Scielo RSS <![CDATA[South African Dental Journal ]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0011-851620180003&lang=pt vol. 73 num. 3 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>A dwarf becomes a giant</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162018000300001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>Head and neck cancers among HIV-positive patients: A five year retrospective study from a Johannesburg hospital, South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162018000300002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt INTRODUCTION: Cancer is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV infected individuals, but information is lacking in South Africa regarding Head and Neck AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs). AIM To profile head and neck cancers (HNC) in HIV-positive patients in the Department of Oral Pathology, Wits Oral Health Centre over a five year period. Methods and data analysis: A records-based retrospective descriptive study with an analytic component. Archived records (2009 to 2013) in the Department of Oral Pathology were reviewed. HIV serology results, CD4+T-cell counts and the viral load were verified from National Health Laboratory Service archived records. IBM SPSS 23.0 was used for data analysis. RESULTS 1605 cases of HNC were recorded, with 389 (24.2%) confirmed HIV-positive ( mean age of 38 ± 11.0 years), of whom 52.3% were females . The likelihood of patients with HIV infection to be diagnosed with Kaposi Sarcoma (KS)and Non Hodgkin's Lymphoma(NHL) was significantly greater at 35.7% and 34.2% respectively with a p value < 0.05, compared with any other cancer type. CONCLUSION: KS and NHL, both ADCs, were the two most common HNCs diagnosed among HIV-positive patients. Third was Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), a Non Aids Defining Cancer (NADC). <![CDATA[<b>Oral squamous cell carcinoma, a growing problem</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162018000300003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt INTRODUCTION: Cancer is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV infected individuals, but information is lacking in South Africa regarding Head and Neck AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs). AIM To profile head and neck cancers (HNC) in HIV-positive patients in the Department of Oral Pathology, Wits Oral Health Centre over a five year period. Methods and data analysis: A records-based retrospective descriptive study with an analytic component. Archived records (2009 to 2013) in the Department of Oral Pathology were reviewed. HIV serology results, CD4+T-cell counts and the viral load were verified from National Health Laboratory Service archived records. IBM SPSS 23.0 was used for data analysis. RESULTS 1605 cases of HNC were recorded, with 389 (24.2%) confirmed HIV-positive ( mean age of 38 ± 11.0 years), of whom 52.3% were females . The likelihood of patients with HIV infection to be diagnosed with Kaposi Sarcoma (KS)and Non Hodgkin's Lymphoma(NHL) was significantly greater at 35.7% and 34.2% respectively with a p value < 0.05, compared with any other cancer type. CONCLUSION: KS and NHL, both ADCs, were the two most common HNCs diagnosed among HIV-positive patients. Third was Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), a Non Aids Defining Cancer (NADC). <![CDATA[<b>Epidemiology of maxillofacial fractures at two maxillofacial units in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162018000300004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt AIM: To compare epidemiologic characteristics of maxillofacial fractures seen in patients presenting at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital (CMJAH) with those seen at Polokwane -Mankweng Hospital Complex (PMHC). OBJECTIVE:To compare the patterns; aetiology and incidence of maxillofacial fractures between the two units. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross sectional study of 194 patients with 226 maxillofacial fractures reported and treated at either CMJAH or PMHC between December 2013 and August 2014. Variables recorded include: age; sex; socioeconomic status; population group; aetiology; time of injury; identity of assailant (if known), the site of the fracture and associated injuries. RESULTS: Of the total number of patients (194), 82% were male. The majority (75%) were in the age group of 20-39 years with a peak frequency in the 3rd decade. Assaults were by far the leading cause of maxillofacial fractures (60.3%), followed by road traffic accidents accounting for 17.5%. Most (65.5%) were sustained at night. The mandible was the most frequently fractured facial bone (73.0%), followed by the zygoma. CONCLUSION: Interpersonal violence is by far the leading cause of maxillofacial fractures in both units. The general pattern of maxillofacial fractures was the same in both settings, and the differences in numbers reflect the relative population sizes. <![CDATA[<b>Prevalence of, and factors associated with, musculoskeletal pain among oral health workers in public health facilities in Kwazulu-Natal, 2016</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162018000300005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt INTRODUCTION: Musculoskeletal pain (MSP) is a public health concern that affects millions of people in developed and developing countries. The consequences of MSP include a wide range of negative effects such as absenteeism, increased work restriction and reduced productivity. AIM: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with musculoskeletal pain among oral health workers in public health facilities in KwaZulu-Natal. METHODS: An observational, cross-sectional study with an analytical component was implemented. Self-administered questionnaires were utilized to determine the risk factors among dentists, dental specialists, dental therapists, oral hygienists, and dental assistants employed in the public sector in KwaZulu-Natal. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse data. Alpha level was set at p<0.05. RESULTS: The prevalence of current MSP among oral health workers (OHW) was 50.9% and the chronic prevalence of MSP reported for the previous 12 months was 60.6%. A higher prevalence of current (47.2%) and chronic (46.9%) MSP was reported among dentists when compared with dental specialists, dental therapists, oral hygienists, and dental assistants. Occupational, environmental, and psychological factors were strongly associated with MSP. CONCLUSION: MSP is an occupational hazard for OHW. There is a need for educational programs and adoption of strategies to reduce occupational injuries. <![CDATA[<b>Reasons why South African dentists chose a career in Dentistry, and later opted to enter an academic environment</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162018000300006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the reasons why South African dentists chose to study Dentistry, later opting for an academic career. Methods: A cross sectional survey using an anonymous 12-point questionnaire that was sent out to a cohort of dentists and specialists holding positions at the four South African universities which offer a dental degree. Descriptive statistics were calculated using STATA Release 14. RESULTS: Of 160 questionnaires distributed, 66 were completed. Popular reasons dentists cited for choosing this career were job security, a desire to help people, the degree is recognised, love working with their hands, and regular but flexible working hours. The main reasons the respondents chose an academic career were a need for intellectual stimulation, desiring a broad spectrum of work, having a love for teaching, wanting to influence or shape the profession, to pursue postgraduate studies and to do research. More than half (55%) of respondents would not choose Dentistry as a career again. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that the career motivations of this cohort of SA dentists was far less related to the socioeconomic aspects of Dentistry than it was to their desire for more mental stimulation, in contrast to many findings elsewhere. <![CDATA[<b>Micro-endodontic surgery - Part 1: Surgical rationale and modern techniques</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162018000300007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The discipline of endodontics has seen vast improvements in technology and clinical techniques over the past several years. One of the areas that has been characterized by new developments is the way in which endodontic surgery is performed. The gap between biological concepts and the ability to achieve clinically successful results has been narrowed down with the use of microsurgical and ultrasonic instruments, new retrograde materials and the use of the Dental Operating Microscope. This article will review the indications and contraindications for endodontic surgery, the use of Cone Beam Computed Tomography for diagnosis and treatment planning, and finally outline the modern technique for endodontic microsurgery. <![CDATA[<b>A foreign object found in the ostiomeatal complex during dental implant planning: A case report</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162018000300008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The discipline of endodontics has seen vast improvements in technology and clinical techniques over the past several years. One of the areas that has been characterized by new developments is the way in which endodontic surgery is performed. The gap between biological concepts and the ability to achieve clinically successful results has been narrowed down with the use of microsurgical and ultrasonic instruments, new retrograde materials and the use of the Dental Operating Microscope. This article will review the indications and contraindications for endodontic surgery, the use of Cone Beam Computed Tomography for diagnosis and treatment planning, and finally outline the modern technique for endodontic microsurgery. <![CDATA[<b>Bilateral ectopic eruption of permanent maxillary canines into the incisive fossa, evaluated using Micro Focus X-ray Computed Tomography: A Case study and brief literature review</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162018000300009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Tooth development is a complex process whereby various genetic and environmental variables interact to achieve the final morphology and destination. Disruptions in the process lead to impaction and or ectopic eruption. Bilateral ectopic eruption of maxillary canine teeth into the incisive fossa is a rare phenomenon. This report describes bilateral permanent maxillary canine teeth erupting into the incisive fossa of the skull of an adult male African. The skull specimen was