Studia Historiae Ecclesiasticae recommends that the widely accepted Chicago Manual of Style be used in referencing. Details of this method of reference can be found on the Internet (Chicago Manual of Style 15th edition).
Short quotations should be placed in the running text, whereas quotations of three or more sentences should be indented.
Abbreviations may be used in endnotes and in parentheses (without full stops), but preferably not in the text of the article.
References should be listed at the end of the text in alphabetical order under the heading Works consulted. Please do not include a complete bibliography of all works consulted, only a list of references actually used in the text.
Make sure that citations and references are correct. It is not the responsibility of the editor to check it.
THE CHICAGO MANUAL OF STYLE
Consult The Chicago Manual of Style for additional or more detailed
information or ONLINE: A Reference Guide to Using Internet Resources by Andrew Harnack and Eugene Kleppinger.
(N= footnote/endnote B=bibliography)
Use a shortened format for subsequent references to the same work.
- One author:
N 1. Emery Blackfoot, Chance Encounters (Boston: Serendipity Press,
N 2. Blackfoot, 97.
B Blackfoot, Emery. Chance Encounters. Boston: Serendipity Press,1987.
- Two authors:
N 3. Liam P. Unwin and Joseph Galloway. Peace in Ireland (Boston: Stronghope Press, 1990), 72.
N 4. Unwin and Galloway, 102.
B Unwin, Liam P., and Joseph Galloway. Peace in Ireland. Boston: Stronghope Press, 1990.
- More than three authors:
For works having more than three authors, a note citation should give the name of the first–listed author followed by "et al." or "and others" without
inverting punctuation. In the bibliography entry, the usual practice is to list
all of the authors. The name of the first author is inverted.
N 5. Charlotte Marcus et al. Investigations into the Phenomenon of Limited–
Field Criticism (Boston: Broadview Press, 1990), 134.
N 6. Charlotte Marcus and others. Investigations into the Phenomenon of
Limited–Field Criticism (Boston: Broadview Press, 1990), 134.
N 7. Marcus et al., 175.
B Marcus, Charlotte, Jerome Waterman, Thomas Gomez, and Elizabeth DeLor. Investigations into the Phenomenon of Limited–Field Criticism. Boston: Broadview Press, 1990.
- Corporate author:
N 8. International Monetary Fund, Surveys of African Economies, vol. 7,
Algeria, Mali, Morocco, and Tunisia (Washington, D.C.: International
Monetary Fund, 1977), 27.
N 9. International Monetary Fund, 46.2
B International Monetary Fund. Surveys of African Economies. Vol.7,
Algeria, Mali, Morocco, and Tunisia. Washington, D.C.: International
Monetary Fund, 1977.
- Edition other than the first:
N 10. John N. Hazard. The Soviet System of Government, 5th ed. (Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 1980), 132.
B Hazard, John N. The Soviet System of Government. 5th ed. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 1980.
- Edited work, compilation, or translation:
The name of the editor, translator, or compiler takes the place of the author when no author appears on the title page. In notes and bibliography, the
abbreviation ed./eds., comp./comp., or trans. follows the name and is
preceded by a comma.
N 11. Anthony B. Tortelli, ed., Sociology Approaching the Twenty–first
Century (Los Angeles: Peter and Sons, 1991), 59.
N 12. Tortelli, 93.
B Tortelli, Anthony B., ed. Sociology Approaching the Twenty–first Century.
Los Angeles: Peter and Sons, 1991.
ARTICLES IN JOURNALS, MAGAZINES, AND NEWSPAPERS
- Basic form:
N 13. Noel Robertson. "The Dorian Migration and Corinthian Ritual,"
Classical Philology 75 (1980): 17, 19–22.
B Robertson, Noel. "The Dorian Migration and Corinthian Ritual." Classical
Philology 75 (1980): 1–22.
- With season or month:
The names of months are capitalized but lower case is recommended for the names of seasons.
N 14. Ilya Bodonski. "Caring among the Forgotten," Journal of Social
Activism 14 (fall 1989): 112–34.
B Bush, Jane R. "Rhetoric and the Instinct for Survival." Political
Perspectives 29 (March 1990): 45–53.
- Issues with numbers only:
N 15. Eva Meyerovich. "The Gnostic Manuscripts of Upper Egypt,"
Diogenes, no. 25 (1959): 91, 95–98.
B Meyerovich, Eva. “The Gnostic Manuscripts of Upper Egypt.” Diogenes,
no. 25 (1959): 84–117.
- Popular magazines:
B Caspari, E. W., and R. E. Marshak. "The Rise and Fall of Lysenko."
Science, 16 July 1965, 275–278.
N 16. E. W. Caspari and R. E. Marshak. "The Rise and Fall of Lysenko,"
Science, 16 July 1965, 276.
