp om die ligging en sterkte van die Duitse magte vasgestel, wat die finale omsingelingsaanval van die UVM vergemaklik het. <![CDATA[<b>Transforming a wasteland to a premium sporting arena: The case of Ellis Park, Johannesburg, 1900s-1930s</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2017000200002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en One of the aims of Johannesburg's British controlled town council after the South African War (1899-1902) was to provide open public leisure spaces for its white citizens. The establishment and development of Ellis Park as a major sport centre was one of these endeavours. In 1908 the council bought disused land in New Doornfontein, taking the first step towards achieving this grand vision, namely the construction of a swimming bath that met all the requirements for an international tournament. The First World War interrupted any further development but the 1920s witnessed impressive expansion to include tennis courts, cricket pitches and rugby football grounds. By the end of the 1920s the council and the Transvaal Rugby Football Union that was a key stakeholder in the development, could proudly claim that they had achieved their dream of establishing an international sports arena for Johannesburg. Ellis Park became a significant urban marker, a symbol of prestige for the fast growing city as well as in the transformation of Johannesburg's urban fabric into a modern city.<hr/>Na die Suid-Afrikaanse Oorlog (1899-1902) was een van die doelstellings van Johannesburg se Brits-beheerde Stadsraad om voorsiening te maak vir openbare ontspanningsruimtes vir die blanke stadsburgers. Die vestiging en ontwikkeling van Ellis Park as 'n omvangryke sport sentrum was een van hierdie pogings. In 1908 het die stadsraad onbewoonde grond in New Doornfontein gekoop. Daarna is die eerste stap in die bereiking van hul grootse visie geneem, naamlik die bou van 'n swembad wat aan die vereistes vir enige internasionale kompetisie voldoen het. Die Eerste Wêreldoorlog het enige verdere ontwikkeling onderbreek. Die werkike grootskaalse uitbreiding sou in die 1920s plaasvind en het tennisbane, krieket- en rugbyvelde ingesluit. Teen die eindie van die 1920s kon die stadsraad en die Transvaalse Rugby Voetbal Unie, 'n belangrike aandeelhouer in die ontwikkeling, trots daarop aanspraak maak dat hulle die droom van die vestiging van 'n internasionale sportsentrum vir Johannesburg verwesentlik het. Ellis Park het 'n betekenisvolle stedelike aanwyser geword. Dit het 'n prestige simbool van 'n vinnig groeiende stad geword, 'n simbool van die transformasie van Johannesburg se stedelike omgewing na 'n moderne stad. <![CDATA[<b>"Our fathers and grandfathers were born here</b><b>…" Shangaan eviction experiences from the Gonarezhou National Park, 1957-1968</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2017000200003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en When Gonarezhou was declared a game sanctuary in 1934, there followed concerted efforts to remove all people resident in the park-designated area. This was a process that gained traction from the mid-1950s and was only accomplished in 1968. This study interrogates the various responses of the Shangaan to their displacement from Gonarezhou National Park (GNP), a terrain they called home. Three case studies are used to illustrate the varied reactions. The forced removals are examined in the broader discourse of the history of colonial conquest, land alienation and African resistance to colonially-imposed projects. By interrogating archival sources, oral testimonies and secondary literature, the study contends that the Shangaan of south-eastern Zimbabwe put up stiff resistance to eviction from the land of their ancestors. It also notes that while literature on the history of national parks in Zimbabwe abounds, the subject of Shangaan eviction experiences has attracted limited academic scholarship. This article seeks to augment the knowledge on Shangaan contest for the control of the Gonarezhou terrain during the period from 1957 to 1968.