Scielo RSS <![CDATA[South African Dental Journal ]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=0011-851620200003&lang=pt vol. 75 num. 3 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Life in the time of COVID-19</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162020000300001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>SADA slams HPCSA for outrageously high annual registration fees and asks whether the council has gone rogue</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162020000300002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>COVID-19 pandemic and the dental practice</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162020000300003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), originating in Wuhan, China in December 2019 has become a pandemic affecting numerous countries worldwide, with over 1353 positive cases and 4 deaths confirmed in South Africa thus far. Dental practitioners are at the forefront of this outbreak through direct and contact transmission via face-to-face communication and through the generation of significant amounts of droplets and aerosols during routine dental procedures, posing potential risks of infection transmission. There are no guidelines for South African dental practitioners to follow in the time of the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper provides consolidated evidence and best practice on how to prevent and minimise the spread of infection within the dental setting through the use of a flowchart. The level of evidence provided is based on global recommendations and experience. We conclude that unless dental professionals stick to stringent infection control practices, they are likely to contribute to the spread of the COVID-19. We recommend that during this outbreak, dental professionals consider scaling down on their normal routine, and protect themselves and patients. Focus should be on the management of pain, sepsis and trauma. The epidemic will pass, and dental professionals should outlast the scourge. <![CDATA[<b>Mandibular first and second premolars with challenging root canal anatomy - Part 1: Review of the literature</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162020000300004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), originating in Wuhan, China in December 2019 has become a pandemic affecting numerous countries worldwide, with over 1353 positive cases and 4 deaths confirmed in South Africa thus far. Dental practitioners are at the forefront of this outbreak through direct and contact transmission via face-to-face communication and through the generation of significant amounts of droplets and aerosols during routine dental procedures, posing potential risks of infection transmission. There are no guidelines for South African dental practitioners to follow in the time of the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper provides consolidated evidence and best practice on how to prevent and minimise the spread of infection within the dental setting through the use of a flowchart. The level of evidence provided is based on global recommendations and experience. We conclude that unless dental professionals stick to stringent infection control practices, they are likely to contribute to the spread of the COVID-19. We recommend that during this outbreak, dental professionals consider scaling down on their normal routine, and protect themselves and patients. Focus should be on the management of pain, sepsis and trauma. The epidemic will pass, and dental professionals should outlast the scourge. <![CDATA[<b>Mandibular first and second premolars with challenging root canal anatomy - Part 2: Endodontic management</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162020000300005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), originating in Wuhan, China in December 2019 has become a pandemic affecting numerous countries worldwide, with over 1353 positive cases and 4 deaths confirmed in South Africa thus far. Dental practitioners are at the forefront of this outbreak through direct and contact transmission via face-to-face communication and through the generation of significant amounts of droplets and aerosols during routine dental procedures, posing potential risks of infection transmission. There are no guidelines for South African dental practitioners to follow in the time of the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper provides consolidated evidence and best practice on how to prevent and minimise the spread of infection within the dental setting through the use of a flowchart. The level of evidence provided is based on global recommendations and experience. We conclude that unless dental professionals stick to stringent infection control practices, they are likely to contribute to the spread of the COVID-19. We recommend that during this outbreak, dental professionals consider scaling down on their normal routine, and protect themselves and patients. Focus should be on the management of pain, sepsis and trauma. The epidemic will pass, and dental professionals should outlast the scourge. <![CDATA[<b>Investigating dental caries rates amongst sentenced prisoners in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162020000300006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt OBJECTIVE: To establish the prevalence of dental caries amongst KZN sentenced prisoners. METHODS: The frequency and distribution of dental caries were assessed using the DMFT Index (Decayed, Filled, Missing teeth) in non-invasive dental clinical examinations of a sample of sentenced prisoners (n=373) randomly selected from amongst inmates at nine correctional centres located within the eleven health districts