Scielo RSS <![CDATA[South African Dental Journal ]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0011-851620210008&lang=pt vol. 76 num. 8 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>The importance of evidence in evidence-base care</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162021000800001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>September - Oral Health Month</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162021000800002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>Predictable sedation: Safe administration of oral Midazolam and nitrous oxide gas for paediatric patients in the general dental practice</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162021000800003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt INTRODUCTION: Behaviour management for anxious paediatric dental patients is challenging. Solutions include education and sedation. Various drugs have been used to effectively sedate paediatric patients during treatment. Aims and objectives: The aim of this study was to review literature on the sedation of paediatric patients. The study specifically looked at those reviews covering the combination of two sedation methods in case of more challenging paediatric patients. DESIGN: The study undertook a literature review focused on studies using nitrous oxide, Midazolam, or a combination of the two substances. METHODS: An electronic search was done on EBSCOhost to source articles published from 1979 to 2019. RESULTS: A deeper form of sedation can be achieved for paediatric patients when using a combination of nitrous oxide, oxygen and a hypnotic agent such as Midazolam. CONCLUSION: Dealing with the anxiety levels of paediatric patients is a challenge for dental health providers. Two of the main strategies used to deal with anxious children are behaviour management and sedation. A critical review of journal articles on the use of nitrous oxide and oxygen in combination with Midazolam was therefore undertaken. The findings suggest that, in order to achieve a deeper form of sedation, the combination of nitrous oxide, oxygen and Midazolam works well to reduce discomfort, anxiety and/or pain in paediatric patients <![CDATA[<b>Deep neck space infections in Adolescents</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162021000800004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt OBJECTIVES: Adolescent deep neck space infection is an important pathology that often requires hospitalization for antimicrobial therapy. The aim of the study was to identify the inciting organisms and their resistance profiles in the adolescent population of patients with deep neck space infection. METHODS: We performed a single-center cross-sectional retrospective analysis of patients between 10 and 16 years of age, with deep neck space infections. RESULTS: From the 319 cases of deep neck space infections that presented over the study period, nine patients met the criteria to be included in the study. The mean age being 11.8 years. The microbiology of the specimens revealed mainly Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species and in some patients microscopy and culture showed no predominant bacteria. There was an overall 86% resistance of organisms to penicillin and ampicillin but most organisms were sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. CONCLUSION: Deep neck space infections in adolescents can initially be managed with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, source control and surgical drainage if required. Culture directed therapy can be initiated after microbiology results. The spaces involved are similar to adults with 44% of patients having deep neck abscess secondary odonto-genic infection. The microbiology however is similar to that of children with Streptococcus and staphylococcus species being the most predominant. <![CDATA[<b>Detrimental orofacial manifestations of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever-clinical case series, review of the causes, complications, and vaccine strategies</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162021000800005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt INTRODUCTION: It is estimated that there are about 10% of cases that involve oral mucosa in patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever (HF), and even less number of cases in dengue fever (DF) has been reported. This leads to a lack of future investigation AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This review intends to enhance the understanding of the epidemiology, clinical features involving the oral manifestations, and treatment of dengue disease. DESIGN AND METHODS: Several search engines, including PubMed, World Health Organization (WHO), and Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) websites were utilized for the literature search using the terms dengue and dengue shock syndrome. RESULTS: Dengue is a major arthropod-borne viral disease of humans. Its presentation is protean and varies from an undifferentiated viral syndrome to viral HF and severe shock. The early diagnosis of the oral manifestations, hemorrhagic, or mucocutaneous, may lead to timely clinical evaluation of the patient with signs and symptoms suggestive of dengue viral infection. CONCLUSION: The specific therapy for dengue infections is still undiscovered. Proper care, including vector control and prevention of mosquito bites, may be beneficial. However, the role of dental professionals and general practitioners is important in identifying the oral manifestations