<hr/>Toe Gonarezhou in 1934 ʼn wildreservaat verklaar is, was daar doelgerigte pogings om alle mense wat in die aangewysde area woonagtig was, te verwyder. Die proses het in die middel-1950's trekkrag begin kry en is eers in 1968 afgehandel. Hierdie studie ondervra die Shangaan se verskeie reaksies op hierdie verplasing uit die Gonarezhou Nasionale Park (GNP), ʼn gebied wat hulle tuis genoem het. Drie gevallestudies word ondersoek om aan te dui hoe reaksies verskil het. Die verwydering van mense word ondersoek in die breër diskoers van die geskiedenis van koloniale verowering, grondonteiening, en Afrika se weerstand teen koloniale projekte. Deur gebruik te maak van argivale bronne, mondelinge getuienis en sekondêre literatuur voer hierdie studie aan hoe die Shangaan van suidoos Zimbabwe sterk weerstand gebied het toe hulle verwyder is van die grond van hul voorvaders. Hierdie studie let verder op die feit dat die Shangaan se ervarings minimale aandag in die akademie geniet ondanks die talrykheid van literatuur oor die geskiedenis van Zimbabwe se nasionale parke. Dit is vir dié rede dat hierdie studie beoog om kennis oor die Shangaan se stryd vir beheer oor die Gonarezhou-gebied van 1957 tot 1968 daar te stel. <![CDATA[<b>Trojan horses: Liliesleaf, Rivonia (August 1962 -11 July 1963)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2017000200004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The police raid on Liliesleaf on 11 July 1963 is understood to be the result of informants within the liberation movements either breaking down in detention or "selling out" and providing information about the farm with its safe house and its people. This paper, while acknowledging that there were informants inside the liberation movements, maintains that this was only a fragment of a kaleidoscope of events culminating in the raid and subsequent Rivonia Trial. Rather it was a covert investigation undertaken since 1962 that resulted in the blow delivered by the combined security agencies, that shattered the underground networks opposing the apartheid state. It was an investigation which relied extensively on the principles of the mythological Greek Trojan horse; it used persons and technology that aimed to undermine and overthrow their opponent, to subvert and defeat it from within, while appearing non-threatening. This paper identifies three Trojan horses. A human spy concealed behind the innocent look of a child who fronted for sinister forces. Electronic warfare deployed by the military and linked to an innocuous caravan park; and finally a laundry van to deliver the surgical knockout strike. Yet all this subterfuge has eluded the narrative for 53 years.<hr/>Daar word aanvaar dat die polisieklopjag op Liliesleaf op 11 Julie 1963 óf die gevolg was van die ineenstorting van informante binne die vryheidsbewegings weens detensie, óf dat hulle die plaas met sy skuilhuis en mense verraai het. Hierdie artikel gee toe dat daar wel informante was binne die vryheidsbewegings, maar identifiseer dat hulle maar slegs 'n fragment was van 'n kaleidoskoop van gebeure wat uitgeloop het op die klopjag en gevolglike Rivonia Verhoor. Dit was eerder 'n geheime ondersoek sedert 1962 wat gelei het tot die verpletterende slag deur die veiligheidsmagte op die ondergrondse netwerke teen die apartheidstaat. Hierdie ondersoek het grootliks staatgemaak op die mitologiese Griekse Trojaanse perd; mense en tegnologie is ingespan om die opponent van binne te ondermyn en omver te werp. Hierdie artikel indentifiseer drie Trojaanse perde. 'n Menslike spioen, vermom as 'n onskuldige kind, as werktuig van slinkse magte; elektroniese oorlogvoering deur die weermag wat gesetel was rondom 'n oënskynlike onskadelike woonwapark, en laastens, 'n afleweringswa van linne waarmee die doodslag toegedien is. Tog het al hierdie slenterslae versteek in die Trojaanse perd, die narratief vir 53 jaar ontduik. <![CDATA[<b>Ecumenism and the global anti-apartheid struggle: The World Council of Churches' Special Fund in South Africa and Botswana, 1970-75</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2017000200005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This paper argues for the importance of ecumenism as part of the understanding of the global anti-apartheid struggle. Specifically, the paper explores the symbolism and effects of the World Council of Churches' (WCC) decision to fund southern African liberation movements, through the Programme to Combat Racism (PCR) in September 1970. It presents a qualitative analysis of the responses to the grants in South Africa and Botswana, pointing to the mixed results of its funding of the liberation movements and the responses it received in these countries. Reflection on the WCC grants provides insight into a significant element of international pressure on the apartheid regime, in the form of the international ecumenical movement, and an opportunity to contrast South Africa with its northerly neighbour, Botswana. This comparison highlights that the funding to the liberation movements was a political step rather than a purely theological controversy as it has tended to be relegated to through neglect in the mainstream South African historiography.