in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The recorded data were analysed using SPSS version 24. RESULTS: The mean DMFT scores were: overall 5.92 (+4.65); 18 to 29 years: 4.14 (+3.49); 30 to 39 years: 6.17 (+4.19); 40 to 49 years: 9.08 (+5.38); older than 50 years: 11.31 (+6.30). A statistically significant relationship was found between DMFT and age (p-value: 0.000). Decayed Teeth were seen in 64.34% of participants, 71.85% recorded Missing teeth while Filled teeth (FT) were noted in only 8.04% of the study sample. CONCLUSION: The results highlight the need to take into account the epidemiological trends in the rates of dental caries when planning oral health services within the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Correctional Services. <![CDATA[<b>A suggested intentional extraction of a wisdom tooth: Implies capacity for prosocial behaviour in <i>Homo erectus</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162020000300007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Paleopathological assessment of a fossilized mandibular fragment (SK 45) of Homo erectus, unearthed at Swartkrans, South Arica, shows new bone formation within the alveolus of the third molar (M3), indicating that the individual lived after loss of that tooth. As there is no evidence of mandibular maxillofacial damage compatible with acute traumatic expulsion of the tooth, it is possible that M3 was intentionally removed. Evidence of bone formation within the socket is supported by a density map of voxel values, representative of the atomic numbers of bone and breccia, constructed by microfocus scanning X-ray tomography (μΟΤ). The newly formed material within the M3 alveolus has values less than the alveolar bone proper but which are significantly greater than breccia, indicating that the material is regenerating bone, and pointing to the possibly intentional extraction of M3. How this was done and whether it was effected by the individual concerned or with the aid of community members, remains in the realms of speculation. The latter is more likely and may be an indication of the early origin of prosocial behaviour at the Plio-Pleistocene boundary, resulting in a concerted action of the Homo clade to assist an individual in severe distress. <![CDATA[<b>Forensic case book: Mirror image ' selfie' causes confusion</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162020000300008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Paleopathological assessment of a fossilized mandibular fragment (SK 45) of Homo erectus, unearthed at Swartkrans, South Arica, shows new bone formation within the alveolus of the third molar (M3), indicating that the individual lived after loss of that tooth. As there is no evidence of mandibular maxillofacial damage compatible with acute traumatic expulsion of the tooth, it is possible that M3 was intentionally removed. Evidence of bone formation within the socket is supported by a density map of voxel values, representative of the atomic numbers of bone and breccia, constructed by microfocus scanning X-ray tomography (μΟΤ). The newly formed material within the M3 alveolus has values less than the alveolar bone proper but which are significantly greater than breccia, indicating that the material is regenerating bone, and pointing to the possibly intentional extraction of M3. How this was done and whether it was effected by the individual concerned or with the aid of community members, remains in the realms of speculation. The latter is more likely and may be an indication of the early origin of prosocial behaviour at the Plio-Pleistocene boundary, resulting in a concerted action of the Homo clade to assist an individual in severe distress. <![CDATA[<b>Indigenizing oral health educationin South Africa - radical overhaul or progressive review?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162020000300009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt For ourselves and for humanity...we must turn over a new leaf, we must work out new concepts.¹ Indigenization, decolonization and transformation are not merely catchphrases in the context of higher education. Provided they are properly understood and implemented, these essential notions can forge meaningful engagement and partnerships through the creation of fully transformed, inclusive and diverse educational spaces, thus providing a greater competitive edge in the knowledge economy.² <![CDATA[<b>From Pandemic, to Panic to 'Pendemic'</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162020000300010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt For ourselves and for humanity...we must turn over a new leaf, we must work out new concepts.¹ Indigenization, decolonization and transformation are not merely catchphrases in the context of higher education. Provided they are properly understood and implemented, these essential notions can forge meaningful engagement and partnerships through the creation of fully transformed, inclusive and diverse educational spaces, thus providing a greater competitive edge in the knowledge economy.² <![CDATA[<b>Maxillofacial Radiology 179</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162020000300011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt For ourselves and for humanity...we must turn over a new leaf, we must work out new concepts.¹ Indigenization, decolonization and transformation are not merely catchphrases in the context of higher education. Provided they are properly understood and implemented, these essential notions can forge meaningful engagement and partnerships through the creation of fully transformed, inclusive and diverse educational spaces, thus providing a greater competitive edge in the knowledge economy.²