N 17. Tyler Marshall. "200th Birthday of Grimms Celebrated," Los Angeles
Times, 15 March 1985, sec. 1A, p. 3. B Marshall, Tyler. "200th Birthday of
Grimms Celebrated." Los Angeles Times, 15 March 1985, sec. 1A, p. 3.
- Movie reviews:
N 18. Stanley Kauffman. "Turbulent Lives," review of A Dry White Season
(MGM movie), New Republic, 9 October 1989, 24–25.
B Kauffman, Stanley. "Turbulent Lives." Review of A Dry White Season
(MGM movie). New Republic, 9 October 1989, 24–25.
- Book reviews:
N 19. Susan Lardner. "Third Eye Open," review of The Salt Eaters, by Toni
Cade Bambara, New Yorker, 5 May 1980, 169.
B Lardner, Susan. "Third Eye Open." Review of The Salt Eaters, by Toni
Cade Bambara. New Yorker, 5 May 1980, 169.
N 20. McGeorge Bundy, interview by Robert MacNeil, MacNeil/Lehrer
News Hour, Public Broadcasting System, 7 February 1990.
B Bundy, McGeorge. Interview by Robert MacNeil. MacNeil/Lehrer News
Hour. Public Broadcasting System, 7 February 1990.
Well–known reference books are usually not listed in bibliographies. When they are cited in notes they appear as follows. s.v. (sub verbo) means "under the word".
N 21. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th ed., s.v. "cold war."
N 22. Dictionary of American Biography, s.v. "Wadsworth, Jeremiah."
CITATIONS IN THE TEXT
- Basic form:
Consists of the author’s last name and the year of publication of the work. No
punctuation is used between the author’s name and the date. When the
reference list or bibliography includes two or more works by different
authors with the same last name and the same date, it is necessary to include
the author’s initials. When there are more than three authors use "et al".
(Blinksworth 1987) (Collins and Wortmaster 1953)
(EPA 1986) (P. Brown 1991)
(Smith, Wessen, and Gunless 1988) (Zipursky et al. 1959)
- Placement of text citations:
An author–date citation in the text should be placed where it will offer the
least resistance to the flow of thought. The best location is just before a mark
Before proceeding ... we will describe the system of scaling quantitative
scores (Guilford 1950).
What conclusions ... had they been aware of the narrow–aperture principle
recently reported (Klein, Cane, and Abbelli 1991)?
ARTICLES RETRIEVED IN ELECTRONIC FORMAT
These guidelines were retrieved from the WWW and are based on the principles presented in the 14th edition of The Chicago Manual of Style.
FOR FOOTNOTES AND ENDNOTES:
Author’s name is in normal order followed by the document title, date of
Internet publication, or other retrieval information, date of access, and
text division, if applicable.
1. Peter J. Bryant. "The Age of Mammals," in Biodiversity Conservation
April 1999, <http://darwin.bio.uci.edu/~sustain/bio65/index.html> (11 May
- Article in electronic journal (ejournal) or magazine (ezine):
2. Tonya Browning. "Embedded Visuals: Student Design in Web Spaces,"
Kairos: A Journal for Teachers of Writing in Webbed Environments 3, no. 1
(1997), <http://english.ttu.edu/kairos/2.1/features/browning/index.html> (21
- 3. Nathan Myhrvold. "Confessions of a Cybershaman," Slate, 12 June 1997,
<http://www.slate.com/CriticalMass/97-06-12/CriticalMass.asp> (19 October
- Newspaper article:
4. Christopher Wren. "A Body on Mt. Everest, a Mystery Half–Solved," New
York Times on the Web, 5 May 1999,
+0+wAAA+%22a%7Ebody%7Eon%7Emt.%7Everest%22> (13 May 1999).
- Government publication:
5. George Bush. "Principles of Ethical Conduct for Government Officers and
Employees," Executive Order 12674, 12 April 1989, pt. 1,
<http://www.usoge.gov/exorders/eo12674.html> (30 October 1997).
- Professional and personal sites:
6. Joseph Pellegrino. "Homepage," 12 May 1999,
<http://www.english.eku.edu/pellegrino/default.htm> (12 June 1999).
7. Gail Mortimer. The William Faulkner Society Home Page, 16 September
1999, <http://www.utep.edu/mortimer/faulkner/mainfaulkner.htm> (19 November 1997).
FOR A BIBLIOGRAPHY
Authors’ names are inverted. The elements of entries are separated by
periods. The first line of each entry is flush with the left margin, and
subsequent lines are indented three or four spaces.
- Article in an electronic journal (ejournal):
Teague, Jason Crawford. "Frames in Action." Kairos: A Journal for Teachers
of Writing in Webbed Environments 2, no. 1, August 20, 1998.
<http://english.ttu.edu/kairos/2.1> (7 October 1999).