of dengue viral infection and providing specific diagnosis and effective treatment to the patients. <![CDATA[<b>Clinicopathological evaluation of focal reactive lesions of the Gingiva</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162021000800006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt INTRODUCTION: Focal reactive gingival lesions are elicited by chronic irritation primarily due to dental plaque, calculus, overhanging dental restorations and ill-fitting dental prosthesis. Persistent irritation of the gingiva can lead to tissue injury and trigger inflammation leading to proliferation of endothelial cells, multi-nucleated giant cells, fibroblasts and tissue mineralisation. AIMS: The aim and objectives of the study were to determine the relative frequency and distribution of focal reactive gingival lesions according to sex, age, and anatomical site in patients who presented at the Witwatersrand Oral Health Centre DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. METHODS: Convenience sampling of patient records from the years 2011 to 2017 were analysed from the Department of Oral Pathology and the Department of Oral Medicine and Periodontology at the Witwatersrand Oral Health Centre. Sociodemographic variables and clinical features were evaluated. RESULTS: Female patients accounted for 70.8% (n = 172) of all focal reactive gingival lesions, with the majority of the lesions having occurred in the maxilla (56.4%; n = 137). The age of patients ranged from 3 months to 88 years. CONCLUSION: Contrary to findings in other studies, the peripheral ossifying fibroma was the most common focal reactive gingival lesion, after analysing 243 cases. <![CDATA[<b>Dental educators' views and knowledge of competencies required within a competency framework</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162021000800007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt AIMS: The aim of the study was twofold; first was to explore and describe dental educators' views of the competencies required within the AfriMEDS core competency framework. The second was to highlight the views of the dental educators, regarding the alignment of the AfriMEDS core competencies, with the dental curriculum. METHODS: A case study approach to qualitative inquiry was used. The participants were purposefully selected, and two focus group discussions were conducted. An interview protocol was used to guide the discussions. The gathered data from the discussions were transcribed verbatim, and uploaded to the Atlas ti program for data analysis. Themes were identified from the findings of the thematic analysis. RESULTS: Dental educators required some guidance and clarity on the AfriMEDS core competency framework. However, they were able to recognize the competencies related to the AfriMEDS core competency framework. Two of these competencies, evidence-based dentistry, and private practice, were highlighted as core competencies in this current study; however, in AfriMEDS, only certain aspects of this was described. CONCLUSION: The results of this current study revealed that dental educators were able to make valuable recommendations about the additional competencies requirements for dental graduates. <![CDATA[<b>Dental implant imaging: What do South African dentists and dental specialists prefer?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162021000800008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt AIMS: To document the types of imaging modalities that are commonly prescribed during dental implant therapy in South Africa MATERIAL AND METHODS:The radiographic preferences were obtained from practitioners via an electronic survey that was disseminated during local dental conferences, electronic channels (e.g., email lists) of multiple dental schools and local dental scientific societies, and personal interviews. The survey consisted of multiple-choice questions which were designed to investigate the most common radiographic prescriptions during various treatment phases of implant therapy. RESULTS: The responses of one hundred and forty-two participants (General practitioners and dental specialists) practising in different South African provinces were collected and assessed. Principally, panoramic radiographs combined with cone beam computed tomography (PAN + CBCT) followed by CBCT, as a single examination (ASE), were the most preferable modalities during the implant planning phase (39% and 29%, respectively). During and directly after the surgery, periapical radiographs (ASE) were the most preferred (87% and 65%, respectively CONCLUSION:The most widely preferred radiographic examination during the planning of implants was panoramic radiographs combined with CBCT. Periapical radiographs (ASE) were favoured during, directly after the treatment, and during the follow-up of asymptomatic patients by the majority of participants. However, CBCT (ASE) was preferred in the follow up of symptomatic patients. Factors related to extra anatomical information and superior dimensional accuracy provided by three-dimensional volumes (e.g., CBCT volumes), were the most indicated influencing factors on the radiographic prescriptions during implant planning. <![CDATA[<b>Maxillofacial Radiology 193 Bridging analogue and digital imaging in occlusal radiography</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162021000800009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt AIMS: To document the types of imaging modalities that are commonly prescribed during dental implant therapy in South Africa MATERIAL