Scielo RSS <![CDATA[South African Dental Journal ]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0011-851620180005&lang=pt vol. 73 num. 5 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Relativity: E=mc<sup>2</sup></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162018000500001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>A message from your new SADA president</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162018000500002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>Early childhood caries experience of children accessing selected immunization facilities in Johannesburg</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162018000500003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt INTRODUCTION: Despite notable achievements in the enhancement of the oral health of populations globally, early childhood caries (ECC) remains a common condition, particularly in developing countries. Mother and child oral health programs at immunization facilities were piloted in two Gauteng Districts in 2015 in order to address the burden of disease. Hence there was an opportunity to assess the ECC experience and risk factors contributing to ECC at these sites. METHODS: This retrospective study included records of mother and child pairs who attended the Diepsloot and Vanderbijlpark clinics Mother and Child programs in 2015. The ages of the children ranged between six months and six years. Data were collected from the oral health assessments and questionnaires used in the program. RESULTS: Differences in the distal and proximal factors at the two sites were identified from the 446 records assessed. Children in Diepsloot had significantly higher levels of mean dmft at 0.43 (1.26) than those in Vanderbiljpark 0.22 (0.70) p=0.01 CONCLUSION: Though the general caries experience in this population was low (13.6%), program planners still need to consider differences in oral health exposures and hygiene practices in order to implement activities that are appropriate to the communities being served. <![CDATA[<b>Micro-endodontic surgery Part 2: Root-end filling materials - A literature review</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162018000500004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The evolution of traditional techniques toward modern endodontic surgical procedures was discussed in Part 1 of this series. The clinical procedures usually comprise exposure of the involved area, root-end resection and preparation and placement of root-end filling material. This article is a review of the literature which has been published on those materials that have been suggested for clinical use as root end fillers and on the shift towards the current materials of choice. <![CDATA[<b>Applying the perceptions of graduates on their dental training to inform dental curricula from the perspective of occupational health</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162018000500005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt INTRODUCTION: Dental education, one of the most stressful fields of study, is associated with many occupational health hazards. Clinical training is focussed on patient care and occurs under the supervision of a qualified practitioner, and is thus the most appropriate time to educate students about the prevention of occupational health problems. The study aimed to report on the reflections of dental graduates on their undergraduate training from the perspective of occupational health. METHODS: This cross sectional, descriptive study used both quantitative and qualitative methods in the collection of data from a study population comprising dentists, dental therapists and oral hygienists in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. RESULTS: The response rate was 41% (n=169), 80% (n=138) and 40% (n= 46) for dentists, dental therapists and oral hygienists respectively. There was little focus (77.7%) on health and well-being of students and self-care in their dental training. Clinical work had started in the first year for 30% of the participants, and in the third year for 54.4% of the students. Undergraduate training lacked modules on occupational health, practice/business management, posture training, ergonomics and stress management. CONCLUSION: The perceptions of this study population indicated a need for the inclusion of occupational health training in undergraduate dental curricula. <![CDATA[<b>Prevalence and aetiological factors of maxillofacial trauma in a rural district hospital in the Eastern Cape</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162018000500006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt AIM: To determine the prevalence, aetiological factors and demographic data of patients presenting with injuries sustained from maxillofacial trauma over a six month period at Zithulele Hospital MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a retrospective, descriptive study, data collected and analysed included records of all patients who had suffered maxillofacial trauma, their demographics, clinical features and the aetiology. The radiographic records were assessed by a maxillofacial surgeon and a