first examined physically, followed by Micro Focus X-ray Computed Tomography μCT) to determine the morphology and trajectory of the impacted and ectopically erupting teeth. Physical examination of the skull revealed a portion of the right maxillary canine tooth in the incisive fossa. μCT revealed the presence of right and left permanent maxillary canines within the palatine bone with cusps projecting into the incisive fossa. Both teeth were mature with well-developed root, root canal and crowns with distinct cusps. The root of the right impacted canine tooth was deflected at its apex. Tooth impaction is caused by mechanical disturbance in the path of the developing tooth. This information is vital to practicing maxillofacial surgeons during interpretation of the radiographs and surgical correction of disorders of the oral cavity. <![CDATA[<b>Clear cell-variant of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of the parotid gland: the role of immunohistochemistry</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162018000300010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC) is a rare salivary gland neoplasm with an incidence of less than 1%. It tends to form biphasic ductal structures, consisting of epithelial cells lining the lumen which is surrounded by abluminal myoepithelial cells. Occasionally, EMC may show a predominance of clear myoepithelial cells. In this report involving a 64-year-old woman, we describe a case of EMC of the right parotid gland with a less obvious biphasic pattern, and importantly, a double clear cell component, showing development of clear myoepithelial cells inside and outside of the lumen. Our objective is to demonstrate the importance of immunohistochemistry in identifying this tumour when faced with the differential diagnoses of clear cell tumours. <![CDATA[<b>The role of laser therapy in removable prosthodontic dentistry</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162018000300011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC) is a rare salivary gland neoplasm with an incidence of less than 1%. It tends to form biphasic ductal structures, consisting of epithelial cells lining the lumen which is surrounded by abluminal myoepithelial cells. Occasionally, EMC may show a predominance of clear myoepithelial cells. In this report involving a 64-year-old woman, we describe a case of EMC of the right parotid gland with a less obvious biphasic pattern, and importantly, a double clear cell component, showing development of clear myoepithelial cells inside and outside of the lumen. Our objective is to demonstrate the importance of immunohistochemistry in identifying this tumour when faced with the differential diagnoses of clear cell tumours. <![CDATA[<b>Maxillofacial radiology case 159</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162018000300012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC) is a rare salivary gland neoplasm with an incidence of less than 1%. It tends to form biphasic ductal structures, consisting of epithelial cells lining the lumen which is surrounded by abluminal myoepithelial cells. Occasionally, EMC may show a predominance of clear myoepithelial cells. In this report involving a 64-year-old woman, we describe a case of EMC of the right parotid gland with a less obvious biphasic pattern, and importantly, a double clear cell component, showing development of clear myoepithelial cells inside and outside of the lumen. Our objective is to demonstrate the importance of immunohistochemistry in identifying this tumour when faced with the differential diagnoses of clear cell tumours. <![CDATA[<b>What's new for the clinician? Excerpts from and summaries of recently published papers</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162018000300013&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC) is a rare salivary gland neoplasm with an incidence of less than 1%. It tends to form biphasic ductal structures, consisting of epithelial cells lining the lumen which is surrounded by abluminal myoepithelial cells. Occasionally, EMC may show a predominance of clear myoepithelial cells. In this report involving a 64-year-old woman, we describe a case of EMC of the right parotid gland with a less obvious biphasic pattern, and importantly, a double clear cell component, showing development of clear myoepithelial cells inside and outside of the lumen. Our objective is to demonstrate the importance of immunohistochemistry in identifying this tumour when faced with the differential diagnoses of clear cell tumours. <![CDATA[<b>Embracing the ageing patient</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162018000300014&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC) is a rare salivary gland neoplasm with an incidence of less than 1%. It tends to form biphasic ductal structures, consisting of epithelial cells lining the lumen which is surrounded by abluminal myoepithelial cells. Occasionally, EMC may show a predominance of clear myoepithelial cells. In this report involving a 64-year-old woman, we describe a case of EMC of the right parotid gland with a less obvious biphasic pattern, and importantly, a double clear cell component, showing development of clear myoepithelial cells inside and outside of the lumen. Our objective is to demonstrate the importance of immunohistochemistry in identifying this tumour when faced with the differential diagnoses of clear cell tumours.