AND METHODS:The radiographic preferences were obtained from practitioners via an electronic survey that was disseminated during local dental conferences, electronic channels (e.g., email lists) of multiple dental schools and local dental scientific societies, and personal interviews. The survey consisted of multiple-choice questions which were designed to investigate the most common radiographic prescriptions during various treatment phases of implant therapy. RESULTS: The responses of one hundred and forty-two participants (General practitioners and dental specialists) practising in different South African provinces were collected and assessed. Principally, panoramic radiographs combined with cone beam computed tomography (PAN + CBCT) followed by CBCT, as a single examination (ASE), were the most preferable modalities during the implant planning phase (39% and 29%, respectively). During and directly after the surgery, periapical radiographs (ASE) were the most preferred (87% and 65%, respectively CONCLUSION:The most widely preferred radiographic examination during the planning of implants was panoramic radiographs combined with CBCT. Periapical radiographs (ASE) were favoured during, directly after the treatment, and during the follow-up of asymptomatic patients by the majority of participants. However, CBCT (ASE) was preferred in the follow up of symptomatic patients. Factors related to extra anatomical information and superior dimensional accuracy provided by three-dimensional volumes (e.g., CBCT volumes), were the most indicated influencing factors on the radiographic prescriptions during implant planning. <![CDATA[<b>Grillz and Gold Teeth - Esthetic, Economics and Ethics</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162021000800010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt AIMS: To document the types of imaging modalities that are commonly prescribed during dental implant therapy in South Africa MATERIAL AND METHODS:The radiographic preferences were obtained from practitioners via an electronic survey that was disseminated during local dental conferences, electronic channels (e.g., email lists) of multiple dental schools and local dental scientific societies, and personal interviews. The survey consisted of multiple-choice questions which were designed to investigate the most common radiographic prescriptions during various treatment phases of implant therapy. RESULTS: The responses of one hundred and forty-two participants (General practitioners and dental specialists) practising in different South African provinces were collected and assessed. Principally, panoramic radiographs combined with cone beam computed tomography (PAN + CBCT) followed by CBCT, as a single examination (ASE), were the most preferable modalities during the implant planning phase (39% and 29%, respectively). During and directly after the surgery, periapical radiographs (ASE) were the most preferred (87% and 65%, respectively CONCLUSION:The most widely preferred radiographic examination during the planning of implants was panoramic radiographs combined with CBCT. Periapical radiographs (ASE) were favoured during, directly after the treatment, and during the follow-up of asymptomatic patients by the majority of participants. However, CBCT (ASE) was preferred in the follow up of symptomatic patients. Factors related to extra anatomical information and superior dimensional accuracy provided by three-dimensional volumes (e.g., CBCT volumes), were the most indicated influencing factors on the radiographic prescriptions during implant planning. <![CDATA[<b>What's new for the clinician - summaries of recently published papers (September 2021)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162021000800011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt AIMS: To document the types of imaging modalities that are commonly prescribed during dental implant therapy in South Africa MATERIAL AND METHODS:The radiographic preferences were obtained from practitioners via an electronic survey that was disseminated during local dental conferences, electronic channels (e.g., email lists) of multiple dental schools and local dental scientific societies, and personal interviews. The survey consisted of multiple-choice questions which were designed to investigate the most common radiographic prescriptions during various treatment phases of implant therapy. RESULTS: The responses of one hundred and forty-two participants (General practitioners and dental specialists) practising in different South African provinces were collected and assessed. Principally, panoramic radiographs combined with cone beam computed tomography (PAN + CBCT) followed by CBCT, as a single examination (ASE), were the most preferable modalities during the implant planning phase (39% and 29%, respectively). During and directly after the surgery, periapical radiographs (ASE) were the most preferred (87% and 65%, respectively CONCLUSION:The most widely preferred radiographic examination during the planning of implants was panoramic radiographs combined with CBCT. Periapical radiographs (ASE) were favoured during, directly after the treatment, and during the follow-up of asymptomatic patients by the majority of participants. However, CBCT (ASE) was preferred in the follow up of symptomatic patients. Factors related to extra anatomical information and superior dimensional accuracy provided by three-dimensional volumes (e.g., CBCT volumes), were the most indicated influencing factors on the radiographic prescriptions during implant planning.