<hr/>Hierdie artikel voer aan dat ekumene as 'n belangrike aspek van die global anti-apartheid stryd verstaan moet word. Die artikel fokus op die simboliese waarde en uitwerking van die Wêreldraad van Kerke (WRK) se besluit in September 1970 om Suider-Afrikaanse bevrydingsbewegings deur middel van die Program vir die Bekamping van Rassisme te befonds. 'n Kwalitatiewe analise van die reaksies op die toelaes in Suid-Afrika en in Botswana word verskaf. Dit dui op die gemengde gevolge van die befondsing vir die bevrydingsbewegings en die reaksies wat dit in hierdie lande uitgelok het. Deur die WRK toelaes te bestudeer, word nuwe insig verkry oor hierdie belangrike aspek van internasionale druk op die apartheid regime. Dit verskaf ook 'n geleentheid om Suid-Afrika met haar noordelike buurland, Botswana, te vergelyk. Hierdie vergelyking benadruk die feit dat die befondsing aan die bevrydingsbewegings 'n politieke stap was - nie 'n rein teologiese twispunt, soos wat dit in die hoofstroom Suider-Afrikaanse historiografie beskou, en daarom verwaardeloos word, nie. <![CDATA[<b>Tackling environmental issues in the digital age through oral histories and oral traditions from the iSimangaliso Wetland</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2017000200006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In the light of student protests in 2015 and 2016 relating to the #RhodesMustFall and #FeesMustFall movements, the significance of the historical discourse has been side- lined. This concept paper discusses the role of digital technologies as platforms to capture and disseminate oral histories, audio-visual sources, historical writings and indigenous knowledge in order to tackle environmental concerns. In South Africa, there is a moral responsibility to encourage previously ignored communities and individuals to collect and share their experiences and knowledge, particularly where this knowledge may be valuable in tackling contemporary challenges. Through better utilisation of oral histories, oral traditions, audio-visual sources, historical writings and indigenous knowledge - as well as better access facilitated by means of digital technologies - the sustainability of historical discourse, the asset-worth of these sources and the viability of the archival institutions and the similar heritage entities housing these items, could be assured. Historians and archivists need to engage actively in highlighting collections, demonstrating their relevance to contemporary challenges and interacting with society at large to ensure that the histories recorded, captured and disseminated represent all communities. Better dissemination of these information sources could provide more effective solutions to deal with contemporary environmental concerns, such as climate change.<hr/>In die lig van student protesaksie wat verband hou met die #RhodesMustFall and #FeesMustFall bewegings in 2015 en 2016, blyk dit asof die belangrikheid van die historiese diskoers eenkant toe gekuif is. Hierdie konsepartikel bespreek die rol van digitale tegnologie as 'n platform waarop omgewingskwessies aangespreek kan word deur mondelinge geskiedenis, oudiovisuele bronne, historiese geskrifte en inheemse kennis vas te lê en te versprei. In Suid-Afrika is daar ʼn morele verantwoordelikheid om gemeenskappe en individue, wat voorheen geïgnoreer is, aan te moedig om hulle kennis en ervaring te deel. Dit geld veral waar hierdie kennis en ervaring van waardevol kan wees om kontemporêre uitdagings aan te pak. Die volhoubaarheideur van die historiese diskoers en die waardetoevoeging van digitale bronne kan verseker word deur mondelinge geskiedenis, oudiovisuele bronne, historiese geskrifte en inheemse kennis deur middel van digitale tegnologie vas te lê en te versprei. Die aktiewe betrokkenheid van historici en argivarisse by alle gemeenskappe om versamleings sigbaar te maak, sal bydra tot 'n demonstrasie van die versamelings se relevantheid. 