Scielo RSS <![CDATA[South African Dental Journal ]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0011-851620180002&lang=pt vol. 73 num. 2 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Collegial Coincidence</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162018000200001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>SADA Communique</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162018000200002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C viruses, revisited</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162018000200003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Dental health care personnel are at increased risk of acquiring blood-borne infections including hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Infection is acquired through innoculation of infected blood by needle stick injuries, by penetrations of sharp dental instruments and by contact of mucous membrane with the infected fluid. HBV infection is a vaccine-preventable disease. There is currently no vaccine available to prevent HCV infection. <![CDATA[<b>VELscope: shedding light on its ideal application</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162018000200004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a deadly and disfiguring disease. Despite the fact there are readily identifiable precursor lesions and ample opportunity for detection during dental visits, patients continue to succumb to the disease due to late diagnosis. Adjunctive diagnostic aids have been designed to change the natural history of oral cancer by promoting screening practices and allowing for the early identification of OSCC and precursor lesions.' The VELscope is one such device that is available in South Africa, where it is marketed by Inter-Africa Dental. This article will look at the current evidence for the use of the VELscope in different practice scenarios. <![CDATA[<b>Apexogenesis treatment with mineral trioxide aggregate: long-term follow-up of two cases</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162018000200005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Apexogenesis is the treatment of choice for traumatized or carious teeth which, at the time of exposure, have a vital pulp and open apex. This article describes two cases of permanent teeth with carious exposures, treated with direct pulp capping procedures using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). METHODS: Radiographic and clinical examination, including testing reaction to cold, showed that both teeth were immature and in a stage of reversible pulpitis. The caries was identified using caries detector dye and removed using a rotary bur. Sodium hypochlorite solution was applied to the exposed pulp to achieve haemostasis. MTA paste was then placed on the pulp exposure and surrounding dentine. In the first case, the MTA was covered with a glass-ionomer restorative material; in the second case, the MTA was covered with a glass-ionomer cement and restored with composite resin. RESULTS: Radiographic and clinical examinations on the initial and long-term follow-up visits showed that root development continued and apices formed. The teeth remained vital and functional, and no further endodontic intervention was necessary. CONCLUSION: Under the conditions of this study, MTA proved to be a reliable pulp-capping material on direct carious exposures in immature permanent teeth using a one-visit protocol. <![CDATA[<b>Oral pemphigus vulgaris with skin and ocular involvement</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162018000200006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Apexogenesis is the treatment of choice for traumatized or carious teeth which, at the time of exposure, have a vital pulp and open apex. This article describes two cases of permanent teeth with carious exposures, treated with direct pulp capping procedures using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). METHODS: Radiographic and clinical examination, including testing reaction to cold, showed that both teeth were immature and in a stage of reversible pulpitis. The caries was identified using caries detector dye and removed using a rotary bur. Sodium hypochlorite solution was applied to the exposed pulp to achieve haemostasis. MTA paste was then placed on the pulp exposure and surrounding dentine. In the first case, the MTA was covered with a glass-ionomer restorative material; in the second case, the MTA was covered with a glass-ionomer cement and restored with composite resin. RESULTS: Radiographic and clinical examinations on the initial and long-term follow-up visits showed that root development continued and apices formed. The teeth remained vital and functional, and no further endodontic intervention was necessary. CONCLUSION: Under the conditions of this study, MTA proved to be a reliable pulp-capping material on direct carious exposures in immature permanent teeth using a one-visit protocol. <![CDATA[<b>Hyalinising clear cell carcinoma of the maxilla in a young adult female</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162018000200007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Apexogenesis is the treatment of choice for traumatized or carious teeth which, at the time of exposure, have a vital pulp and open apex. This article describes two cases of permanent teeth with carious exposures, treated with direct pulp capping procedures using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). METHODS: Radiographic and clinical examination, including testing reaction to cold, showed that both teeth were immature and in a stage of reversible pulpitis. The caries was identified using caries detector dye and removed using a rotary bur. Sodium hypochlorite solution was applied to the exposed pulp to achieve haemostasis. MTA paste was then placed on the pulp exposure and surrounding dentine. In the first case, the MTA was covered with a glass-ionomer restorative material; in the second case, the MTA was covered with a glass-ionomer cement and restored with composite resin. RESULTS: Radiographic and clinical examinations on the initial and long-term follow-up visits showed that root development continued and apices formed. The teeth remained vital and functional, and no further endodontic intervention was necessary. CONCLUSION: Under the conditions of this study, MTA proved to be a reliable pulp-capping material on direct carious exposures in immature permanent teeth using a one-visit protocol. <![CDATA[<b>The role of laser therapy in implant dentistry</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162018000200008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Apexogenesis is the treatment of choice for traumatized or carious teeth which, at the time of exposure, have a vital pulp and open apex. This article describes two cases of permanent teeth with carious exposures, treated with direct pulp capping procedures using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). METHODS: Radiographic and clinical examination, including testing reaction to cold, showed that both teeth were immature and in a stage of reversible pulpitis. The caries was identified using caries detector dye and removed using a rotary bur. Sodium hypochlorite solution was applied to the exposed pulp to achieve haemostasis. MTA paste was then placed on the pulp exposure and surrounding dentine. In the first case, the MTA was covered with a glass-ionomer restorative material; in the second case, the MTA was covered with a glass-ionomer cement and restored with composite resin. RESULTS: Radiographic and clinical examinations on the initial and long-term follow-up visits showed that root development