Scielo RSS <![CDATA[South African Dental Journal ]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0011-851620150001&lang=pt vol. 70 num. 1 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Congressional Spiders</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162015000100001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>SADJ Editorial board</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162015000100002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>Comparison of colour components between maxillary central incisors - an <i>in vivo </i>study</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162015000100003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of colour in the CIE L*a*b* scale between the maxillary central incisors. METHODS: The colour of the maxillary central incisors of 83 patients was measured (in vivo) using a spectrophotometer. Three measurements (6 mm diameter) at the centre of the crown of each of the maxillary central incisors were performed. RESULTS: The total colour difference (∆E*ab) showed wide variability with the average ∆E*ab = 1.79. The Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test showed statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) between maxillary right (11) and left central incisors (21) in both the L* and b* colour components. In the a* scale no significant difference was noted. CONCLUSION: Small colour differences exist between the maxillary central incisors in the same individual when evaluated with a spectrophotometer. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: As there is often a difference between the colours of the two central incisors in the same patient, the colour of both the central incisors should be taken into consideration when shade matching anterior teeth. <![CDATA[<b>Malocclusion in Down syndrome - a review</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162015000100004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Down syndrome or Trisomy 21 is a genetic disorder, which results in intellectual impairment, typical craniofacial features and a wide spectrum of phenotypic abnormalities. Characteristic features of midface hypoplasia in Down syndrome include smaller maxilla, presence of 'stair' palate and severe malocclusion. Generally, the most frequent malocclusions stem from variations in vertical and transverse occlusions, identified mainly as Angle's Class III molar relations, anterior open bite, anteroposterior crossbite, and proclination of the anterior teeth. By familiarising themselves with these features, general dental professionals, paediatric dentists and orthodontists can plan a varied combination of treatment modalities to prevent and correct occlusal anomalies. <![CDATA[<b>Evaluation of two different-gauge dental needles for the presence of blood following the application of local anesthesia by dental students</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162015000100005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Blood-borne virus transmissions from patient to dental health care personnel are occupational hazards following needle stick injury. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Three local anesthetic (LA) techniques frequently used in the extraction of teeth were evaluated and compared for the presence of blood in the cartridge, needle lumen and needle surface when either 27G or 30G needles were used. DESIGN AND METHODS: The histogram function of Photoshop computer software identified differences in grey-scale value of the different blood parameters on photographs of urine dipsticks moistened with the first drop of liquid from the needle after the injection had been given and luminol spray was used to expose small quantities of blood on the surface of the needle. Blood visible to the naked eye in the LA cartridge was noted. RESULTS: A statistically significant association was found between needle diameter and visible blood in the cartridge (P=0.006), and the presence of blood in the needle lumen (P=0.029), especially with the 27G needle. CONCLUSION: There was a statistically significant difference in the presence of blood in the lumen (36%) and in the cartridge (29%) between 27G and 30G needles following the administration of LA to a patient. <![CDATA[<b>A 16 year retrospective analysis of intraoral minor salivary gland pleomorphic adenoma in an African population</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162015000100006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine the relative frequency and demographic characteristics of intraoral minor salivary gland pleomorphic adenomata (IMPA) affecting a group of patients who attended the Medunsa Oral Health Centre of the University of Limpopo, South Africa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The records of all the IMPA diagnosed in this rural and periurban Southern African population sample between 1995 and 2011 inclusive were retrieved from the archives of the Department of Oral Pathology. The cases were reviewed and analysed for age, gender and site of occurrence. The findings were compared with other studies reported in the literature. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty two cases of pleomorphic adenomata (PA) were diagnosed between 1995 and 2011 of which 115 cases were encountered in intraoral minor salivary glands. The age of the patients ranged from 7 to 91 years with a mean of 38.5 years. The peak of incidence was in the third decade; however the tumour was relatively common in the sample through the second to the sixth decades of life. There was a female predilection (67.5%) demonstrated with the ratio of male to female of 1:2.3. Most males were diagnosed in their third decade of life whereas affected females were predominantly in their fifth decade. The most common site of occurrence was palate (78.6%) followed by buccal mucosa (12.0%) and upper lip (2.6%) and the distribution was the same for both females and males. CONCLUSION: IMPA diagnosed in this South African population shows demographic characteristics similar to those reported in most published studies in the world. In comparison with other studies, however, females were significantly more frequently affected than the males. <![CDATA[<b>Oral medicine case book 66: Physiological/racial oral melanin hyperpigmentation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162015000100007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Physiological/racial oral melanin hyperpigmentation is common, is seen more frequently in darker skinned persons and affects both males and females equally. It may involve any oral mucosal site, but particularly the gingiva, and usually develops during the first two or three decades of life, although many persons with this hyperpigmentation are unaware of its presence. Physiological/racial oral melanin hyperpigmentation is brought about by increased melanogenic activity of a normal number of melanocytes in the basal cell layer of the oral epithelium. However, the intracellular molecular mechanisms and the intercellular and other micro-environmental signalling pathways that mediate this development are unknown. Although no definitive relationship between oral mucosal melanoma and physiological/racial oral melanin hyperpig mentation has been demonstrated, and although in the vast majority of cases there should not be any cause for concern, nevertheless it has been observed that melanomas sometimes arise at sites of oral hyperpigmentations. <![CDATA[<b>Handling medical emergencies</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162015000100008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Physiological/racial oral melanin hyperpigmentation is common, is seen more frequently in darker skinned persons and affects both males and females equally. It may involve any oral mucosal site, but particularly the gingiva, and usually develops during the first two or three decades of life, although many persons with this hyperpigmentation are unaware of its presence. Physiological/racial oral melanin hyperpigmentation is brought about by increased melanogenic activity of a normal number of melanocytes in the basal cell layer of the oral epithelium. However, the intracellular molecular mechanisms and the intercellular and other micro-environmental signalling pathways that mediate this development are unknown. Although no definitive relationship between oral mucosal melanoma and physiological/racial oral melanin hyperpig mentation has been demonstrated, and although in the vast majority of cases there should not be any cause for concern, nevertheless it has been observed that melanomas sometimes arise at sites of oral hyperpigmentations. <![CDATA[<b>Maxillo-facial radiology case 127</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162015000100009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Physiological/racial oral melanin hyperpigmentation is common, is seen more frequently in darker skinned persons and affects both males and females equally. It may involve any oral mucosal site, but particularly the gingiva, and usually develops during the first two or three decades of life, although many persons with this hyperpigmentation are unaware of its presence. Physiological/racial oral melanin hyperpigmentation is brought about by increased melanogenic activity of a normal number of melanocytes in the basal cell layer of the oral epithelium. However, the intracellular molecular mechanisms and the intercellular and other micro-environmental signalling pathways that mediate this development are unknown. Although no definitive relationship between oral mucosal melanoma and physiological/racial oral melanin hyperpig mentation has been demonstrated, and although in the vast majority of cases there should not be any cause for concern, nevertheless it has been observed that melanomas sometimes arise at sites of oral hyperpigmentations. <![CDATA[<b>What's new for the clinician? Summaries of and excerpts from recently published papers</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162015000100010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Physiological/racial oral melanin hyperpigmentation is common, is seen more frequently in darker skinned persons and affects both males and females equally. It may involve any oral mucosal site, but particularly the gingiva, and usually develops during the first two or three decades of life, although many persons with this hyperpigmentation are unaware of its presence. Physiological/racial oral melanin hyperpigmentation is brought about by increased melanogenic activity of a normal number of melanocytes in the basal cell layer of the oral epithelium. However, the intracellular molecular mechanisms and the intercellular and other micro-environmental signalling pathways that mediate this development are unknown. Although no definitive relationship between oral mucosal melanoma and physiological/racial oral melanin hyperpig mentation has been demonstrated, and although in the vast majority of cases there should not be any cause for concern, nevertheless it has been observed that melanomas sometimes arise at sites of oral hyperpigmentations.