radiologist for a diagnosis as well as gaining opinions regarding the types of fractures observed. RESULTS: A total of 239 patients sustained maxillofacial trauma. The most common aetiological factor was interpersonal violence (55%) followed by road traffic accidents (16%), falls (10%), animals (4%) and other causes (2%). The male to female ratio was 2.6:1 and the 18-24 years age group endured the most trauma. A total of 210 (88%) patients sustained soft tissue injuries while 29 (12%) experienced hard tissue injuries, with 39 fractures diagnosed. A total of 165 maxillofacial radiographs were assessed, 37% were diagnostically acceptable, 56% had poor diagnostic value and 7% had no diagnostic value. CONCLUSION: Maxillofacial trauma is prevalent in rural parts of South Africa. Males aged 18-24 years are frequent victims, with interpersonal violence being the major aetiology. <![CDATA[<b>Pathology of <i>Candida </i>infection in oral HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma: A descriptive study</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162018000500007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency and histomorphology of secondary Candida infection in oral HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma (HIV-KS) and to describe the demographics of patients with oral HIV-KS with and without secondary Candida infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Haematoxylin and eosin, and periodic acid-Schiff stains of 32 oral HIV- KS were examined histologically for intensity and morphology of Candida colonisation, depth of invasion, number of organisms, epithelial reactions and inflammatory response. Depth of Candida invasion and severity of infection were correlated with CD4 T-cell counts of HIV-positive patients. RESULTS: Forty-one percent of oral HIV-KS were secondarily infected with Candida (n=13). Intensity varied from an isolated single pseudohyphus to matted colonies. Whilst in most cases, organisms did not invade beyond the parakeratin layer, pseudohyphae extended into stratum spinosum in two cases, and a single case showed a pseudohyphus within the lamina propria. Two cases showed pseudohyphae in the pyogenic membrane. Neutrophilic permeation of epithelium, commonly associated with Candida infection was frequently present even in absence of Candida infection CONCLUSION: Oral HIV-KS is commonly secondarily infected with large numbers of Candida organisms. Morphological characteristics of secondary Candida infection in surface epithelium of HIV-KS suggest an altered pathogenetic pathway. Further studies are indicated. <![CDATA[<b>Detecting chronic apical periodontitis for improved endodontic success</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162018000500008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Endodontic treatments are frequently carried out in daily clinical practice. The presence or absence of a periapical radiolucency, assessed using intraoral radiographs, is one of the criteria used to determine endodontic success. When such a lesion is present around the apex of a tooth, the condition is known as chronic apical periodontitis. While this is common around root treated teeth, it can also be associated with otherwise healthy teeth. In both instances, it represents an inflammatory response to bacteria or irritants in the periapical space, and results in bone loss and areas of reduced density, which can then form apical granulomas or cysts. The literature has shown that periapical lesions can go undetected, due to the two-dimensional limitations of periapical radiographs. These "hidden" lesions can compromise the longevity of the tooth. Considering that apical periodontitis can be far more accurately detected and diagnosed on cone beam computed tomography, it has been recommended by several authors that endodontic treatment outcomes ideally should be evaluated using this imaging modality, whenever possible. <![CDATA[<b>Etiological factors for dentine hypersensitivity in a Nigerian population</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162018000500009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt INTRODUCTION: There are various etiological and predisposing factors for dentine hypersensitivity (DH). Management of the problem requires modification of these factors for successful and long-lasting resolution. There will be value in identifying these factors. AIM: To identify the predisposing and etiological factors for DH in a population of patients at a teaching hospital. DESIGN: A cross sectional descriptive study involving adult patients diagnosed with DH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients that presented with symptoms suggestive of DH over a period of twelve months were screened to confirm the diagnosis. Presence and frequency of predisposing factors as well as clinical findings of tooth wear lesions, gingival recession and fluorosis were documented on a questionnaire. RESULTS: The frequency of hypersensitive teeth (mean 11.5 ±3.8) was significantly (p<0.05) higher for hard compared with soft bristled toothbrush users. The majority of the subjects consumed orange (80.9%) and carbonated drinks (83.3%) frequently, but without significant effect on the mean number of hypersensitive teeth. Gingival recession was observed in 37.4% of the hypersensitive teeth, while abfraction was seen in 2.4%. CONCLUSION: The use of a hard bristled toothbrush is a risk factor while attrition and gingival recession are the predominant etiological factors for DH in this environment. <![CDATA[<b>Maxillofacial radiology case 161</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162018000500010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt INTRODUCTION: There are various etiological and predisposing factors for dentine hypersensitivity (DH). Management of the problem requires modification of these factors for successful and long-lasting resolution. There will be value in identifying these factors. AIM: To identify the predisposing and etiological factors for DH in a population of patients at a teaching hospital. DESIGN: A cross sectional descriptive study involving adult patients diagnosed with DH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients that presented with symptoms suggestive of DH over a period of twelve months were screened to confirm the diagnosis. Presence and frequency of predisposing factors as well as clinical findings of tooth wear lesions, gingival recession and fluorosis were documented on a questionnaire. RESULTS: The frequency of hypersensitive teeth (mean 11.5 ±3.8) was significantly (p<0.05) higher for hard compared with soft bristled toothbrush users. The majority of the subjects consumed orange (80.9%) and carbonated drinks (83.3%) frequently, but without significant effect on the mean number of hypersensitive teeth. Gingival recession was observed in 37.4% of the hypersensitive teeth, while abfraction was seen in 2.4%. CONCLUSION: The use of a hard bristled toothbrush is a risk factor while attrition and gingival recession are the predominant etiological factors for DH in this environment. <![CDATA[<b>Toothlessness - A moral crisis of unprecedented proportions</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162018000500011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt INTRODUCTION: There are various etiological and predisposing factors for dentine hypersensitivity (DH). Management of the problem requires modification of these factors for successful and long-lasting resolution. There will be value in identifying these factors. AIM: To identify the predisposing and etiological factors for DH in a population of patients at a teaching hospital. DESIGN: A cross sectional descriptive study involving adult patients diagnosed with DH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients that presented with symptoms suggestive of DH over a period of twelve months were screened to confirm the diagnosis. Presence and frequency of predisposing factors as well as clinical findings of tooth wear lesions, gingival recession and fluorosis were documented on a questionnaire. RESULTS: The frequency of hypersensitive teeth (mean 11.5 ±3.8) was significantly (p<0.05) higher for hard compared with soft bristled toothbrush users. The majority of the subjects consumed orange (80.9%) and carbonated drinks (83.3%) frequently, but without significant effect on the mean number of hypersensitive teeth. Gingival recession was observed in 37.4% of the hypersensitive teeth, while abfraction was seen in 2.4%. CONCLUSION: The use of a hard bristled toothbrush is a risk factor while attrition and gingival recession are the predominant etiological factors for DH in this environment. <![CDATA[<b>What's new for the clinician?</b> <b>Excerpts from and summaries of recently published papers</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162018000500012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt INTRODUCTION: There are various etiological and predisposing factors for dentine hypersensitivity (DH). Management of the problem requires modification of these factors for successful and long-lasting resolution. There will be value in identifying these factors. AIM: To identify the predisposing and etiological factors for DH in a population of patients at a teaching hospital. DESIGN: A cross sectional descriptive study involving adult patients diagnosed with DH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients that presented with symptoms suggestive of DH over a period of twelve months were screened to confirm the diagnosis. Presence and frequency of predisposing factors as well as clinical findings of tooth wear lesions, gingival recession and fluorosis were documented on a questionnaire. RESULTS: The frequency of hypersensitive teeth (mean 11.5 ±3.8) was significantly (p<0.05) higher for hard compared with soft bristled toothbrush users. The majority of the subjects consumed orange (80.9%) and carbonated drinks (83.3%) frequently, but without significant effect on the mean number of hypersensitive teeth. Gingival recession was observed in 37.4% of the hypersensitive teeth, while abfraction was seen in 2.4%. CONCLUSION: The use of a hard bristled toothbrush is a risk factor while attrition and gingival recession are the predominant etiological factors for DH in this environment.