'n Betrokkenheid by alle gemeenskappe sal ook verseker dat die geskiedenis wat vasgelê en versprei word verteenwoordigend van die gemeenskappe is. Die doeltreffende verspreiding van inligting uit hierdie bronne kan bydra tot die vind van beter oplossings vir kontemporêre omgewingskwessies soos klimaatsverandering. <![CDATA[<b>"A hysterical spinster of mature age": Some reflections on recent biographies of Emily Hobhouse</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2017000200007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en While the first (auto)biography of the heroine of the Afrikaner people, Emily Hobhouse was published a mere three years after her death in 1929, and a steady stream has followed since, in the last three years or so there has been a remarkable resurgence in popular accounts of her life and work. This review essay profiles three of the latest biographies written by Robert Eales, Elsabe Brits and Jennifer Hobhouse Balme, and variously examines her role in the South African War and her ideas on pacifism, war and politics.<hr/>Die eerste (outo)biografie van Emily Hobhouse, die heldin van die Afrikaners, is ʼn skamele drie jaar na haar dood in 1929 gepubliseer. Talle soortgelyke publikasies het sedertdien verskyn en in die laaste sowat drie jaar was daar ʼn opmerklike toename in populêre vertellings van Hobhouse se lewe en werk. Hierdie besprekingsartikel bied ʼn blik op drie van die jongste biografieë, geskryf deur Robert Eales, Elsabe Brits en Jennifer Hobhouse Balme, terwyl dit ook haar rol in die Suid-Afrikaanse Oorlog en haar idees oor pasifisme, oorlog en politiek opnuut ondersoek. <![CDATA[<b>Book Reviews</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2017000200008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en While the first (auto)biography of the heroine of the Afrikaner people, Emily Hobhouse was published a mere three years after her death in 1929, and a steady stream has followed since, in the last three years or so there has been a remarkable resurgence in popular accounts of her life and work. This review essay profiles three of the latest biographies written by Robert Eales, Elsabe Brits and Jennifer Hobhouse Balme, and variously examines her role in the South African War and her ideas on pacifism, war and politics.<hr/>Die eerste (outo)biografie van Emily Hobhouse, die heldin van die Afrikaners, is ʼn skamele drie jaar na haar dood in 1929 gepubliseer. Talle soortgelyke publikasies het sedertdien verskyn en in die laaste sowat drie jaar was daar ʼn opmerklike toename in populêre vertellings van Hobhouse se lewe en werk. Hierdie besprekingsartikel bied ʼn blik op drie van die jongste biografieë, geskryf deur Robert Eales, Elsabe Brits en Jennifer Hobhouse Balme, terwyl dit ook haar rol in die Suid-Afrikaanse Oorlog en haar idees oor pasifisme, oorlog en politiek opnuut ondersoek. <![CDATA[<b>Comprehensive new online research tool</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0018-229X2017000200009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en While the first (auto)biography of the heroine of the Afrikaner people, Emily Hobhouse was published a mere three years after her death in 1929, and a steady stream has followed since, in the last three years or so there has been a remarkable resurgence in popular accounts of her life and work. This review essay profiles three of the latest biographies written by Robert Eales, Elsabe Brits and Jennifer Hobhouse Balme, and variously examines her role in the South African War and her ideas on pacifism, war and politics.<hr/>Die eerste (outo)biografie van Emily Hobhouse, die heldin van die Afrikaners, is ʼn skamele drie jaar na haar dood in 1929 gepubliseer. Talle soortgelyke publikasies het sedertdien verskyn en in die laaste sowat drie jaar was daar ʼn opmerklike toename in populêre vertellings van Hobhouse se lewe en werk. Hierdie besprekingsartikel bied ʼn blik op drie van die jongste biografieë, geskryf deur Robert Eales, Elsabe Brits en Jennifer Hobhouse Balme, terwyl dit ook haar rol in die Suid-Afrikaanse Oorlog en haar idees oor pasifisme, oorlog en politiek opnuut ondersoek.