continued and apices formed. The teeth remained vital and functional, and no further endodontic intervention was necessary. CONCLUSION: Under the conditions of this study, MTA proved to be a reliable pulp-capping material on direct carious exposures in immature permanent teeth using a one-visit protocol. <![CDATA[<b>Maxillofacial Radiology Case 158</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162018000200009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Apexogenesis is the treatment of choice for traumatized or carious teeth which, at the time of exposure, have a vital pulp and open apex. This article describes two cases of permanent teeth with carious exposures, treated with direct pulp capping procedures using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). METHODS: Radiographic and clinical examination, including testing reaction to cold, showed that both teeth were immature and in a stage of reversible pulpitis. The caries was identified using caries detector dye and removed using a rotary bur. Sodium hypochlorite solution was applied to the exposed pulp to achieve haemostasis. MTA paste was then placed on the pulp exposure and surrounding dentine. In the first case, the MTA was covered with a glass-ionomer restorative material; in the second case, the MTA was covered with a glass-ionomer cement and restored with composite resin. RESULTS: Radiographic and clinical examinations on the initial and long-term follow-up visits showed that root development continued and apices formed. The teeth remained vital and functional, and no further endodontic intervention was necessary. CONCLUSION: Under the conditions of this study, MTA proved to be a reliable pulp-capping material on direct carious exposures in immature permanent teeth using a one-visit protocol. <![CDATA[<b>Prevention of infective endocarditis associated with dental interventions</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162018000200010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Infective endocarditis (IE) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Prevention is therefore an important clinical entity. The maintenance of optimal oral health is likely to play the most important role in protecting those at risk for IE. Both patients and health care practitioners must be educated in this regard. Guidelines have recommended that antibiotic prophylaxis should be limited to individuals (undergoing certain high-risk dental procedures) with underlying cardiac conditions that are associated with the greatest risk of an adverse outcome from IE. These conditions include prosthetic valves, congenital heart disease and previous IE. In South Africa, and other developing countries, IE is often a disease of young patients with rheumatic heart disease (RHD) and carries a very poor prognosis. In contrast, IE in Europe/North America, where guidelines and indications for antibiotic prophylaxis have been reduced, has a different spectrum of factors. These patients are older with degenerative valve disease. IE may also occur as a result of invasive health care associated procedures or in the setting of prosthetic valves and implantable cardiac devices. Recently published international guidelines cannot be automatically applied to countries where RHD is common and oral hygiene is poor. We therefore recommend that patients with RHD should also receive antibiotic prophylaxis prior to the listed dental procedures. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be prescribed after stressing the role of good oral health and why the approach differs in South Africa. There should be close cooperation between the dental practitioner and clinician as to who should receive prophylaxis and who should not. SAHeart 2017;14:170-174. <![CDATA[<b>Patients are People</b>: <b>Treating the Person, not the Problem</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162018000200011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Infective endocarditis (IE) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Prevention is therefore an important clinical entity. The maintenance of optimal oral health is likely to play the most important role in protecting those at risk for IE. Both patients and health care practitioners must be educated in this regard. Guidelines have recommended that antibiotic prophylaxis should be limited to individuals (undergoing certain high-risk dental procedures) with underlying cardiac conditions that are associated with the greatest risk of an adverse outcome from IE. These conditions include prosthetic valves, congenital heart disease and previous IE. In South Africa, and other developing countries, IE is often a disease of young patients with rheumatic heart disease (RHD) and carries a very poor prognosis. In contrast, IE in Europe/North America, where guidelines and indications for antibiotic prophylaxis have been reduced, has a different spectrum of factors. These patients are older with degenerative valve disease. IE may also occur as a result of invasive health care associated procedures or in the setting of prosthetic valves and implantable cardiac devices. Recently published international guidelines cannot be automatically applied to countries where RHD is common and oral hygiene is poor. We therefore recommend that patients with RHD should also receive antibiotic prophylaxis prior to the listed dental procedures. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be prescribed after stressing the role of good oral health and why the approach differs in South Africa. There should be close cooperation between the dental practitioner and clinician as to who should receive prophylaxis and who should not. SAHeart 2017;14:170-174. <![CDATA[<b>What's new for the clinician?</b> <b>Excerpts from and summaries of recently published papers</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162018000200012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Infective endocarditis (IE) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Prevention is therefore an important clinical entity. The maintenance of optimal oral health is likely to play the most important role in protecting those at risk for IE. Both patients and health care practitioners must be educated in this regard. Guidelines have recommended that antibiotic prophylaxis should be limited to individuals (undergoing certain high-risk dental procedures) with underlying cardiac conditions that are associated with the greatest risk of an adverse outcome from IE. These conditions include prosthetic valves, congenital heart disease and previous IE. In South Africa, and other developing countries, IE is often a disease of young patients with rheumatic heart disease (RHD) and carries a very poor prognosis. In contrast, IE in Europe/North America, where guidelines and indications for antibiotic prophylaxis have been reduced, has a different spectrum of factors. These patients are older with degenerative valve disease. IE may also occur as a result of invasive health care associated procedures or in the setting of prosthetic valves and implantable cardiac devices. Recently published international guidelines cannot be automatically applied to countries where RHD is common and oral hygiene is poor. We therefore recommend that patients with RHD should also receive antibiotic prophylaxis prior to the listed dental procedures. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be prescribed after stressing the role of good oral health and why the approach differs in South Africa. There should be close cooperation between the dental practitioner and clinician as to who should receive prophylaxis and who should not. SAHeart 2017;14:170-174.