Scielo RSS <![CDATA[South African Dental Journal ]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0011-851620210007&lang=es vol. 76 num. 7 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>The impact of COVID-19 on dental clinical competency training</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162021000700001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[<b>SADA Head Office</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162021000700002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[<b>South Africa's contribution in the field of Forensic Odontology - A textbook review</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162021000700003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[<b>Orthodontic status and treatment need of 13 to 15 year-old children in Kwa-Zulu Natal South Africa: An epidemiology study using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162021000700004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of malocclusion among school going children in KwaZulu-Natal remains poorly defined despite the known physiological and psychological impact of this dental occurrence. OBJECTIVES: The aim and objectives of this study was to determine the prevalence of malocclusion and possible treatment need in 13-15 year-old school going children in Durban, Kwa-Zulu Natal. METHODS: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional epidemiological study conducted on 270 school-going children aged 13 to 15 years, in the Umlazi and Pinetown school districts. A two-staged clustered and systematic random sampling technique was used to draw the study sample. Data was collected through an intraoral examination of occlusal status and the malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need was assessed through use of the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). Questionnaires were developed to collect information on the learners' health status and socio demographic profile. RESULTS: The results indicated that 144 (53.3%) of the 270 learners had DAI scores <25 (no abnormality or minor malocclusion not requiring orthodontic treatment); 26 learners (9.6%) had DAI scores of between 26-30 (definite malocclusion requiring elective orthodontic treatment); 59 learners (21.9%) had DAI scores of between 31-35 (severe malocclusion requiring orthodontic treatment); and 41 learners (15.2%) had DAI scores &gt;36 (very severe or handicapping malocclusion requiring mandatory orthodontic treatment). There was an increase in the proportion of malocclusion in older children. The age group of 15 years old had a mean and standard deviation of 30.02+8.9 when compared to the age group 13 years old (27.76 + 12.17). The association between gender distribution and severity of malocclusion was found to be statistically significant (p=0.01). CONCLUSION: The present study primarily indicated a significant prevalence of malocclusion in the identified children. Although 53.3% of children did not require treatment, 37.1% presented with severe and handicapping malocclusion. This suggests a definite and mandatory treatment need for this group of children. The study could provide useful baseline epidemiological data that could inform oral health planning on the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need for 13-15 year-old school going children in the identified geographical area. <![CDATA[<b>An overview of COVID-19 infection in dental practices - a questionnaire survey</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162021000700005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es INTRODUCTION: Dental nurses and practitioners are at high risk of exposure to COVID-19 due to physical proximity and exposure to body fluids during treatment. Dental practices have implemented multiple protective protocols to decrease COVID-19 transmission; however, it is difficult to evaluate how effective these measures are, as there is limited data on COVID-19 in dental practices. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate COVID-19 infection rates among dentists, dental staff, and patients in different countries through an online survey, with a primary focus on South Africa (SA). DESIGN: Cross-sectional online survey RESULTS: One hundred fifty-four participants from 52 countries answered the survey, 48.6% (n=561) from SA. COVID-19 infections were reported in 18.2% (n=210) of dental practices. Only 1.1% regarded the practice as the source of infection for dentists and staff who got infected. In total, 13.9% (n=160) treated COVID-19 patients. SA presented a higher infection rate (19% vs 13%, p=0.04) and more frequent treatment of COVID-19 patients than the other countries combined (17% vs 11%, p=0.006). CONCLUSION: These findings support the need to maintain strict infec tion control measures to decrease transmission of SARS-CoV-2 during the delivery of oral care. <![CDATA[<b>The accuracy of various radiographic modalities for implant therapy</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162021000700006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the dimensional accuracy of radiographic techniques utilized during implant therapy. DESIGN AND METHODS: Six dried human skulls were used to compare three dimensions in ten anatomical segments. Linear distances in-between metallic markers were measured and compared physically, and virtually on cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) volumes, panoramic (PAN) and peri-apical (PA) radiographs. The angular distances along the curved arches of both jaws (connecting the upper metallic markers) were measured using cords. One-way ANOVA (p-value < 0.05) tests were executed to statistically analyze the mean differences between physical and virtual distances measured. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to analyze the level of consistency of observers. RESULTS: Statistically significant overall mean difference of all distances comparing physical and radiographic (CBCT, PAN, and PA), with the CBCT showed the least overall submillimeter discrepancy in the maxilla (M.D= -0.638 mm, SD= 0.203) and mandible (M.D=0.326mm, SD=0.23 Overestimations exceeding a millimeter were found in maxilla (M.D=2.229mm, SD=0.856) and mandible (M.D =3.832mm, SD=1.272) of measurements performed on panoramic radiographs. Periapical radiographs exhibited an overall mean maxillary underestimation of -3.707mm, (SD = 1.31) and mandibular mean overestimation of 1.849 mm (SD=0.875). CONCLUSION: CBCT demonstrated a superior submillimeter overall accuracy in comparison to periapical and panoramic radiographs. While PAN and PA presented with individual dimension precision (submillimeter difference), the overall mean of difference for these modalities was inferior when compared with CBCT. CBCT showed superior dimensional stability and thus it is recommended during implant planning phases. <![CDATA[<b>Rice vinegar removes <i>Candida albicans </i>from denture acrylic resins</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162021000700007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es INTRODUCTION: Denture stomatitis, mainly caused by Candida albicans, often affect denture wearers. To manage these patients, denture hygiene is of utmost importance. There is a need for low cost, easily accessible denture disinfectants AIMS: To investigate the efficacy of rice vinegar and other disinfecting solutions in removing C. albicans from acrylic resins MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hundred and eighty acrylic resin plates were contaminated with C. albicans strains and divided into Ave groups. These were immersed in apple cider vinegar (ACV), white wine vinegar (WWV), rice vinegar (RV), chlorhexidine (CHX), and sterile distilled H2O (control). The plates were incubated at room temperature for 30 minutes, 1 hour and 8 hours. Candida removing ability of the disinfecting solutions was evaluated, and data was analyzed using two-way ANOVA with Tukey post-test. Significance level of p<0.05 was used. RESULTS: RV, ACV, WWV and CHX showed the highest efficacy (100%) in removing both C. albicans strains at 8 hours (p&gt;0.05). CHX was the most effective disinfectant in removing both C. albicans strains at 30 minutes, 1 hour, and 8 hours (99%-100%). CONCLUSION: RV was as effective as ACV, WWV and CHX in removing C. albicans from acrylic plates at 8 hours. <![CDATA[<b>What's new for the clinician? - Excerpts from and summaries of recently published papers</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162021000700008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es INTRODUCTION: Denture stomatitis, mainly caused by Candida albicans, often affect denture wearers. To manage these patients, denture hygiene is of utmost importance. There is a need for low cost, easily accessible denture disinfectants AIMS: To investigate the efficacy of rice vinegar and other disinfecting solutions in removing C. albicans from acrylic resins MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hundred and eighty acrylic resin plates were contaminated with C. albicans strains and divided into Ave groups. These were immersed in apple cider vinegar (ACV), white wine vinegar (WWV), rice vinegar (RV), chlorhexidine (CHX), and sterile distilled H2O (control). The plates were incubated at room temperature for 30 minutes, 1 hour and 8 hours. Candida removing ability of the disinfecting solutions was evaluated, and data was analyzed using two-way ANOVA with Tukey post-test. Significance level of p<0.05 was used. RESULTS: RV, ACV, WWV and CHX showed the highest efficacy (100%) in removing both C. albicans strains at 8 hours (p&gt;0.05). CHX was the most effective disinfectant in removing both C. albicans strains at 30 minutes, 1 hour, and 8 hours (99%-100%). CONCLUSION: RV was as effective as ACV, WWV and CHX in removing C. albicans from acrylic plates at 8 hours. <![CDATA[<b>Maxillofacial Radiology 192</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162021000700009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es INTRODUCTION: Denture stomatitis, mainly caused by Candida albicans, often affect denture wearers. To manage these patients, denture hygiene is of utmost importance. There is a need for low cost, easily accessible denture disinfectants AIMS: To investigate the efficacy of rice vinegar and other disinfecting solutions in removing C. albicans from acrylic resins MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hundred and eighty acrylic resin plates were contaminated with C. albicans strains and divided into Ave groups. These were immersed in apple cider vinegar (ACV), white wine vinegar (WWV), rice vinegar (RV), chlorhexidine (CHX), and sterile distilled H2O (control). The plates were incubated at room temperature for 30 minutes, 1 hour and 8 hours. Candida removing ability of the disinfecting solutions was evaluated, and data was analyzed using two-way ANOVA with Tukey post-test. Significance level of p<0.05 was used. RESULTS: RV, ACV, WWV and CHX showed the highest efficacy (100%) in removing both C. albicans strains at 8 hours (p&gt;0.05). CHX was the most effective disinfectant in removing both C. albicans strains at 30 minutes, 1 hour, and 8 hours (99%-100%). CONCLUSION: RV was as effective as ACV, WWV and CHX in removing C. albicans from acrylic plates at 8 hours. <![CDATA[<b>Technicians and Dentists: A catch 22 situation?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162021000700010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Dental technicians who regularly receive poor quality impressions and records are often faced with professional and ethical concerns as to how to handle the situation. They may choose to complete the task to the best of their abilities. Other options are to alter the casts to try to improve the situation and then complete the prescription, contact the dentist and discuss the issue, contact the patient, contact the medical aid, report the practitioner to the HPCSA, or refuse to do the work. Their latter actions have potentially negative implications for them, and will certainly sour working relationships. At worst, they may lose the dentist's support. This paper explores ways in which dentists and techniciains can foster collegial and mutually beneficial relationships from early on in their careers. This will not only promote better communication, and improve the quality of work produced by them, but it will also serve the best interests of their patients and the profession as a whole.